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PCo review

Zachary P Elkin, W Jordan Piluek, Douglas R Fredrick
PURPOSE: To evaluate the development and treatment of visual axis opacification following pediatric cataract extraction with intraocular lens placement (IOL) without primary posterior capsulotomy and anterior vitrectomy (PPC+AV). METHODS: The medical records of children who underwent cataract extraction and IOL at an academic medical center were reviewed retrospectively for development of posterior capsular opacification (PCO) to identify risk factors for development of treatment-requiring posterior capsular opacification...
October 3, 2016: Journal of AAPOS: the Official Publication of the American Association for Pediatric Ophthalmology and Strabismus
Gurkan Bozdag, Sezcan Mumusoglu, Dila Zengin, Erdem Karabulut, Bulent Okan Yildiz
STUDY QUESTION: What is the reported overall prevalence of polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) according to the criteria of the National Institutes of Health (NIH), Rotterdam or the Androgen Excess and PCOS Society (AE-PCOS Society)? SUMMARY ANSWER: The reported overall prevalence of PCOS (95% CI) according to diagnostic criteria of the NIH, Rotterdam and the AE-PCOS Society is 6% (5-8%, n = 18 trials), 10% (8-13%, n = 15 trials) and 10% (7-13%, n = 10 trials), respectively...
September 22, 2016: Human Reproduction
Margaret Bevans, Areej El-Jawahri, D Kathryn Tierney, Lori Wiener, William A Wood, Flora Hoodin, Erin E Kent, Paul B Jacobsen, Stephanie J Lee, Matt Hsieh, Ellen M Denzen, Karen L Syrjala
In 2016, the National Institutes of Health convened an expert consensus panel to address the research needs and best practices for patient-centered late effects of hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HCT). The panel used a scoping review approach to efficiently survey the large body of literature in adult and pediatric HCT survivors over 1 year after transplantation. The goals of this paper are to (1) summarize the current literature describing patient-centered outcomes in survivors, including the various dimensions of health-related quality of life affected by HCT, and describe interventions tested to improve these outcomes; (2) highlight areas with sufficient evidence allowing for integration into standard practice; (3) address methodological issues that restrict progress in this field; (4) identify major gaps to guide future research; and (5) specify priority research recommendations...
September 19, 2016: Biology of Blood and Marrow Transplantation
Joshua R Ehrlich, George L Spaeth, Noelle E Carlozzi, Paul P Lee
Low-vision rehabilitation (LVR) aims to improve the functioning of patients with chronic uncorrectable visual impairment. LVR is inherently a patient-centered intervention since its approach and goals are dictated by the needs and abilities of each individual patient. Accordingly, it is essential to have patient-centered outcome (PCO) measures to assess and compare the efficacy and effectiveness of low-vision interventions; however, there is a lack of evidence on the effectiveness of LVR interventions. We reviewed the literature in order to identify randomized controlled trials (RCTs) in the field of LVR and the outcome measures used to assess patient functioning in these trials...
August 5, 2016: Patient
Xingjun Fan, Vincent M Monnier, Jeremy Whitson
Cataract is the major cause of blindness worldwide. The WHO has estimated around 20 million people have bilateral blindness from cataract, and that number is expected to reach 50 million in 2050. The cataract surgery is currently the main treatment approach, though often associated with complications, such as Posterior Capsule Opacification (PCO)-also known as secondary cataract. The lens is an avascular ocular structure equipped with an unusually high level of glutathione (GSH), which plays a vital role in maintaining lens transparency by regulating lenticular redox state...
June 29, 2016: Experimental Eye Research
Claudia Kuhli-Hattenbach, Christian Hofmann, Yaroslava Wenner, Frank Koch, Thomas Kohnen
PURPOSE: To evaluate long-term clinical and functional outcomes after congenital cataract surgery in persistent fetal vasculature (PFV). SETTING: Department of Ophthalmology, Goethe-University, Frankfurt, Germany. DESIGN: Retrospective comparative case series. METHODS: The records of eyes with congenital cataract associated or not associated with PFV that had cataract surgery without intraocular lens (IOL) implantation within the first 18 months of life were reviewed...
May 2016: Journal of Cataract and Refractive Surgery
G C Wernecke, B G Seeto, D B Chen, S J MacDessi
PURPOSE: To measure the femoral posterior condylar cartilage (PCC) thickness and the posterior condylar offset (PCO) and determine the correlation between the 2 parameters in 530 normal subjects using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). METHODS: Records of 287 male and 243 female patients (mean age, 40.7 years) who underwent MRI for traumatic soft tissue knee injuries not involving the femoral PCC and did not have symptomatic knee arthritis were reviewed. RESULTS: The PCC thickness was comparable in the lateral and medial sides (2...
April 2016: Journal of Orthopaedic Surgery
Tariq Altokhais, Mohammad Aqil Soomro, Abdulmonem Gado, Abdulrahman Albassam
Objectives This study aims to evaluate the feasibility, safety, limitations, and outcomes of performing different surgical approaches and techniques for the bedside repair of congenital diaphragmatic hernia (CDH) in critically ill patients who cannot be transferred to the operating room. Study Design Between December 1997 and July 2013, medical charts of all neonates operated on at the bedside for CDH while on high-frequency oscillatory ventilation (HFOV) and nitric oxide were reviewed. Demographic data; contributing antenatal, perinatal, and postnatal factors; clinical presentation; associated anomalies; respiratory and hemodynamic status; operative details; complications, and outcome were analyzed...
July 2016: American Journal of Perinatology
Sang Jun Song, Dae Kyung Bae, Kang Il Kim, Ho Yeon Jeong
PURPOSE: Changes in the femoral posterior condylar offset (PCO), tibial posterior slope angle (PSA), and joint line height (JLH) after cruciate-retaining total knee arthroplasty (CR-TKA) were evaluated to determine their influence on the flexion angle. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A total of 125 CR-TKAs performed on 110 patients were retrospectively reviewed. Pre- and postoperative PCO, PSA, and JLH were compared using correlation analysis. Independent factors affecting the postoperative flexion angle of the knee were analyzed...
March 2016: Knee Surgery & related Research
Rajiv Saigal, Gregory M Mundis, Robert Eastlack, Juan S Uribe, Frank M Phillips, Behrooz A Akbarnia
STUDY DESIGN: The anterior column realignment (ACR) procedure was retrospectively reviewed. OBJECTIVE: To review surgical technique, complication avoidance, case examples, and published results on ACR. SUMMARY OF BACKGROUND DATA: For surgical correction of sagittal imbalance, three column osteotomies (3CO) have traditionally been employed for large degrees of correction at a single segment. However, 3CO procedures are technically challenging and carry high morbidity rates...
April 2016: Spine
Carmen J Allegra, R Bryan Rumble, Stanley R Hamilton, Pamela B Mangu, Nancy Roach, Alexander Hantel, Richard L Schilsky
PURPOSE: An American Society of Clinical Oncology Provisional Clinical Opinion (PCO) offers timely clinical direction after publication or presentation of potentially practice-changing data from major studies. This PCO update addresses the utility of extended RAS gene mutation testing in patients with metastatic colorectal cancer (mCRC) to detect resistance to anti-epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) monoclonal antibody (MoAb) therapy. CLINICAL CONTEXT: Recent results from phase II and III clinical trials in mCRC demonstrate that patients whose tumors harbor RAS mutations in exons 2 (codons 12 and 13), 3 (codons 59 and 61), and 4 (codons 117 and 146) are unlikely to benefit from therapy with MoAbs directed against EGFR, when used as monotherapy or combined with chemotherapy...
January 10, 2016: Journal of Clinical Oncology: Official Journal of the American Society of Clinical Oncology
Caroline Berglund, Karin Ekströmer, Jahan Abtahi
Objective. Primary chronic osteomyelitis (PCO) of the jaws in children is associated with pain, trismus, and swelling. In children, temporomandibular joint involvement is rare and few studies have been published due to the relatively low incidence. This paper presents two cases of mandibular PCO in children with the involvement of the collum mandibulae. In addition, a review of the literature regarding demographic data, histological, radiological, and laboratory findings, and treatment strategies of PCO was also performed...
2015: Case Reports in Dentistry
Magdalena Pertynska-Marczewska, Evanthia Diamanti-Kandarakis, John Zhang, Zaher Merhi
Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS), a heterogeneous syndrome of reproductive and metabolic alterations, is associated with increased long-term risk of cardiovascular complications. This phenomenon has been linked to an increase in oxidative stress and inflammatory markers. Advanced glycation end products (AGEs) are pro-inflammatory molecules that trigger a state of intracellular oxidative stress and inflammation after binding to their cell membrane receptors RAGE. The activation of the AGE-RAGE axis has been well known to play a role in atherosclerosis in both men and women...
November 2015: Metabolism: Clinical and Experimental
Elena Godoy-Gijón, Carmen Meseguer-Yebra, Lucía Palacio-Aller, Diego Vicente Godoy-Rocati, Carlos Lahoz-Rallo
The increased cardiovascular risk in some dermatological diseases has been demonstrated in recent decades. Diseases such as psoriasis and systemic lupus erythematosus are currently included in the guidelines for prevention of cardiovascular disease. Other diseases such as androgenic alopecia, polycystic ovary syndrome, hidradenitis suppurativa or lichen planus have numerous studies that point to an increased risk, however, they have not been included in these guidelines. In this article we review the evidence supporting this association, in order to alert the clinician to the need for greater control in cardiovascular risk factors in these patients...
May 2016: Clínica e Investigación en Arteriosclerosis
Victoria Holloway, Kevan Wylie
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Loss of sexual desire is increasingly recognized as a consequence of many disease processes, and one that can have a significant negative impact on quality of life. This review explores the biological and psychological aspects of desire, as well as the aetiology and therapeutic options for loss of desire. RECENT FINDINGS: Discoveries have been made in terms of the physiology of desire in men, in that it is affected by estradiol as well as testosterone...
November 2015: Current Opinion in Psychiatry
S J Churchill, E T Wang, M D Pisarska
Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is the most common endocrine disorder in women and the leading cause of anovulatory infertility. The prevalence of the syndrome ranges between 6 to 15% based on broader Rotterdam diagnostic criteria verses strict NIH diagnostic criteria.1 The condition is characterized by a combination of ovulatory dysfunction, hyperandrogenism and the presence of polycystic ovaries. PCOS has been associated with multiple metabolic alterations and consequences including impaired glucose tolerance, insulin resistance, hyperinsulinemia, type II diabetes, dyslipidemia, metabolic syndrome, obesity and subclinical cardiovascular disease...
December 2015: Minerva Ginecologica
Young-Mo Yang, Eun Joo Choi
BACKGROUND: Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is an endocrinopathy that affects approximately 10% of reproductive-aged women throughout their lives. Women with PCOS present with heterogeneous symptoms including ovulatory dysfunction, hyperandrogenism, and polycystic ovaries. Therefore, lifelong individualized management should be considered. Pharmacological agents commonly used to manage the symptoms are metformin and oral contraceptive pills. Although these medications have been beneficial in treating PCOS symptoms, their efficacy and safety are still not entirely elucidated...
2015: Therapeutics and Clinical Risk Management
Sibel Vildan Altin, Kristina Lorrek, Stephanie Stock
BACKGROUND: The evolving approach of health literate health care organizations (HLHO) receives considerable support from health policy makers. Up to now, there are no performance measures available to assess the application of health literacy strategies by health care professionals in the primary care setting. This paper describes the development and validation of the Health Literate Primary Care Practice screener (HLPC). The screener can be used as a self-assessment tool for primary care organizations (PCO) that aim to elucidate the health literacy responsiveness of their organization...
2015: BMC Family Practice
Nicole Coles, Kimberly Bremer, Sari Kives, Xiuyan Zhao, Jill Hamilton
STUDY OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to examine the prevalence of and risk factors for abnormal glucose metabolism in a large population of adolescents with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS). DESIGN, SETTING, PARTICIPANTS, INTERVENTIONS, AND MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: A retrospective chart review was performed of 360 patients who presented to the pediatric gynecology outpatient clinic for evaluation of PCOS between January 2004 and May 2012. RESULTS: A total of 163 patients fulfilled criteria for a diagnosis of PCOS and had adequate clinical and laboratory data...
February 2016: Journal of Pediatric and Adolescent Gynecology
P Tsikouras, L Spyros, B Manav, S Zervoudis, C Poiana, T Nikolaos, P Petros, M Dimitraki, C Koukouli, G Galazios, G F von Tempelhoff
RATIONALE: To elucidate the prepubertal risk factors associated with the development of Polycystic Ovary Syndrome (PCOS) and determine the special clinical manifestations of the syndrome in this transitional time of a woman's life. OBJECTIVE: To propose therapeutic targets and regimens, not only to prevent the long-term complications of the syndrome, but also to improve the self-esteem of a young girl who matures into womanhood. METHODS AND RESULTS: A systematic review of literature was performed through electronic database searches (Pubmed, Medline and Embase)...
July 2015: Journal of Medicine and Life
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