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Nitrate and exercise

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27909231/influence-of-dietary-nitrate-supplementation-on-physiological-and-muscle-metabolic-adaptations-to-sprint-interval-training
#1
Christopher Thompson, Lee J Wylie, Jamie R Blackwell, Jonathan Fulford, Matthew I Black, James Kelly, Sinead T J McDonagh, James Carter, Stephen J Bailey, Anni Vanhatalo, Andrew M Jones
We hypothesized that 4 weeks of dietary nitrate supplementation would enhance exercise performance and muscle metabolic adaptations to sprint interval training (SIT). Thirty six recreationally-active subjects, matched on key variables at baseline, completed a series of exercise tests before and following a 4 week period in which they were allocated to one of the following groups: 1) SIT and NO3(-)-depleted beetroot juice as a placebo (SIT+PL); 2) SIT and NO3(-)-rich beetroot juice (~13mmol NO3(-)/day; SIT+BR); or 3) no training and NO3(-)-rich beetroot juice (NT+BR)...
December 1, 2016: Journal of Applied Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27897440/association-between-aerobic-exercise-training-effects-of-serum-adropin-level-arterial-stiffness-and-adiposity-in-obese-elderly-adults
#2
Shumpei Fujie, Natsuki Hasegawa, Toshiyuki Kurihara, Kiyoshi Sanada, Takafumi Hamaoka, Motoyuki Iemitsu
Serum levels of adropin, which enhances endothelial cell release of nitric oxide (NO), are lower in obese patients. Although habitual aerobic exercise reduces arterial stiffness and adiposity, the relationship between these effects and circulating levels of adropin remains unclear. The purpose of this study was to determine if serum adropin level is associated with the effects of aerobic exercise training on arterial stiffness and adiposity in obese adults. In Experiment 1, we examined whether serum adropin levels are associated with cardiorespiratory fitness, carotid β-stiffness, plasma nitrite/nitrate (NOx) level, and abdominal visceral fat in 27 normal, 20 overweight, and 25 obese adults (age, 41-79 years)...
September 13, 2016: Applied Physiology, Nutrition, and Metabolism, Physiologie Appliquée, Nutrition et Métabolisme
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27890482/dietary-nitrate-does-not-affect-physical-activity-outcomes-in-health-older-adults-in-a-randomized-crossover-trial
#3
Mario Siervo, Clio Oggioni, Djordje G Jakovljevic, Michael Trenell, John C Mathers, David Houghton, Carlos Celis-Morales, Ammar W Ashor, Alan Ruddock, Mayur Ranchordas, Markos Klonizakis, Elizabeth A Williams
Although dietary nitrate (NO3(-)) ingestion appears to enhance exercise capacity and performance in young individuals, inconclusive findings have been reported in older people. Therefore, we conducted a double-blind, crossover randomized clinical trial using beetroot juice in older healthy participants, who were classified as normal weight and overweight. We tested whether consumption of beetroot juice (a rich source of NO3(-)) for 1 week would increase nitric oxide bioavailability via the nonenzymatic pathway and enhance (1) exercise capacity during an incremental exercise test, (2) physical capability, and (3) free-living physical activity...
November 14, 2016: Nutrition Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27861245/selective-impairment-of-blood-pressure-reduction-by-endothelial-nitric-oxide-synthase-dimer-destabilization-in-mice
#4
Tatsiana Suvorava, Stephanie Pick, Georg Kojda
OBJECTIVES: Endothelial dysfunction and oxidative stress are associated with hypertension but whether endothelial superoxide may play a role in the early development of essential hypertension remains uncertain. We investigated whether endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS)-derived endothelial oxidative stress is involved in the regulation of SBP. METHODS: Wild-type eNOS [mice with endothelium-specific overexpression of bovine endothelial NO-synthase (eNOS-Tg)] or a novel dimer-destabilized eNOS-mutant harboring a partially disrupted zinc-finger [mice with endothelium-specific overexpression of destabilized bovine eNOS destabilized by replacement of Cys 101 to Ala (C101A-eNOS-Tg)] was introduced in C57BL/6 in an endothelial-specific manner...
January 2017: Journal of Hypertension
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27836302/efficacy-of-spinal-cord-stimulation-as-an-adjunct-therapy-for-chronic-refractory-angina-pectoris
#5
Tasnim F Imran, Raymond Malapero, Ahmed H Qavi, Zachariah Hasan, Bryan de la Torre, Yash R Patel, R Jason Yong, Luc Djousse, J Michael Gaziano, Marie-Denise Gerhard-Herman
INTRODUCTION: Patients with chronic refractory angina whose symptoms are not controlled with conventional therapies have a poor quality of life. Adjunctive therapies, such as spinal cord stimulation (SCS) may be considered in these cases. We sought to examine whether SCS is associated with changes in exercise capacity and angina severity in these patients. METHODS: We searched Pubmed, Medline and other databases until December 2015. Two reviewers independently extracted data and assessed risk of bias...
November 2, 2016: International Journal of Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27834492/single-and-combined-effects-of-beetroot-crystals-and-sodium-bicarbonate-on-4-km-cycling-time-trial-performance
#6
Marcus J Callahan, Evelyn B Parr, John A Hawley, Louise M Burke
When ingested alone, beetroot juice and sodium bicarbonate are ergogenic for high-intensity exercise performance. This study sought to determine the independent and combined effects of these supplements. Eight endurance trained (V̇O2max 65 mL·kg·min(-1)) male cyclists completed four x 4-km time trials (TT) in a double-blind Latin square design supplementing with beetroot crystals (BC) for 3 days (15 g.day(-1) + 15 g 1 h prior to TT, containing 300 mg nitrate per 15 g), bicarbonate (Bi 0.3 g·kg(-1) body mass [BM] in 5 doses every 15 min from 2...
November 11, 2016: International Journal of Sport Nutrition and Exercise Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27822169/the-effect-of-six-days-of-dietary-nitrate-supplementation-on-performance-in-trained-crossfit-athletes
#7
Samuel J Kramer, Daniel A Baur, Maria T Spicer, Matthew D Vukovich, Michael J Ormsbee
BACKGROUND: While it is well established that dietary nitrate reduces the metabolic cost of exercise, recent evidence suggests this effect is maintained 24 h following the final nitrate dose when plasma nitrite levels have returned to baseline. In addition, acute dietary nitrate was recently reported to enhance peak power production. Our purpose was to examine whether chronic dietary nitrate supplementation enhanced peak power 24 h following the final dose and if this impacted performance in a heavily power-dependent sport...
2016: Journal of the International Society of Sports Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27818732/evaluation-of-some-biochemical-parameters-and-brain-oxidative-stress-in-experimental-rats-exposed-chronically-to-silver-nitrate-and-the-protective-role-of-vitamin-e-and-selenium
#8
Mouna Gueroui, Zine Kechrid
Due to undesirable hazardous interactions with biological systems, this investigation was undertaken to evaluate the effect of chronic exposure to silver on certain biochemical and some oxidative stress parameters with histopathological examination of brain, as well as the possible protective role of selenium and/or vitamin E as nutritional supplements. Thirty six male rats were divided into six groups of six each: the first group used as a control group. Group II given both vitamin E (400 mg/kg) of diet and selenium (Se) (1 mg/L) in their drinking water...
October 2016: Toxicological Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27806897/comparison-of-an-everolimus-eluting-bioresorbable-scaffold-with-an-everolimus-eluting-metallic-stent-for-the-treatment-of-coronary-artery-stenosis-absorb-ii-a-3-year-randomised-controlled-single-blind-multicentre-clinical-trial
#9
Patrick W Serruys, Bernard Chevalier, Yohei Sotomi, Angel Cequier, Didier Carrié, Jan J Piek, Ad J Van Boven, Marcello Dominici, Dariusz Dudek, Dougal McClean, Steffen Helqvist, Michael Haude, Sebastian Reith, Manuel de Sousa Almeida, Gianluca Campo, Andrés Iñiguez, Manel Sabaté, Stephan Windecker, Yoshinobu Onuma
BACKGROUND: No medium-term data are available on the random comparison between everolimus-eluting bioresorbable vascular scaffolds and everolimus-eluting metallic stents. The study aims to demonstrate two mechanistic properties of the bioresorbable scaffold: increase in luminal dimensions as a result of recovered vasomotion of the scaffolded vessel. METHODS: The ABSORB II trial is a prospective, randomised, active-controlled, single-blind, parallel two-group, multicentre clinical trial...
November 19, 2016: Lancet
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27794435/dietary-nitrate-markedly-improves-voluntary-running-in-mice
#10
Niklas Ivarsson, Tomas A Schiffer, Andrés Hernández, Johanna T Lanner, Eddie Weitzberg, Jon O Lundberg, Håkan Westerblad
Nitrate supplementation is shown to increase submaximal force in human and mouse skeletal muscles. In this study, we test the hypothesis that the increased submaximal force induced by nitrate supplementation reduces the effort of submaximal voluntary running, resulting in increased running speed and distance. C57Bl/6N male mice were fed nitrate in the drinking water and housed with or without access to an in-cage running wheel. Nitrate supplementation in sedentary mice had no effect on endurance in a treadmill test, nor did it enhance mitochondrial function...
January 1, 2017: Physiology & Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27784687/dietary-nitrate-supplementation-and-exercise-tolerance-in-patients-with-heart-failure-with-reduced-ejection-fraction
#11
Daniel M Hirai, Joel T Zelt, Joshua H Jones, Luiza G Castanhas, Robert F Bentley, Wendy Earle, Patti Staples, Michael E Tschakovsky, John McCans, Denis E O'Donnell, J Alberto Neder
Endothelial dysfunction and reduced nitric oxide (NO) signaling are key abnormalities leading to skeletal muscle oxygen delivery-utilization mismatch and poor physical capacity in patients with heart failure with reduced ejection fraction (HFrEF). Oral inorganic nitrate supplementation provides an exogenous source of NO that may enhance locomotor muscle function and oxygenation with consequent improvement in exercise tolerance in HFrEF. Thirteen patients (left ventricular ejection fraction ≤40%) were enrolled in a double-blind, randomized crossover study to receive concentrated nitrate-rich (nitrate) or nitrate-depleted (placebo) beetroot juice for 9 days...
October 26, 2016: American Journal of Physiology. Regulatory, Integrative and Comparative Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27779565/combined-exercise-reduces-arterial-stiffness-blood-pressure-and-blood-markers-for-cardiovascular-risk-in-postmenopausal-women-with-hypertension
#12
Won-Mok Son, Ki-Dong Sung, Jae-Min Cho, Song-Young Park
OBJECTIVE: Postmenopausal women exhibit elevated brachial-ankle pulse wave velocity (baPWV), an indicator of arterial stiffness, which is associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular events and mortality. The purpose of this study is to examine the impact of combined resistance and aerobic exercise training on baPWV, blood pressure (BP), and cardiovascular fitness in postmenopausal women with stage 1 hypertension. METHODS: Twenty postmenopausal women (age, 75 ± 2 y; systolic BP, 152 ± 2 mm Hg, diastolic BP, 95 ± 3 mm Hg) were randomly assigned to a "no-exercise" (CON, n = 10) or combined exercise (EX, n = 10) group...
October 24, 2016: Menopause: the Journal of the North American Menopause Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27777094/dietary-nitrate-supplementation-improves-sprint-and-high-intensity-intermittent-running-performance
#13
Christopher Thompson, Anni Vanhatalo, Harry Jell, Jonathan Fulford, James Carter, Lara Nyman, Stephen J Bailey, Andrew M Jones
: The influence of dietary nitrate (NO3(-)) supplementation on indices of maximal sprint and intermittent exercise performance is unclear. PURPOSE: To investigate the effects of NO3(-) supplementation on sprint running performance, and cognitive function and exercise performance during the sport-specific Yo-Yo Intermittent Recovery level 1 test (IR1). METHODS: In a double-blind, randomised, crossover study, 36 male team-sport players received NO3(-)-rich (BR; 70 mL·day(-1); 6...
October 21, 2016: Nitric Oxide: Biology and Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27769826/effects-of-antiseptic-mouthwash-on-resting-metabolic-rate-a-randomized-double-blind-crossover-study
#14
Michaela L Sundqvist, Jon O Lundberg, Eddie Weitzberg
The nitrate-nitrite-nitric oxide pathway has emerged as a significant source of nitric oxide (NO) bioactivity. Dietary intake of inorganic nitrate has a number of cardiovascular effects as well as a decrease in oxygen cost during exercise and a reduction in resting metabolic rate (RMR). Oral bacteria have a key role in bioactivation of inorganic nitrate since they catalyse the conversion of salivary nitrate to the more reactive nitrite anion. Recent studies demonstrate that blood pressure increases with the use of an antiseptic mouthwash, indicating that endogenous, NO-synthase derived nitrate is recycled into nitrite and NO, sufficiently to modulate cardiovascular function...
October 18, 2016: Nitric Oxide: Biology and Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27761657/high-intensity-interval-training-enhances-mobilization-functionality-of-endothelial-progenitor-cells-and-depressed-shedding-of-vascular-endothelial-cells-undergoing-hypoxia
#15
Hsing-Hua Tsai, Chin-Pu Lin, Yi-Hui Lin, Chih-Chin Hsu, Jong-Shyan Wang
PURPOSE: Exercise training improves endothelium-dependent vasodilation, whereas hypoxic stress causes vascular endothelial dysfunction. Monocyte-derived endothelial progenitor cells (Mon-EPCs) contribute to vascular repair process by differentiating into endothelial cells. This study investigates how high-intensity interval (HIT) and moderate-intensity continuous (MCT) exercise training affect circulating Mon-EPC levels and EPC functionality under hypoxic condition. METHODS: Sixty healthy sedentary males were randomized to engage in either HIT (3-min intervals at 40 and 80 % VO2max for five repetitions, n = 20) or MCT (sustained 60 % VO2max, n = 20) for 30 min/day, 5 days/week for 6 weeks, or to a control group (CTL) that did not received exercise intervention (n = 20)...
October 19, 2016: European Journal of Applied Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27748983/moderate-intensity-endurance-training-improves-endothelial-glycocalyx-layer-in-healthy-young-men
#16
Joanna Majerczak, Marcin Grandys, Krzysztof Duda, Agnieszka Zakrzewska, Aneta Balcerczyk, Leszek Kolodziejski, Dorota Szymoniak-Chochol, Ryszard T Smolenski, Grzegorz Bartosz, Stefan Chlopicki, Jerzy A Zoladz
In this study we have evaluated the effect of 20-weeks of moderate-intensity endurance training (ET) on the endothelial glycocalyx layer integrity in relation to the training-induced changes in antioxidant defence. Eleven healthy young, untrained men performed an incremental cycling exercise until exhaustion before and after 20 weeks of ET. Endurance training consisted of 40- minute sessions, mainly of moderate-intensity (∼50% of VO2max ), performed 4 times per week. Venous blood samples were taken at rest and at the end of the maximal exercise test...
October 17, 2016: Experimental Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27736248/the-effect-of-dietary-nitrate-supplementation-on-physiology-and-performance-in-trained-cyclists
#17
Joseph A McQuillan, Deborah K Dulson, Paul B Laursen, Andrew E Kilding
PURPOSE: To determine the effect of dietary nitrate (NO3(-)) supplementation on physiology and performance in well-trained cyclists following six to eight-days of NO3(-) supplementation. METHODS: Eight competitive male cyclists (mean ± SD; age = 26 ± 8 y; body mass = 76.7 ± 6.9 kg; VO2peak = 63 ± 4 ml.kg(-1).min(-1)) participated in a double-blind, placebo-controlled, crossover-design study in which participants ingested 70 ml beetroot juice containing ~4 mmol NO3(-) (NIT) or a NO3(-) depleted placebo (PLA), each for 8-days...
October 13, 2016: International Journal of Sports Physiology and Performance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27694216/dietary-nitrate-supplementation-attenuates-the-reduction-in-exercise-tolerance-following-blood-donation
#18
Sinead T J McDonagh, Anni Vanhatalo, Jonathan Fulford, Lee J Wylie, Stephen J Bailey, Andrew M Jones
We tested the hypothesis that dietary nitrate (NO3(-))-rich beetroot juice (BR) supplementation could partially offset deteriorations in O2 transport and utilization and exercise tolerance after blood donation. Twenty-two healthy volunteers performed moderate-intensity and ramp incremental cycle exercise tests prior to and following withdrawal of ∼450 ml of whole blood. Before donation, all subjects consumed seven 70-ml shots of NO3(-)-depleted BR [placebo (PL)] in the 48 h preceding the exercise tests. During the 48 h after blood donation, subjects consumed seven shots of BR (each containing 6...
December 1, 2016: American Journal of Physiology. Heart and Circulatory Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27630836/effects-of-a-dietary-beetroot-juice-treatment-on-systemic-and-cerebral-haemodynamics-a-pilot-study
#19
Bryan Heath Curry, Vernon Bond, Sudhakar Pemminati, Vasavi Rakesh Gorantla, Yulia Andreevna Volkova, Kishan Kadur, Richard Mark Millis
INTRODUCTION: Beetroot Juice (BJ) contains dietary nitrates that increase the blood Nitric Oxide (NO) level, decrease Blood Pressure (BP), increase athletic performance and improve cognitive functions but the mechanism remains unclear. Ultrasonographic measurement of middle cerebral artery blood flow velocity with computation of Cerebral Augmentation Index (CAIx) is a measure of the reflected flow signal, modulated by changes in cerebrovascular resistance and compliance. AIM: This pilot study tests the hypothesis that ingestion of an amount of BJ sufficient to raise the blood NO level two-to three-fold, decreases Transcranial Doppler (TCD) measured CAIx...
July 2016: Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research: JCDR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27616745/no-effect-of-acute-and-6-day-nitrate-supplementation-on-vo2-and-time-trial-performance-in-highly-trained-cyclists
#20
Jean Nyakayiru, Kristin L Jonvik, Philippe J M Pinckaers, Joan Senden, Luc J C Van Loon, Lex B Verdijk
While the majority of studies reporting ergogenic effects of dietary nitrate have used a multiday supplementation protocol, some studies suggest that a single dose of dietary nitrate prior to exercise can also improve subsequent performance. We aimed to compare the impact of acute and 6-day sodium nitrate supplementation on oxygen uptake (V̇O2) and time-trial performance in trained cyclists. Using a randomized, double blind, cross-over design, 17 male cyclists (25±4 y, V̇O2peak 65±4 mL·kg(-1)·min(-1), Wmax 411±35 W) were subjected to 3 different trials; 5 days placebo and 1 day sodium nitrate supplementation (1-DAY); 6 days sodium nitrate supplementation (6-DAY); 6 days placebo supplementation (PLA)...
September 6, 2016: International Journal of Sport Nutrition and Exercise Metabolism
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