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MTor and exercise

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28481292/inhibition-of-human-lung-cancer-cell-proliferation-and-survival-by-post-exercise-serum-is-associated-with-the-inhibition-of-akt-mtor-p70-s6k-and-erk1-2
#1
Nigel Kurgan, Evelyn Tsakiridis, Rozalia Kouvelioti, Jessy Moore, Panagiota Klentrou, Evangelia Tsiani
Non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) accounts for 85% of all lung cancer cases, and for the most cancer-related deaths. The survival pathway of Akt, its downstream effectors, the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) and ribosomal protein S6 kinase (p70 S6K), and the Ras-extracellular signal-regulated kinase (Erk1/2) pathways are activated in cancer leading to cell survival and growth. Thus, approaches that inhibit these signaling molecules may prove useful in the fight against lung cancer. Exercise is associated with health benefits and a limited number of studies indicate that serum from physically active individuals inhibit mammary and prostate cancer cell growth...
May 8, 2017: Cancers
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28479388/acceleration-based-training-a-new-mode-of-training-in-senescent-rats-improving-performance-and-left-ventricular-and-muscle-functions
#2
Thierry Launay, Iman Momken, Serge Carreira, Nathalie Mougenot, Xian-Long Zhou, Leanne De Koning, Romain Niel, Bruno Riou, Véronique Billat, Sophie Besse
High intensity training (HIT) has been shown to improve maximal aerobic capacity and muscle protein synthesis but has not yet been investigated in senescent rats. We hypothesized that the change of speed (acceleration) during each bout of HIT acts as a stimulus responsible for the adaptations of the organism to exercise. Twenty two month-old (mo) rats (n=14) were subjected to a short acceleration protocol (20-30min) of exercise, comprising 3 independent bouts of acceleration and compared to an age-matched sedentary group (n=14)...
May 4, 2017: Experimental Gerontology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28475846/resistance-exercise-attenuates-skeletal-muscle-oxidative-stress-systemic-pro-inflammatory-state-and-cachexia-in-walker-256-tumor-bearing-rats
#3
Camila Souza Padilha, Fernando H Borges, Lilian Eslaine Costa Mendes da Silva, Fernando Tadeu Trevisan Frajacomo, Alceu Afonso Jordao, José Alberto Duarte, Rubens Cecchini, Flávia Alessandra Guarnier, Rafael Deminice
The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of resistance exercise training (RET) on oxidative stress, systemic inflammatory markers and muscle wasting in Walker-256 tumor-bearing rats. Male (Wistar) rats were divided into 4 groups: sedentary controls (n=9); tumor-bearing (n=9); exercised (n=9); and tumor-bearing exercised (n=10). Exercised and tumor-bearing exercised rats were exposed to resistance exercise of climbing a ladder apparatus with weights tied to their tails during 6-wks. The physical activity of control and tumor-bearing rats was confined to the space of the cage...
May 5, 2017: Applied Physiology, Nutrition, and Metabolism, Physiologie Appliquée, Nutrition et Métabolisme
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28461063/low-intensity-pulsed-ultrasound-promotes-exercise-induced-muscle-hypertrophy
#4
Liang Tang, Jing Zhang, Xinjuan Zhao, Nan Li, Wenqi Jian, Shuxin Sun, Jianzhong Guo, Lijun Sun, Dean Ta
The purpose of this study was to investigate whether low-intensity pulsed ultrasound (LIPUS) promotes exercise-induced muscle hypertrophy. Twenty-four adult Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats were randomly assigned to three groups (n = 8 per group): normal control group (NC), treadmill exercise group (TE) and treadmill exercise + LIPUS group (TE + LIPUS). The TE + LIPUS group received a LIPUS treatment (1 MHz, 30 mW/cm(2)) at the gastrocnemius for 20 min/d after treadmill exercise. The TE group was sham-treated...
April 28, 2017: Ultrasound in Medicine & Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28443785/acute-and-long-term-impact-of-high-protein-diets-on-endocrine-and-metabolic-function-body-composition-and-exercise-induced-adaptations
#5
Flor E Morales, Grant M Tinsley, Paul M Gordon
BACKGROUND: High-protein diets have been shown to improve body composition through alterations in satiety, muscle protein synthesis, and the thermic effect of food. AIM: Given these findings, the purpose of this review is to discuss the integration of the specific hormonal and metabolic effects of high-protein diets following both acute and long-term usage, especially with regard to body composition. METHODS: Full-text articles were obtained through PubMed by using the terms "high-protein diet and body composition," "high-protein diet and exercise," "high-protein diet risk," "high-protein diet side effects," "protein quality PDCAAS," "RDA for protein," and "daily protein recommendation...
April 26, 2017: Journal of the American College of Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28400571/moderate-lifelong-overexpression-of-tuberous-sclerosis-complex-1-tsc1-improves-health-and-survival-in-mice
#6
Hong-Mei Zhang, Vivian Diaz, Michael E Walsh, Yiqiang Zhang
The tuberous sclerosis complex 1/2 (TSC1/2) is an endogenous regulator of the mechanistic target of rapamycin (mTOR). While mTOR has been shown to play an important role in health and aging, the role of TSC1/2 in aging has not been fully investigated. In the current study, a constitutive TSC1 transgenic (Tsc1 (tg) ) mouse model was generated and characterized. mTORC1 signaling was reduced in majority of the tissues, except the brain. In contrast, mTORC2 signaling was enhanced in Tsc1 (tg) mice. Tsc1 (tg) mice are more tolerant to exhaustive exercises and less susceptible to isoproterenol-induced cardiac hypertrophy at both young and advanced ages...
April 11, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28326005/bioactivity-of-food-peptides-biological-response-of-rats-to-bovine-milk-whey-peptides-following-acute-exercise
#7
Carolina Soares Moura, Pablo Christiano Barboza Lollo, Priscila Neder Morato, Eder Muller Risso, Jaime Amaya-Farfan
Background: Several physiologically beneficial effects of consuming a whey protein hydrolysate (WPH) have been attributed to the greater availability of bioactive peptides. Aims: The aim was to investigate the effect of four branched-chain amino acid- (BCAA-)containing dipeptides, present in WPH, on immune modulation, stimulation of HSP expression, muscle protein synthesis, glycogen content, satiety signals and the impact of these peptides on the plasma free amino acid profiles. Methods: The animals were divided in groups: control (rest, without gavage), vehicle (water), L-isoleucyl-L-leucine (lle-Leu), L-leucyl-L-isoleucine (Leu-lle), L-valyl-Lleucine (Val-Leu), L-leucyl-L-valine (Leu-Val) and WPH...
2017: Food & Nutrition Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28296942/co-ingestion-of-carbohydrate-and-whey-protein-increases-fasted-rates-of-muscle-protein-synthesis-immediately-after-resistance-exercise-in-rats
#8
Wanyi Wang, Zhenping Ding, Geoffrey J Solares, Soon-Mi Choi, Bo Wang, Aram Yoon, Roger P Farrar, John L Ivy
The objective of the study was to investigate whether co-ingestion of carbohydrate and protein as compared with protein alone augments muscle protein synthesis (MPS) during early exercise recovery. Two months old rats performed 10 repetitions of ladder climbing with 75% of body weight attached to their tails. Placebo (PLA), whey protein (WP), or whey protein plus carbohydrate (CP) was then given to rats by gavage. An additional group of sedentary rats (SED) was used as controls. Blood samples were collected immediately and at either 1 or 2 h after exercise...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28246202/ddit4l-promotes-autophagy-and-inhibits-pathological-cardiac-hypertrophy-in-response-to-stress
#9
Bridget Simonson, Vinita Subramanya, Mun Chun Chan, Aifeng Zhang, Hannabeth Franchino, Filomena Ottaviano, Manoj K Mishra, Ashley C Knight, Danielle Hunt, Ionita Ghiran, Tejvir S Khurana, Maria I Kontaridis, Anthony Rosenzweig, Saumya Das
Physiological cardiac hypertrophy, in response to stimuli such as exercise, is considered adaptive and beneficial. In contrast, pathological cardiac hypertrophy that arises in response to pathological stimuli such as unrestrained high blood pressure and oxidative or metabolic stress is maladaptive and may precede heart failure. We found that the transcript encoding DNA damage-inducible transcript 4-like (DDiT4L) was expressed in murine models of pathological cardiac hypertrophy but not in those of physiological cardiac hypertrophy...
February 28, 2017: Science Signaling
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28213823/long-term-resistance-exercise-induced-muscular-hypertrophy-is-associated-with-autophagy-modulation-in-rats
#10
Insu Kwon, Yongchul Jang, Joon-Yong Cho, Young C Jang, Youngil Lee
Elevation of anabolism and concurrent suppression of catabolism are critical metabolic adaptations for muscular hypertrophy in response to resistance exercise (RE). Here, we investigated if RE-induced muscular hypertrophy is acquired by modulating a critical catabolic process autophagy. Male Wistar Hannover rats (14 weeks old) were randomly assigned to either sedentary control (SC, n = 10) or resistance exercise (RE, n = 10). RE elicited significant hypertrophy of flexor digitorum profundus (FDP) muscles in parallel with enhancement in anabolic signaling pathways (phosphorylation of AKT, mTOR, and p70S6K)...
February 17, 2017: Journal of Physiological Sciences: JPS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28184235/phosphatidic-acid-biosynthesis-pharmacokinetics-mechanisms-of-action-and-effect-on-strength-and-body-composition-in-resistance-trained-individuals
#11
REVIEW
Peter Bond
The mechanistic target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1) has received much attention in the field of exercise physiology as a master regulator of skeletal muscle hypertrophy. The multiprotein complex is regulated by various signals such as growth factors, energy status, amino acids and mechanical stimuli. Importantly, the glycerophospholipid phosphatidic acid (PA) appears to play an important role in mTORC1 activation by mechanical stimulation. PA has been shown to modulate mTOR activity by direct binding to its FKBP12-rapamycin binding domain...
2017: Nutrition & Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28130174/exercise-increases-mtor-signaling-in-brain-regions-involved-in-cognition-and-emotional-behavior
#12
Brian A Lloyd, Holly S Hake, Takayuki Ishiwata, Caroline E Farmer, Esteban C Loetz, Monika Fleshner, Sondra T Bland, Benjamin N Greenwood
Exercise can enhance learning and memory and produce resistance against stress-related psychiatric disorders such as depression and anxiety. In rats, these beneficial effects of exercise occur regardless of exercise controllability: both voluntary and forced wheel running produce stress-protective effects. The mechanisms underlying these beneficial effects of exercise remain unknown. The mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) is a translation regulator important for cell growth, proliferation, and survival. mTOR has been implicated in enhancing learning and memory as well as antidepressant effects...
April 14, 2017: Behavioural Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28108329/exercise-increases-mitochondrial-complex-i-activity-and-drp1-expression-in-the-brains-of-aged-mice
#13
Aaron M Gusdon, Jason Callio, Giovanna Distefano, Robert M O'Doherty, Bret H Goodpaster, Paul M Coen, Charleen T Chu
Exercise is known to have numerous beneficial effects. Recent studies indicate that exercise improves mitochondrial energetics not only in skeletal muscle but also in other tissues. While exercise elicits positive effects on memory, neurogenesis, and synaptic plasticity, the effects of exercise on brain mitochondrial energetics remain relatively unknown. Herein, we studied the effects of exercise training in old and young mice on brain mitochondrial energetics, in comparison to known effects on peripheral tissues that utilize fatty acid oxidation...
April 2017: Experimental Gerontology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28078614/resistance-exercise-reduces-seizure-occurrence-attenuates-memory-deficits-and-restores-bdnf-signaling-in-rats-with-chronic-epilepsy
#14
Alexandre Aparecido de Almeida, Sérgio Gomes da Silva, Glauber Menezes Lopim, Diego Vannucci Campos, Jansen Fernandes, Francisco Romero Cabral, Ricardo Mario Arida
Epilepsy is a disease characterized by recurrent, unprovoked seizures. Cognitive impairment is an important comorbidity of chronic epilepsy. Human and animal model studies of epilepsy have shown that aerobic exercise induces beneficial structural and functional changes and reduces the number of seizures. However, little is yet understood about the effects of resistance exercise on epilepsy. We evaluated the effects of a resistance exercise program on the number of seizures, long-term memory and expression/activation of signaling proteins in rats with epilepsy...
January 11, 2017: Neurochemical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27982685/responses-of-skeletal-muscle-hypertrophy-in-wistar-rats-to-different-resistance-exercise-models
#15
T F Luciano, S O Marques, B L Pieri, D R de Souza, L V Araújo, R T Nesi, D L Scheffer, V H Comin, R A Pinho, A P Muller, C T de Souza
This study aimed to compare the effects of three different resistance exercise models on the quadriceps muscle cross-sectional area, as well as on mTOR phosphorylation and other pivotal molecules involved in the upstream regulation of mTOR. Twenty-four male Wistar rats were divided into untrained (control), endurance resistance training, strength resistance training, and hypertrophy resistance training (HRT) groups (n=6). After 12 weeks of training, the red portion of the quadriceps was removed for histological and Western blot analyses...
May 4, 2017: Physiological Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27938033/long-term-leucine-supplementation-improves-metabolic-but-not-molecular-responses-in-the-skeletal-muscle-of-trained-rats-submitted-to-exhaustive-exercise
#16
Gustavo Barbosa Dos Santos, André Gustavo de Oliveira, Maria Cristina Cintra Gomes Marcondes, Miguel Arcanjo Areas
AIM: Although there is some evidence of an ergogenic effect of leucine supplementation on acute response to exercise, there is a paucity of information on whether long-term leucine supplementation influences the adaptive response to chronic endurance training and performance. The main aim of our study was to assess the role of long-term leucine supplementation on molecular and metabolic response in skeletal muscle of trained rats after an exhaustion test. METHODS: Twenty-four male Wistar rats were randomly allocated into 4 groups...
February 2017: Journal of the American College of Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27897419/exercise-restores-muscle-stem-cell-mobilization-regenerative-capacity-and-muscle-metabolic-alterations-via-adiponectin-adipor1-activation-in-samp10-mice
#17
Aiko Inoue, Xian Wu Cheng, Zhe Huang, Lina Hu, Ryosuke Kikuchi, Haiying Jiang, Limei Piao, Takeshi Sasaki, Kohji Itakura, Hongxian Wu, Guangxian Zhao, Yanna Lei, Guang Yang, Enbo Zhu, Xiang Li, Kohji Sato, Teruhiko Koike, Masafumi Kuzuya
BACKGROUND: Exercise train (ET) stimulates muscle response in pathological conditions, including aging. The molecular mechanisms by which exercise improves impaired adiponectin/adiponectin receptor 1 (AdipoR1)-related muscle actions associated with aging are poorly understood. Here we observed that in a senescence-accelerated mouse prone 10 (SAMP10) model, long-term ET modulated muscle-regenerative actions. METHODS: 25-week-old male SAMP10 mice were randomly assigned to the control and the ET (45 min/time, 3/week) groups for 4 months...
November 29, 2016: Journal of Cachexia, Sarcopenia and Muscle
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27833825/epidemiology-pathogenesis-and-diagnosis-of-lymphangioleiomyomatosis
#18
Angelo M Taveira-DaSilva, Joel Moss
INTRODUCTION: Lymphangioleiomyomatosis (LAM) is a disease of women characterized by cystic lung destruction, lymphatic involvement, and renal angiomyolipomas. AREAS COVERED: LAM is caused by proliferation of abnormal smooth muscle-like LAM cells containing mutations and perhaps epigenetic modifications of the TSC1 or TSC2 genes, which encode, respectively, hamartin and tuberin, two proteins controlling the mechanistic target of rapamycin (mTOR) signaling pathway...
2016: Expert Opinion on Orphan Drugs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27756573/the-cochaperone-bag3-coordinates-protein-synthesis-and-autophagy-under-mechanical-strain-through-spatial-regulation-of-mtorc1
#19
Barbara Kathage, Sebastian Gehlert, Anna Ulbricht, Laura Lüdecke, Victor E Tapia, Zacharias Orfanos, Daniela Wenzel, Wilhelm Bloch, Rudolf Volkmer, Bernd K Fleischmann, Dieter O Fürst, Jörg Höhfeld
The cochaperone BAG3 is a central protein homeostasis factor in mechanically strained mammalian cells. It mediates the degradation of unfolded and damaged forms of the actin-crosslinker filamin through chaperone-assisted selective autophagy (CASA). In addition, BAG3 stimulates filamin transcription in order to compensate autophagic disposal and to maintain the actin cytoskeleton under strain. Here we demonstrate that BAG3 coordinates protein synthesis and autophagy through spatial regulation of the mammalian target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1)...
January 2017: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27539498/combined-effects-of-resistance-training-and-calorie-restriction-on-mitochondrial-fusion-and-fission-proteins-in-rat-skeletal-muscle
#20
Yu Kitaoka, Koichi Nakazato, Riki Ogasawara
Recent studies demonstrated that resistance exercise not only leads to muscle hypertrophy, but also improves mitochondrial function. Since it has been suggested that calorie restriction (CR) induces mitochondrial biogenesis, we examined the effects of resistance training with or without CR on muscle weight and key mitochondrial parameters in rat skeletal muscle. Four weeks of resistance training (thrice/week) increased gastrocnemius muscle weight in ad libitum-fed (AL) rats by 14%. The degree of muscle-weight increase by resistance training was lower in CR rats (7...
August 18, 2016: Journal of Applied Physiology
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