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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28817724/from-the-animal-house-to-the-field-are-there-consistent-individual-differences-in-immunological-profile-in-wild-populations-of-field-voles-microtus-agrestis
#1
Elena Arriero, Klara M Wanelik, Richard J Birtles, Janette E Bradley, Joseph A Jackson, Steve Paterson, Mike Begon
Inbred mouse strains, living in simple laboratory environments far removed from nature, have been shown to vary consistently in their immune response. However, wildlife populations are typically outbreeding and face a multiplicity of challenges, parasitological and otherwise. In this study we seek evidence of consistent difference in immunological profile amongst individuals in the wild. We apply a novel method in this context, using longitudinal (repeated capture) data from natural populations of field voles, Microtus agrestis, on a range of life history and infection metrics, and on gene expression levels...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28817719/t-cell-expression-of-il-18r-and-dr3-is-essential-for-non-cognate-stimulation-of-th1-cells-and-optimal-clearance-of-intracellular-bacteria
#2
Oanh H Pham, Hope O'Donnell, Aymen Al-Shamkhani, Tobias Kerrinnes, Renée M Tsolis, Stephen J McSorley
Th1 cells can be activated by TCR-independent stimuli, but the importance of this pathway in vivo and the precise mechanisms involved require further investigation. Here, we used a simple model of non-cognate Th1 cell stimulation in Salmonella-infected mice to examine these issues. CD4 Th1 cell expression of both IL-18R and DR3 was required for optimal IFN-γ induction in response to non-cognate stimulation, while IL-15R expression was dispensable. Interestingly, effector Th1 cells generated by immunization rather than live infection had lower non-cognate activity despite comparable IL-18R and DR3 expression...
August 17, 2017: PLoS Pathogens
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28817117/increased-tumor-infiltrating-cd45ra-ccr7-regulatory-t-cell-subset-with-immunosuppressive-properties-foster-gastric-cancer-progress
#3
Fang-Yuan Mao, Hui Kong, Yong-Liang Zhao, Liu-Sheng Peng, Weisan Chen, Jin-Yu Zhang, Ping Cheng, Ting-Ting Wang, Yi-Pin Lv, Yong-Sheng Teng, Xiao-Long Fu, Yu-Gang Liu, Xiao-Long Wu, Chuan-Jie Hao, Nan You, Ping Luo, Pei-Wu Yu, Quan-Ming Zou, Gang Guo, Yuan Zhuang
Regulatory T cells (Tregs) are major components of tumor-infiltrating immune cells with potent immunosuppressive properties in gastric cancer (GC) microenvironment. However, different subsets of the Tregs and their relevance to GC are unknown. Here, we found that patients with GC showed a significantly higher Tregs infiltration in tumors, and CD45RA(-)CCR7(-) Treg subset constituted most tumor-infiltrating Tregs. Tumor-infiltrating CD45RA(-)CCR7(-) Treg subset with an effector/memory phenotype accumulated in tumors and expressed low level of HLA-DR...
August 17, 2017: Cell Death & Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28816630/glycoproteins-and-polysaccharides-are-the-main-class-of-active-constituents-required-for-lymphocyte-stimulation-and-antigen-specific-immune-response-induction-by-traditional-medicinal-herbal-plants
#4
Young-Ok Son, Sung-Ho Kook, Jeong-Chae Lee
Traditional herbal remedies stimulate and modulate the immune system, and it is thought that their glycoproteins and polysaccharides are responsible for this activity. We prepared crude water, protein, and polysaccharide extracts from Atractylodes macrocephala Koidz, Helianthus annuus L., Scutellaria barbata D. Don, and Hedyotis diffusa Willd, respectively, and compared their immune-stimulating activities in vitro and in vivo. All protein and polysaccharide samples of the plants led to greater lymphocyte proliferation and TNF-α and IL-6 production in cultured splenocytes than did the crude water extracts at the same concentrations tested...
August 17, 2017: Journal of Medicinal Food
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28816516/vibrio-vulnificus-vvha-induces-th1-and-tfh-cells-to-proliferate-against-vibrio-vulnificus-in-a-mouse-model-of-infection
#5
Ming-Yi Wang, Xiao-Fei Liu, Jun Xia, Yu Li, Jian-Li Geng, Cheng-Jin Hu
AIM: To characterize the roles of VvhA in host's acquired immune response to Vibrio vulnificus infection. MATERIALS & METHODS: The recombinant VvhA fusion protein was used to immunize mice and the anti-VvhA polyclonal antibody was produced in vivo for prophylactic and therapeutic efficacy assay. The roles of VvhA in T helper (Th) cells differentiation were analyzed by vvhA-deleted mutant during the early phase of infection, while the ratio of Th2 and T follicular helper (Tfh) cells were examined in VvhA immunization...
August 17, 2017: Future Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28815581/th1-polarizing-%C3%AE-%C3%AE-t-cells-and-scavenger-receptors-contribute-to-the-pathogenesis-of-pemphigus-vulgaris
#6
Dayasagar Das, Vivek Anand, Sujay Khandpur, V K Sharma, Alpana Sharma
Gamma delta T cells (γδ T cells) and Scavenger receptors are key innate immune machinery playing significant role in regulating immune homeostasis at epithelial surface. The roles of these immune components are not yet characterized for the autoimmune skin disorder Pemphigus Vulgaris (PV). Phenotyping and frequency of γδ T cells estimated by Flowcytometry has shown increased frequency of γδ T cells (6.7% vs. 4.4%) producing IFN-γ (35.2% vs. 26.68%), in circulation of patients compared to controls. Dual cytokine (IFN-γ & IL-4) secreting γδ T cells indicate plasticity of these cells...
August 16, 2017: Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28815344/long-term-survival-after-hematopoietic-stem-cell-transplantation-for-complete-stat1-deficiency
#7
Samuele Naviglio, Elena Soncini, Donatella Vairo, Arnalda Lanfranchi, Raffaele Badolato, Fulvio Porta
PURPOSE: Complete signal transducer and activator of transcription 1 (STAT1) deficiency is a rare autosomal recessive condition characterized by impairment of intracellular signaling from both type I and type II interferons (IFN). Affected patients are prone to early severe mycobacterial and viral infections, which usually result in death before 18 months of age. We previously reported a patient affected by complete STAT1 deficiency who underwent hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT)...
August 16, 2017: Journal of Clinical Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28815329/efficacy-and-safety-of-ledipasvir-sofosbuvir-with-ribavirin-in-chronic-hepatitis-c-patients-who-failed-daclatasvir-asunaprevir-therapy-pilot-study
#8
Yoshiiku Kawakami, Hidenori Ochi, Clair Nelson Hayes, Michio Imamura, Masataka Tsuge, Takashi Nakahara, Yoshio Katamura, Hiroshi Kohno, Hirotaka Kohno, Keiji Tsuji, Shintaro Takaki, Nami Mori, Yohji Honda, Keiko Arataki, Shoichi Takahashi, Shinsuke Kira, Toru Tamura, Kazunari Masuda, Toshio Nakamura, Masaya Kikkawa, Kazuaki Chayama
BACKGROUND: In Japan, daclatasvir (DCV) and asunaprevir (ASV) therapy was the first IFN-free treatment to be approved, and thousands of patients have since been successfully treated, with an SVR rate of around 90%. The converse, however, is that around 10% of patients fail to achieve viral eradication and must be retreated using a different approach. This study is to evaluate treatment efficacy of ledipasvir/sofosbuvir and ribavirin in patients who failed to respond to DCV and ASV therapy...
August 16, 2017: Journal of Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28815296/autoantibodies-against-rods-and-rings-related-impdh2-in-hepatitis-c-genotype-1-and-daa-therapy-in-a-real-life-cohort
#9
Werner Dammermann, Susanne Polywka, Inga Dettmann, Swantje Mindorf, Lars Komorowski, Malte Wehmeyer, Julian Schulze Zur Wiesch, Winfried Stöcker, Stefan Lüth
Autoantibodies against inosine-5'-monophosphate-dehydrogenase-2 (IMPDH2; "rods and rings" pattern) develop in chronic hepatitis C (CHC) patients under treatment with peg-interferon (IFN) and ribavirin (RBV), an inhibitor of IMPDH2. We investigated the influence of the alternative therapy with direct-acting antivirals (DAA)/ribavirin on anti-IMPDH2 autoantibody generation and the use of anti-IMPDH2 development as a marker for therapy outcome (sustained virologic response, SVR). We analyzed a "real life" cohort of 104 unselected CHC genotype 1 (GT1) patients treated with IFN/first-generation DAA/RBV prospectively compared to a historic cohort of 59 IFN/RBV-treated CHC GT1 patients...
August 16, 2017: Medical Microbiology and Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28815217/deletion-of-cytoplasmic-double-stranded-rna-sensors-does-not-uncover-viral-small-interfering-rna-production-in-human-cells
#10
Susan Schuster, Lotte E Tholen, Gijs J Overheul, Frank J M van Kuppeveld, Ronald P van Rij
Antiviral immunity in insects and plants is mediated by the RNA interference (RNAi) pathway in which viral long double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) is processed into small interfering RNAs (siRNAs) by Dicer enzymes. Although this pathway is evolutionarily conserved, its involvement in antiviral defense in mammals is the subject of debate. In vertebrates, recognition of viral RNA induces a sophisticated type I interferon (IFN)-based immune response, and it has been proposed that this response masks or inhibits antiviral RNAi...
July 2017: MSphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28815056/hemojuvelin-regulates-the-innate-immune-response-to-peritoneal-bacterial-infection-in-mice
#11
Qian Wu, Yuanyuan Shen, Yunlong Tao, Jiayu Wei, Hao Wang, Peng An, Zhuzhen Zhang, Hong Gao, Tianhua Zhou, Fudi Wang, Junxia Min
Hereditary hemochromatosis and iron imbalance are associated with susceptibility to bacterial infection; however, the underlying mechanisms are poorly understood. Here, we performed in vivo bacterial infection screening using several mouse models of hemochromatosis, including Hfe (Hfe(-/-) ), hemojuvelin (Hjv(-/-) ), and macrophage-specific ferroportin-1 (Fpn1(fl/fl) ;LysM-Cre(+) ) knockout mice. We found that Hjv(-/-) mice, but not Hfe(-/-) or Fpn1(fl/fl) ;LysM-Cre(+) mice, are highly susceptible to peritoneal infection by both Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria...
2017: Cell Discovery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28815045/tumor-derived-exosomes-induce-cd8-t-cell-suppressors
#12
Brian T Maybruck, Lukas W Pfannenstiel, Marcela Diaz-Montero, Brian R Gastman
BACKGROUND: The suppressive nature of immune cells in the tumor microenvironment plays a major role in regulating anti-tumor immune responses. Our previous work demonstrated that a soluble factor from tumor cells is able to induce a suppressor phenotype (SP) in human CD8(+) T cells typified by loss of CD27/CD28 expression and acquisition of a potent suppressor function. The present study hypothesized that the soluble mechanism that is inducing the SP in CD8(+) T cells are tumor-derived exosomes (TDEs)...
2017: Journal for Immunotherapy of Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28814754/unveiling-cerebral-leishmaniasis-parasites-and-brain-inflammation-in-leishmania-donovani-infected-mice
#13
Guilherme D Melo, Sophie Goyard, Laurence Fiette, Alexandre Boissonnas, Christophe Combadiere, Gisele F Machado, Paola Minoprio, Thierry Lang
Visceral leishmaniasis (VL) is a systemic disease with multifaceted clinical manifestations, including neurological signs, however, the involvement of the nervous system during VL is underestimated. Accordingly, we investigated both brain infection and inflammation in a mouse model of VL. Using bioluminescent Leishmania donovani and real-time 2D-3D imaging tools, we strikingly detected live parasites in the brain, where we observed a compartmentalized dual-phased inflammation pattern: an early phase during the first two weeks post-infection, with the prompt arrival of neutrophils and Ly6C(high) macrophages in an environment presenting a variety of pro-inflammatory mediators (IFN-γ, IL-1β, CXCL-10/CXCR-3, CCL-7/CCR-2), but with an intense anti-inflammatory response, led by IL-10; and a re-inflammation phase three months later, extremely pro-inflammatory, with novel upregulation of mediators, including IL-1β, TNF-α and MMP-9...
August 16, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28814229/cell-mediated-and-humoral-immune-responses-to-bordetella-pertussis-inactivated-whole-cells-encapsulated-alginate-microspheres-as-a-new-vaccine-candidate
#14
Naser Mohammadpour Dounighi, Fereshteh Shahcheraghi, Mehdi Razzaghi-Abyaneh, Mojtaba Nofeli, Hossein Zolfagharian
BACKGROUND: Effectiveness of the whole-cell pertussis vaccine is apparent, but improvement in the quality of the vaccine is necessary to achieve strong immunogenicity with a low bacterial number content. METHODS: The inactivated Bordetella pertussis (B. pertussis) cells entrapped microspheres were prepared via an emulsification method and analyzed for morphology, size, size distribution, loading efficiency, loading capacity, release kinetic, in vivo cytokines and antigen specific antibody subclasses...
August 15, 2017: Current Pharmaceutical Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28813657/interferon-%C3%AE-represses-m2-gene-expression-in-human-macrophages-by-disassembling-enhancers-bound-by-the-transcription-factor-maf
#15
Kyuho Kang, Sung Ho Park, Janice Chen, Yu Qiao, Eugenia Giannopoulou, Karen Berg, Adedayo Hanidu, Jun Li, Gerald Nabozny, Keunsoo Kang, Kyung-Hyun Park-Min, Lionel B Ivashkiv
Mechanisms by which interferon (IFN)-γ activates genes to promote macrophage activation are well studied, but little is known about mechanisms and functions of IFN-γ-mediated gene repression. We used an integrated transcriptomic and epigenomic approach to analyze chromatin accessibility, histone modifications, transcription-factor binding, and gene expression in IFN-γ-primed human macrophages. IFN-γ suppressed basal expression of genes corresponding to an "M2"-like homeostatic and reparative phenotype. IFN-γ repressed genes by suppressing the function of enhancers enriched for binding by transcription factor MAF...
August 15, 2017: Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28813650/we-can-still-be-friends-ifn-%C3%AE-breaks-up-macrophage-enhancers
#16
Boris Novakovic, Cheng Wang, Colin Logie
Interferon (IFN)-γ can prime macrophages for inflammatory responses by several mechanisms, including enhancer establishment and gene activation. In this issue of Immunity, Kang et al. (2017) provide insight into the mechanisms of IFN-γ-mediated gene repression as they show that IFN-γ promotes the disassembly of select active enhancers by interfering with enhancer-binding transcription factor MAF.
August 15, 2017: Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28812292/effect-of-low-selenium-high-fat-diet-on-pig-peripheral-blood-lymphocytes-perspectives-from-selenoproteins-heat-shock-proteins-and-cytokines
#17
Tianqi Liu, Tianshu Yang, Tingru Pan, Ci Liu, Shu Li
The aim of the present study was to clarify the effect of low selenium (Se)/high fat on the mRNA expression of selenoproteins, heat shock proteins (HSPs) and cytokines in pig peripheral blood lymphocytes. Forty crossbred boar piglets with healthy lean body weights of 10 kg were randomly divided into four treatment groups (group C, group L-Se, group H-fat, and group L-Se-H-fat) (n = 10/group) and fed with the corresponding diet for 16 weeks. The pig peripheral blood lymphocytes were extracted, and the mRNA expression of selenoproteins, HSPs, and cytokines was measured...
August 15, 2017: Biological Trace Element Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28812026/evidence-of-immunosuppressive-and-th2-immune-polarizing-effects-of-antidiabetic-momordica-charantia-fruit-juice
#18
Rufine Fachinan, Adnette Fagninou, Magloire Pandoua Nekoua, Abdou Madjid Amoussa, Marius Adjagba, Latifou Lagnika, Anatole Lalèyè, Kabirou Moutairou, Akadiri Yessoufou
The mechanism of action of the antidiabetic capacity of Momordica charantia is still under investigation. Here, we assessed phytochemical compositions, antioxidant activity, and effects of total and filtered fruit and leafy stem juices of Momordica charantia on human T cell proliferation and differentiation through quantification of Th1/Th2 cytokines. In the absence of stimulation, total fruit and leafy stem juices induced significant T cell proliferation. Under PHA stimulation, both juices potentiated plant-induced T cell proliferation...
2017: BioMed Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28811681/osteopontin-impacts-west-nile-virus-pathogenesis-and-resistance-by-regulating-inflammasome-components-and-cell-death-in-the-central-nervous-system-at-early-time-points
#19
Nikki Bortell, Claudia Flynn, Bruno Conti, Howard S Fox, Maria Cecilia G Marcondes
Osteopontin (OPN) is a molecule that is common in central nervous system (CNS) pathologies, which participates in the activation, migration, and survival of inflammatory cells. However, the mechanisms by which OPN modulates inflammatory pathways are not clear. To understand the role of OPN in CNS viral infections, we used a lethal mouse model of West Nile virus (WNV), characterized by the injection of high doses of the Eg101 strain of WNV, causing the increase of OPN levels in the brain since early time points...
2017: Mediators of Inflammation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28811340/type-iii-interferon-mediated-signaling-is-critical-for-controlling-live-attenuated-yellow-fever-virus-infection-in-vivo
#20
Florian Douam, Yentli E Soto Albrecht, Gabriela Hrebikova, Evita Sadimin, Christian Davidson, Sergei V Kotenko, Alexander Ploss
Yellow fever virus (YFV) is an arthropod-borne flavivirus, infecting ~200,000 people worldwide annually and causing about 30,000 deaths. The live attenuated vaccine strain, YFV-17D, has significantly contributed in controlling the global burden of yellow fever worldwide. However, the viral and host contributions to YFV-17D attenuation remain elusive. Type I interferon (IFN-α/β) signaling and type II interferon (IFN-γ) signaling have been shown to be mutually supportive in controlling YFV-17D infection despite distinct mechanisms of action in viral infection...
August 15, 2017: MBio
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