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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28109144/-interferon-regulatory-factor-5-irf5-regulates-the-differentiation-of-bone-marrow-derived-macrophages-in-mice
#1
Kang Sun, Jianguo Qu, Jixiang Chen, Shengchun Dang, Songbing He, Jin Zhang, Rong Xie, Yun Wang, Jianxin Zhang
Objective To investigate the expression differences of interferon regulatory factor 5 (IRF5) between M1 and M2 macrophages derived from mouse bone marrow and the effects of small interfering RNA targeting IRF5 gene (IRF5 siRNA) on macrophage differentiation. Methods With the treatment of IFN-γ and lipopolysaccharide (LPS), mouse bone marrow-derived macrophages were differentiated into M1 macrophages; while with the treatment of IL-4, mouse bone marrow-derived macrophages were differentiated into M2 macrophages...
February 2017: Xi Bao Yu Fen Zi Mian Yi Xue za Zhi, Chinese Journal of Cellular and Molecular Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28109143/-decreased-number-and-immune-activity-of-splenic-t-lymphocytes-in-mice-exposed-to-hypoxia-at-high-altitude
#2
Xiaona Zhang, Jidong Li, Fangjie Hu, Shilan Gao, Xiaoyan Pu, Sheng Yong
Objective To explore the changes of splenic T lymphocyte subsets and functions in mice under high-altitude hypoxic conditions. Methods After mice were exposed to an altitude of 400 m, 2200 m and 4200 m for 30 days, ELISA was used to detect the concentrations of interleukin-4 (IL-4) and interferon-γ (IFN-γ) in the cultured splenocyte supernatant; MTT assay was used to analyze the proliferation of splenic T lymphocytes; flow cytometry was performed to examine the alterations of splenic T lymphocyte subsets...
February 2017: Xi Bao Yu Fen Zi Mian Yi Xue za Zhi, Chinese Journal of Cellular and Molecular Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28109059/maintaining-stability-of-the-rumen-ecosystem-is-associated-with-changes-of-microbial-composition-and-epithelial-tlr-signaling
#3
Hong Shen, Zhan Chen, Zanming Shen, Zhongyan Lu
We used the goat as a model to study the effects of rumen microbial composition and epithelial TLR signaling on maintaining rumen stability during exogenous butyrate interference. Six cannulated goats received a rapid intraruminal infusion of 0.1 mol/L potassium phosphate buffer with (BT, n = 3) or without (CO, n = 3) 0.3 g/kg·BW·day sodium butyrate for 28 days. The ruminal pH and the concentration of total SCFA were not affected by the interference. 16S rRNA gene amplicon sequencing revealed a change in microbial composition after the butyrate infusion...
January 21, 2017: MicrobiologyOpen
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28109017/clostridium-butyricum-b1-alleviates-high-fat-diet-induced-steatohepatitis-in-mice-via-enterohepatic-immunoregulation
#4
Da Zhou, Qin Pan, Xiao-Lin Liu, Rui-Xu Yang, Yuan-Wen Chen, Chang Liu, Jian-Gao Fan
BACKGROUND AND AIM: Enterohepatic immunologic derangement is associated with nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH). Here, we investigated whether Clostridium butyricum B1 (CB) would be an effective immune-targeted substance to attenuate steatohepatitis in mice. METHODS: Thirty mice were randomized into a control group fed with common forage, a high-fat diet (HFD) group fed a HFD for 16 weeks, and a HFD + CB group treated with CB for the latter 8 weeks. Inflammation- or metabolism-associated genes in the liver or epididymal fat tissue were quantified, intrahepatic and intestinal immune factors were detected...
January 20, 2017: Journal of Gastroenterology and Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28109007/retinoic-acid-inducible-gene-i-rig-i-like-receptors-rlrs-in-fish-current-knowledge-and-future-perspectives
#5
REVIEW
Shan Nan Chen, Peng Fei Zou, Pin Nie
Retinoic acid-inducible gene I (RIG-I)-like receptors (RLRs) are found conservatively present in teleost fish. All three members, RIG-I, MDA5 and LGP2 together with the downstream molecules such as MITA, TRAF3 and TBK1 have been identified in a range of fish species. However, it is a bit unexpected that RIG-I has not been reported in fish of Acanthopterygii, and it would be important to clarify the presence and role of RIG-I gene in a broad range of taxa in Teleostei. RLRs in fish can be induced in vivo and in vitro by viral pathogens as well as synthetic double-stranded RNA (dsRNA), poly(I:C), leading to the production of type I IFNs and the expression of IFN stimulated genes (ISGs)...
January 20, 2017: Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28108937/glycyrrhizin-ameliorates-experimental-colitis-through-attenuating-interleukin-17-producing-t-cell-responses-via-regulating-antigen-presenting-cells
#6
Xiangyu Chen, Dai Fang, Lingyun Li, Liyong Chen, Qirui Li, Feili Gong, Min Fang
Glycyrrhizin, a component of Chinese medicine licorice root, has the ability to inhibit the functions of high-mobility group box 1 (HMGB1). While glycyrrhizin is known to have anti-inflammatory activities, the underlying mechanisms by which glycyrrhizin inhibits inflammation during the development of trinitrobenzenesulfonic acid (TNBS)-induced experimental colitis are not well understood. This study systemically examined the regulatory effects of glycyrrhizin on inflammatory response in TNBS-induced murine colitis and explored the potential mechanisms involved in this process...
January 21, 2017: Immunologic Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28108746/myeloid-derived-suppressor-cells-can-be-efficiently-generated-from-human-hematopoietic-progenitors-and-peripheral-blood-monocytes
#7
Sílvia Casacuberta-Serra, Marta Parés, Arantxa Golbano, Elisabet Coves, Carmen Espejo, Jordi Barquinero
Myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSCs) play an important role in controlling inflammation. As such, they are both a therapeutic target and, based on the administration of ex-vivo-generated MDSCs, a therapeutic tool. However, there are relatively few reports describing methods to generate human MDSCs, and most of them rely on cells obtained from peripheral blood monocytes. We investigated alternative approaches to the generation of MDSCs from hematopoietic progenitors and monocytes. Purified CD34(+) hematopoietic progenitors from apheresis products and CD14(+) cells isolated from buffy coats were cultured in the presence of different combinations of cytokines...
January 21, 2017: Immunology and Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28108558/irf4-expression-in-thymic-epithelium-is-critical-for-thymic-regulatory-t-cell-homeostasis
#8
Uku Haljasorg, James Dooley, Martti Laan, Kai Kisand, Rudolf Bichele, Adrian Liston, Pärt Peterson
The thymus is a primary lymphoid organ required for the induction and maintenance of central tolerance. The main function of the thymus is to generate an immunocompetent set of T cells not reactive to self. During negative selection in the thymus, thymocytes with autoreactive potential are either deleted or differentiated into regulatory T cells (Tregs). The molecular basis by which the thymus allows high-efficiency Treg induction remains largely unknown. In this study, we report that IFN regulatory factor 4 (Irf4) is highly expressed in murine thymic epithelium and is required to prime thymic epithelial cells (TEC) for effective Treg induction...
January 20, 2017: Journal of Immunology: Official Journal of the American Association of Immunologists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28108299/mouse-model-of-hydroquinone-hypersensitivity-via-innate-and-acquired-immunity-and-its-promotion-by-combined-reagents
#9
Kanan Bando, Yukinori Tanaka, Toshinobu Kuroishi, Keiichi Sasaki, Teruko Takano-Yamamoto, Shunji Sugawara, Yasuo Endo
We established a mouse model of contact hypersensitivity (CHS) to hydroquinone (HQ), a widespread chemical in our environment. HQ was painted onto flanks. Then, HQ was challenged by painting onto ear-pinnas on days 7 and 14. The CHS after the 2(nd) challenge was markedly greater than that after the 1(st) challenge. Both challenges increased thymic stromal lymphopoietin (TSLP) and Th2 cytokines in ear-pinnas, while IFN-γ (typical Th1 cytokine) was decreased, despite an increase in IL-18 (typical IFN-γ inducer)...
January 17, 2017: Journal of Investigative Dermatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28108005/in-vitro-allogeneic-immune-cell-response-to-mesenchymal-stromal-cells-derived-from-human-adipose-in-patients-with-rheumatoid-arthritis
#10
P Usha Shalini, J V S Vidyasagar, Lakshmi Kumari Kona, Meenakshi Ponnana, Lakshmi Kiran Chelluri
We investigated the regulatory activity of human adipose-derived mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) (n=10) towards immune cells in a cohort of 84 rheumatoid arthritis (RA) patients, 36 apparently healthy controls. We co-cultured MSCs with lymphocyte subsets of T, B, and T regulatory cells (Tregs). Levels of the pro- and anti-inflammatory markers (tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α), interferon gamma (IFN-γ), and interleukin-10 (IL-10)) were estimated in serum and co-culture supernatants. The study revealed a two-fold increase in the proportion of Tregs and an increased level of CD4(+)CD25(+)FoxP3...
January 12, 2017: Cellular Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28107610/tonsil-derived-mesenchymal-stem-cells-t-mscs-prevent-th17-mediated-autoimmune-response-via-regulation-of-the-programmed-death-1-programmed-death-ligand-1-pd-1-pd-l1-pathway
#11
Ji-Yon Kim, Minhwa Park, Yu-Hee Kim, Kyung-Ha Ryu, Kyung Ho Lee, Kyung-Ah Cho, So-Youn Woo
Our knowledge of the immunomodulatory role of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) in both the innate and adaptive immune systems has dramatically expanded, providing great promise for treating various autoimmune diseases. However, the contribution of MSCs to Th17 dominant immune disease, such as psoriasis and its underlying mechanism remains elusive. In this study, we demonstrated that human palatine tonsil-derived MSCs (T-MSCs) constitutively express both the membrane-bound and soluble forms of programmed death-ligand 1 (PD-L1), which enables T-MSCs to be distinguished from MSCs originating from other organs (i...
January 20, 2017: Journal of Tissue Engineering and Regenerative Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28107165/interleukin-33-plasma-levels-in-patients-with-relapsing-remitting-multiple-sclerosis
#12
Fereshteh Alsahebfosoul, Ilnaz Rahimmanesh, Mansour Shajarian, Masoud Etemadifar, Nahid Sedaghat, Zahra Hejazi, Shamsi Naderi
Cytokines are implicated in the immunopathogenesis of multiple sclerosis (MS). Interleukin (IL)-33, one of the recently discovered members of the IL-1 superfamily, is a dual functional cytokine involved in various autoimmune disorders. In a case-control study, venous blood was collected from healthy subjects categorized as control group (n=44) and MS patients (n=44). All recruited patients were clinically diagnosed with relapsing-remitting MS (RRMS), including patients without treatment (new identified cases, n=16) and those treated with interferon beta (IFN-β) (n=28)...
January 20, 2017: Biomolecular Concepts
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28106876/inhibition-of-innate-immune-cytosolic-surveillance-by-an-m-tuberculosis-phosphodiesterase
#13
Ruchi Jain Dey, Bappaditya Dey, Yue Zheng, Laurene S Cheung, Jie Zhou, David Sayre, Pankaj Kumar, Haidan Guo, Gyanu Lamichhane, Herman O Sintim, William R Bishai
Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection leads to cytosolic release of the bacterial cyclic dinucleotide (CDN) c-di-AMP and a host-generated CDN, cGAMP, both of which trigger type I interferon (IFN) expression in a STING-dependent manner. Here we report that M. tuberculosis has developed a mechanism to inhibit STING activation and the type I IFN response via the bacterial phosphodiesterase (PDE) CdnP, which mediates hydrolysis of both bacterial-derived c-di-AMP and host-derived cGAMP. Mutation of cdnP attenuates M...
February 2017: Nature Chemical Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28106799/rna-editing-adar1-and-the-innate-immune-response
#14
REVIEW
Qingde Wang, Xiaoni Li, Ruofan Qi, Timothy Billiar
RNA editing, particularly A-to-I RNA editing, has been shown to play an essential role in mammalian embryonic development and tissue homeostasis, and is implicated in the pathogenesis of many diseases including skin pigmentation disorder, autoimmune and inflammatory tissue injury, neuron degeneration, and various malignancies. A-to-I RNA editing is carried out by a small group of enzymes, the adenosine deaminase acting on RNAs (ADARs). Only three members of this protein family, ADAR1-3, exist in mammalian cells...
January 18, 2017: Genes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28106531/preclinical-characterization-of-the-novel-hcv-ns3-protease-inhibitor-gs-9256
#15
Huiling Yang, Chris Yang, Yujin Wang, Gerry Rhodes, Margaret Robinson, Guofeng Cheng, Xiaoping Qi, Hongmei Mo, Yang Tian, Rowchanak Pakdaman, X Christopher Sheng, Choung U Kim, William E Delaney
BACKGROUND: GS-9256 is an inhibitor of hepatitis C virus (HCV) NS3 protease with a macrocyclic structure and novel phosphinic acid pharmacophore. METHODS: Key preclinical properties of GS-9256 including in vitro antiviral activity, cross-resistance, and pharmacokinetic properties were investigated in non-human species. RESULTS: In genotype (GT) 1b Huh-luc cells with a replicon encoding luciferase, GS-9256 had a mean EC50 value of 20.0 nM, with minimal cytotoxicity...
January 20, 2017: Antiviral Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28106145/cd1-and-cd1-porcine-blood-dendritic-cells-are-enriched-for-the-orthologues-of-the-two-major-mammalian-conventional-subsets
#16
Jane C Edwards, Helen E Everett, Miriam Pedrera, Helen Mokhtar, Emanuele Marchi, Ferran Soldevila, Daryan A Kaveh, Philip J Hogarth, Helen L Johns, Javier Nunez-Garcia, Falko Steinbach, Helen R Crooke, Simon P Graham
Conventional dendritic cells (cDC) are professional antigen-presenting cells that induce immune activation or tolerance. Two functionally specialised populations, termed cDC1 and cDC2, have been described in humans, mice, ruminants and recently in pigs. Pigs are an important biomedical model species and a key source of animal protein; therefore further understanding of their immune system will help underpin the development of disease prevention strategies. To characterise cDC populations in porcine blood, DC were enriched from PBMC by CD14 depletion and CD172a enrichment then stained with lineage mAbs (Lin; CD3, CD8α, CD14 and CD21) and mAbs specific for CD172a, CD1 and CD4...
January 20, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28106049/food-grade-tio2-impairs-intestinal-and-systemic-immune-homeostasis-initiates-preneoplastic-lesions-and-promotes-aberrant-crypt-development-in-the-rat-colon
#17
Sarah Bettini, Elisa Boutet-Robinet, Christel Cartier, Christine Coméra, Eric Gaultier, Jacques Dupuy, Nathalie Naud, Sylviane Taché, Patrick Grysan, Solenn Reguer, Nathalie Thieriet, Matthieu Réfrégiers, Dominique Thiaudière, Jean-Pierre Cravedi, Marie Carrière, Jean-Nicolas Audinot, Fabrice H Pierre, Laurence Guzylack-Piriou, Eric Houdeau
Food-grade titanium dioxide (TiO2) containing a nanoscale particle fraction (TiO2-NPs) is approved as a white pigment (E171 in Europe) in common foodstuffs, including confectionary. There are growing concerns that daily oral TiO2-NP intake is associated with an increased risk of chronic intestinal inflammation and carcinogenesis. In rats orally exposed for one week to E171 at human relevant levels, titanium was detected in the immune cells of Peyer's patches (PP) as observed with the TiO2-NP model NM-105. Dendritic cell frequency increased in PP regardless of the TiO2 treatment, while regulatory T cells involved in dampening inflammatory responses decreased with E171 only, an effect still observed after 100 days of treatment...
January 20, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28105744/multiclass-hcv-resistance-to-direct-acting-antiviral-failure-in-real-life-patients-advocates-for-tailored-second-line-therapies
#18
Velia C Di Maio, Valeria Cento, Ilaria Lenci, Marianna Aragri, Piera Rossi, Silvia Barbaliscia, Michela Melis, Gabriella Verucchi, Carlo F Magni, Elisabetta Teti, Ada Bertoli, FrancescoPaolo Antonucci, Maria C Bellocchi, Valeria Micheli, Chiara Masetti, Simona Landonio, Simona Francioso, Francesco Santopaolo, Adriano M Pellicelli, Vincenza Calvaruso, Laura Gianserra, Massimo Siciliano, Dante Romagnoli, Raffaele Cozzolongo, Antonio Grieco, Jacopo Vecchiet, Filomena Morisco, Manuela Merli, Giuseppina Brancaccio, Antonio Di Biagio, Elisabetta Loggi, Claudio M Mastroianni, Valeria Pace Palitti, Pierluigi Tarquini, Massimo Puoti, Gloria Taliani, Loredana Sarmati, Antonino Picciotto, Vincenzo Vullo, Nicola Caporaso, Maurizio Paoloni, Caterina Pasquazzi, Giuliano Rizzardini, Giustino Parruti, Antonio Craxì, Sergio Babudieri, Massimo Andreoni, Mario Angelico, Carlo F Perno, Francesca Ceccherini-Silberstein
BACKGROUND & AIMS: Despite the excellent efficacy of direct-acting antivirals (DAA) reported in clinical trials, virological failures can occur, often associated with the development of resistance-associated substitutions (RASs). This study aimed to characterize the presence of clinically relevant RASs to all classes in real-life DAA failures. METHODS: Of the 200 virological failures that were analyzed in 197 DAA-treated patients, 89 with pegylated-interferon+ribavirin (PegIFN+RBV) and 111 without (HCV-1a/1b/1g/2/3/4=58/83/1/6/24/25; 56...
January 20, 2017: Liver International: Official Journal of the International Association for the Study of the Liver
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28105653/properdin-and-factor-h-production-by-human-dendritic-cells-modulates-their-t-cell-stimulatory-capacity-and-is-regulated-by-ifn-%C3%AE
#19
Karen O Dixon, Joseph O'Flynn, Ngaisah Klar-Mohamad, Mohamed R Daha, Cees van Kooten
Dendritic cells (DCs) and complement are both key members of the innate and adaptive immune response. Recent experimental mouse models have shown that production of alternative pathway (AP) components by DCs strongly affects their ability to activate and regulate T-cell responses. In this study we investigated the production and regulation of properdin (fP) and factor H (fH) both integral regulators of the AP, by DCs and tolerogenic DCs (tolDCs). Both fP and fH were produced by DCs, with significantly higher levels of both AP components produced by tolDCs...
January 20, 2017: European Journal of Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28105340/antiproliferative-effect-of-me3738-a-derivative-of-soyasapogenol-on-hepatocellular-carcinoma-cell-lines-in-vitro-and-in-vivo
#20
Sachiko Ogasawara, Jun Akiba, Masamichi Nakayama, Hironori Kusano, Hirohisa Yano
Soyasapogenol, an aglycon of soyasaponin, ameliorates liver injury induced by concanavalin A in mice. A derivative of soyasapogenol, 22β-methoxyolean-12-ene-3β, 24(4β)-diol (ME3738), was reported to induce the gene expression of interferon (IFN)-β in hepatitis C virus replicon cells. The effect of ME3738 on hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) cell lines was investigated in the present study. A total of 11 HCC cell lines were cultured in medium containing 0-10 µM ME3738, and after 24, 48, or 72 h of culture, morphological observation and MTT cell growth assays were performed...
December 2016: Biomedical Reports
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