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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27922679/repetitive-extragenic-palindromic-dna-sequences-from-brucella%C3%A2-melitensis-stimulate-toll-like-receptor-9-signaling-in-macrophages
#1
Hui Yu, Liyun Bai, Yaxian Zhang, Zhanli Wang, Yongchun Yu
Brucella DNA activates the host innate immune system via the intracellular Toll-like receptor 9 (TLR9). However, the Brucella DNA sequences which are responsible for these immunostimulatory effects remain to be elucidated. The present study demonstrated that repetitive extragenic palindromic (REPs) sequences present in Brucella DNA were able to stimulate macrophages through TLR9. The induction of interferon-α (IFN-α) production by Brucella REPs was detected in cultured RAW264.7 mouse macrophages as well as in Wistar rats...
December 6, 2016: Molecular Medicine Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27922067/immune-activation-influences-samhd1-expression-and-vpx-mediated-samhd1-degradation-during-chronic-hiv-1-infection
#2
Weihui Fu, Chao Qiu, Mingzhe Zhou, Lingyan Zhu, Yu Yang, Chenli Qiu, Linxia Zhang, Xuan Xu, Ying Wang, Jianqing Xu, Xiaoyan Zhang
SAMHD1 restricts human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) replication in myeloid cells and CD4(+) T cells, while Vpx can mediate SAMHD1 degradation to promote HIV-1 replication. Although the restriction mechanisms of SAMHD1 have been well-described, SAMHD1 expression and Vpx-mediated SAMHD1 degradation during chronic HIV-1 infection were poorly understood. Flow cytometric analysis was used to directly visualize ex vivo, and after in vitro SIV-Vpx treatment, SAMHD1 expression in CD4(+) T cells and monocytes...
December 6, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27922065/detc-based-bacterial-cellulose-bio-curatives-for-topical-treatment-of-cutaneous-leishmaniasis
#3
Fabiana S Celes, Eliane Trovatti, Ricardo Khouri, Johan Van Weyenbergh, Sidney J L Ribeiro, Valeria M Borges, Hernane S Barud, Camila I de Oliveira
The treatment of leishmaniasis still relies on drugs with potentially serious adverse effects. Herein, we tested a topical formulation of bacterial cellulose (BC) membranes containing Diethyldithiocarbamate (DETC), a superoxide dismutase 1 inhibitor. Leishmania-infected macrophages exposed to BC-DETC resulted in parasite killing, without pronounced toxic effects to host cells. This outcome was associated with lower SOD1 activity and higher production of superoxide and cytokine mediators. Topical application of BC-DETC significantly decreased lesion size, parasite load and the inflammatory response at the infection site, as well as the production of both IFN-γ and TNF...
December 6, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27921415/the-roles-of-t-helper-1-t-helper-17-and-regulatory-t-cells-in-the-pathogenesis-of-sarcoidosis
#4
Esmaeil Mortaz, Fatemeh Rezayat, Davar Amani, Arda Kiani, Johan Garssen, Ian M Adcock, Aliakbar Velayati
Sarcoidosis is a systemic granulomatous disorder of unidentified etiology, with a heterogeneous clinical presentation. It is characterized by a reduced delayed-type hypersensitivity to tuberculin and common antigens. The balance between Th1, Th17 and Regulatory T(Treg) cells controls T-cell proliferation and activation.The Th17/Treg ratio in the peripheral blood and bronchoalveolar lavage fluidis increased in patients with active sarcoidosis. Amplified IL-17A expression in granulomas and the presence of IL-17A+, IL-17A+IL-4+ and IL-17A+IFN-γ+ memory T helper cells in the circulation and BAL indicate Th17 cell involvement in granuloma induction and/or maintenance in sarcoidosis...
August 2016: Iranian Journal of Allergy, Asthma, and Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27921406/house-dust-mites-confer-a-distinct-immunological-feature-among-dermatitis
#5
Safa Baris, Ahmet Ozen, Tuba Akdeniz, Elif Karakoc-Aydiner, Ovgu Aydin, Hulya Ercan, Ismail Ogulur, Yildiz Camcioglu, Reha Cengizlier, Cuyan Demirkesen, Deniz Yucelten, Gulderen Demirel, Isil B Barlan
Atopic dermatitis (AD) is a heterogeneous disease with regard to clinical phenotype and natural history. We investigated T cell subtypes and cytokine responses in peripheral blood and skin lesions of AD patients with various sensitivities. Immunological studies were performed in 27 subjects: 9 house dust mite (HDM)-sensitized; 6 subjects with sensitizations other than HDM; 7 non-allergic AD patients and 5 healthy controls. Among those, skin biopsy samples of 13 subjects were evaluated for immunohistochemical analyses, as well...
August 2016: Iranian Journal of Allergy, Asthma, and Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27920824/cloning-expression-and-molecular-analysis-of-iranian-brucella-melitensis-omp25-gene-for-designing-a-subunit-vaccine
#6
Soheil Yousefi, Mojtaba Tahmoorespur, Mohammad Hadi Sekhavati
Brucellosis is a well-known domestic animal infectious disease, which is caused by Brucella bacterium. The outer membrane protein 25 kDa (Omp25) gene plays an important role in simulating of TNF-α, IFN-α, macrophage, and cytokines cells. In the current study molecular cloning and expression analysis of Omp25 gene for designing a subunit vaccine against Brucella was investigated. Amplifying the full length of candidate gene was performed using specific primers. Sub-cloning of this gene conducted using pTZ57R/T vector in TOP10F strain of Escherichia coli(E...
October 2016: Research in Pharmaceutical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27920651/use-of-direct-acting-antivirals-for-the-treatment-of-hepatitis-c-virus-associated-oral-lichen-planus-a-case-report
#7
Kenji Misaka, Takashi Kishimoto, Yuji Kawahigashi, Michio Sata, Yumiko Nagao
Hepatitis C virus (HCV) is frequently associated with various extrahepatic manifestations such as autoimmune features and immune complex deposit diseases. Oral lichen planus (OLP) is one of the representative extrahepatic manifestations of HCV infection. Direct-acting antivirals (DAA) are highly effective and safe for the eradication of HCV. However, there is a lack of information regarding the association between HCV-associated OLP and interferon (IFN)-free DAA therapy. Herein, we present the case of a 60-year-old female who was diagnosed with OLP during routine periodontal treatment by a dentist...
September 2016: Case Reports in Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27920482/hepatitis-c-virus-therapy-with-peg-interferon-and-ribavirin-in-myanmar-a-resource-constrained-country
#8
Naomi Khaing Than Hlaing, Debolina Banerjee, Robert Mitrani, Soe Htet Arker, Kyaw San Win, Nyan Lin Tun, Zaw Thant, Khin Maung Win, K Rajender Reddy
AIM: To investigate peg-interferon (peg-IFN) and ribavirin (RBV) therapy in Myanmar and to predict sustained virologic response (SVR). METHODS: This single-center, open-label, study was conducted in Myanmar between 2009 and 2014. A total of 288 patients infected with HCV genotypes 1, 2, 3 and 6 were treated with peg-IFN alpha-2a (180 μg/wk) or alpha-2b (50 to 100 μg as a weight-based dose) and RBV as a weight-based dose (15 mg/kg/d). Treatment duration was 48 wk for genotypes 1 and 6, 24 wk for genotype 2, and 24 or 48 wk for genotype 3 based on rapid virologic response (RVR)...
November 21, 2016: World Journal of Gastroenterology: WJG
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27920212/inhibition-of-antigen-specific-and-non-specific-stimulation-of-bovine-t-and-b-cells-by-lymphostatin-from-attaching-and-effacing-escherichia-coli
#9
Robin L Cassady-Cain, Elizabeth A Blackburn, Charlotte R Bell, Elizaveta Elshina, Jayne C Hope, Mark P Stevens
Enterohaemorrhagic E. coli (EHEC) and enteropathogenic E. coli (EPEC) are enteric bacterial pathogens of worldwide importance. Most EPEC and non-O157 EHEC strains express lymphostatin (also known as LifA), a chromosomally-encoded 365 kDa protein. We previously demonstrated that lymphostatin is a putative glycosyltransferase that is important in intestinal colonisation of cattle by EHEC serogroup O5, O111 and O26 strains. However, the nature and consequences of the interaction between lymphostatin and immune cells from the bovine host are ill-defined...
December 5, 2016: Infection and Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27919743/dual-antiplasmodial-activity-of-vitamin-d3-and-its-analog-22-oxacalcitriol-by-direct-and-indirect-mechanisms
#10
Kiichi Yamamoto, Moritoshi Iwagami, Takenori Seki, Shigeyuki Kano, Nobuo Ota, Manabu Ato
Recent evidence suggests that 1α,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 (calcitriol, VD3), the active form of vitamin D (VD), can inhibit the proliferation of microorganisms. In the present study, we conducted in vitro experiments and utilized in vivo murine models to investigate the antimalarial activity of VD3 and its analog, 22-oxacalcitriol (22-OCT), which was designed to cause less hypercalcemia than VD3. VD3 and 22-OCT treatments effectively resolved a Plasmodium chabaudi (Pc) infection in wild-type mice. Reduced parasitemia was observed during the acute phase of infection in the presence of VD3 and 22-OCT, followed by a delayed peak during the chronic stage of infection...
December 2, 2016: Parasitology International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27919440/partnered-sexual-activity-moderates-menstrual-cycle-related-changes-in-inflammation-markers-in-healthy-women-an-exploratory-observational-study
#11
Tierney K Lorenz, Gregory E Demas, Julia R Heiman
OBJECTIVE: To examine differences in inflammation markers in sexually active versus abstinent women and observe changes in inflammation markers across the menstrual cycle. Cycle-related immune fluctuations may have evolved to reduce interference with conception. If so, reproductively active (i.e., sexually active) women should show the most variability in cytokine expression. DESIGN: Participants provided serum samples at menses and ovulation (from which cytokines were assayed) and saliva samples at menses and during follicular, ovulation, and luteal phases (from which C-reactive protein [CRP] was assayed)...
December 2, 2016: Fertility and Sterility
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27919366/ldl-apheresis-activates-the-complement-system-and-the-cytokine-network-whereas-pcsk9-inhibition-with-evolocumab-induces-no-inflammatory-response
#12
Knut Tore Lappegård, Terje Enebakk, Hilde Thunhaug, Judith Krey Ludviksen, Tom Eirik Mollnes, Anders Hovland
BACKGROUND: Low-density lipoprotein (LDL) apheresis is an extracorporeal treatment modality used in high-risk coronary patients. It may, however, induce complement activation and downstream inflammation due to bio-incompatibility. OBJECTIVE: We explored changes in soluble inflammatory markers when changing from LDL apheresis to the novel PCSK9 inhibitor evolocumab. METHODS: Three patients with familial hypercholesterolemia participated. Blood samples (EDTA plasma) for complement activation and markers of inflammation were obtained before (baseline) and after LDL apheresis week at 0 and before biweekly administration of evolocumab at weeks 1, 3, 5, and 7...
November 2016: Journal of Clinical Lipidology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27919187/diagnostic-value-of-serum-ferritin-and-the-risk-factors-and-cytokine-profiles-of-hemophagocytic-syndrome-following-allogeneic-hematopoietic-cell-transplantation
#13
Satoru Nanno, Hideo Koh, Yasuhiro Nakashima, Takako Katayama, Hiroshi Okamura, Shiro Koh, Takuro Yoshimura, Mitsutaka Nishimoto, Yoshiki Hayashi, Mika Nakamae, Asao Hirose, Takahiko Nakane, Masayuki Hino, Hirohisa Nakamae
To examine the diagnostic value of serum ferritin, the associated risk factors, and cytokine profiles of hemophagocytic syndrome (HPS) following allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation (allo-HCT), we retrospectively analyzed data from patients undergoing allo-HCT between 2006 and 2012. Of 223 eligible patients, 18 patients developed HPS. A serum ferritin level above 30,000 μg/l was highly specific for the detection of HPS (specificity, 93%). The one-year survival rate for HPS was significantly lower than that of non-HPS patients (37...
December 6, 2016: Leukemia & Lymphoma
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27918843/cucurbita-ficifolia-cucurbitaceae-modulates-inflammatory-cytokines-and-ifn-%C3%AE-in-obese-mice
#14
Á Fortis-Barrera, R García-Macedo, J C Almanza-Perez, G Blancas-Flores, A Zamilpa-Alvarez, J L Flores-Sáenz, M Cruz, R Román-Ramos, F J Alarcón-Aguilar
This study investigated the effect of aqueous extract of Cucurbita ficifolia Bouché on systemic chronic inflammation in an obesity model induced by monosodium glutamate (MSG) via modulating the expression of adipokines (TNF-α, IL-6, resistin, and adiponectin) and immune-regulatory cytokines (IFN-γ and IL-10). Cucurbita ficifolia extract was administered daily by gavage to lean and MSG-obese mice for 30 days. At the end of treatment, cytokine mRNA expression in adipose tissue was determined by real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR), and the protein levels of these cytokines were also quantified by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA)...
September 19, 2016: Canadian Journal of Physiology and Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27918832/the-effect-of-ambient-titanium-dioxide-microparticle-exposure-to-the-ocular-surface-on-the-expression-of-inflammatory-cytokines-in-the-eye-and-cervical-lymph-nodes
#15
Youngsub Eom, Jong Suk Song, Hyun Kyu Lee, Boram Kang, Hyeon Chang Kim, Hyung Keun Lee, Hyo Myung Kim
Purpose: To investigate the ocular immune response following exposure to airborne titanium dioxide (TiO2) microparticles. Methods: Rats in the TiO2-exposed group (n = 10) were exposed to TiO2 particles for 2 hours twice daily for 5 days, while the controls (n = 10) were not. Corneal staining score and tear lactic dehydrogenase (LDH) activity were measured to evaluate ocular surface damage, serum immunoglobulin (Ig) G and E were assayed by using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, and the size of cervical lymph nodes was measured...
December 1, 2016: Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27918831/induction-of-chemokine-secretion-and-monocyte-migration-by-human-choroidal-melanocytes-in-response-to-proinflammatory-cytokines
#16
Tina Jehs, Carsten Faber, Maja S Udsen, Martine J Jager, Simon J Clark, Mogens H Nissen
Purpose: To determine to which extent inflammatory cytokines affect chemokine secretion by primary human choroidal melanocytes (HCMs), their capacity to attract monocytes, and whether HCMs are able to influence the proliferation of activated T cells. Methods: Primary cultures of HCMs were established from eyes of 13 donors. Human choroidal melanocytes were stimulated with IFN-γ and TNF-α or with supernatant from activated T cells (T-cell-conditioned media [TCM])...
December 1, 2016: Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27918083/decreased-interferon-%C3%AE-induced-stat-4-activation-in-immune-cells-and-clinical-outcome-in-multiple-sclerosis
#17
R Tanasescu, A Midgley, R A Robins, C S Constantinescu
OBJECTIVES: Interferon-β (IFN-β) is used in the treatment of multiple sclerosis (MS). IFN-β activation of signal transduction and activation of transcription (STAT)-4 is linked to its immunomodulatory effects. Previous studies suggest a type I IFN deficit in immune cells of patients MS, but data on interferon-α/β receptor (IFNAR) expression and the relationship with treatment response are conflicting. Here, we compare IFN-β-mediated STAT4 activation in immune cells of untreated patients with MS and controls...
December 5, 2016: Acta Neurologica Scandinavica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27917878/spatiotemporal-control-of-interferon-induced-jak-stat-signalling-and-gene-transcription-by-the-retromer-complex
#18
Daniela Chmiest, Nanaocha Sharma, Natacha Zanin, Christine Viaris de Lesegno, Massiullah Shafaq-Zadah, Vonick Sibut, Florent Dingli, Philippe Hupé, Stephan Wilmes, Jacob Piehler, Damarys Loew, Ludger Johannes, Gideon Schreiber, Christophe Lamaze
Type-I interferons (IFNs) play a key role in the immune defences against viral and bacterial infections, and in cancer immunosurveillance. We have established that clathrin-dependent endocytosis of the type-I interferon (IFN-α/β) receptor (IFNAR) is required for JAK/STAT signalling. Here we show that the internalized IFNAR1 and IFNAR2 subunits of the IFNAR complex are differentially sorted by the retromer at the early endosome. Binding of the retromer VPS35 subunit to IFNAR2 results in IFNAR2 recycling to the plasma membrane, whereas IFNAR1 is sorted to the lysosome for degradation...
December 5, 2016: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27917627/enhanced-immune-responses-against-hiv-1-with-adenovector-gag-and-tat-prime-protein-boost-regimen-and-gm-csf-injection
#19
Negin Hosseini Rouzbahani, Saeed Bayanolhagh, Mohammad Gholami, Ali Esmaeilzadeh, Zahra Bayat Jozani, Minoo Mohraz, Ali Akbar Pourfathollah
Vaccines against the HIV-1 virus offers the best hope for eliminating HIV-associated mortality. Recombinant adenovector type 5 (rAd5) vaccine is a potential candidate for preventive vaccine strategies. In this study, we evaluated the rAd5 prime/protein boost strategy in a murine model. We used rAd5 harboring single HIV-1 genes. These genes, including gag (p24) and exon1 of tat, were amplified from HIV-1 (clade A) RNA using nested PCR. Recombinant vectors were constructed, purified and then injected at 1012 viral particles into four groups, each comprising five mice...
October 2016: Iranian Journal of Allergy, Asthma, and Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27917625/t-helper-cell-type-1-transcription-factor-t-bet-is-down-regulated-in-type-1-diabetes
#20
Hajar Vaseghi, Mohammad Hossein Sanati, Zohreh Jadali
T cells have been identified as key players in the pathogenesis of type 1 diabetes. However, the exact role of T-cell subpopulations in this pathway is presently unknown. The purpose of this study was to assess the expression pattern of two lineage-specifying transcription factors GATA-3 and T-bet, which are important in T helper type 1 (Th1) and Th2 cell development, respectively. Gene expression analysis of peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) was performed using reverse transcription-quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR)...
October 2016: Iranian Journal of Allergy, Asthma, and Immunology
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