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Nitrate and exercise

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28622359/aerobic-exercise-protects-against-pressure-overload-induced-cardiac-dysfunction-and-hypertrophy-via-%C3%AE-3-ar-nnos-no-activation
#1
Bin Wang, Ming Xu, Wenju Li, Xiaoli Li, Qiangsun Zheng, Xiaolin Niu
Aerobic exercise confers sustainable protection against cardiac hypertrophy and heart failure (HF). Nitric oxide synthase (NOS) and nitric oxide (NO) are known to play an important role in exercise-mediated cardioprotection, but the mechanism of NOS/NO stimulation during exercise remains unclear. The aim of this study is to determine the role of β3-adrenergic receptors (β3-ARs), NOS activation, and NO metabolites (nitrite and nitrosothiols) in the sustained cardioprotective effects of aerobic exercise. An HF model was constructed by transverse aortic constriction (TAC)...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28617840/a-new-test-for-diagnosing-vasovagal-syncope-standing-after-treadmill-test-with-sublingual-nitrate-administration
#2
Tae-Hoon Kim, Ho-Jun Jang, Sihun Kim, Sung Yun Cho, Kyung Sun Song, Christopher Pickett, Heiko J Schmitt, Juyong Lee
INTRODUCTION: Increased adrenergic tone might be an additional trigger of orthostatic stress of vasovagal syncope (VVS). Exercise before standing might provide increased sensitivity compared to standing using a sublingual nitroglycerines protocol during tilt table testing. The aim of this study was to evaluate the diagnostic value of treadmill testing before standing with nitroglycerin administration. METHODS AND RESULTS: A total of 36 patients with syncope or presyncope were enrolled for the test...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28602366/treatment-of-heart-failure-with-abnormal-left-ventricular-systolic-function-in-older-adults
#3
REVIEW
Wilbert S Aronow
Heart failure (HF) with abnormal left ventricular (LV) ejection fraction should be identified and treated. Treat hypertension with diuretics, angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors, and β-blockers. Treat myocardial ischemia with nitrates and β-blockers. Treat volume overload and HF with diuretics. Treat HF with ACE inhibitors and β-blockers. Sacubitril/valsartan may be used instead of an ACE inhibitor or ARB in chronic symptomatic HF and abnormal LV ejection fraction. Add isosorbide dinitrate/hydralazine in African Americans with class II to IV HF treated with diuretics, ACE inhibitors, and β-blockers...
July 2017: Heart Failure Clinics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28596274/dietary-nitrate-restores-compensatory-vasodilation-and-exercise-capacity-in-response-to-a-compromise-in-oxygen-delivery-in-the-non-compensator-phenotype
#4
Robert F Bentley, Jeremy J Walsh, Patrick J Drouin, Aleksandra Velickovic, Sarah J Kitner, Alyssa M Fenuta, Michael E Tschakovsky
Recently dietary nitrate supplementation has been shown to improve exercise capacity in healthy individuals through a potential nitrate-nitrite-nitric oxide pathway. Nitric oxide has been shown to play an important role in compensatory vasodilation during exercise under hypoperfusion. Previously we established that certain individuals lack a vasodilation response when perfusion pressure reductions compromise exercising muscle blood flow. Whether this lack of compensatory vasodilation in healthy young individuals can be restored with dietary nitrate supplementation is unknown...
June 8, 2017: Journal of Applied Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28590143/combined-exercise-training-reduces-blood-pressure-arterial-stiffness-and-insulin-resistance-in-obese-prehypertensive-adolescent-girls
#5
Won-Mok Son, Ki-Dong Sung, Leena P Bharath, Kong-Jib Choi, Song-Young Park
Childhood obesity is strongly linked to pathological processes for cardiovascular diseases in later adulthood. Obese adolescent girls with high blood pressure (BP) are reported to have increased arterial stiffness, which is associated with the development of hypertension and atherosclerosis. The present study sought to examine the impact of combined resistance and aerobic exercise (CRAE) training on BP, brachial-ankle pulse wave velocity (baPWV), insulin resistance (IR), and body composition in obese prehypertensive girls...
June 7, 2017: Clinical and Experimental Hypertension: CHE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28577258/-beet-ing-the-mountain-a-review-of-the-physiological-and-performance-effects-of-dietary-nitrate-supplementation-at-simulated-and-terrestrial-altitude
#6
Oliver Michael Shannon, Kerry McGawley, Linn Nybäck, Lauren Duckworth, Matthew John Barlow, David Woods, Mario Siervo, John Paul O'Hara
Exposure to altitude results in multiple physiological consequences. These include, but are not limited to, a reduced maximal oxygen consumption, drop in arterial oxygen saturation, and increase in muscle metabolic perturbations at a fixed sub-maximal work rate. Exercise capacity during fixed work rate or incremental exercise and time-trial performance are also impaired at altitude relative to sea level. Recently, dietary nitrate (NO3(-)) supplementation has attracted considerable interest as a nutritional aid during altitude exposure...
June 2, 2017: Sports Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28572749/the-effect-of-acute-pomegranate-extract-supplementation-on-oxygen-uptake-in-highly-trained-cyclists-during-high-intensity-exercise-in-a-high-altitude-environment
#7
Emma May Crum, Ahmad Munir Che Muhamed, Matthew Barnes, Stephen Robert Stannard
BACKGROUND: Recent research has indicated that pomegranate extract (POMx) may improve performance during aerobic exercise by enhancing the matching of vascular oxygen (O2) provision to muscular requirements. POMx is rich in ellagitannin polyphenols and nitrates (NO3(-)), which are both associated with improvements in blood flow and O2 delivery. Primarily, this study aimed to determine whether POMx improves performance in a cycling time trial to exhaustion at 100%VO2max (TTE100%) in highly-trained cyclists...
2017: Journal of the International Society of Sports Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28562133/dietary-nitrate-does-not-modify-blood-pressure-and-cardiac-output-at-rest-and-during-exercise-in-older-adults-a-randomised-cross-over-study
#8
C Oggioni, D G Jakovljevic, M Klonizakis, A W Ashor, A Ruddock, M Ranchordas, E Williams, M Siervo
Dietary nitrate (NO3(-)) supplementation has been associated with improved vascular and metabolic health. We conducted a double-blind, cross-over, placebo-controlled RCT to investigate the effects of 7-d consumption of beetroot juice compared with placebo on (1) blood pressure (BP) measured in resting conditions and during exercise, (2) cardiac and peripheral vascular function and (3) biomarkers of inflammation, oxidative stress and endothelial integrity. Twenty non-smoking healthy participants aged 60-75 years and BMI 20...
May 31, 2017: International Journal of Food Sciences and Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28549665/effects-of-supervised-exercise-and-dietary-nitrate-in-older-adults-with-controlled-hypertension-and-or-heart-failure-with-preserved-ejection-fraction
#9
Hossam A Shaltout, Joel Eggebeen, Anthony P Marsh, Peter H Brubaker, Paul J Laurienti, Jonathan H Burdette, Swati Basu, Ashley Morgan, Patricia C Dos Santos, James L Norris, Timothy M Morgan, Gary D Miller, W Jack Rejeski, Amret T Hawfield, Debra I Diz, J Thomas Becton, Daniel B Kim-Shapiro, Dalane W Kitzman
Aerobic exercise training is an effective therapy to improve peak aerobic power (peak VO2) in individuals with hypertension (HTN, AHA/ACC class A) and heart failure patients with preserved ejection fraction (HFpEF). High nitrate containing beetroot juice (BRJ) also improves sub-maximal endurance and decreases blood pressure in both HTN and HFpEF. We hypothesized that combining an aerobic exercise and dietary nitrate intervention would result in additive or even synergistic positive effects on exercise tolerance and blood pressure in HTN or HFpEF...
May 23, 2017: Nitric Oxide: Biology and Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28547861/effects-of-organic-and-inorganic-nitrate-on-aortic-and-carotid-haemodynamics-in-heart-failure-with-preserved-ejection-fraction
#10
Julio A Chirinos, Francisco Londono-Hoyos, Payman Zamani, Melissa Beraun, Philip Haines, Izzah Vasim, Swapna Varakantam, Timothy S Phan, Thomas P Cappola, Kenneth B Margulies, Raymond R Townsend, Patrick Segers
AIMS: To assess the haemodynamic effects of organic vs. inorganic nitrate administration among patients with heart failure with preserved ejection fraction (HFpEF). METHODS AND RESULTS: We assessed carotid and aortic pressure-flow relations non-invasively before and after the administration of 0.4 mg of sublingual nitroglycerin (n = 26), and in a separate sub-study, in response to 12.9 mmoL of inorganic nitrate (n = 16). Nitroglycerin did not consistently reduce wave reflections arriving at the proximal aorta (change in real part of reflection coefficient, 1st harmonic: -0...
May 25, 2017: European Journal of Heart Failure
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28536531/caffeine-and-bicarbonate-for-speed-a-meta-analysis-of-legal-supplements-potential-for-improving-intense-endurance-exercise-performance
#11
REVIEW
Peter M Christensen, Yusuke Shirai, Christian Ritz, Nikolai B Nordsborg
A 1% change in average speed is enough to affect medal rankings in intense Olympic endurance events lasting ~45 s to 8 min which for example includes 100 m swimming and 400 m running (~1 min), 1,500 m running and 4000 m track cycling (~4 min) and 2,000 m rowing (~6-8 min). To maximize the likelihood of winning, athletes utilizes legal supplements with or without scientifically documented beneficial effects on performance. Therefore, a continued systematic evidence based evaluation of the possible ergogenic effects is of high importance...
2017: Frontiers in Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28514395/-impact-of-shock-wave-therapy-on-the-clinical-and-functional-status-of-patients-with-coronary-heart-disease
#12
S T Matskeplishvili, B M Borbodoeva, E U Asymbekova, A Z Rakhimov, N K Akhmedyarova, K B Kataeva, Yu I Buziashvili
AIM: To study of the impact of shock-wave therapy (SWT) on the functional status of patients with coronary heart disease (CHD). SUBJECTS AND METHODS: Thirty-four CHD patients (including 33 men) with left ventricular (LV) asynergic segments, as evidenced by echocardiography (EchoCG), were examined. Their mean age was 60.1±1.76 years. All the patients received a SWT cycle according to the standard scheme. The patient examination protocol involved EchoCG, dobutamine EchoCG, treadmill exercise EchoCG, and tissue Doppler EchoCG, which were performed at baseline, immediately and one month after the end of a SWT cycle...
2017: Terapevticheskiĭ Arkhiv
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28509889/the-role-of-nitrates-in-the-management-of-stable-ischemic-heart-disease-a-review-of-the-current-evidence-and-guidelines
#13
Mehul A Pragani, Karan P Desai, Doralisa Morrone, Mandeep S Sidhu, William E Boden
Coronary artery disease is the leading cause of mortality in the United States and can result in significant morbidity. In particular, stable ischemic heart disease (SIHD) is a condition that affects nearly 9 million individuals in the United States alone, with substantial annual health care costs related to recurrent medical visits and chronic disease management. Nitrates form a cornerstone of SIHD management by reducing myocardial oxygen consumption and increasing exercise capacity by several mechanisms, including increasing epicardial blood flow through vasodilation and decreased vascular resistance, blunting coronary steal, and reducing preload...
2017: Reviews in Cardiovascular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28476923/acute-beetroot-juice-supplementation-on-sympathetic-nerve-activity-a-randomized-double-blind-placebo-controlled-proof-of-concept-study
#14
Karambir Notay, Anthony V Incognito, Philip J Millar
Acute dietary nitrate supplementation reduces resting blood pressure in healthy normotensives. This response is attributed to increased nitric oxide bioavailability and peripheral vasodilation, though nitric oxide also tonically inhibits central sympathetic outflow. We hypothesized that acute dietary nitrate (NO3(-)) supplementation using beetroot (BR) juice would reduce blood pressure and muscle sympathetic nerve activity (MSNA) at rest and during exercise. Fourteen participants (7 men, 25±10 years) underwent blood pressure and MSNA measurements before and after (165-180 minutes) ingestion of 70ml high-nitrate (~6...
May 5, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Heart and Circulatory Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28476756/indie-hfpef-inorganic-nitrite-delivery-to-improve-exercise-capacity-in-heart-failure-with-preserved-ejection-fraction-rationale-and-design
#15
Yogesh N V Reddy, Gregory D Lewis, Sanjiv J Shah, Martin LeWinter, Marc Semigran, Victor G Davila-Roman, Kevin Anstrom, Adrian Hernandez, Eugene Braunwald, Margaret M Redfield, Barry A Borlaug
Approximately half of patients with heart failure have preserved ejection fraction. There is no proven treatment that improves outcome. The pathophysiology of heart failure with preserved ejection fraction is complex and includes left ventricular systolic and diastolic dysfunction, pulmonary vascular disease, endothelial dysfunction, and peripheral abnormalities. Multiple lines of evidence point to impaired nitric oxide (NO)-cGMP bioavailability as playing a central role in each of these abnormalities. In contrast to traditional organic nitrate therapies, an alternative strategy to restore NO-cGMP signaling is via inorganic nitrite...
May 2017: Circulation. Heart Failure
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28445231/the-effects-of-multi-day-vs-single-pre-exercise-nitrate-supplement-dosing-on-simulated-cycling-time-trial-performance-and-skeletal-muscle-oxygenation
#16
Edward Jo, Michelle Fischer, Alexandra T Auslander, Alan Beigarten, Bruce Daggy, Ken Hansen, Lisa Kessler, Adam Osmond, Hong Wang, Rachel Wes
A transient augmentation in the metabolic efficiency of skeletal muscle is the purported basis for dietary nitrate supplementation amongst competitive and recreational athletes alike. Previous studies support the ergogenic effects of nitrate supplementation as findings indicated improved microvascular blood flow, exercise economy, and performance with relatively short-term supplementation. As with most ergogenic aids, the optimum duration of supplementation prior to performance or competition, i.e. loading phase, is a critical determinant for efficacy...
April 18, 2017: Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28422539/the-effect-of-nitrate-supplementation-on-cycling-performance-in-the-heat-in-well-trained-cyclists
#17
Joseph A McQuillan, Julia R Casadio, Deborah K Dulson, Paul B Laursen, Andrew E Kilding
PURPOSE: The aim of this study was to determine the effect of NO3(-) consumption on measures of perception, thermoregulation and cycling performance in hot conditions. METHODS: Using a randomised, double-blind, crossover-design, 8 well-trained cyclists (mean ± SD: age: 25 ± 8 y, V̇O2peak: 64 ± 5 ml·kg(-1)·min(-1)) performed 2 separate trials, in hot (35°C, 60% relative humidity) environments, having ingested either 140 ml NO3(-)-rich beetroot juice ~8 mmol NO3(-) (NIT), or placebo (PLA), daily for 3-days with a 7-day washout period separating trials...
April 19, 2017: International Journal of Sports Physiology and Performance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28403861/cardiac-shock-wave-therapy-in-the-treatment-of-coronary-artery-disease-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#18
REVIEW
Greta Burneikaitė, Evgeny Shkolnik, Jelena Čelutkienė, Gitana Zuozienė, Irena Butkuvienė, Birutė Petrauskienė, Pranas Šerpytis, Aleksandras Laucevičius, Amir Lerman
AIM: To systematically review currently available cardiac shock-wave therapy (CSWT) studies in humans and perform meta-analysis regarding anti-anginal efficacy of CSWT. METHODS: The Cochrane Controlled Trials Register, Medline, Medscape, Research Gate, Science Direct, and Web of Science databases were explored. In total 39 studies evaluating the efficacy of CSWT in patients with stable angina were identified including single arm, non- and randomized trials. Information on study design, subject's characteristics, clinical data and endpoints were obtained...
April 12, 2017: Cardiovascular Ultrasound
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28332118/nutrition-and-training-influences-on-the-regulation-of-mitochondrial-adenosine-diphosphate-sensitivity-and-bioenergetics
#19
REVIEW
Graham P Holloway
Since the seminal finding almost 50 years ago that exercise training increases mitochondrial content in skeletal muscle, a considerable amount of research has been dedicated to elucidate the mechanisms inducing mitochondrial biogenesis. The discovery of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ co-activator 1α as a major regulator of exercise-induced gene transcription was instrumental in beginning to understand the signals regulating this process. However, almost two decades after its discovery, our understanding of the signals inducing mitochondrial biogenesis remain poorly defined, limiting our insights into possible novel training modalities in elite athletes that can increase the oxidative potential of muscle...
March 2017: Sports Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28327503/beetroot-juice-supplementation-improves-high-intensity-intermittent-type-exercise-performance-in-trained-soccer-players
#20
Jean Nyakayiru, Kristin L Jonvik, Jorn Trommelen, Philippe J M Pinckaers, Joan M Senden, Luc J C van Loon, Lex B Verdijk
It has been shown that nitrate supplementation can enhance endurance exercise performance. Recent work suggests that nitrate ingestion can also increase intermittent type exercise performance in recreational athletes. We hypothesized that six days of nitrate supplementation can improve high-intensity intermittent type exercise performance in trained soccer players. Thirty-two male soccer players (age: 23 ± 1 years, height: 181 ± 1 m, weight: 77 ± 1 kg, playing experience: 15.2 ± 0.5 years, playing in the first team of a 2nd or 3rd Dutch amateur league club) participated in this randomized, double-blind cross-over study...
March 22, 2017: Nutrients
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