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Nitrate and exercise

Helton O Campos, Lucas R Drummond, Quezia T Rodrigues, Frederico S M Machado, Washington Pires, Samuel P Wanner, Cândido C Coimbra
Nitrate (NO3 -) is an ergogenic nutritional supplement that is widely used to improve physical performance. However, the effectiveness of NO3 - supplementation has not been systematically investigated in individuals with different physical fitness levels. The present study analysed whether different fitness levels (non-athletes v. athletes or classification of performance levels), duration of the test used to measure performance (short v. long duration) and the test protocol (time trials v. open-ended tests v...
March 2018: British Journal of Nutrition
Mehrdad Behnia, Courtney M Wheatley, Alberto Avolio, Bruce D Johnson
BACKGROUND: During exercise as pulmonary blood flow rises, pulmonary capillary blood volume increases and gas exchange surface area expands through distention and recruitment. We have previously demonstrated that pulmonary capillary recruitment is limited in COPD patients with poorer exercise tolerance. Hypoxia and endothelial dysfunction lead to pulmonary vascular dysregulation possibly in part related to nitric oxide related pathways. PURPOSE: To determine if increasing dietary nitrate might influence lung surface area for gas exchange and subsequently impact exercise performance...
March 13, 2018: Nitric Oxide: Biology and Chemistry
Dustin P Joubert, Jorge Z Granados, Jonathan M Oliver, Bethany L Noack, Peter W Grandjean, Christopher R Woodman, Steven E Riechman, Stephen F Crouse
OBJECTIVE: The purpose of the study was to compare acute bouts of aquatic treadmill (ATM) and land treadmill (LTM) exercise on flow-mediated dilation (FMD), post-exercise blood pressure (BP), plasma nitrate/nitrite (PN), and atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP) in untrained, pre-hypertensive men. DESIGN: In a counterbalanced, crossover design, 19 untrained, pre-hypertensive men completed bouts of ATM and LTM on separate days. FMD was measured pre-exercise and 1-hour post-exercise...
March 15, 2018: American Journal of Physical Medicine & Rehabilitation
Mark Waldron, Luke Waldron, Craig Lawlor, Adrian Gray, Jamie Highton
PURPOSE: We investigated the effects of an acute 24-h nitrate-rich beetroot juice supplement (BR) on the energy cost, exercise efficiency and blood pressure responses to intermittent walking at different gradients. METHODS: In a double-blind, cross-over design, eight participants were provided with a total of 350 ml of nitrate-rich (~ 20.5 mmol nitrate) BR or placebo (PLA) across 24 h before completing intermittent walking at 3 km/h on treadmill at gradients of 1, 5, 10, 15 and 20%...
March 15, 2018: European Journal of Applied Physiology
Lieselot Decroix, Cajsa Tonoli, Elodie Lespagnol, Constantino Balestra, Amandine Descat, Marie Jose Drittij-Reijnders, Jamie R Blackwell, Wilhelm Stahl, Andrew M Jones, Antje R Weseler, Aalt Bast, Romain Meeusen, Elsa Heyman
INTRODUCTION: During exercise in hypoxia, O2 delivery to brain and muscle is compromised and oxidative stress is elicited. Cocoa flavanols (CF) have antioxidant capacities and can increase blood flow by stimulating endothelial function. We aimed to examine the effects of 7-day CF intake on oxidative stress, nitric oxide production and tissue oxygenation in response to exercise in hypoxia (14.3% O2 ). METHODS: In a randomized, double blind, cross-over study, 14 well-trained male cyclists completed 4 trials: exercise in normoxia or hypoxia, after 7-day CF or placebo intake...
March 15, 2018: Journal of Applied Physiology
José V Subiela, Sonia H Torres, Juan B De Sanctis, Noelina Hernández
There is evidence that myocardial infarction (MI) patients have an inflammatory process that includes skeletal muscles, and exercise has been reported to reduce some inflammatory markers. The aim of this work was to study NO and some inflammatory markers in quadriceps muscle of MI patients before and after cardiac rehabilitation. Muscle biopsy was obtained in17 MI patients before and after CR and only once in 11 healthy subjects. Several cardiorespiratory and metabolic parameters were evaluated and skeletal muscle levels of nitric oxide synthases, nitrate, nitrite, nitrotyrosine, tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α), transforming growth factor beta (TGF-β), interleukin- 6 (IL-6) and CD154...
March 10, 2018: Nitric Oxide: Biology and Chemistry
Sinead T J Mcdonagh, Lee J Wylie, Christopher Thompson, Anni Vanhatalo, Andrew M Jones
This article provides an overview of the current literature relating to the efficacy of dietary nitrate (NO3 - ) ingestion in altering aspects of cardiovascular and metabolic health and exercise capacity in healthy and diseased individuals. The consumption of NO3 - -rich vegetables, such as spinach and beetroot, have been variously shown to promote nitric oxide bioavailability, reduce systemic blood pressure, enhance tissue blood flow, modulate muscle O2 utilisation and improve exercise tolerance both in normoxia and in hypoxia, as is commonly observed in a number of disease states...
March 13, 2018: European Journal of Sport Science
Nicholas T Kruse, Kenichi Ueda, William E Hughes, Darren P Casey
Peripheral arterial disease (PAD) is characterized by a reduced blood flow (BF) and elevated blood pressure (pressor) response during lower extremity exercise. Although PAD is evident in the upper extremities no studies have determined BF and pressor responses during upper extremity exercise in PAD. Emerging evidence suggests that inorganic nitrate (NO3 ) supplementation may serve as an alternative dietary strategy to boost nitric oxide bioavailability, improving exercising BF and pressor responses during exercise...
March 9, 2018: American Journal of Physiology. Heart and Circulatory Physiology
Christopher Thompson, Anni Vanhatalo, Stefan Kadach, Lee J Wylie, Jonathan Fulford, Scott K Ferguson, Jamie R Blackwell, Stephen J Bailey, Andrew M Jones
The physiological and exercise performance adaptations to sprint interval training (SIT) may be modified by dietary nitrate (NO3 - ) supplementation. However, it is possible that different types of NO3 - supplementation evoke divergent physiological and performance adaptations to SIT. The purpose of this study was to compare the effects of 4 weeks SIT with and without concurrent dietary NO3 - supplementation administered as either NO3 - -rich beetroot juice (BR) or potassium NO3 - (KNO3 ). Thirty recreationally-active subjects completed a battery of exercise tests before and after a 4 week intervention in which they were allocated to one of three groups: 1) SIT undertaken without dietary NO3 - supplementation (SIT); 2) SIT accompanied by concurrent BR supplementation (SIT+BR); or 3) SIT accompanied by concurrent KNO3 supplementation (SIT+KNO3 )...
March 1, 2018: Journal of Applied Physiology
Zahra Derakhshan, Mohammad Hassan Ehrampoush, Amir Hossein Mahvi, Mohammad Taghi Ghaneian, Seyed Mohammad Mazloomi, Mohammad Faramarzian, Mansooreh Dehghani, Hossein Fallahzadeh, Saeed Yousefinejad, Enayat Berizi, Shima Bahrami
In this study employed an anoxic moving bed biofilm reactor (AnMBBR) to evaluate the effects of hydraulic and toxic shocks on performance reactor. The results indicated a relatively good resistance of system against exercised shocks and its ability to return to steady-state conditions. In optimal conditions when there was the maximum rate of atrazine and soluble chemical oxygen demand (COD) removal were 74.82% and 99.29% respectively. Also, atrazine biodegradation rapidly declines in AnMBBR from 74% ± 0...
February 21, 2018: Journal of Environmental Management
Prabhjot Singh, Shilpa Vijayakumar, Andreas Kalogeroupoulos, Javed Butler
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: This review discusses the integral role of the nitric oxide (NO) pathway in the pathophysiology of heart failure (HF). We emphasize potential therapeutic targets in the NO pathway and review contemporary clinical trials evaluating these novel therapeutic options. RECENT FINDINGS: Nitrates, neprilysin inhibitors, and phosphodiesterase (PDE) inhibitors have all proven to be efficacious in HF patients with systolic dysfunction, with the former two classes of medications producing a net mortality benefit...
February 24, 2018: Current Heart Failure Reports
Kamil Przyborowski, Bartosz Proniewski, Joanna Czarny, Marta Smeda, Barbara Sitek, Agnieszka Zakrzewska, Jerzy A Zoladz, Stefan Chlopicki
INTRODUCTION: An acute bout of strenuous exercise in humans results in transient impairment of NO-dependent function, but it remains unknown whether this phenomenon is associated with increased risk of post-exercise thrombotic events. This study aimed to evaluate effects of a single bout of exhaustive running in mice on the balance of vascular nitric oxide (NO)/reactive oxygen species (ROS) production, and on thrombogenicity. METHODS: At different time-points (0h, 2h and 4h) after exercise and in sedentary C57BL/6 mice the production of NO and superoxide (O2) in aorta was measured by electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spin trapping and by dihydroethidium (DHE)/HPLC-based method, respectively, while collagen-induced thrombus formation was analyzed in a microchip-based flow-chamber system (T-TAS)...
February 21, 2018: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise
Luisa V Giles, Scott J Tebbutt, Christopher Carlsten, Michael S Koehle
INTRODUCTION: Exposure to air pollution impairs aspects of endothelial function such as flow-mediated dilation (FMD). Outdoor exercisers are frequently exposed to air pollution, but how exercising in air pollution affects endothelial function and how these effects are modified by exercise intensity are poorly understood. OBJECTIVES: Therefore, the purpose of this study was to determine the effects of low-intensity and high-intensity cycling with diesel exhaust (DE) exposure on FMD, blood pressure, plasma nitrite and nitrate (NOx) and endothelin-1...
2018: PloS One
Johanna Oskarsson, Kerry McGawley
BACKGROUND: Dietary supplements such as caffeine and beetroot juice are used by athletes in an attempt to optimize performance and therefore gain an advantage in competition. AIM: To investigate the individual and combined effects of caffeine and beetroot-juice supplementation during submaximal and maximal treadmill running. METHODS: Seven males (VO<sub>2max</sub>: 59.0 ± 2.9 mL/kg/min) and two females (VO<sub>2max</sub>: 53...
February 14, 2018: Applied Physiology, Nutrition, and Metabolism, Physiologie Appliquée, Nutrition et Métabolisme
Stavros Papadopoulos, Konstantina Dipla, Areti Triantafyllou, Michalis G Nikolaidis, Antonios Kyparos, Panagiota Touplikioti, Ioannis S Vrabas, Andreas Zafeiridis
OBJECTIVE: To examine the effects of beetroot juice (BRJ) on (i) in vivo skeletal muscle O2 consumption (mVO2) and microvascular reactivity at rest and (ii) muscle performance, muscle oxygenation, and mVO2 during sustained isometric handgrip exercise (IHG). METHODS: Sixteen young males consumed, randomly, a nitrate-rich (8.1 mmol BRJnitrate) or nitrate-depleted (BRJplacebo) BRJ. After 2.5 hours, they performed an occlusion-reperfusion maneuver at rest, a 3-minute sustained IHG, and a sustained IHG to exhaustion with arterial occlusion...
February 9, 2018: Journal of the American College of Nutrition
Natsuki Hasegawa, Shumpei Fujie, Naoki Horii, Eri Miyamoto-Mikami, Katsunori Tsuji, Masataka Uchida, Takafumi Hamaoka, Izumi Tabata, Motoyuki Iemitsu
PURPOSE: Aerobic training (AT) and high-intensity intermittent training (HIIT) reduce arterial stiffness, whereas resistance training (RT) induces deterioration of or no change in arterial stiffness. However, the molecular mechanism of these effects of different exercise modes remains unclear. This study aimed to clarify the difference of different exercise effects on endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) signaling pathway and arterial stiffness in rats and humans. METHODS: In the animal study, forty 10-week-old male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into 4groups: sedentary control (CON), AT (treadmill running, 60min at 30m/min, 5days/wk for 8weeks), RT (ladder-climbing, 8-10sets/day, 3days/wk for 8weeks), and HIIT (14repeats of 20-sec swimming session with 10-sec pause between sessions, 4days/wk for 6weeks from 12-week-old) groups (n=10 in each group)...
January 30, 2018: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise
Jennifer C Richards, Matthew L Racine, Christopher M Hearon, Megan Kunkel, Gary J Luckasen, Dennis G Larson, Jason D Allen, Frank A Dinenno
Dietary nitrate (NO3-) is converted to nitrite (NO2-) and can be further reduced to the vasodilator nitric oxide (NO) amid a low O2 environment. Accordingly, dietary NO3- increases hind limb blood flow in rats during treadmill exercise; however, the evidence of such an effect in humans is unclear. We tested the hypothesis that acute dietary NO3- (via beetroot [BR] juice) increases forearm blood flow (FBF) via local vasodilation during handgrip exercise in young adults (n = 11; 25 ± 2 years). FBF (Doppler ultrasound) and blood pressure (Finapres) were measured at rest and during graded handgrip exercise at 5%, 15%, and 25% maximal voluntary contraction (MVC) lasting 4 min each...
January 2018: Physiological Reports
Cameron N Gilliard, Jeff K Lam, Katelyn S Cassel, Ji Won Park, Alan N Schechter, Barbora Piknova
Rodent skeletal muscle has high levels of nitrate ions and this endogenous nitrate reservoir can supply nitrite/nitric oxide (NO) for functional hyperemia and/or for other physiological processes in muscle during exercise. Mice with a NOS1 knockout have markedly reduced muscle nitrate levels, suggesting NO production by NOS and its reaction with oxymyoglobin as a source of nitrate. However, oxygen levels are normally low in most internal organs, which raises the possibility that nitrate-derived NO pathway is physiologically important even at "normoxia", and muscle nitrate reservoir is the main endogenous NO backup when exogeneous (dietary) nitrate intake is low...
January 29, 2018: Nitric Oxide: Biology and Chemistry
Juliet L Kroll, Chelsey A Werchan, David Rosenfield, Thomas Ritz
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Nitric oxide (NO) plays an important role in the airways' innate immune response, and the fraction of exhaled NO at a flow rate of 50mL per second (FENO50) has been utilized to capture NO. Deficits in NO are linked to loss of bronchoprotective effects in airway challenges and predict symptoms of respiratory infection. While beetroot juice supplements have been proposed to enhance exercise performance by increasing dietary nitrate consumption, few studies have examined the impact of beetroot juice or nitrate supplementation on airway NO in contexts beyond an exercise challenge, which we know influences FENO50...
2018: PloS One
Rachel Tan, Lee J Wylie, Christopher Thompson, Jamie R Blackwell, Stephen J Bailey, Anni Vanhatalo, Andrew M Jones
Nitrate-rich beetroot juice (BR) supplementation increases biomarkers of nitric oxide bioavailability with implications for the physiological responses to exercise. We hypothesized that BR supplementation before and during prolonged moderate-intensity exercise would: maintain an elevated plasma nitrite concentration ([NO2-]), attenuate the expected progressive increase in VO2 over time, and improve performance in a subsequent time trial (TT). In a double-blind, randomized, crossover design, 12 males completed 2-h of moderate-intensity cycle exercise followed by a 100 kJ TT in three conditions: 1) BR before and 1-h into exercise (BR+BR); 2) BR before and placebo (PL) 1-h into exercise (BR+PL); and 3) PL before and 1-h into exercise (PL+PL)...
January 4, 2018: Journal of Applied Physiology
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