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Daniel Gregg, Sarah Ann Wheeler
To date, the majority of environmental assets studied in the economic valuation literature clearly have high amenity and recreational use values. However there are many cases where small, but nevertheless unique and important, ecosystems survive as islands amongst large areas of modified, productive, or urban, landscapes. Development encroaches on the landscape and as urban landscapes become more concentrated these types of conservation islands will become increasingly more important. Previous experience with economic valuation suggests that lower total values for smaller contributions to conservation are more liable to be swamped by survey and hypothetical bias measures...
May 17, 2018: Journal of Environmental Management
Ramadhani Abdul, Annette A M Gerritsen, Mary Mwangome, Eveline Geubbels
BACKGROUND: Global evidence shows that sexually transmitted infections (STIs) prevalence and sexual risk behaviours are high among youth, and knowledge about STIs is low. In Tanzania, there is limited recent evidence regarding these issues. The aim of this study was to describe the health seeking behaviour of youth reporting STI symptoms in semi-rural Tanzania and to evaluate the association of socio-demographic characteristics, STI knowledge and sexual risk behaviour with STI symptom reporting...
May 19, 2018: BMC Infectious Diseases
Tiegang Li, Hui Wang, Yin Lu, Qin Li, Chun Chen, Dahu Wang, Meixia Li, Yilan Li, Jianyun Lu, Zongqiu Chen, Yu Ma, Wenhui Liu, Mengmeng Ma, Di Wu, Jiachun Lu, Zhicong Yang
Hand, foot and mouth disease (HFMD) primarily affects children younger than 5 years of age. Recently, HFMD has ranked as the top notifiable infectious disease in China. In December 2015, China approved two novel inactivated enterovirus 71 vaccines (EV71 vaccines) for HFMD. Parents' acceptance is often essential for vaccination program success. The goal of this study was to identify willingness and influential factors to vaccinate among parents of kindergarteners in Guangzhou, China. A cross-sectional survey of face-to-face interviews was conducted from March to July 2016...
May 15, 2018: Vaccine
Krste Boric, Matija Boric, Svjetlana Dosenovic, Antonia Jelicic Kadic, Marijan Batinic, Marija Cavar, Milka Jeric, Livia Puljak
AIM: To analyze awareness about and acceptability of core outcome set (COS) for pediatric pain recommended by the PedIMMPACT. METHODS: We invited authors of systematic reviews and randomized controlled trials about interventions for postoperative pain in children to participate in a survey. RESULTS: Only a third of surveyed authors of systematic reviews and randomized controlled trials about postoperative pain in children had heard about the PedIMMPACT COS for acute pediatric pain...
May 18, 2018: Journal of Comparative Effectiveness Research
Jack Heard, Amanda Morris, Nicole Kirouac, Jennifer Ducharme, Simon Trepel, Brandy Wicklow
Objectives: To describe the paediatric transgender population accessing health care through the Manitoba Gender Dysphoria Assessment and Action for Youth (GDAAY) program, and report youth's experiences accessing health care in Manitoba. Methods: Demographic, medical, surgical and mental health information was extracted from the medical records of youth referred to the GDAAY program (n=174). A 77-item online survey was conducted with a subset of those youth (n=25) to identify common health care experiences and perceptions of trans youth in Manitoba...
May 2018: Paediatrics & Child Health
Yi-Huang Su
Although music and dance are often experienced simultaneously, it is unclear what modulates their perceptual integration. This study investigated how two factors related to music-dance correspondences influenced audiovisual binding of their rhythms: the metrical match between the music and dance, and the kinematic familiarity of the dance movement. Participants watched a point-light figure dancing synchronously to a triple-meter rhythm that they heard in parallel, whereby the dance communicated a triple (congruent) or a duple (incongruent) visual meter...
May 15, 2018: Psychonomic Bulletin & Review
Lihua Chen, Yiyi Song, Guanyu Ruan, Qiaoyu Zhang, Fen Lin, Jun Zhang, Ting Wu, Jian An, Binhua Dong, Pengming Sun
The use of the human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine was recently approved in Mainland China. This study determined the knowledge and attitudes of young women aged 20 to 35 years in Fujian Province, China, with regard to HPV and vaccination and explored the potential factors influencing their attitudes toward HPV vaccination. This was a cross-sectional study that collected data regarding the knowledge on and attitudes toward HPV and vaccination using questionnaires. Furthermore, the prevalence of HPV was determined from the sampled participants...
January 2018: Cancer Control: Journal of the Moffitt Cancer Center
Rimke Groenewold, Elizabeth Armstrong
BACKGROUND: Previous research has shown that speakers with aphasia rely on enactment more often than non-brain-damaged language users. Several studies have been conducted to explain this observed increase, demonstrating that spoken language containing enactment is easier to produce and is more engaging to the conversation partner. This paper describes the effects of the occurrence of enactment in casual conversation involving individuals with aphasia on its level of conversational assertiveness...
May 14, 2018: International Journal of Language & Communication Disorders
Masumi Takeuchi, Kyoko Nomura, Saki Horie, Hiroko Okinaga, Chithra R Perumalswami, Reshma Jagsi
The purpose of this study is three-fold: (1) to compare harassment (sexual, gender, and academic harassment both directly and indirectly experienced - i.e. "directly harassed" and "have seen or heard of someone who experienced harassment", respectively) experienced by males and females, (2) to investigate whether such experiences correlate with burnout, and (3) to explore whether social support might mitigate any such relationship between harassment and burnout. This cross-sectional study was conducted at a private university in Japan in February 2014 and is based on a work-life balance survey obtained from 330 academic faculty members...
2018: Tohoku Journal of Experimental Medicine
Hyejin Kim, Christine Bradway, Susan E Hickman, Mary Ersek
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Little is known about surrogates' experiences of engaging in Physician Orders for Life-Sustaining Treatment (POLST) discussions. This study describes family surrogates' experiences when engaging in POLST discussions with primary care providers. METHODS: Semistructured interviews were conducted with 10 family surrogates of individuals with advanced dementia who were enrolled in a Program of All-Inclusive Care for the Elderly or resided in a nursing home...
February 2018: Journal of the American Association of Nurse Practitioners
Jessica L Parker, Christopher W Robinson
The study examined individual contributions of visual and auditory information on multisensory integration across the life span. In the experiment, children, young adults, and older adults participated in a variant of the Sound-Induced Flash Illusion where participants had to either ignore beeps and report how many flashes they saw or ignore flashes and report how many beeps they heard. Collapsed across age, auditory input had a stronger effect on visual processing than vice versa. However, relative contributions of auditory and visual information interacted with age, with young adults showing evidence of auditory dominance (only auditory input affected visual processing), whereas, multisensory integration effects were more symmetrical in children and older adults...
May 2018: Psychology and Aging
Jordan J Hoerr, Anthony M Heard, Meredith M Baker, Joshua Fogel, Anne Elizabeth Glassgow, William C Kling, Maureen D Clark, James P Ronayne
Prenatal exposure to illicit substances is a finding that typically requires reporting to a child protective services agency. We examine whether there is differential reporting to two public agencies, and whether it varies by race/ethnicity and region. We also study predictors of indicating a maltreatment report as credible. Data on positive neonatal toxicology reports were obtained from the Illinois Department of Public Health (IDPH) and the Illinois Department of Children and Family Services (DCFS). Variation in reporting rates by race/ethnicity and region were compared with Pearson chi-square analysis...
May 9, 2018: Child Abuse & Neglect
Mohamed N Thabit, Mohamed A Sayed, Magda M Ali
PURPOSE: Epilepsy is a major public health problem worldwide. There are many misconceptions about people's knowledge and attitudes about epilepsy, which influence people's behavior towards patients with epilepsy. METHODS: We conducted a cross-sectional study in Sohag University, a public Egyptian University, in Upper Egypt. We used an Arabic language designed questionnaire to assess people's knowledge about epilepsy and their attitudes towards patients with epilepsy...
May 5, 2018: Epilepsy Research
May Rose Isnec Dela Cruz, Kathryn L Braun, Jo Ann Umilani Tsark, Cheryl Lynn Albright, John J Chen
OBJECTIVE: To determine the prevalence and barriers to human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine uptake among 11-18 year olds in the Hawai'i's four major ethnic groups-Native Hawaiians, Filipinos, Japanese, and Caucasians. STUDY DESIGN: A telephone survey assessed parents' knowledge of HPV and the HPV vaccine, status of their child's HPV vaccine uptake, variables operationalizing the Health Belief Model, and barriers and motivators to uptake. RESULTS: Across the groups, 799 parents completed the survey...
May 10, 2018: Ethnicity & Health
Paul M Dietze, Mark Stare, Shelley Cogger, Dhanya Nambiar, Anna Olsen, Lucinda Burns, Simon Lenton
INTRODUCTION AND AIMS: Take-home naloxone (THN) programs targeting people who inject drugs (PWID) have been running in some Australian states and territories since 2012. In this study, we aimed to determine the extent to which PWID in the capital cities of all Australian states and territories are aware of naloxone and THN programs, whether awareness of these programs has changed over time. DESIGN AND METHODS: Data were obtained from cross-sectional surveys of a total of 2088 PWID conducted annually as part of the Illicit Drug Reporting System from 2013 to 2015...
May 2018: Drug and Alcohol Review
Weisi Liu, Zhoubin Zhang, Jiamin Chen, Xiaojin You
OBJECTIVES: The purpose of this study was to explore the relationship between the information seeking about Ebola virus disease (EVD) and media channels, then to provide theory evidence for working out the health education transmission strategy in similar public health emergency events. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We used a cross-sectional survey model, data were collected through questionnaire over telephone calls, and R × c chi-square test was used to identify factors associated with knowledge and media channels for choosing to get the information about EVD prevention and control...
May 9, 2018: Vector Borne and Zoonotic Diseases
Carlos A Rodríguez-Saltos, Susan M Lyons, Keith W Sockman, Donna L Maney
Sensory responses to courtship signals can be altered by reproductive hormones. In seasonally-breeding female songbirds, for example, sound-induced immediate early gene expression in the auditory pathway is selective for male song over behaviourally irrelevant sounds only when plasma estradiol reaches breeding-like levels. This selectivity has been hypothesized to be mediated by release of monoaminergic neuromodulators in the auditory pathway. We previously showed that in oestrogen-primed female white-throated sparrows, exposure to male song induced dopamine and serotonin release in auditory regions...
May 8, 2018: Journal of Neuroendocrinology
Chris O Ifediora, Emmanuel C Azuike
OBJECTIVE: To ascertain the level of awareness and attitudes towards cervical cancer among secondary school students in Nigeria. METHOD: Cross-sectional survey of 432 female senior secondary school students in south-eastern Nigeria. RESULTS: 321 (74.3%) responses were valid. 42.7% had heard of cervical cancer, 32.8% of screening, 23.2% of Pap smears, and 22.0% of HPV/HPV vaccinations. No widely available reliable source of information exists...
May 7, 2018: Tropical Medicine & International Health: TM & IH
Kelly R Evenson, Seth LaJeunesse, Stephen Heiny
BACKGROUND: Vision Zero is a strategy to eliminate all fatalities and serious injuries from road traffic crashes, while increasing safe and equitable mobility for all. In 2015, the United States' Department of Transportation announced the official target of the federal government transportation safety policy was zero deaths. In 2017, we assessed the dissemination of Vision Zero in the United States. METHODS: We conducted a web-based survey in 2017 among road safety professionals...
May 8, 2018: Injury Epidemiology
Brian Rieger, Lawrence Lewandowski, Heather Potts, Kyle Potter, Lawrence S Chin
Introduction There is increased concern about concussion in youth athletes, yet there is little research on parent knowledge of concussion. Purpose  The purpose of the current study was to investigate attitudes to and knowledge of concussion among parents of youth football players. Methods We surveyed 180 parents/guardians of youth football players, ages 5-12, regarding their knowledge and beliefs concerning concussion. Results We found that the vast majority of respondents (86%) had confidence in their ability to recognize concussions...
March 4, 2018: Curēus
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