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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29757673/rapamycin-insensitive-mechanistic-target-of-rapamycin-regulates-basal-and-resistance-exercise-induced-muscle-protein-synthesis
#1
Riki Ogasawara, Takeshi Suginohara
We investigated whether rapamycin-insensitive mechanistic target of rapamycin (mTOR) signaling plays a role in regulating resistance exercise-induced muscle protein synthesis. We used a rodent model of resistance exercise and compared the effect of rapamycin, an allosteric mTOR inhibitor, with the effect of AZD8055, an ATP-competitive mTOR kinase inhibitor. The right gastrocnemius muscle of male Sprague-Dawley rats age 11 wk was contracted isometrically via percutaneous electrical stimulation (100 Hz, 5 sets of ten 3-s contractions, 7 s of rest between contractions, 3 min of rest between sets), and the left gastrocnemius muscle served as control...
May 14, 2018: FASEB Journal: Official Publication of the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29719225/a-potent-and-specific-cd38-inhibitor-ameliorates-age-related-metabolic-dysfunction-by-reversing-tissue-nad-decline
#2
Mariana G Tarragó, Claudia C S Chini, Karina S Kanamori, Gina M Warner, Ariel Caride, Guilherme C de Oliveira, Micaela Rud, Adrienne Samani, Kyaw Z Hein, Runqing Huang, Diana Jurk, Dong Seong Cho, James J Boslett, Jordan D Miller, Jay L Zweier, João F Passos, Jason D Doles, David J Becherer, Eduardo N Chini
Aging is characterized by the development of metabolic dysfunction and frailty. Recent studies show that a reduction in nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD+ ) is a key factor for the development of age-associated metabolic decline. We recently demonstrated that the NADase CD38 has a central role in age-related NAD+ decline. Here we show that a highly potent and specific thiazoloquin(az)olin(on)e CD38 inhibitor, 78c, reverses age-related NAD+ decline and improves several physiological and metabolic parameters of aging, including glucose tolerance, muscle function, exercise capacity, and cardiac function in mouse models of natural and accelerated aging...
May 1, 2018: Cell Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29695812/skeletal-muscle-phosphatidylcholine-and-phosphatidylethanolamine-respond-to-exercise-and-influence-insulin-sensitivity-in-men
#3
Sindre Lee, Frode Norheim, Hanne L Gulseth, Torgrim M Langleite, Andreas Aker, Thomas E Gundersen, Torgeir Holen, Kåre I Birkeland, Christian A Drevon
Phosphatidylcholine (PC) and phosphatidylethanolamine (PE) composition in skeletal muscle have been linked to insulin sensitivity. We evaluated the relationships between skeletal muscle PC:PE, physical exercise and insulin sensitivity. We performed lipidomics and measured PC and PE in m. vastus lateralis biopsies obtained from 13 normoglycemic normal weight men and 13 dysglycemic overweight men at rest, immediately after 45 min of cycling at 70% maximum oxygen uptake, and 2 h post-exercise, before as well as after 12 weeks of combined endurance- and strength-exercise intervention...
April 25, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29626392/exercise-and-exercise-training-induced-increase-in-autophagy-markers-in-human-skeletal-muscle
#4
Nina Brandt, Thomas P Gunnarsson, Jens Bangsbo, Henriette Pilegaard
Moderately trained male subjects (mean age 25 years; range 19-33 years) completed an 8-week exercise training intervention consisting of continuous moderate cycling at 157 ± 20 W for 60 min (MOD; n = 6) or continuous moderate cycling (157 ± 20 W) interspersed by 30-sec sprints (473 ± 79 W) every 10 min (SPRINT; n = 6) 3 days per week. Sprints were followed by 3:24 min at 102 ± 17 W to match the total work between protocols. A muscle biopsy was obtained before, immediately and 2 h after the first training session as well as at rest after the training session...
April 2018: Physiological Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29512299/translocation-and-protein-complex-co-localization-of-mtor-is-associated-with-postprandial-myofibrillar-protein-synthesis-at-rest-and-after-endurance-exercise
#5
Sidney Abou Sawan, Stephan van Vliet, Justin T Parel, Joseph W Beals, Michael Mazzulla, Daniel W D West, Andrew Philp, Zhong Li, Scott A Paluska, Nicholas A Burd, Daniel R Moore
Translocation and colocalization of mechanistic target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1) with regulatory proteins represents a critical step in translation initiation of protein synthesis in vitro. However, mechanistic insight into the control of postprandial skeletal muscle protein synthesis rates at rest and after an acute bout of endurance exercise in humans is lacking. In crossover trials, eight endurance-trained men received primed-continuous infusions of L-[ring-2 H5 ]phenylalanine and consumed a mixed-macronutrient meal (18 g protein, 60 g carbohydrates, 17 g fat) at rest (REST) and after 60 min of treadmill running at 70% VO2peak (EX)...
March 2018: Physiological Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29472733/androgen-interacts-with-exercise-through-the-mtor-pathway-to-induce-skeletal-muscle-hypertrophy
#6
Fanxing Zeng, Hua Zhao, Jingwen Liao
This study was designed to investigate the effects of exogenous androgen and resistance exercise on skeletal muscle hypertrophy and the role of the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) signalling during the process. A total of 24 male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly assigned to sham operation and dihydrotestosterone (DHT) implantation groups with subgroups subjected to sedentary conditions or resistance exercise (SHAM+SED, SHAM+EX, DHT+SED, and DHT+EX). The experimental procedure lasted for 10 days. The mRNA expression of androgen receptor (AR) and insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I), the expression of myosin heavy chain (MHC), as well as the phosphorylation statuses of AR, mTOR, p70 ribosomal S6 kinase (p70S6K ), and eukaryotic translation initiation factor 4E-binding protein 1 (4EBP1) were determined in the white gastrocnemius muscle...
December 2017: Biology of Sport
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29446045/effects-of-extracellular-orotic-acid-on-acute-contraction-induced-adaptation-patterns-in-c2c12-cells
#7
Thomas Beiter, Jens Hudemann, Christof Burgstahler, Andreas M Nieß, Barbara Munz
Dietary administration of orotic acid (OA), an intermediate in the pyrimidine biosynthetic pathway, is considered to provide a wide range of beneficial effects, including cardioprotection and exercise adaptation. Its mechanisms of action, when applied extracellularly, however, are barely understood. In this study, we evaluated potential effects of OA on skeletal muscle using an in vitro contraction model of electrically pulse-stimulated (EPS) C2C12 myotubes. By analyzing a subset of genes representing inflammatory, metabolic, and structural adaptation pathways, we could show that OA supplementation diminishes the EPS-provoked expression of inflammatory transcripts (interleukin 6, Il6; chemokine (C-X-C Motif) ligand 5, Cxcl5), and attenuated transcript levels of nuclear receptor subfamily 4 group A member 3 (Nr4A3), early growth response 1 (Egr1), activating transcription factor 3 (Atf3), and fast-oxidative MyHC-IIA isoform (Myh2)...
February 14, 2018: Molecular and Cellular Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29396411/clinorotation-induced-autophagy-via-hdm2-p53-mtor-pathway-enhances-cell-migration-in-vascular-endothelial-cells
#8
Cheng-Fei Li, Jia-Xing Sun, Yuan Gao, Fei Shi, Yi-Kai Pan, Yong-Chun Wang, Xi-Qing Sun
Individuals exposed to long-term spaceflight often experience cardiovascular dysfunctions characterized by orthostatic intolerance, disability on physical exercise, and even frank syncope. Recent studies have showed that the alterations of cardiovascular system are closely related to the functional changes of endothelial cells. We have shown previously that autophagy can be induced by simulated microgravity in human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs). However, the mechanism of enhanced autophagy induced by simulated microgravity and its role in the regulation of endothelial function still remain unclear...
February 2, 2018: Cell Death & Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29389245/the-effect-of-dietary-arachidonic-acid-supplementation-on-acute-muscle-adaptive-responses-to-resistance-exercise-in-trained-men-a-randomized-controlled-trial
#9
Cameron J Mitchell, Randall F D'Souza, Vandre Casagrande Figueiredo, Alex Chan, Kirsten M Aasen, Brenan Durainayagam, Sarah M Mitchell, Andrew J Sinclair, Ingrid Marie Egner, Truls Raastad, David Cameron-Smith, James F Markworth
Arachidonic acid (ARA), a polyunsaturated ω-6 fatty acid, acts as precursor to a number of prostaglandins with potential roles in muscle anabolism. It was hypothesized that ARA supplementation might enhance the early anabolic response to resistance exercise (RE) by increasing muscle protein synthesis (MPS) via mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) pathway activation, and/or the late anabolic response by modulating ribosome biogenesis and satellite cell expansion. Nineteen men with {greater than or equal to}1 year of resistance training experience were randomized to consume either 1...
February 1, 2018: Journal of Applied Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29357482/prior-acetaminophen-consumption-impacts-the-early-adaptive-cellular-response-of-human-skeletal-muscle-to-resistance-exercise
#10
Andrew C D'Lugos, Shivam H Patel, Jordan C Ormsby, Donald P Curtis, Christopher S Fry, Chad C Carroll, Jared M Dickinson
Resistance exercise (RE) is a powerful stimulus for skeletal muscle adaptation. Previous data demonstrate cyclooxygenase (COX)-inhibiting drugs alter the cellular mechanisms regulating the adaptive response of skeletal muscle. The purpose of this study was to determine if prior consumption of the COX-inhibitor acetaminophen (APAP) alters the immediate adaptive cellular response in human skeletal muscle following RE. In a double-blinded, randomized, crossover design, healthy young men (n=8, 25{plus minus}1 yr) performed two trials of unilateral knee extension RE (8 sets, 10 reps, 65% max strength)...
January 11, 2018: Journal of Applied Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29345570/the-role-of-ampk-mtor-modulators-in-therapy-of-acute-myeloid-leukemia
#11
Dora Visnjic, Vilma Dembitz, Hrvoje Lalic
Differentiation therapy of acute promyelocytic leukemia with all-trans retinoic acid represents the most successful pharmacological therapy of acute myeloid leukemia (AML). Numerous studies demonstrate that drugs that inhibit mechanistic target of rapamycin (mTOR) and activate AMP-kinase (AMPK) have beneficial effects in promoting differentiation and blocking proliferation of AML. Most of these drugs are already in use for other purposes; rapalogs as immunosuppressants, biguanides as oral antidiabetics, and 5-amino-4-imidazolecarboxamide ribonucleoside (AICAr, acadesine) as an exercise mimetic...
January 16, 2018: Current Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29320511/application-of-a-phenotypic-drug-discovery-strategy-to-identify-biological-and-chemical-starting-points-for-inhibition-of-tslp-production-in-lung-epithelial-cells
#12
Adelina Orellana, Vicente García-González, Rosa López, Sonia Pascual-Guiral, Estrella Lozoya, Julia Díaz, Daniel Casals, Antolín Barrena, Stephane Paris, Miriam Andrés, Victor Segarra, Dolors Vilella, Rajneesh Malhotra, Paul Eastwood, Anna Planagumà, Montserrat Miralpeix, Arsenio Nueda
Thymic stromal lymphopoietin (TSLP) is a cytokine released by human lung epithelium in response to external insult. Considered as a master switch in T helper 2 lymphocyte (Th2) mediated responses, TSLP is believed to play a key role in allergic diseases including asthma. The aim of this study was to use a phenotypic approach to identify new biological and chemical starting points for inhibition of TSLP production in human bronchial epithelial cells (NHBE), with the objective of reducing Th2-mediated airway inflammation...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29234703/lean-and-obese-zucker-rat-extensor-digitorum-longus-muscle-high-frequency-electrical-stimulation-hfes-data-regulation-of-p70s6kinase-associated-proteins
#13
Kevin M Rice, Anjaiah Katta, Nandini D P K Manne, Ravikumar Arvapalli, Gautam K Ginjupalli, Miaozong Wu, Shinichi Asano, Eric R Blough
Anaerobic exercise has been advocated as a prescribed treatment for the management of diabetes: however, alterations in exercise-induced signaling remain largely unexplored in the diabetic muscle. Here, we compare the basal and the in situ contraction-induced phosphorylation of the AKT, GSK3beta, mTor, p70s6K, Pten, and Shp2 in the lean and obese (fa/fa) Zucker rat Extensor Digitorum Longus (EDL) muscle following a single bout of contractile stimuli. This article represents data associated with prior publications from our lab (Katta et al...
February 2018: Data in Brief
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29231614/-effects-of-preventative-moxibustion-on-ampk-and-mtor-in-myocardial-tissue-in-rats-with-exhaustive-exercise
#14
Haoran Zhang, Hongru Zhang, Shengfeng Lu, Hua Bai, Yihuang Gu
OBJECTIVE: To observe the effects of preventative moxibustion on adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase (AMPK) and mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) in myocardial tissue in rats with exhaustive exercise, and to explore the action mechanism of preventative moxibustion for myocardial injury by exhaustive exercise. METHODS: Eighteen SD male rats were randomly divided into a blank group, an exhaustive exercise group and a moxibustion group, 6 rats in each one...
May 12, 2017: Zhongguo Zhen Jiu, Chinese Acupuncture & Moxibustion
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29214461/co-ingestion-of-protein-or-a-protein-hydrolysate-with-carbohydrate-enhances-anabolic-signaling-but-not-glycogen-resynthesis-following-recovery-from-prolonged-aerobic-exercise-in-trained-cyclists
#15
Karl E Cogan, Mark Evans, Enzo Iuliano, Audrey Melvin, Davide Susta, Karl Neff, Giuseppe De Vito, Brendan Egan
PURPOSE: The effect of carbohydrate (CHO), or CHO supplemented with either sodium caseinate protein (CHO-C) or a sodium caseinate protein hydrolysate (CHO-H) on the recovery of skeletal muscle glycogen and anabolic signaling following prolonged aerobic exercise was determined in trained male cyclists [n = 11, mean ± SEM age 28.8 ± 2.3 years; body mass (BM) 75.0 ± 2.3 kg; VO2peak 61.3 ± 1.6 ml kg-1  min-1 ]. METHODS: On three separate occasions, participants cycled for 2 h at ~ 70% VO2peak followed by a 4-h recovery period...
February 2018: European Journal of Applied Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29204469/high-frequency-electrical-stimulation-hfes-data-lean-and-obese-zucker-rat-soleus-muscle-regulation-of-p70s6kinase-associated-proteins
#16
Kevin M Rice, Anjaiah Katta, Nandini D P K Manne, Ravikumar Arvapalli, Gautam K Ginjupalli, Miaozong Wu, Shinichi Asano, Eric R Blough
Anaerobic exercise has been advocated as a prescribed treatment for the management of diabetes: however, alterations in exercise-induced signaling remain largely unexplored in the diabetic muscle. Here, we compare the basal and the in situ contraction-induced phosphorylation of the AKT, GSK3beta, mTor, p70s6K, Pten, and Shp2 proteins in the lean and obese (fa/fa) Zucker rat soleus muscle following a single bout of contractile stimuli. This article represents data associated with prior publications from our lab (Katta et al...
February 2018: Data in Brief
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29180484/repeated-bouts-of-resistance-exercise-with-short-recovery-periods-activates-mtor-signaling-but-not-protein-synthesis-in-mouse-skeletal-muscle
#17
Junya Takegaki, Riki Ogasawara, Yuki Tamura, Ryo Takagi, Yuki Arihara, Arata Tsutaki, Koichi Nakazato, Naokata Ishii
The recovery period between bouts of exercise is one of the major factors influencing the effects of resistance exercise, in addition to exercise intensity and volume. However, the effects of shortening the recovery time between bouts of resistance exercise on subsequent protein synthesis remain unclear. In this study, we investigated the consequences of shortening the recovery time between bouts of resistance exercise on protein synthesis and related processes in mouse skeletal muscles. Eighteen male C57BL/6J mice were randomly subjected to three bouts of resistance exercise with 72 (72H), 24 (24H), or 8 h (8H) of recovery periods between bouts...
November 2017: Physiological Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29143998/oxytocin-mediates-the-beneficial-effects-of-the-exercise-training-on-breast-cancer
#18
Ali Mohammad Alizadeh, Zahra Heydari, Mostafa Rahimi, Behzad Bazgir, Hossein Shirvani, Sadaf Alipour, Yassaman Heidarian, Solmaz Khalighfard, Amin Isanejad
What is the central question of this study? We hypothesized that potential anti-tumour effects of exercise training might be mediated by oxytocin and explored the underlying mechanisms in a mouse model of breast cancer. What is the main finding and its importance? Interval exercise training, by inducing oxytocin secretion, may reduce the activity of the PI3K/Akt and ERK pathways, and consequently, results in a smaller tumour volume in a mouse model of breast cancer. Exercise training can affect the growth of breast tumours...
February 1, 2018: Experimental Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29117557/the-role-of-eif6-in-skeletal-muscle-homeostasis-revealed-by-endurance-training-co-expression-networks
#19
Kim Clarke, Sara Ricciardi, Tim Pearson, Izwan Bharudin, Peter K Davidsen, Michela Bonomo, Daniela Brina, Alessandra Scagliola, Deborah M Simpson, Robert J Beynon, Farhat Khanim, John Ankers, Mark A Sarzynski, Sujoy Ghosh, Addolorata Pisconti, Jan Rozman, Martin Hrabe de Angelis, Chris Bunce, Claire Stewart, Stuart Egginton, Mark Caddick, Malcolm Jackson, Claude Bouchard, Stefano Biffo, Francesco Falciani
Regular endurance training improves muscle oxidative capacity and reduces the risk of age-related disorders. Understanding the molecular networks underlying this phenomenon is crucial. Here, by exploiting the power of computational modeling, we show that endurance training induces profound changes in gene regulatory networks linking signaling and selective control of translation to energy metabolism and tissue remodeling. We discovered that knockdown of the mTOR-independent factor Eif6, which we predicted to be a key regulator of this process, affects mitochondrial respiration efficiency, ROS production, and exercise performance...
November 7, 2017: Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29110174/murine-myoblast-migration-influence-of-replicative-ageing-and-nutrition
#20
Alexander D Brown, Graeme L Close, Adam P Sharples, Claire E Stewart
Cell migration is central to skeletal muscle repair following damage. Leucine and β-Hydroxy β-methylbutyric acid (HMB) are supplements consumed for recovery from muscle damaging exercise in humans, however, their impact on muscle cell migration with age is not yet understood. We hypothesised that replicatively aged ("aged"; P46-P48) myoblasts would be less efficient at basal and supplemented repair versus parental controls ("control"; P12-P16). Aged and control myoblasts were scratch-damaged and migration velocity, directionality and distance assessed over 48 h in the absence and presence of leucine (10 mM) or HMB (10 mM) ± PI3K/Akt (LY294002 10 μM), ERK (PD98059 5 μM) or mTOR (rapamycin 0...
December 2017: Biogerontology
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