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MTor and exercise

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28213823/long-term-resistance-exercise-induced-muscular-hypertrophy-is-associated-with-autophagy-modulation-in-rats
#1
Insu Kwon, Yongchul Jang, Joon-Yong Cho, Young C Jang, Youngil Lee
Elevation of anabolism and concurrent suppression of catabolism are critical metabolic adaptations for muscular hypertrophy in response to resistance exercise (RE). Here, we investigated if RE-induced muscular hypertrophy is acquired by modulating a critical catabolic process autophagy. Male Wistar Hannover rats (14 weeks old) were randomly assigned to either sedentary control (SC, n = 10) or resistance exercise (RE, n = 10). RE elicited significant hypertrophy of flexor digitorum profundus (FDP) muscles in parallel with enhancement in anabolic signaling pathways (phosphorylation of AKT, mTOR, and p70S6K)...
February 17, 2017: Journal of Physiological Sciences: JPS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28184235/phosphatidic-acid-biosynthesis-pharmacokinetics-mechanisms-of-action-and-effect-on-strength-and-body-composition-in-resistance-trained-individuals
#2
REVIEW
Peter Bond
The mechanistic target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1) has received much attention in the field of exercise physiology as a master regulator of skeletal muscle hypertrophy. The multiprotein complex is regulated by various signals such as growth factors, energy status, amino acids and mechanical stimuli. Importantly, the glycerophospholipid phosphatidic acid (PA) appears to play an important role in mTORC1 activation by mechanical stimulation. PA has been shown to modulate mTOR activity by direct binding to its FKBP12-rapamycin binding domain...
2017: Nutrition & Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28130174/exercise-increases-mtor-signaling-in-brain-regions-involved-in-cognition-and-emotional-behavior
#3
Brian A Lloyd, Holly S Hake, Takayuki Ishiwata, Caroline E Farmer, Esteban C Loetz, Monika Fleshner, Sondra T Bland, Benjamin N Greenwood
Exercise can enhance learning and memory and produce resistance against stress-related psychiatric disorders such as depression and anxiety. In rats, these beneficial effects of exercise occur regardless of exercise controllability: both voluntary and forced wheel running produce stress-protective effects. The mechanisms underlying these beneficial effects of exercise remain unknown. The mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) is a translation regulator important for cell growth, proliferation, and survival. mTOR has been implicated in enhancing learning and memory as well as antidepressant effects...
January 24, 2017: Behavioural Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28108329/exercise-increases-mitochondrial-complex-i-activity-and-drp1-expression-in-the-brains-of-aged-mice
#4
Aaron M Gusdon, Jason Callio, Giovanna Distefano, Robert M O'Doherty, Bret H Goodpaster, Paul M Coen, Charleen T Chu
Exercise is known to have numerous beneficial effects. Recent studies indicate that exercise improves mitochondrial energetics not only in skeletal muscle but also in other tissues. While exercise elicits positive effects on memory, neurogenesis, and synaptic plasticity, the effects of exercise on brain mitochondrial energetics remain relatively unknown. Herein, we studied the effects of exercise training in old and young mice on brain mitochondrial energetics, in comparison to known effects on peripheral tissues that utilize fatty acid oxidation...
January 18, 2017: Experimental Gerontology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28078614/resistance-exercise-reduces-seizure-occurrence-attenuates-memory-deficits-and-restores-bdnf-signaling-in-rats-with-chronic-epilepsy
#5
Alexandre Aparecido de Almeida, Sérgio Gomes da Silva, Glauber Menezes Lopim, Diego Vannucci Campos, Jansen Fernandes, Francisco Romero Cabral, Ricardo Mario Arida
Epilepsy is a disease characterized by recurrent, unprovoked seizures. Cognitive impairment is an important comorbidity of chronic epilepsy. Human and animal model studies of epilepsy have shown that aerobic exercise induces beneficial structural and functional changes and reduces the number of seizures. However, little is yet understood about the effects of resistance exercise on epilepsy. We evaluated the effects of a resistance exercise program on the number of seizures, long-term memory and expression/activation of signaling proteins in rats with epilepsy...
January 11, 2017: Neurochemical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27982685/responses-of-skeletal-muscle-hypertrophy-in-wistar-rats-to-different-resistance-exercise-models
#6
T F Luciano, S de Oliveira Marques, B L da Silva Pieri, D Roxo de Souza, L V Araújo, R T Nesi, D da Luz Scheffer, V H Comin, R A Pinho, A P Muller, C T de Souza
This study aimed to compare the effects of three different resistance exercise models on the quadriceps muscle cross-sectional area, as well as on mTOR phosphorylation and other pivotal molecules involved in the upstream regulation of mTOR. Twenty-four male Wistar rats were divided into untrained (control), endurance resistance training, strength resistance training, and hypertrophy resistance training (HRT) groups (n = 6). After 12 weeks of training, the red portion of the quadriceps was removed for histological and western blot analyses...
December 16, 2016: Physiological Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27938033/long-term-leucine-supplementation-improves-metabolic-but-not-molecular-responses-in-the-skeletal-muscle-of-trained-rats-submitted-to-exhaustive-exercise
#7
Gustavo Barbosa Dos Santos, André Gustavo de Oliveira, Maria Cristina Cintra Gomes Marcondes, Miguel Arcanjo Areas
AIM: Although there is some evidence of an ergogenic effect of leucine supplementation on acute response to exercise, there is a paucity of information on whether long-term leucine supplementation influences the adaptive response to chronic endurance training and performance. The main aim of our study was to assess the role of long-term leucine supplementation on molecular and metabolic response in skeletal muscle of trained rats after an exhaustion test. METHODS: Twenty-four male Wistar rats were randomly allocated into 4 groups...
February 2017: Journal of the American College of Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27897419/exercise-restores-muscle-stem-cell-mobilization-regenerative-capacity-and-muscle-metabolic-alterations-via-adiponectin-adipor1-activation-in-samp10-mice
#8
Aiko Inoue, Xian Wu Cheng, Zhe Huang, Lina Hu, Ryosuke Kikuchi, Haiying Jiang, Limei Piao, Takeshi Sasaki, Kohji Itakura, Hongxian Wu, Guangxian Zhao, Yanna Lei, Guang Yang, Enbo Zhu, Xiang Li, Kohji Sato, Teruhiko Koike, Masafumi Kuzuya
BACKGROUND: Exercise train (ET) stimulates muscle response in pathological conditions, including aging. The molecular mechanisms by which exercise improves impaired adiponectin/adiponectin receptor 1 (AdipoR1)-related muscle actions associated with aging are poorly understood. Here we observed that in a senescence-accelerated mouse prone 10 (SAMP10) model, long-term ET modulated muscle-regenerative actions. METHODS: 25-week-old male SAMP10 mice were randomly assigned to the control and the ET (45 min/time, 3/week) groups for 4 months...
November 29, 2016: Journal of Cachexia, Sarcopenia and Muscle
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27833825/epidemiology-pathogenesis-and-diagnosis-of-lymphangioleiomyomatosis
#9
Angelo M Taveira-DaSilva, Joel Moss
INTRODUCTION: Lymphangioleiomyomatosis (LAM) is a disease of women characterized by cystic lung destruction, lymphatic involvement, and renal angiomyolipomas. AREAS COVERED: LAM is caused by proliferation of abnormal smooth muscle-like LAM cells containing mutations and perhaps epigenetic modifications of the TSC1 or TSC2 genes, which encode, respectively, hamartin and tuberin, two proteins controlling the mechanistic target of rapamycin (mTOR) signaling pathway...
2016: Expert Opinion on Orphan Drugs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27756573/the-cochaperone-bag3-coordinates-protein-synthesis-and-autophagy-under-mechanical-strain-through-spatial-regulation-of-mtorc1
#10
Barbara Kathage, Sebastian Gehlert, Anna Ulbricht, Laura Lüdecke, Victor E Tapia, Zacharias Orfanos, Daniela Wenzel, Wilhelm Bloch, Rudolf Volkmer, Bernd K Fleischmann, Dieter O Fürst, Jörg Höhfeld
The cochaperone BAG3 is a central protein homeostasis factor in mechanically strained mammalian cells. It mediates the degradation of unfolded and damaged forms of the actin-crosslinker filamin through chaperone-assisted selective autophagy (CASA). In addition, BAG3 stimulates filamin transcription in order to compensate autophagic disposal and to maintain the actin cytoskeleton under strain. Here we demonstrate that BAG3 coordinates protein synthesis and autophagy through spatial regulation of the mammalian target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1)...
January 2017: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27539498/combined-effects-of-resistance-training-and-calorie-restriction-on-mitochondrial-fusion-and-fission-proteins-in-rat-skeletal-muscle
#11
Yu Kitaoka, Koichi Nakazato, Riki Ogasawara
Recent studies demonstrated that resistance exercise not only leads to muscle hypertrophy, but also improves mitochondrial function. Since it has been suggested that calorie restriction (CR) induces mitochondrial biogenesis, we examined the effects of resistance training with or without CR on muscle weight and key mitochondrial parameters in rat skeletal muscle. Four weeks of resistance training (thrice/week) increased gastrocnemius muscle weight in ad libitum-fed (AL) rats by 14%. The degree of muscle-weight increase by resistance training was lower in CR rats (7...
August 18, 2016: Journal of Applied Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27508151/exercise-and-dietary-change-ameliorate-high-fat-diet-induced-obesity-and-insulin-resistance-via-mtor-signaling-pathway
#12
Ju Yong Bae, Ki Ok Shin, Jinhee Woo, Sang Heon Woo, Ki Soeng Jang, Yul Hyo Lee, Sunghwun Kang
PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of exercise and dietary change on obesity and insulin resistance and mTOR signaling protein levels in skeletal muscles of obese rats. METHODS: Sixty male Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into CO (Normal diet) and HF (High Fat diet) groups in order to induce obesity for 15 weeks. The rats were then subdivided into CO, COT (CO + Training), HF, HFT (HF + Training), HFND (Dietary change), and HFNDT (HFND + Training) groups (10 rats / group)...
June 2016: Journal of Exercise Nutrition & Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27504012/fndc5-alleviates-hepatosteatosis-by-restoring-ampk-mtor-mediated-autophagy-fatty-acid-oxidation-and-lipogenesis-in-mice
#13
Tong-Yan Liu, Xiao-Qing Xiong, Xing-Sheng Ren, Ming-Xia Zhao, Chang-Xiang Shi, Jue-Jin Wang, Ye-Bo Zhou, Feng Zhang, Ying Han, Xing-Ya Gao, Qi Chen, Yue-Hua Li, Yu-Ming Kang, Guo-Qing Zhu
Fibronectin type III domain-containing 5 (FNDC5) protein induces browning of subcutaneous fat and mediates the beneficial effects of exercise on metabolism. However, whether FNDC5 is associated with hepatic steatosis, autophagy, fatty acid oxidation (FAO), and lipogenesis remains unknown. Herein, we show the roles and mechanisms of FNDC5 in hepatic steatosis, autophagy, and lipid metabolism. Fasted FNDC5(-/-) mice exhibited severe steatosis, reduced autophagy, and FAO, and enhanced lipogenesis in the liver compared with wild-type mice...
November 2016: Diabetes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27502839/the-role-of-mtor-signalling-in-the-regulation-of-skeletal-muscle-mass-in-a-rodent-model-of-resistance-exercise
#14
Riki Ogasawara, Satoshi Fujita, Troy A Hornberger, Yu Kitaoka, Yuhei Makanae, Koichi Nakazato, Ishii Naokata
Resistance exercise (RE) activates signalling by the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR), and it has been suggested that rapamycin-sensitive mTOR signalling controls RE-induced changes in protein synthesis, ribosome biogenesis, autophagy, and the expression of peroxisome proliferator gamma coactivator 1 alpha (PGC-1α). However, direct evidence to support the aforementioned relationships is lacking. Therefore, in this study, we investigated the role of rapamycin-sensitive mTOR in the RE-induced activation of muscle protein synthesis, ribosome biogenesis, PGC-1α expression and hypertrophy...
2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27488660/increased-hypertrophic-response-with-increased-mechanical-load-in-skeletal-muscles-receiving-identical-activity-patterns
#15
Einar Eftestøl, Ingrid M Egner, Ida G Lunde, Stian Ellefsen, Tom Andersen, Cecilie Sjåland, Kristian Gundersen, Jo C Bruusgaard
It is often assumed that mechanical factors are important for effects of exercise on muscle, but during voluntary training and most experimental conditions the effects could solely be attributed to differences in electrical activity, and direct evidence for a mechanosensory pathway has been scarce. We here show that, in rat muscles stimulated in vivo under deep anesthesia with identical electrical activity patterns, isometric contractions induced twofold more hypertrophy than contractions with 50-60% of the isometric force...
October 1, 2016: American Journal of Physiology. Cell Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27430023/cited4-induces-physiologic-hypertrophy-and-promotes-functional-recovery-after-ischemic-injury
#16
Vassilios J Bezzerides, Colin Platt, Carolin Lerchenmüller, Kaavya Paruchuri, Nul Loren Oh, Chunyang Xiao, Yunshan Cao, Nina Mann, Bruce M Spiegelman, Anthony Rosenzweig
The mechanisms by which exercise mediates its multiple cardiac benefits are only partly understood. Prior comprehensive analyses of the cardiac transcriptional components and microRNAs dynamically regulated by exercise suggest that the CBP/p300-interacting protein CITED4 is a downstream effector in both networks. While CITED4 has documented functional consequences in neonatal cardiomyocytes in vitro, nothing is known about its effects in the adult heart. To investigate the impact of cardiac CITED4 expression in adult animals, we generated transgenic mice with regulated, cardiomyocyte-specific CITED4 expression...
June 16, 2016: JCI Insight
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27411383/increased-skeletal-muscle-glut4-expression-in-obese-mice-after-voluntary-wheel-running-exercise-is-posttranscriptional
#17
Jami M Gurley, Beth A Griesel, Ann Louise Olson
Exercise promotes glucose clearance by increasing skeletal muscle GLUT4-mediated glucose uptake. Importantly, exercise upregulates muscle GLUT4 expression in an insulin-independent manner under conditions of insulin resistance, such as with type 2 diabetes. However, the insulin-independent mechanism responsible for rescued muscle GLUT4 expression is poorly understood. We used voluntary wheel running (VWR) in mice to test the prevailing hypothesis that insulin-independent upregulation of skeletal muscle GLUT4 protein expression with exercise is through increased Glut4 transcription...
October 2016: Diabetes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27333407/the-effects-of-fortetropin-supplementation-on-body-composition-strength-and-power-in-humans-and-mechanism-of-action-in-a-rodent-model
#18
Matthew H Sharp, Ryan P Lowery, C Brooks Mobley, Carlton D Fox, Eduardo O de Souza, Kevin A Shields, James C Healy, Ned Q Arick, Richard M Thompson, Michael D Roberts, Jacob M Wilson
OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of Fortetropin on skeletal muscle growth and strength in resistance-trained individuals and to investigate the anabolic and catabolic signaling effects using human and rodent models. METHODS: In the rodent model, male Wistar rats (250 g) were gavage fed with either 1.2 ml of tap water control (CTL) or 0.26 g Fortetropin for 8 days. Then rats participated in a unilateral plantarflexion exercise bout...
November 2016: Journal of the American College of Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27331824/l-leucine-increases-skeletal-muscle-igf-1-but-does-not-differentially-increase-akt-mtorc1-signaling-and-serum-igf-1-compared-to-ursolic-acid-in-response-to-resistance-exercise-in-resistance-trained-men
#19
David D Church, Neil A Schwarz, Mike B Spillane, Sarah K McKinley-Barnard, Tom L Andre, Alejandro J Ramirez, Darryn S Willoughby
OBJECTIVE: Ursolic acid administration following resistance exercise increases mammalian target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1) activity and skeletal muscle IGF-1 concentration in murines in a manner similar to l-leucine yet remains unexamined in humans. This study examined serum and skeletal muscle insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) and Akt/mTORC1 signaling activity following ingestion of either ursolic acid or l-leucine immediately after resistance exercise. METHODS: Nine resistance-trained men performed 3 lower-body resistance exercise sessions involving 4 sets of 8-10 repetitions at 75%-80% one repetition maximum (1-RM) on the angled leg press and knee extension exercises...
June 22, 2016: Journal of the American College of Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27274715/the-effects-of-phosphatidic-acid-supplementation-on-strength-body-composition-muscular-endurance-power-agility-and-vertical-jump-in-resistance-trained-men
#20
Guillermo Escalante, Michelle Alencar, Bryan Haddock, Phillip Harvey
BACKGROUND: Phosphatidic acid (PA) is a lipid messenger that has been shown to increase muscle protein synthesis via signaling stimulation of the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR). MaxxTOR® (MT) is a supplement that contains PA as the main active ingredient but also contains other synergistic mTOR signaling substances including L-Leucine, Beta-Hydroxy-Beta-Methylbutyrate (HMB), and Vitamin D3. METHODS: Eighteen healthy strength-trained males were randomly assigned to a group that either consumed MT (n = 8, 22...
2016: Journal of the International Society of Sports Nutrition
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