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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28317812/evaluation-of-pulmonary-tuberculosis-case-detection-improvement-with-the-deployment-of-xpertmtb-rif-in-the-tuberculosis-control-program-of-cross-river-state-nigeria
#1
Ernest Afu Ochang, Ubleni E Emanghe, Atana Ewa, Akaninyene Otu, Jonah B Offor, Micheal Odo, Aniekan Etokidem, Barinadaa Afirima, Oju Eni Owuna, Sunday M Obeten, Martin M Meremikwu
OBJECTIVE/BACKGROUND: Global indices show that Nigeria has the highest tuberculosis (TB)-related mortality rate. Overdependence on Ziehl-Neelsen (ZN) smear microscopy for diagnosis and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)/AIDS has limited control efforts. The new polymerase chain reaction-based XpertMTB/Rif (Cepheid Inc., CA, USA), which detects Mycobacterium tuberculosis and rifampicin resistance, was introduced in Cross River State in 2014. We evaluated the increment in pulmonary TB case detection following introduction of XpertMTB/Rif into the Cross River State TB control program...
January 2017: International Journal of Mycobacteriology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28294485/structure-of-the-complex-between-a-heparan-sulfate-octasaccharide-and-mycobacterial-heparin-binding-hemagglutinin
#2
Teng-Yi Huang, Deli Irene, Medel Manuel L Zulueta, Tzu-Jui Tai, Shih-Han Lain, Cheng-Po Cheng, Ping-Xi Tsai, Shu-Yi Lin, Zhi-Geng Chen, Chiao-Chu Ku, Chwan-Deng Hsiao, Chia-Lin Chyan, Shang-Cheng Hung
Heparin-binding hemagglutinin (HBHA) is a 199 amino acid virulence factor at the envelope of Mycobacterium tuberculosis that contributes to latent tuberculosis. The binding of HBHA to respiratory epithelial cells, which leads to extrapulmonary dissemination of the pathogen, is mediated by cell-surface heparan sulfate (HS). We report the structural characterization of the HBHA/HS complex by NMR spectroscopy. To develop a model for the molecular recognition, the first chemically synthesized uniformly (13) C- and (15) N-labeled HS octasaccharide and a uniformly (13) C- and (15) N-labeled form of HBHA were prepared...
March 15, 2017: Angewandte Chemie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28286212/lingual-tuberculosis-in-an-hiv-aids-patient
#3
José Y Rodríguez, Gerson J Rodríguez, Carlos A Álvarez-Moreno
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 7, 2017: International Journal of Infectious Diseases: IJID
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28282418/the-proportion-of-cancer-related-entries-in-pubmed-has-increased-considerably-is-cancer-truly-the-emperor-of-all-maladies
#4
Constantino Carlos Reyes-Aldasoro
In this work, the public database of biomedical literature PubMed was mined using queries with combinations of keywords and year restrictions. It was found that the proportion of Cancer-related entries per year in PubMed has risen from around 6% in 1950 to more than 16% in 2016. This increase is not shared by other conditions such as AIDS, Malaria, Tuberculosis, Diabetes, Cardiovascular, Stroke and Infection some of which have, on the contrary, decreased as a proportion of the total entries per year. Organ-related queries were performed to analyse the variation of some specific cancers...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28282390/incidence-and-predictors-of-tuberculosis-among-hiv-infected-adults-after-initiation-of-antiretroviral-therapy-in-nigeria-2004-2012
#5
Ishani Pathmanathan, E Kainne Dokubo, Ray W Shiraishi, Simon G Agolory, Andrew F Auld, Dennis Onotu, Solomon Odafe, Ibrahim Dalhatu, Oseni Abiri, Henry C Debem, Adebobola Bashorun, Tedd Ellerbrock
BACKGROUND: Nigeria had the most AIDS-related deaths worldwide in 2014 (170,000), and 46% were associated with tuberculosis (TB). Although treatment of people living with HIV (PLHIV) with antiretroviral therapy (ART) reduces TB-associated morbidity and mortality, incident TB can occur while on ART. We estimated incidence and characterized factors associated with TB after ART initiation in Nigeria. METHODS: We analyzed retrospective cohort data from a nationally representative sample of adult patients on ART...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28281443/central-nervous-system-tuberculosis
#6
John M Leonard
Central nervous system tuberculosis (CNS-TB) takes three clinical forms: meningitis (TBM), intracranial tuberculoma, and spinal arachnoiditis. TBM predominates in the western world and presents as a subacute to chronic meningitis syndrome with a prodrome of malaise, fever, and headache progressing to altered mentation and focal neurologic signs, followed by stupor, coma, and death within five to eight weeks of onset. The CSF formula typically shows a lymphocytic pleocytosis, and low glucose and high protein concentrations...
March 2017: Microbiology Spectrum
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28281441/miliary-tuberculosis
#7
Surendra K Sharma, Alladi Mohan
Miliary tuberculosis (TB) results from a massive lymphohematogenous dissemination of Mycobacterium tuberculosis bacilli and is characterized by tiny tubercles evident on gross pathology resembling millet seeds in size and appearance. The global HIV/AIDS pandemic and widespread use of immunosuppressive drugs and biologicals have altered the epidemiology of miliary TB. Considered to be predominantly a disease of infants and children in the pre-antibiotic era, miliary TB is increasingly being encountered in adults as well...
March 2017: Microbiology Spectrum
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28280303/in-silico-discovery-and-in-vitro-activity-of-inhibitors-against-mycobacterium-tuberculosis-7-8-diaminopelargonic-acid-synthase-mtb-bioa
#8
Junie B Billones, Maria Constancia O Carrillo, Voltaire G Organo, Jamie Bernadette A Sy, Nina Abigail B Clavio, Stephani Joy Y Macalino, Inno A Emnacen, Alexandra P Lee, Paul Kenny L Ko, Gisela P Concepcion
Computer-aided drug discovery and development approaches such as virtual screening, molecular docking, and in silico drug property calculations have been utilized in this effort to discover new lead compounds against tuberculosis. The enzyme 7,8-diaminopelargonic acid aminotransferase (BioA) in Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb), primarily involved in the lipid biosynthesis pathway, was chosen as the drug target due to the fact that humans are not capable of synthesizing biotin endogenously. The computational screening of 4...
2017: Drug Design, Development and Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28275458/demographic-and-clinical-correlates-of-hiv-1-rna-levels-in-antiretroviral-therapy-naive-adults-attending-a-tertiary-hospital-in-jos-nigeria
#9
EDITORIAL
Joseph Anejo-Okopi, Isaac Okoh Abah, Yakhat Barshep, Augustine Odo Ebonyi, Comfort Daniyam, Samson Ejiji Isa, Gomerep Simji, Stephen Oguche, Patricia Agaba, Patricia Lar, Oche Agbaji, John A Idoko
BACKGROUND: Plasma HIV-RNA viral load (VL) of HIV-infected persons is an important prognostic factor in HIV management. We determined the VL among antiretroviral therapy (ART)-naive patients to identify the association between patients' demographic, clinical and laboratory characteristics with VL. METHOD: A cross-sectional study of 224 ART-naive HIV-1-infected patients (≥15 years of age) accessing care at the Jos University Teaching Hospital AIDS Prevention Initiative in Nigeria ART treatment centre, from October 2010 to April 2011...
January 1, 2017: Journal of Virus Eradication
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28275455/country-of-residence-is-associated-with-distinct-inflammatory-biomarker-signatures-in-hiv-infected-patients
#10
EDITORIAL
Maura Manion, Bruno B Andrade, Rebecca DerSimonian, Wenjuan Gu, Adam Rupert, Laura W Musselwhite, Juan G Sierra-Madero, Pablo F Belaunzaran-Zamudio, Ian Sanne, Michael M Lederman, Irini Sereti
BACKGROUND: Inflammation and coagulation biomarkers are independent predictors of morbidity and mortality in HIV-infected patients. The impact of country of residence on these biomarkers is unknown and was investigated in persons at similar stages of HIV infection. METHODS: Cryopreserved plasma specimens were analysed from 267 ART-naive patients with CD4 cell counts <100 cells/μl from Mexico (n=124) and South Africa (n=143). Biomarkers were compared and dimension reduction analyses were performed to highlight biosignatures according to nationality, gender and tuberculosis co-infection...
January 1, 2017: Journal of Virus Eradication
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28261567/mycobacterium-tuberculosis-peptidyl-prolyl-isomerases-are-immunogenic-alter-cytokine-profile-and-aid-in-intracellular-survival
#11
Saurabh Pandey, Deeksha Tripathi, Mohd Khubaib, Ashutosh Kumar, Javaid A Sheikh, Gaddam Sumanlatha, Nasreen Z Ehtesham, Seyed E Hasnain
Mycobacterium tuberculosis (M. tb) has two peptidyl-prolyl isomerases (Ppiases) PpiA and PpiB, popularly known as cyclophilin A and cyclophilin B. The role of cyclophilins in processes such as signaling, cell surface recognition, chaperoning, and heat shock response has been well-documented. We present evidence that M. tb Ppiases modulate the host immune response. ELISA results revealed significant presence of antibodies to M. tb Ppiases in patient sera as compared to sera from healthy individuals. Treatment of THP-1 cells with increasing concentrations of rPpiA, induced secretion of pro-inflammatory cytokines TNF-α and IL-6...
2017: Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28257424/symptom-screening-rules-to-identify-active-pulmonary-tuberculosis-findings-from-the-zambian-south-african-tuberculosis-and-hiv-aids-reduction-zamstar-trial-prevalence-surveys
#12
M M Claassens, C van Schalkwyk, S Floyd, H Ayles, N Beyers
BACKGROUND: High tuberculosis (TB) burden countries should consider systematic screening among adults in the general population. We identified symptom screening rules to be used in addition to cough ≥2 weeks, in a context where X-ray screening is not feasible, aiming to increase the sensitivity of screening while achieving a specificity of ≥85%. METHODS: We used 2010 Zambia South Africa Tuberculosis and HIV/AIDS Reduction (ZAMSTAR) survey data: a South African (SA) training dataset, a SA testing dataset for internal validation and a Zambian dataset for external validation...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28256381/breaking-the-barriers-migrants-and-tuberculosis
#13
Giovanni Sotgiu, Masoud Dara, Rosella Centis, Alberto Matteelli, Ivan Solovic, Christina Gratziou, Adrian Rendon, Giovanni Battista Migliori
Tuberculosis (TB) can represent an important clinical and public health in developing and developed countries. Low- and middle-income countries are facing an epidemic which is difficult to address because of the drug-resistance spread and the association of TB with HIV/AIDS. High-income countries, whose TB incidence has decreased in the last decades, can be involved in new TB epidemic waves owing to social, healthcare, and economic hurdles and challenges. In particular, migrants coming from high TB incidence countries can represent a new epidemiological issue in the TB care and control in geographical areas where primary care and specialized centres are not equipped to face the clinical and public health issues associated with the TB disease...
February 27, 2017: La Presse Médicale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28250931/chylothorax-and-central-vein-thrombosis-an-under-recognized-association-a-case-series
#14
Sze Shyang Kho, Siew Teck Tie, Swee Kim Chan, Mei Ching Yong, Sing Ling Chai, Pei Jye Voon
Chylothorax is defined as the presence of chyle in the pleural cavity. Central vein thrombosis is an under-recognized cause of chylothorax in the adult population and is commonly related to central venous catheterization. Case 1 illustrates a patient with AIDS and disseminated tuberculosis with left chylothorax and central vein thrombosis after a month of antituberculosis therapy. Case 2 was a patient with advanced seminoma who presented with left chylothorax and central vein thrombosis while on chemotherapy...
May 2017: Respirology Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28250520/reaching-vulnerable-populations-lessons-from-the-global-fund-to-fight-aids-tuberculosis-and-malaria
#15
Matthew Greenall, Osamu Kunii, Kate Thomson, Rene Bangert, Olivia Nathan
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 1, 2017: Bulletin of the World Health Organization
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28225338/potential-biomarkers-associated-with-discrimination-between-latent-and-active-pulmonary-tuberculosis
#16
R Kamakia, S Kiazyk, J Waruk, A Meyers, J Ochanda, T B Ball, J Oyugi
SETTING: A third of the world's population has latent tuberculous infection (LTBI). Current TB diagnostics used in developing countries are ineffective and are unable to distinguish LTBI from active TB. Identifying biomarkers that could aid in the early detection of TB and in distinguishing TB states could be a major breakthrough in global TB control. OBJECTIVE: To identify potential immune biomarkers to distinguish active TB from LTBI. DESIGN: A cross-sectional study was conducted among 19 active TB patients, 8 TB-negative individuals (controls) and 16 LTBI non-human immunodeficiency virus infected individuals in Nairobi, Kenya...
March 1, 2017: International Journal of Tuberculosis and Lung Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28220322/serious-fungal-infections-in-the-philippines
#17
M C R Batac, D Denning
The Philippines is a low middle-income, tropical country in Southeast Asia. Infectious diseases remain the main causes of morbidity, including tuberculosis. AIDS/HIV prevalence is still low at <1%, but is rapidly increasing. Fungal disease surveillance has not been done, and its burden has never been estimated. This becomes more important as the population of immunocompromised patients increases, drawn from patients with AIDS, TB, malignancies, and autoimmune diseases requiring chronic steroid use. Using the methodology of the LIFE program ( www...
February 21, 2017: European Journal of Clinical Microbiology & Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28213689/serious-fungal-infections-in-egypt
#18
S M Zaki, D W Denning
We aimed to estimate the burden of serious fungal infections in Egypt, currently unknown, based on the size of the populations at risk and available epidemiological data. Data were obtained from the World Health Organization (WHO), the Joint United Nations Programme on HIV/AIDS (UNAIDS), and published reports with clearcut denominators. When no data existed, risk populations were used to estimate frequencies of fungal infections, using previously described methodology. The population of Egypt in 2011 was ∼82,500,000; 31% children, and 8% women >60 years of age...
February 17, 2017: European Journal of Clinical Microbiology & Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28213139/antimycobacterial-antimicrobial-activity-experimental-ft-ir-ft-raman-nmr-uv-vis-dsc-and-dft-transition-state-chemical-reactivity-nbo-nlo
#19
Poonam Rawat, R N Singh, Alok Ranjan, Sartaj Ahmad, Rajat Saxena
As part of a study of pyrrole hydrazone, we have investigated quantum chemical calculations, molecular geometry, relative energy, vibrational properties and antimycobacterial/antimicrobial activity of pyrrole-2-carboxaldehyde isonicotinyl hydrazone (PCINH), by applying the density functional theory (DFT) and Hartree Fock (HF). Good reproduction of experimental values is obtained and with small percentage error in majority of the cases in comparison to theoretical result (DFT). The experimental FT-IR and Raman wavenumbers were compared with the respective theoretical values obtained from DFT calculations and found to agree well...
February 11, 2017: Spectrochimica Acta. Part A, Molecular and Biomolecular Spectroscopy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28210505/nanotechnology-based-approach-in-tuberculosis-treatment
#20
REVIEW
Mohammad Nasiruddin, Md Kausar Neyaz, Shilpi Das
Tuberculosis, commonly known as TB, is the second most fatal infectious disease after AIDS, caused by bacterium called Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Prolonged treatment, high pill burden, low compliance, and stiff administration schedules are factors that are responsible for emergence of MDR and XDR cases of tuberculosis. Till date, only BCG vaccine is available which is ineffective against adult pulmonary TB, which is the most common form of disease. Various unique antibodies have been developed to overcome drug resistance, reduce the treatment regimen, and elevate the compliance to treatment...
2017: Tuberculosis Research and Treatment
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