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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28926987/the-impact-of-non-lethal-single-dose-radiation-on-tumor-invasion-and-cytoskeletal-properties
#1
Tim Hohmann, Urszula Grabiec, Carolin Vogel, Chalid Ghadban, Stephan Ensminger, Matthias Bache, Dirk Vordermark, Faramarz Dehghani
Irradiation is the standard therapy for glioblastoma multiforme. Glioblastoma are highly resistant to radiotherapy and the underlying mechanisms remain unclear. To better understand the biological effects of irradiation on glioblastoma cells, we tested whether nonlethal irradiation influences the invasiveness, cell stiffness, and actin cytoskeleton properties. Two different glioblastoma cell lines were irradiated with 2 Gy and changes in mechanical and migratory properties and alterations in the actin structure were measured...
September 18, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28926946/the-fungal-bzip-transcription-factor-atfb-controls-virulence-associated-processes-in-aspergillus-parasiticus
#2
Josephine Wee, Sung-Yong Hong, Ludmila V Roze, Devin M Day, Anindya Chanda, John E Linz
Fungal basic leucine zipper (bZIP) transcription factors mediate responses to oxidative stress. The ability to regulate stress response pathways in Aspergillus spp. was postulated to be an important virulence-associated cellular process, because it helps establish infection in humans, plants, and animals. Previous studies have demonstrated that the fungal transcription factor AtfB encodes a protein that is associated with resistance to oxidative stress in asexual conidiospores, and AtfB binds to the promoters of several stress response genes...
September 16, 2017: Toxins
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28926603/scavenging-of-reactive-oxygen-species-by-astaxanthin-inhibits-epithelial-mesenchymal-transition-in-high-glucose-stimulated-mesothelial-cells
#3
Kazuaki Hara, Chieko Hamada, Keiichi Wakabayashi, Reo Kanda, Kayo Kaneko, Satoshi Horikoshi, Yasuhiko Tomino, Yusuke Suzuki
BACKGROUND: High glucose concentrations influence the functional and structural development of the peritoneal membrane. We previously reported that the oral administration of astaxanthin (AST) suppressed peritoneal fibrosis (PF) as well as inhibited oxidative stress, inflammation, and epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) of peritoneal mesothelial cells (PMCs) in a chlorhexidine-induced PF rat model. This suggests that oxidative stress induction of EMT is a key event during peritoneal damage...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28926108/bone-morphogenetic-protein-7-inhibits-endothelial-mesenchymal-transition-in-pulmonary-artery-endothelial-cell-under-hypoxia
#4
Hongyue Zhang, Ying Liu, Lixin Yan, Wei Du, Xiaodan Zhang, Min Zhang, He Chen, Yafeng Zhang, Jianqiu Zhou, Hanliang Sun, Daling Zhu
Pulmonary artery hypertension (PAH) is characterized by structural changes in pulmonary arteries. Increased numbers of cells expressing α-smooth muscle actin (α-SMA) is a nearly universal finding in the remodeled artery. It has been confirmed endothelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EndoMT) may be a source of those α-SMA-expressing cells. In addition, the EndoMT is reversible. Here, we show that under hypoxia, the expression of bone morphogenetic protein 7 (BMP-7) was decreased both in vivo and in vitro. We also found that under normoxia, BMP-7 deficiency induced spontaneous EndoMT and cell migration...
September 19, 2017: Journal of Cellular Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28925397/coactosin-like-protein-clp-cotl1-suppresses-breast-cancer-growth-through-activation-of-il-24-perp-and-inhibition-of-non-canonical-tgf%C3%AE-signaling
#5
L Xia, X Xiao, W L Liu, Y Song, T J J Liu, Y J Li, E Zacksenhaus, X J Hao, Y Ben-David
Coactosin-like protein (CLP, or Cotl1), is an F-actin-binding protein, whose role in cancer is largely unknown. Here we show that CLP/Cotl1 is highly expressed in a rat epithelial breast cancer cell line (FE1.3) compared with its mesenchymal counterpart (FE1.2). Knockdown of CLP/Cotl1 in FE1.3 cells increased cell proliferation, whereas its overexpression in FE1.2 cells inhibited proliferation in culture and reduced tumor growth in xenograft assays in mice. Mechanistically, we identified two major pathways through which CLP/Cotl1 exerts its suppressive effects...
September 18, 2017: Oncogene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28925394/tissue-inhibitor-of-metalloproteinase-1-promotes-cell-proliferation-through-yap-taz-activation-in-cancer
#6
T Ando, D Charindra, M Shrestha, H Umehara, I Ogawa, M Miyauchi, T Takata
Tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase-1 (TIMP-1), a member of the TIMP family (TIMP-1 to 4), is highly expressed in various types of cancer and forms a complex with its receptor CD63 and Integrin β1. However, the precise oncogenic mechanism of TIMP-1 remains unclear. Yes-associated protein (YAP) and transcriptional co-activator with PDZ binding motif (TAZ) are transcription co-activators enhancing the transcription of specific genes related to cell proliferation. But the mechanism of aberrant YAP/TAZ activation in cancer is not fully understood...
September 18, 2017: Oncogene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28925390/alterations-of-micrornas-throughout-the-malignant-evolution-of-cutaneous-squamous-cell-carcinoma-the-role-of-mir-497-in-epithelial-to-mesenchymal-transition-of-keratinocytes
#7
A Mizrahi, A Barzilai, D Gur-Wahnon, I Z Ben-Dov, S Glassberg, T Meningher, E Elharar, M Masalha, J Jacob-Hirsch, H Tabibian-Keissar, I Barshack, J Roszik, R Leibowitz-Amit, Y Sidi, D Avni
Skin carcinogenesis is known to be a multi-step process with several stages along its malignant evolution. We hypothesized that transformation of normal epidermis to cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma (cSCC) is causally linked to alterations in microRNAs (miRNA) expression. For this end we decided to evaluate their alterations in the pathologic states ending in cSCC. Total RNA was extracted from formalin fixed paraffin embedded biopsies of five stages along the malignant evolution of keratinocytes towards cSCC: Normal epidermis, solar elastosis, actinic keratosis KIN1-2, advanced actinic keratosis KIN3 and well-differentiated cSCC...
September 18, 2017: Oncogene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28925042/clinical-comparison-of-actinic-changes-preceding-squamous-cell-carcinoma-vs-intraepidermal-carcinoma-in-renal-transplant-recipients
#8
Z Jiyad, P O'Rourke, H P Soyer, A C Green
Intraepidermal carcinoma (IEC) is a type of in situ squamous cell carcinoma (SCC), although progression of IEC is rare. We sought to investigate differences between the actinic skin changes preceding the development of both SCC and IEC. Photographs of 63 skin sites at which either SCC or IEC subsequently developed in 37 renal transplant recipients (RTRs) were examined for features of actinic change. We found that areas of skin with an actinic keratosis (AK) > 1 cm(2) in size were four times more likely to develop SCC as opposed to IEC (OR = 4...
September 19, 2017: Clinical and Experimental Dermatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28924833/rho-inhibiting-c2in-c3-fusion-toxin-inhibits-chemotactic-recruitment-of-human-monocytes-ex-vivo-and-in-mice-in-vivo
#9
Tobias Martin, Amelie Möglich, Ina Felix, Christina Förtsch, Anne Rittlinger, Annette Palmer, Stephanie Denk, Julian Schneider, Lena Notbohm, Mona Vogel, Hartmut Geiger, Stephan Paschke, Markus Huber-Lang, Holger Barth
Bacterial protein toxins became valuable molecular tools for the targeted modulation of cell functions in experimental pharmacology and attractive therapeutics because of their potent and specific mode of action in human cells. C2IN-C3lim, a recombinant fusion toxin (~50 kDa) of the Rho-inhibiting C3lim from Clostridium (C.) limosum and a non-toxic portion of the C. botulinum C2 toxin (C2IN), is selectively internalized into the cytosol of monocytic cells where C3lim specifically ADP-ribosylates Rho A and -B, thereby inhibiting Rho-mediated signaling...
September 18, 2017: Archives of Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28924386/alkbh4-and-atrn-act-maternally-to-regulate-zebrafish-epiboly
#10
Qingrui Sun, Xingfeng Liu, Bo Gong, Di Wu, Anming Meng, Shunji Jia
During embryonic gastrulation, coordinated cell movements occur to bring cells to their correct position. Among them, epiboly produces the first distinct morphological changes, which is essential for the early development of zebrafish. Despite its fundamental importance, little is known to understand the underlying molecular mechanisms. By generating maternal mutant lines with CRISPR/Cas9 technology and using morpholino knockdown strategy, we showed that maternal Alkbh4 depletion leads to severe epiboly defects in zebrafish...
2017: International Journal of Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28924236/in-vivo-mouse-and-live-cell-sted-microscopy-of-neuronal-actin-plasticity-using-far-red-emitting-fluorescent-proteins
#11
Waja Wegner, Peter Ilgen, Carola Gregor, Joris van Dort, Alexander C Mott, Heinz Steffens, Katrin I Willig
The study of proteins in dendritic processes within the living brain is mainly hampered by the diffraction limit of light. STED microscopy is so far the only far-field light microscopy technique to overcome the diffraction limit and resolve dendritic spine plasticity at superresolution (nanoscopy) in the living mouse. After having tested several far-red fluorescent proteins in cell culture we report here STED microscopy of the far-red fluorescent protein mNeptune2, which showed best results for our application to superresolve actin filaments at a resolution of ~80 nm, and to observe morphological changes of actin in the cortex of a living mouse...
September 18, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28924178/logical-gates-in-actin-monomer
#12
Andrew Adamatzky
We evaluate information processing capacity of a single actin molecule by calculating distributions of logical gates implemented by the molecule via propagating patterns of excitation. We represent a filamentous actin molecule as an excitable automaton network (F-actin automaton). where every atom updates its state depending on states of atoms its connected to with chemical bonds (hard neighbours) and atoms being in physical proximity to the atom (soft neighbours). A resting atom excites if a sum of its excited hard neighbours and a weighted sum of its soft neighbours belong to some specified interval...
September 18, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28923977/prepatterning-by-rhogefs-governs-rho-gtpase-spatiotemporal-dynamics-during-wound-repair
#13
Mitsutoshi Nakamura, Jeffrey M Verboon, Susan M Parkhurst
Like tissues, single cells are subjected to continual stresses and damage. As such, cells have a robust wound repair mechanism comprised of dynamic membrane resealing and cortical cytoskeletal remodeling. One group of proteins, the Rho family of small guanosine triphosphatases (GTPases), is critical for this actin and myosin cytoskeletal response in which they form distinct dynamic spatial and temporal patterns/arrays surrounding the wound. A key mechanistic question, then, is how these GTPase arrays are formed...
September 18, 2017: Journal of Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28923975/control-of-actin-polymerization-via-the-coincidence-of-phosphoinositides-and-high-membrane-curvature
#14
Frederic Daste, Astrid Walrant, Mikkel R Holst, Jonathan R Gadsby, Julia Mason, Ji-Eun Lee, Daniel Brook, Marcel Mettlen, Elin Larsson, Steven F Lee, Richard Lundmark, Jennifer L Gallop
The conditional use of actin during clathrin-mediated endocytosis in mammalian cells suggests that the cell controls whether and how actin is used. Using a combination of biochemical reconstitution and mammalian cell culture, we elucidate a mechanism by which the coincidence of PI(4,5)P2 and PI(3)P in a curved vesicle triggers actin polymerization. At clathrin-coated pits, PI(3)P is produced by the INPP4A hydrolysis of PI(3,4)P2, and this is necessary for actin-driven endocytosis. Both Cdc42⋅guanosine triphosphate and SNX9 activate N-WASP-WIP- and Arp2/3-mediated actin nucleation...
September 18, 2017: Journal of Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28923924/near-atomic-structure-of-jasplakinolide-stabilized-malaria-parasite-f-actin-reveals-the-structural-basis-of-filament-instability
#15
Sabrina Pospich, Esa-Pekka Kumpula, Julian von der Ecken, Juha Vahokoski, Inari Kursula, Stefan Raunser
During their life cycle, apicomplexan parasites, such as the malaria parasite Plasmodium falciparum, use actomyosin-driven gliding motility to move and invade host cells. For this process, actin filament length and stability are temporally and spatially controlled. In contrast to canonical actin, P. falciparum actin 1 (PfAct1) does not readily polymerize into long, stable filaments. The structural basis of filament instability, which plays a pivotal role in host cell invasion, and thus infectivity, is poorly understood, largely because high-resolution structures of PfAct1 filaments were missing...
September 18, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28923883/microtubules-associated-rac-regulation-of-endothelial-barrier-a-role-of-asef-in-acute-lung-injury
#16
Pratap Karki, Anna A Birukova
The endothelial barrier function regulated by the cytoskeletal reorganizations has been implicated in the pathogenesis of multiple lung diseases including asthma, sepsis, edema, and acute respiratory distress syndrome. The extensive studies have established that activation of small GTPase Rac is a key mechanism in endothelial barrier protection but the role of microtubules-associated Rac in the endothelial functions remains poorly understood. With the emerging evidences that microtubules disassembly also plays a critical role in actin cytoskeleton remodeling leading to endothelial permeability, the knowledge on microtubules-mediated regulation of endothelial barrier is imperative to better understand the etiology of lung injuries as well as to develop novel therapeutics against these disorders...
September 18, 2017: Journal of Investigative Medicine: the Official Publication of the American Federation for Clinical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28923837/mechanoregulation-of-clathrin-mediated-endocytosis
#17
J P Ferguson, S D Huber, N M Willy, E Aygün, S Goker, T Atabey, C Kural
We characterized the tension response of clathrin-mediated endocytosis using various cell manipulation methodologies. Elevated tension in a cell hinders clathrin-mediated endocytosis through inhibition of de novo coat initiation, elongation of clathrin coat lifetimes, and reduction of high magnitude growth rates. Actin machinery supplies an inward pulling force necessary for internalization of clathrin coats under high tension. These findings suggest that physical cues cells receive from their microenviroment are major determinants of clathrin-mediated endocytic activity...
September 18, 2017: Journal of Cell Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28923791/gja1-20k-arranges-actin-to-guide-cx43-delivery-to-cardiac-intercalated-discs
#18
Wassim A Basheer, Shaohua Xiao, Irina Epifantseva, Ying Fu, Andre G Kleber, TingTing Hong, Robin M Shaw
Rationale: Delivery of connexin 43 (Cx43) to the intercalated disc is a continuous and rapid process critical for intercellular coupling. By a pathway of targeted delivery involving microtubule highways, vesicles of Cx43 hemichannels are efficiently trafficked to adherens junctions at intercalated discs. It has also been identified that actin provides rest stops for Cx43 forward trafficking, and that Cx43 has a 20kDa internally translated small C-terminus isoform (GJA1-20k) which is required for full-length Cx43 trafficking, but by an unknown mechanism...
September 18, 2017: Circulation Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28923538/three-dimensional-nano-architected-scaffolds-with-tunable-stiffness-for-efficient-bone-tissue-growth
#19
Alessandro Maggi, Hanqing Li, Julia R Greer
The precise mechanisms that lead to orthopedic implant failure are not well understood; it is believed that the micromechanical environment at the bone-implant interface regulates structural stability of an implant. In this work, we seek to understand how the 3D mechanical environment of an implant affects bone formation during early osteointegration. We employed two-photon lithography (TPL) direct laser writing to fabricate 3-dimensional rigid polymer scaffolds with tetrakaidecahedral periodic geometry, herewith referred to as nanolattices, whose strut dimensions were on the same order as osteoblasts' focal adhesions (∼2μm) and pore sizes on the order of cell size, ∼10μm...
September 15, 2017: Acta Biomaterialia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28923513/a-dioxin-like-compound-induces-hyperplasia-and-branching-morphogenesis-in-mouse-mammary-gland-through-alterations-in-tgf-%C3%AE-1-and-aryl-hydrocarbon-receptor-signaling
#20
Miret Noelia, Rico-Leo Eva, Pontillo Carolina, Zotta Elsa, Fernández-Salguero Pedro, Randi Andrea
Hexachlorobenzene (HCB) is a widespread environmental pollutant and a dioxin-like compound that binds weakly to the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR). Because AhR and transforming growth factor β1 (TGF-β1) converge to regulate common signaling pathways, alterations in this crosstalk might contribute to developing preneoplastic lesions. The aim of this study was to evaluate HCB action on TGF-β1 and AhR signaling in mouse mammary gland, through AhR+/+ and AhR-/- models. Results showed a differential effect in mouse mammary epithelial cells (NMuMG), depending on the dose: 0...
September 15, 2017: Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology
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