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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28916521/behavioural-modeling-and-electrophysiological-evidence-for-supramodality-in-human-metacognition
#1
Nathan Faivre, Elisa Filevich, Guillermo Solovey, Simone Kühn, Olaf Blanke
Human metacognition, or the capacity to introspect on one's own mental states, has been mostly characterized through confidence reports in visual tasks. A pressing question is to what extent results from visual studies generalize to other domains. Answering this question allows determining whether metacognition operates through shared, supramodal mechanisms, or through idiosyncratic, modality-specific mechanisms. Here, we report three new lines of evidence for decisional and post-decisional mechanisms arguing for the supramodality of metacognition...
September 15, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28915783/prediction-of-agreement-and-phonetic-overlap-shape-sublexical-identification
#2
Andrea E Martin, Philip J Monahan, Arthur G Samuel
The mapping between the physical speech signal and our internal representations is rarely straightforward. When faced with uncertainty, higher-order information is used to parse the signal and because of this, the lexicon and some aspects of sentential context have been shown to modulate the identification of ambiguous phonetic segments. Here, using a phoneme identification task (i.e., participants judged whether they heard [o] or [a] at the end of an adjective in a noun-adjective sequence), we asked whether grammatical gender cues influence phonetic identification and if this influence is shaped by the phonetic properties of the agreeing elements...
September 2017: Language and Speech
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28915780/cognitive-load-reduces-perceived-linguistic-convergence-between-dyads
#3
Jennifer Abel, Molly Babel
Speech convergence is the tendency of talkers to become more similar to someone they are listening or talking to, whether that person is a conversational partner or merely a voice heard repeating words. To elucidate the nature of the mechanisms underlying convergence, this study uses different levels of task difficulty on speech convergence within dyads collaborating on a task. Dyad members had to build identical LEGO® constructions without being able to see each other's construction, and with each member having half of the instructions required to complete the construction...
September 2017: Language and Speech
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28915146/engendered-responses-to-and-interventions-for-shame-in-dissociative-disorders-a-survey-and-experimental-investigation
#4
Martin J Dorahy, Julia Gorgas, Lenaire Seager, Warwick Middleton
This study examined shame and responses to it in adult dissociative disorder (DD; n = 24) and comparison psychiatric (n = 14) samples. To investigate how helpful different therapeutic responses are after shame disclosures in therapy, participants heard two vignettes from "mock" patients disclosing a) shame and b) surprise. Participants rated the helpfulness of five potential responses. Interventions covered withdrawing from the affect (withdrawal focused) to feeling it (feeling focused), with other interventions on cognitions (cognitive focused), management strategies (management focused), and previous experiences (history focused)...
September 14, 2017: Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28913659/will-gay-and-bisexual-men-taking-oral-pre-exposure-prophylaxis-prep-switch-to-long-acting-injectable-prep-should-it-become-available
#5
Steven A John, Thomas H F Whitfield, H Jonathon Rendina, Jeffrey T Parsons, Christian Grov
Oral pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) is highly effective at reducing HIV transmission risk and is CDC recommended for many gay, bisexual, and other men who have sex with men (GBM). We sought to investigate awareness of and preference for using long-acting injectable PrEP (LAI-PrEP) among GBM currently taking oral PrEP (n = 104), and identify their concerns. About half of GBM had heard of LAI-PrEP, and 30.8% specifically preferred LAI-PrEP. GBM with more concerns about the level of protection and drug half-life of LAI-PrEP had lower odds of preferring LAI-PrEP...
September 14, 2017: AIDS and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28912383/physiotherapists-as-detectives-investigating-clues-and-plots-in-the-clinical-encounter
#6
Birgitte Ahlsen, Anne Marit Mengshoel, Hilde Bondevik, Eivind Engebretsen
This article investigates the clinical reasoning process of physiotherapists working with patients with chronic muscle pain. The article demonstrates how physiotherapists work with clues and weigh up different plots as they seek to build consistent stories about their patient's illness. The material consists of interviews with 10 Norwegian physiotherapists performed after the first clinical encounter with a patient. Using a narrative approach and Lonergan's theory of interpretation, the study highlights how, like detectives, the therapists work with clues by asking a number of interpretive questions of their data...
September 14, 2017: Medical Humanities
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28911320/practicing-governance-towards-equity-in-health-systems-lmic-perspectives-and-experience
#7
EDITORIAL
Lucy Gilson, Uta Lehmann, Helen Schneider
The unifying theme of the papers in this series is a concern for understanding the everyday practice of governance in low- and middle-income country (LMIC) health systems. Rather than seeing governance as a normative health system goal addressed through the architecture and design of accountability and regulatory frameworks, these papers provide insights into the real-world decision-making of health policy and system actors. Their multiple, routine decisions translate policy intentions into practice - and are filtered through relationships, underpinned by values and norms, influenced by organizational structures and resources, and embedded in historical and socio-political contexts...
September 15, 2017: International Journal for Equity in Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28904749/do-you-hear-what-i-see-vocalization-relative-to-visual-detection-rates-of-hawaiian-hoary-bats-lasiurus-cinereus-semotus
#8
Paulo Marcos Gorresen, Paul M Cryan, Kristina Montoya-Aiona, Frank J Bonaccorso
Bats vocalize during flight as part of the sensory modality called echolocation, but very little is known about whether flying bats consistently call. Occasional vocal silence during flight when bats approach prey or conspecifics has been documented for relatively few species and situations. Bats flying alone in clutter-free airspace are not known to forgo vocalization, yet prior observations suggested possible silent behavior in certain, unexpected situations. Determining when, why, and where silent behavior occurs in bats will help evaluate major assumptions of a primary monitoring method for bats used in ecological research, management, and conservation...
September 2017: Ecology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28904679/knowledge-attitudes-and-screening-practices-regarding-prostatic-diseases-among-men-older-than-40-years-a-population-based-study-in-southwest-nigeria
#9
Rufus Wale Ojewola, Ezekiel Sofela Oridota, Olanrewaju Samuel Balogun, Ezra Olatunde Ogundare, Taiwo Opeyemi Alabi, Oluseyi Omotola Banjo, Adeyinka Laoye, Babatunde Adetunmbi, Bamidele Oludele Adebayo, Rotimi Oluyombo
INTRODUCTION: Despite the global increase in awareness of prostatic diseases resulting from widespread availability of screening tools, there is no evidence that the knowledge, attitudes and screening practices of Nigerian men have improved regarding prostatic diseases. METHODS: A descriptive cross-sectional study amongst 305 community-dwelling men. Respondents were selected using multi-staged sampling techniques. Knowledge, attitudes and screening practices were determined based on responses to a semi-structured KAP questionnaire...
2017: Pan African Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28904032/antibiotic-therapy-for-children-with-acute-otitis-media
#10
Teeranai Sakulchit, Ran D Goldman
Question Acute otitis media is one of the most common infections in childhood. Routine prescription of antibiotics has led to adverse events and bacterial resistance to antibiotics. I have heard that "watchful waiting" is a good strategy to reduce this potential problem in children older than 6 months of age. Should I apply this strategy in my clinical practice? Answer Watchful waiting can be applied in selected children with nonsevere acute otitis media by withholding antibiotics and observing the child for clinical improvement...
September 2017: Canadian Family Physician Médecin de Famille Canadien
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28902677/disparities-in-awareness-of-hiv-postexposure-and-preexposure-prophylaxis-among-notified-partners-of-hiv-positive-individuals-new-york-city-2015-2017
#11
Kavita Misra, Chi-Chi Udeagu
BACKGROUND: Named sex- or needle-sharing partners of HIV-positive individuals are a priority prevention population due to their known HIV exposure. Understanding postexposure and preexposure prophylaxis (PEP and PrEP) awareness and use among them is important for successful interventions. METHODS: Data from notified partners of HIV-positive individuals (New York City, May 2015-April 2017) were analyzed to describe PEP/PrEP awareness, provider discussion, and use by sociodemographic and risk characteristics...
October 1, 2017: Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes: JAIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28885320/an-examination-of-the-perceived-importance-and-skills-related-to-policies-and-policy-making-among-state-public-health-injury-prevention-staff
#12
Karen D Liller, Theresa Chapple-McGruder, Brian Castrucci, Martha Slay Wingate, Renata Hilson, Dara Mendez, Dorothy Cilenti, Ilana Raskind
OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this research is to use the Public Health Workforce Interests and Needs Survey to assess in greater detail state injury prevention staff perceptions of policy development and related skills and their awareness and perception of "Health in All Policies" (HiAP). DESIGN: The public Health Workforce Interests and Needs Survey gauged public health practitioners' perspectives on workplace environment, job satisfaction, national trends, and training needs, and gathered demographics on the workforce...
September 6, 2017: Journal of Public Health Management and Practice: JPHMP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28883584/social-media-and-professionalism-a-retrospective-content-analysis-of-fitness-to-practise-cases-heard-by-the-gdc-concerning-social-media-complaints
#13
P Neville
Introduction Since 2013, all General Dental Council (GDC) registrants' online activities have been regulated by the GDC's social media guidelines. Failure to comply with these guidelines results in a Fitness to Practise (FtP) complaint being investigated.Aims This study explores the prevalence of social media related FtP cases investigated by the GDC from 1 September 2013 to 21 June 2016.Method Documentary analysis of social media related FtP cases published on the GDC's website was undertaken. All cases that met the study's inclusion criteria were analysed using a quantitative content analysis framework...
September 8, 2017: British Dental Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28882115/caught-in-a-no-win-situation-discussions-about-ccsvi-between-persons-with-multiple-sclerosis-and-their-neurologists-a-qualitative-study
#14
S Michelle Driedger, Ryan Maier, Ruth Ann Marrie, Melissa Brouwers
BACKGROUND: In recent years, shared decision making (SDM) has been promoted as a model to guide interactions between persons with MS and their neurologists to reach mutually satisfying decisions about disease management - generally about deciding treatment courses of prevailing disease modifying therapies. In 2009, Dr. Paolo Zamboni introduced the world to his hypothesis of Chronic Cerebrospinal Venous Insufficiency (CCSVI) as a cause of MS and proposed venous angioplasty ('liberation therapy') as a potential therapy...
September 7, 2017: BMC Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28881363/-motivational-interviewing-with-alcohol-dependent-patients
#15
Michael Spaeth, Stefan Bleich, Thomas Hillemacher
Motivational interviewing with alcohol-dependent patients Alcohol-dependent patients do not need to be motivated from the outside. They are mostly ambivalent, and the inner voice, which already speaks for change (change talk), is heard through motivational interviewing, carefully strengthened and developed together with the patient. The practitioner has to deal with the human spirit of motivational interviewing and should be able to communicate with empathy, respect, congruence, and openness. The patient's autonomy should always be maintained...
September 2017: Fortschritte der Neurologie-Psychiatrie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28881224/accent-modulates-access-to-word-meaning-evidence-for-a-speaker-model-account-of-spoken-word-recognition
#16
Zhenguang G Cai, Rebecca A Gilbert, Matthew H Davis, M Gareth Gaskell, Lauren Farrar, Sarah Adler, Jennifer M Rodd
Speech carries accent information relevant to determining the speaker's linguistic and social background. A series of web-based experiments demonstrate that accent cues can modulate access to word meaning. In Experiments 1-3, British participants were more likely to retrieve the American dominant meaning (e.g., hat meaning of "bonnet") in a word association task if they heard the words in an American than a British accent. In addition, results from a speeded semantic decision task (Experiment 4) and sentence comprehension task (Experiment 5) confirm that accent modulates on-line meaning retrieval such that comprehension of ambiguous words is easier when the relevant word meaning is dominant in the speaker's dialect...
September 4, 2017: Cognitive Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28880726/parents-spatial-language-mediates-a-sex-difference-in-preschoolers-spatial-language-use
#17
Shannon M Pruden, Susan C Levine
Do boys produce more terms than girls to describe the spatial world-that is, dimensional adjectives (e.g., big, little, tall, short), shape terms (e.g., circle, square), and words describing spatial features and properties (e.g., bent, curvy, edge)? If a sex difference in children's spatial-language use exists, is it related to the spatial language that parents use when interacting with children? We longitudinally tracked the development of spatial-language production in children between the ages of 14 and 46 months in a diverse sample of 58 parent-child dyads interacting in their homes...
September 1, 2017: Psychological Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28879562/the-knowledge-of-south-african-men-relating-to-cervical-cancer-and-cervical-cancer-screening
#18
Jeniffer Rwamugira, Johanna E Maree, Nokuthula Mafutha
Cervical cancer is the second most common cancer in South African women, but the most common cancer in Black women. Despite having a national cervical cancer screening programme, most women present with advanced disease. Men play a role in cervical cancer as the HPV, the major cause of cervical cancer, is sexually transmitted. The purpose of our study was to describe the knowledge men, living in Muldersdrift, had about cervical cancer, cervical cancer screening and the cervical cancer screening programme and how they preferred to be taught about these health issues...
September 6, 2017: Journal of Cancer Education: the Official Journal of the American Association for Cancer Education
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28871592/bangladeshi-school-age-children-s-experiences-and-perceptions-on-child-maltreatment-a-qualitative-interview-study
#19
M Atiqul Haque, S Janson, S Moniruzzaman, A K M F Rahman, S R Mashreky, U-B Eriksson
BACKGROUND: Child maltreatment (CM) is a public health problem and is recognized as a huge barrier for child development. Most of the research and definitions on CM are from the perspective of high-income western countries. Because no major studies have been conducted on CM in Bangladesh, the aim of the current study was to explore the experiences of and perceptions on CM in school-age children in rural and urban Bangladesh in order to understand maltreatment in a local context and from a child perspective...
September 4, 2017: Child: Care, Health and Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28870186/knowledge-attitude-and-status-of-nitrite-inhalant-use-among-men-who-have-sex-with-men-in-tianjin-china
#20
Zheng Zhang, Li Zhang, Feng Zhou, Zhen Li, Jie Yang
BACKGROUND: Nitrite inhalants have become popular as recreational drugs among the homosexual population in some developed countries since the 1980s. These drugs, also called RUSH in China, have become attractive among Chinese men who have sex with men (MSM) in the past few years. The aim of this cross-sectional study was to understand the knowledge, attitude, and status of nitrite inhalant use among Chinese MSM. METHODS: The study participants were recruited from Tianjin, China between April and August 2012...
September 4, 2017: BMC Public Health
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