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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28748571/follicular-porokeratosis-four-new-cases
#1
A Sud, A R Shipman, M Odeke, K Varma, M Read-Jones, R A Carr
Porokeratosis, a disorder of keratinisation, is clinically characterized by the presence of annular plaques with a surrounding keratotic ridge. Clinical variants include linear, disseminated superficial actinic, verrucous/hypertrophic, disseminated eruptive, palmoplantar and porokeratosis of Mibelli (one or two typical plaques with atrophic centre and guttered keratotic rim). All of these subtypes share the histological feature of a cornoid lamella, characterized by a column of 'stacked' parakeratosis with focal absence of the granular layer, and dysmaturation (prematurely keratinised cells in the upper spinous layer)...
July 27, 2017: Clinical and Experimental Dermatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28748255/cellular-and-subcellular-localization-of-adp-ribosylation-factor-6-in-mouse-peripheral-tissues
#2
Osamu Katsumata, Momoko Mori, Yusuke Sawane, Tomoko Niimura, Akiko Ito, Hirotsugu Okamoto, Masahiro Fukaya, Hiroyuki Sakagami
ADP-ribosylation factor 6 (Arf6) is a small GTPase that regulates endosomal trafficking and actin cytoskeleton remodeling. In the present study, we comprehensively examined the cellular and subcellular localization of Arf6 in adult mouse peripheral tissues by immunofluorescence and immunoelectron microscopy using the heat-induced antigen retrieval method with Tris-EDTA buffer (pH 9.0). Marked immunolabeling of Arf6 was observed particularly in epithelial cells of several tissues including the esophagus, stomach, small and large intestines, trachea, kidney, epididymis, oviduct, and uterus...
July 26, 2017: Histochemistry and Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28747699/osfh15-a-class-i-formin-interacts-with-microfilaments-and-microtubules-to-regulate-grain-size-via-affecting-cell-expansion-in-rice
#3
Tiantian Sun, Shanwei Li, Haiyun Ren
Grain size is an important agronomic trait determining rice yield and is mainly restricted by spikelet hull size. However, it remains largely unknown how the spikelet hull size is regulated. In this study, OsFH15, a class I formin protein in Oryza sativa, was found to be able to regulate the size of cells and spikelet hull. OsFH15-Cas9 and OsFH15-RNAi mutants had decreased grain size with reduced cell length, cell width and cell area of inner epidermal cells of the lemma compared with wild-type plants. By contrast, OsFH15-overexpressed plants had increased grain size with larger cells, as well as more abundant microtubules (MTs) and actin filaments (AFs) arrays...
July 26, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28747676/uremia-does-not-affect-neointima-formation-in-mice
#4
Annemarie Aarup, Carsten H Nielsen, Line S Bisgaard, Ilze Bot, Henrik H El-Ali, Andreas Kjaer, Lars B Nielsen, Tanja X Pedersen
Atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease is a major complication of chronic kidney disease (CKD). CKD leads to uremia, which modulates the phenotype of aortic smooth muscle cells (SMCs). Phenotypic modulation of SMCs plays a key role in accelerating atherosclerosis. We investigated the hypothesis that uremia potentiates neointima formation in response to vascular injury in mice. Carotid wire injury was performed on C57BL/6 wt and apolipoprotein E knockout (Apoe (-/-)) mice two weeks after induction of uremia by 5/6 nephrectomy...
July 26, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28747671/erratum-perfluorooctanesulfonate-pfos-induced-sertoli-cell-injury-through-a-disruption-of-f-actin-and-microtubule-organization-is-mediated-by-akt1-2
#5
Ying Gao, Haiqi Chen, Xiang Xiao, Wing-Yee Lui, Will M Lee, Dolores D Mruk, C Yan Cheng
A correction to this article has been published and is linked from the HTML version of this paper. The error has been fixed in the paper.
July 26, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28747635/aim1-is-an-actin-binding-protein-that-suppresses-cell-migration-and-micrometastatic-dissemination
#6
Michael C Haffner, David M Esopi, Alcides Chaux, Meltem Gürel, Susmita Ghosh, Ajay M Vaghasia, Harrison Tsai, Kunhwa Kim, Nicole Castagna, Hong Lam, Jessica Hicks, Nicolas Wyhs, Debika Biswal Shinohara, Paula J Hurley, Brian W Simons, Edward M Schaeffer, Tamara L Lotan, William B Isaacs, George J Netto, Angelo M De Marzo, William G Nelson, Steven S An, Srinivasan Yegnasubramanian
A defining hallmark of primary and metastatic cancers is the migration and invasion of malignant cells. These invasive properties involve altered dynamics of the cytoskeleton and one of its major structural components β-actin. Here we identify AIM1 (absent in melanoma 1) as an actin-binding protein that suppresses pro-invasive properties in benign prostate epithelium. Depletion of AIM1 in prostate epithelial cells increases cytoskeletal remodeling, intracellular traction forces, cell migration and invasion, and anchorage-independent growth...
July 26, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28747631/jmjd3-and-nf-%C3%AE%C2%BAb-dependent-activation-of-notch1-gene-is-required-for-keratinocyte-migration-during-skin-wound-healing
#7
Jungtae Na, Jee Yoon Shin, Hayan Jeong, Jee Youn Lee, Beom Joon Kim, Won Sun Kim, Tae Young Yune, Bong-Gun Ju
It has been shown that epigenetic regulation plays an important role in skin wound healing. We previously found that histone H3K27me3 demethylase JMJD3 regulates inflammation and cell migration in keratinocyte wound healing. In this study, we identified Notch1 as a direct target of JMJD3 and NF-κB in wounded keratinocytes using in vitro cell and in vivo animal models. We found that Notch1 is up-regulated in the wound edge and its expression is dependent on JMJD3 and NF-κB in wounded keratinocytes. We also found that Notch1 activates the expression of RhoU and PLAU gene, which are critical regulators of cell migration...
July 26, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28747439/diverse-mitotic-functions-of-the-cytoskeletal-crosslinking-protein-shortstop-suggest-a-role-in-dynein-dynactin-activity
#8
Evan B Dewey, Christopher A Johnston
Proper assembly and orientation of the bipolar mitotic spindle is critical to the fidelity of cell division. Mitotic precision fundamentally contributes to cell fate specification, tissue development and homeostasis, and chromosome distribution within daughter cells. Defects in these events is thought to contribute to several human diseases. The underlying mechanisms that function in spindle morphogenesis and positioning remain incompletely defined, however. Here we describe diverse roles for the actin-microtubule crosslinker, Shortstop (Shot), in mitotic spindle function in Drosophila Shot localizes to mitotic spindle poles and its knockdown results in an unfocused spindle pole morphology and a disruption of proper spindle orientation...
July 26, 2017: Molecular Biology of the Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28747229/vaginal-metastasis-as-the-initial-presentation-of-leiomyosarcoma-a-case-report
#9
Cecilia Villalaín-González, Álvaro Tejerizo-García, Patricia Lopez-Garcia, Gregorio López-González, Ma Reyes Oliver-Perez, Jesús S Jiménez-López
BACKGROUND: Uterine leiomyosarcomas are very rare and highly aggressive tumors that have a high rate of recurrence and poor prognosis, even when early diagnosed. Due to their relative rarity, there is limited research on optimal management strategies. CASE PRESENTATION: A 60-year-old woman with a history of an asymptomatic uterine leiomyoma presented in October 2015 with postmenopausal bleeding and a friable vaginal cyst that bled when palpated. A partial cystectomy was performed, and malignant-like cystic and solid components were identified...
July 26, 2017: BMC Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28747072/regulation-of-staphylococcus-aureus-infection-of-macrophages-by-cd44-reactive-oxygen-species-and-acid-sphingomyelinase
#10
Cao Li, Yuqing Wu, Veronique Orian-Rousseau, Yang Zhang, Erich Gulbins, Heike Grassme
AIMS: Staphylococcus aureus plays an important role in sepsis, pneumonia, and wound infections. Acid sphingomyelinase (Asm)-deficient mice are highly susceptible to pulmonary S. aureus infections. Here, we investigated the role of CD44 as a molecule that mediates important aspects of the infection of macrophages with S. aureus. RESULTS: We showed that CD44 activation by S. aureus stimulated Asm via the formation of reactive oxygen species (ROS), resulting in ceramide release, clustering of CD44 in ceramide-enriched membrane platforms, CD44/Asm-dependent activation of Rho family GTPases, translocation of phospho-ezrin/radixin/moesin to the plasma-membrane, and a rapid rearrangement of the actin cytoskeleton with cortical actin polymerization...
July 26, 2017: Antioxidants & Redox Signaling
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28746933/androgen-regulates-dimorphic-f-actin-assemblies-in-the-genital-organogenesis
#11
Liqing Liu, Kentaro Suzuki, Eunice Chun, Aki Murashima, Yuki Sato, Naomi Nakagata, Toshihiko Fujimori, Shigenobu Yonemura, Wanzhong He, Gen Yamada
Impaired androgen activity induces defective sexual differentiation of the male reproductive tract, including hypospadias, an abnormal formation of the penile urethra. Androgen signaling in the urethral mesenchyme cells (UMCs) plays essential roles in driving dimorphic urethral development. However, cellular events for sexual differentiation remain virtually unknown. In this study, histological analyses, fluorescent staining, and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) were performed to reveal the cellular dimorphisms of UMCs...
July 27, 2017: Sexual Development: Genetics, Molecular Biology, Evolution, Endocrinology, Embryology, and Pathology of Sex Determination and Differentiation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28746856/biphasic-effect-of-profilin-impacts-the-formin-mdia1-force-sensing-mechanism-in-actin-polymerization
#12
Hiroaki Kubota, Makito Miyazaki, Taisaku Ogawa, Togo Shimozawa, Kazuhiko Kinosita, Shin'ichi Ishiwata
Formins are force-sensing proteins that regulate actin polymerization dynamics. Here, we applied stretching tension to individual actin filaments under the regulation of formin mDia1 to investigate the mechanical responses in actin polymerization dynamics. We found that the elongation of an actin filament was accelerated to a greater degree by stretching tension for ADP-G-actin than that for ATP-G-actin. An apparent decrease in the critical concentration of G-actin was observed, especially in ADP-G-actin. These results on two types of G-actin were reproduced by a simple kinetic model, assuming the rapid equilibrium between pre- and posttranslocated states of the formin homology domain two dimer...
July 25, 2017: Biophysical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28746855/a-versatile-framework-for-simulating-the-dynamic-mechanical-structure-of-cytoskeletal-networks
#13
Simon L Freedman, Shiladitya Banerjee, Glen M Hocky, Aaron R Dinner
Computer simulations can aid in understanding how collective materials properties emerge from interactions between simple constituents. Here, we introduce a coarse-grained model that enables simulation of networks of actin filaments, myosin motors, and cross-linking proteins at biologically relevant time and length scales. We demonstrate that the model qualitatively and quantitatively captures a suite of trends observed experimentally, including the statistics of filament fluctuations, and mechanical responses to shear, motor motilities, and network rearrangements...
July 25, 2017: Biophysical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28746801/an-automated-quantitative-image-analysis-tool-for-the-identification-of-microtubule-patterns-in-plants
#14
Christine Faulkner, Ji Zhou, Alexandre Evrard, Gildas Bourdais, Dan MacLean, Heidrun Häweker, Peter Eckes, Silke Robatzek
High throughput confocal imaging poses challenges in the computational image analysis of complex subcellular structures such as the microtubule cytoskeleton. Here, we developed CellArchitect, an automated image analysis tool that quantifies changes to subcellular patterns illustrated by microtubule markers in plants. We screened microtubule-targeted herbicides and demonstrate that high throughput confocal imaging with integrated image analysis by CellArchitect can distinguish effects induced by the known herbicides indaziflam and trifluralin...
July 26, 2017: Traffic
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28746411/selection-and-validation-of-reference-genes-for-quantitative-real-time-pcr-analysis-under-different-experimental-conditions-in-the-leafminer-liriomyza-trifolii-diptera-agromyzidae
#15
Ya-Wen Chang, Jing-Yun Chen, Ming-Xing Lu, Yuan Gao, Zi-Hua Tian, Wei-Rong Gong, Wei Zhu, Yu-Zhou Du
Liriomyza trifolii is a highly-invasive leafmining insect that causes significant damage to vegetables and horticultural crops worldwide. Relatively few studies have quantified gene expression in L. trifolii using real-time quantitative PCR (RT-qPCR), which is a reliable and sensitive technique for measuring gene expression. RT-qPCR requires the selection of reference genes to normalize gene expression data and control for internal differences between samples. In this study, nine housekeeping genes from L. trifolii were selected for their suitability in normalizing gene expression using geNorm, Normfinder, BestKeeper, the ΔCt method and RefFinder...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28746279/thy1-cd90-expression-is-elevated-in-radiation-induced-periprosthetic-capsular-contracture-implication-for-novel-therapeutics
#16
Trevor C Hansen, Collynn F Woeller, Shannon H Lacy, Peter F Koltz, Howard N Langstein, Richard P Phipps
BACKGROUND: Capsular contracture is a devastating complication of postmastectomy implant-based breast reconstruction. Unfortunately, capsular contracture rates are drastically increased by targeted radiotherapy, a standard postmastectomy treatment. Thy1 (also called CD90) is important in myofibroblast differentiation and scar tissue formation. However, the impact of radiotherapy on Thy1 expression and the role of Thy1 in capsular contracture are unknown. METHODS: The authors analyzed Thy1 expression in primary human capsular tissue and primary fibroblast explants by real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction, Western blotting, and immunohistochemistry...
August 2017: Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28746256/successful-treatment-of-actinic-granuloma-with-pulsed-dye-laser-and-fractionated-carbon-dioxide-laser
#17
Andrew Mamalis, Derek Ho, Kory K Parsi, Jared Jagdeo
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
July 25, 2017: Dermatologic Surgery: Official Publication for American Society for Dermatologic Surgery [et Al.]
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28745789/culture-conditions-of-human-embryonic-stem-cells-for-differentiation-into-retinal-vascular-structure
#18
Y-Z Pan, H Wang, F Gao
OBJECTIVE: This study sought to identify the suitable cell culture conditions for the in vitro-induced differentiation of human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) into retinal vascular tissue cell types. MATERIALS AND METHODS: To do this, we established four treatment groups. Group A was designed to culture hESCs in a three-dimensional system. The feeder cells and leukemia inhibitory factor (LIF) were removed in Group B. In group C, hESCs were cultured with a variety of pro-angiogenic growth factors...
July 2017: European Review for Medical and Pharmacological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28745416/a-role-for-host-cell-exocytosis-in-inlb-mediated-internalization-of-listeria-monocytogenes
#19
Hoan Van Ngo, Manmeet Bhalla, Da-Yuan Chen, Keith Ireton
The bacterial surface protein InlB mediates internalization of Listeria monocytogenes into human cells through interaction with the host receptor tyrosine kinase, Met. InlB-mediated entry requires localized polymerization of the host actin cytoskeleton. Apart from actin polymerization, roles for other host processes in Listeria entry are unknown. Here we demonstrate that exocytosis in the human cell promotes InlB-dependent internalization. Using a probe consisting of VAMP3 with an exofacial Green Fluorescent Protein (GFP) tag, focal exocytosis was detected during InlB-mediated entry...
July 26, 2017: Cellular Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28745378/cyanidin-3-o-%C3%AE-glucoside-combined-with-its-metabolite-protocatechuic-acid-attenuated-the-activation-of-mice-hepatic-stellate-cells
#20
Xinwei Jiang, Tianran Shen, Xilan Tang, Wenqi Yang, Honghui Guo, Wenhua Ling
Previous studies indicated that cyanidin-3-O-β-glucoside (C3G) as a classical anthocyanin exerted an anti-fibrotic effect in the liver, but its bioavailability was quite low. This study was undertaken to explore the restraining effect of C3G and its metabolite protocatechuic acid (PCA) on the activation of hepatic stellate cells (HSCs). Our data demonstrated that the treatment of a carbon tetrachloride-treated mice model with C3G inhibited liver fibrosis and HSC activation. In vitro, both C3G and PCA preserved the lipid droplets and retinol in primary HSCs, and additionally inhibited the mRNA expression of α-smooth muscle actin and collagen I, but elevated the level of matrix metalloproteinase-2 and liver X receptors...
July 26, 2017: Food & Function
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