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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29221522/barriers-to-smoking-cessation-among-drug-resistant-tuberculosis-patients-in-south-africa
#1
Zifikile Phindile Shangase, Joyce Mahlako Tsoka-Gwegweni, Catherine O Egbe
BACKGROUND: Drug-resistant tuberculosis (DR-TB) remains a significant cause of morbidity and mortality. The long-term health effects of smoking and the risk of adverse TB outcomes, including increased periods of infectiousness, have been reported among DR-TB patients in South Africa. OBJECTIVES: This study aimed to identify the barriers to smoking cessation among DR-TB inpatients at a hospital in Durban, South Africa. METHODS: A qualitative design using in-depth interviews with a purposive sample of 20 DR-TB inpatients was employed...
May 2017: Annals of Global Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29212699/rapid-microarray-based-detection-of-rifampicin-isoniazid-and-fluoroquinolone-resistance-in-mycobacterium-tuberculosis-using-a-single-cartridge
#2
Juliane Havlicek, Beatrice Dachsel, Peter Slickers, Sönke Andres, Patrick Beckert, Silke Feuerriegel, Stefan Niemann, Matthias Merker, Ines Labugger
Rapid and robust identification of mutations in Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex (MTBC) strains mediating multidrug and extensively drug-resistant (M/XDR) phenotypes is crucial to combat the MDR tuberculosis (TB) epidemic. Currently available molecular TB drug susceptibility tests are either restricted to single targets/drugs (i.e. Xpert MTB/RIF) or aid the risk of cross-contaminations due to the design limitations of the open platform (i.e. line probe assays).With a good understanding of the technical and commercial boundaries we designed a test cartridge with an introduction of dried reagents, based on an oligonucleotide array, which has the ability to identify MTBC strains resistant to isoniazid, rifampicin and the fluoroquinolones...
December 6, 2017: Journal of Clinical Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29211183/survival-of-patients-with-aids-and-co-infection-with-the-tuberculosis-bacillus-in-the-south-and-southeast-regions-of-brazil
#3
Márcio Cristiano de Melo, Maria Rita Donalisio, Ricardo Carlos Cordeiro
The study investigates the survival of patients with co-infection AIDS-TB through a retrospective study of a cohort of individuals aged 13 or more and the diagnosis of AIDS reported in the years 1998-99 and following 10 years. Of the 2,091 AIDS cases, 517 (24.7%) had positive diagnosis for tuberculosis, and 379 (73.3%) were male. The risk among co-infected patients was 1,65 times the not co-infected. Have been compared the exposed and non-exposed through the Kaplan-Meier and Cox method. The variables associated with longer survival were: female gender (HR = 0...
November 2017: Ciência & Saúde Coletiva
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29184648/estimating-the-prevalence-of-positive-tuberculin-skin-test-reactions-in-general-population-and-high-risk-groups-a-meta-analysis
#4
REVIEW
Mohammad Sadegh Rezai, Reza Tabrizi, Ali Akbar Haghdoost, Mahdi Afshari, Siavosh Abedi, Maryam Akbari, Mohammad Amin Bahrami, Mahmood Moosazadeh
Results of tuberculin skin test (TST) surveys among different populations have been reported in many studies as a method for detecting primary Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection. Combining these results provides reliable estimates of primary latent tuberculosis (TB) infection for health policymakers. This study aims to estimate the prevalence of latent TB infection in general and high-risk populations in Iran. National and international databanks were searched using specific keywords. After restricting the search strategy, duplicates exclusion, reviewing titles, abstracts and full texts, and quality assessment, eligible papers were selected...
2017: International Journal of Preventive Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29183354/motives-for-change-of-first-line-antiretroviral-therapy-regimens-in-an-unselected-cohort-of-hiv-aids-patients-at-a-major-referral-centre-in-south-west-cameroon
#5
Christian Akem Dimala, Ndemazie Nkafu Bechem, Desmond Aroke, Benjamin Momo Kadia
OBJECTIVE: The rapid scale-up of antiretroviral therapy (ART) coverage in sub-Saharan Africa has encountered the challenge of maintaining international clinical standards of ART utilization and change of ART regimens. In Cameroon, scarce reports have documented the motives for change of ART. This study had as objective to investigate the reasons for switch in ART through a secondary analysis and descriptive synthesis of data from a cross-sectional study at the Limbe Regional Hospital...
November 28, 2017: BMC Research Notes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29182223/tuberculosis-in-poland-in-2015
#6
Maria Korzeniewska-Koseła
AIM OF THE STUDY: To evaluate the main features of TB epidemiology in 2015 in Poland and to compare with the data on the same phenomena in the EU/EEA countries. METHODS: Analysis of case – based data on TB patients from National TB Register, data on anti-TB drug susceptibility testing results in cases notified in 2015, data from National Institute of Public Health- National Institute of Hygiene on cases of tuberculosis as AIDS-defining disease, data from Central Statistical Office on deaths from tuberculosis based on death certificates, data from ECDC report „ European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control/WHO Regional Office for Europe...
2017: Przegla̧d Epidemiologiczny
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29181956/infectious-diseases-in-poland-in-2015
#7
Małgorzata Sadkowska-Todys, Andrzej Zieliński, Mirosław P. Czarkowski
PURPOSE OF THE STUDY: This is the next annual analysis of the situation of infectious and parasitic diseases in Poland in 2015 within the framework of the Epidemiological Chronicle of Przegląd Epidemiologiczny - Epidemiological Review. Its purpose is to identify potential threats to the health of populations from infectious diseases occurring in Poland with reference to other parts of the globe. MATERIAL AND METHODS: This paper is an introduction to more detailed studies of the epidemiological situation of selected infectious diseases and summarizes the results of the surveillance of infectious diseases in Poland in 2015...
2017: Przegla̧d Epidemiologiczny
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29179064/a-simple-and-highly-sensitive-uplc-esi-ms-ms-method-for-the-simultaneous-quantification-of-nicotine-cotinine-and-the-tobacco-specific-carcinogens-n-nitrosonornicotine-and-4-methylnitrosamino-1-3-pyridyl-1-butanone-in-serum-samples
#8
Lucie Loukotková, Linda S VonTungeln, Michelle Vanlandingham, Gonçalo Gamboa da Costa
According to the World Health Organization, the consumption of tobacco products is the single largest cause of preventable deaths in the world, exceeding the total aggregated number of deaths caused by diseases such as AIDS, tuberculosis, and malaria. An important element in the evaluation of the health risks associated with the consumption of tobacco products is the assessment of the internal exposure to the tobacco constituents responsible for their addictive (e.g. nicotine) and carcinogenic (e.g. N-nitrosamines such as NNN and NNK) properties...
November 21, 2017: Journal of Chromatography. B, Analytical Technologies in the Biomedical and Life Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29177395/-infection-by-the-mycobacterium-avium-intracellulare-complex-in-patients-with-hiv-aids-in-a-peruvian-hospital-a-series-of-cases
#9
César Ticona-Huaroto, Lilian Astocondor-Salazar, Juan Montenegro-Idrogo, Gustavo Valencia-Mesias, Jaime Soria
There is little information on the presence of the Mycobacterium avium-Intracellulare (MAC) complex in Peru. Five cases of MAC infection are described in patients with HIV/AIDS at the National Hospital Dos de Mayo, Lima - Peru. The patients presented, mainly, persistent fever, chronic diarrhea, consumptive syndrome, pancytopenia and citofagocitosis. In all of them, resistant acid-alcohol bacilli were identified in feces, so they received antituberculous treatment. The culture of feces was negative for Mycobacterium tuberculosis and, later, in all cases MAC was identified using a molecular test (genotype) in the culture of feces...
April 2017: Revista Peruana de Medicina Experimental y Salud Pública
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29165514/-disseminated-histoplasmosis-and-hiv-infection-case-series-in-a-peruvian-hospital
#10
Giancarlo Pérez-Lazo, Julio Maquera-Afaray, Christian R Mejia, Raúl Castillo
BACKGROUND: Histoplasmosis is an endemic fungal infection in Peru and HIV coinfection leads to difficult diagnoses and high associated mortality. AIM: To describe clinical, epidemiological and clinical outcomes in patients with HIV infection with diagnosis of disseminated histoplasmosis (DH) at Guillermo Almenara Irigoyen National Hospital, Lima, Peru. METHODS: Retrospective, descriptive study; information was obtained from the computer registry of patients with HIV infection diagnosed with DH, during the period 1996-2014...
August 2017: Revista Chilena de Infectología: órgano Oficial de la Sociedad Chilena de Infectología
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29155877/immune-response-profiles-of-calves-following-vaccination-with-live-bcg-and-inactivated-mycobacterium-bovis-vaccine-candidates
#11
E M D L van der Heijden, J Chileshe, J C M Vernooij, C Gortazar, R A Juste, I Sevilla, J E Crafford, V P M G Rutten, A L Michel
Conventional control and eradication strategies for bovine tuberculosis (BTB) face tremendous difficulties in developing countries; countries with wildlife reservoirs, a complex wildlife-livestock-human interface or a lack of veterinary and veterinary public health surveillance. Vaccination of cattle and other species might in some cases provide the only suitable control strategy for BTB, while in others it may supplement existing test-and-slaughter schemes. However, the use of live BCG has several limitations and the global rise of HIV/AIDS infections has furthermore warranted the exploration of inactivated vaccine preparations...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29155658/building-global-epidemiology-and-response-capacity-with-field-epidemiology-training-programs
#12
Donna S Jones, Richard C Dicker, Robert E Fontaine, Amy L Boore, Jared O Omolo, Rana J Ashgar, Henry C Baggett
More than ever, competent field epidemiologists are needed worldwide. As known, new, and resurgent communicable diseases increase their global impact, the International Health Regulations and the Global Health Security Agenda call for sufficient field epidemiologic capacity in every country to rapidly detect, respond to, and contain public health emergencies, thereby ensuring global health security. To build this capacity, for >35 years the US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention has worked with countries around the globe to develop Field Epidemiology Training Programs (FETPs)...
December 2017: Emerging Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29145844/development-and-evaluation-of-an-interferon-gamma-assay-for-the-diagnosis-of-tuberculosis-in-red-deer-experimentally-infected-with-mycobacterium-bovis
#13
María Ángeles Risalde, Jobin Thomas, Iker Sevilla, Miriam Serrano, Jose Antonio Ortíz, Joseba Garrido, Mercedes Domínguez, Lucas Domínguez, Christian Gortázar, Jose Francisco Ruíz-Fons
BACKGROUND: Red deer (Cervus elaphus) is regarded as an epidemiologically relevant host for Mycobacterium bovis (M. bovis) and closely related members of the Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex that cause animal tuberculosis (TB). The standard antemortem screening test for the detection of TB in deer is the intradermal tuberculin skin test, but the detection of interferon-gamma (IFNγ) produced by white blood cells exposed to M. bovis antigens can be used as an alternative or supplemental assay in most TB eradication/control programs...
November 16, 2017: BMC Veterinary Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29145454/reduction-of-hiv-associated-excess-mortality-by-antiretroviral-treatment-among-tuberculosis-patients-in-kenya
#14
Dickens O Onyango, Courtney M Yuen, Kevin P Cain, Faith Ngari, Enos O Masini, Martien W Borgdorff
BACKGROUND: Mortality from TB continues to be a global public health challenge. TB ranks alongside Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) as the leading infectious causes of death globally. HIV is a major driver of TB related morbidity and mortality while TB is the leading cause of mortality among people living with HIV/AIDS. We sought to determine excess mortality associated with HIV and the effect of antiretroviral therapy on reducing mortality among tuberculosis patients in Kenya. METHODS: We conducted a retrospective analysis of Kenya national tuberculosis program data of patients enrolled from 2013 through 2014...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29141725/comparison-of-enzyme-linked-immunosorbent-assay-using-either-natural-octyl-disaccharide-leprosy-idri-diagnostic-or-phenolic-glycolipid-i-antigens-for-the-detection-of-leprosy-patients-in-colombia
#15
Mónica Muñoz, Juan Camilo Beltrán-Alzate, Malcolm S Duthie, Héctor Serrano-Coll, Nora Cardona-Castro
Leprosy is a chronic infectious disease with a broad spectrum of manifestations. Delays in attaining correct diagnosis permit progressive peripheral nerve damage that can produce irreversible disabilities. Tests detecting antigen-specific antibodies can aid the diagnostic process and potentially detect patients earlier. Reported tests have lacked optimal sensitivity and specificity; however, the need to develop new tests to aid early diagnosis still remains. In this study, we determined the sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, and negative predictive value of enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) using natural octyl disaccharide-leprosy IDRI diagnostic (NDO-LID)...
November 6, 2017: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29132400/hospitalization-causes-and-outcomes-in-hiv-patients-in-the-late-antiretroviral-era-in-colombia
#16
María Fernanda Álvarez Barreneche, Carlos Andrés Restrepo Castro, Alicia Hidrón Botero, Juan Pablo Villa Franco, Ivan Mauricio Trompa Romero, Laura Restrepo Carvajal, Alejandro Eusse García, Adriana Ocampo Mesa, Lina María Echeverri Toro, Glenys Patricia Porras Fernández de Castro, Jaime Mauricio Ramírez Rivera, Carlos Andrés Agudelo Restrepo
BACKGROUND: Antiretroviral therapy (ART) has modified the natural history of HIV-infection: the incidence of opportunistic infections (OIs) has decreased and mortality associated to HIV has improved dramatically. The reasons for hospitalization have changed; OIs are no longer the most common reason for admission. This study describes the patient population, admission diagnosis and hospital course of HIV patients in Colombia in the ART era. METHODS: Patients admitted with HIV/AIDS at six hospitals in Medellin, Colombia between August 1, 2014 and July 31, 2015 were included...
November 13, 2017: AIDS Research and Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29132287/a-qualitative-analysis-of-the-barriers-to-antiretroviral-therapy-initiation-among-children-2-to-18-months-of-age-in-swaziland
#17
Charisse V Ahmed, Pauline Jolly, Luz Padilla, Musa Malinga, Chantal Harris, Nobuhle Mthethwa, Inessa Ba, Amy Styles, Sarah Perry, Raina Brooks, Florence Naluyinda-Kitabire, Makhosini Mamba, Peter Preko
HIV/AIDS remains one of the leading causes of death among children under 5 years old in Swaziland. Although studies have shown that early initiation of infants and children diagnosed with HIV on antiretroviral therapy (ART) significantly reduces mortality, many children do not initiate ART until the later stages of disease. This study was designed to collect qualitative data from mothers and caregivers of HIV-positive children to identify the barriers to ART initiation. Focus group discussion (FGD) sessions were conducted in siSwati between July and September 2014 among caregivers of aged children 2-18 months in Swaziland who did or did not initiate ART between January 2011 and December 2012 after HIV DNA PCR-positive diagnosis of the infants...
December 2017: African Journal of AIDS Research: AJAR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29119205/secretome-profile-analysis-of-multidrug-resistant-monodrug-resistant-and-drug-susceptible-mycobacterium-tuberculosis
#18
Chanyanuch Putim, Narumon Phaonakrop, Janthima Jaresitthikunchai, Ratikorn Gamngoen, Khajornsak Tragoolpua, Sorasak Intorasoot, Usanee Anukool, Chayada Sitthidet Tharincharoen, Ponrut Phunpae, Chatchai Tayapiwatana, Watchara Kasinrerk, Sittiruk Roytrakul, Bordin Butr-Indr
The emergence of drug-resistant tuberculosis has generated great concern in the control of tuberculosis and HIV/TB patients have established severe complications that are difficult to treat. Although, the gold standard of drug-susceptibility testing is highly accurate and efficient, it is time-consuming. Diagnostic biomarkers are, therefore, necessary in discriminating between infection from drug-resistant and drug-susceptible strains. One strategy that aids to effectively control tuberculosis is understanding the function of secreting proteins that mycobacteria use to manipulate the host cellular defenses...
November 8, 2017: Archives of Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29111156/genetics-of-human-susceptibility-to-active-and-latent-tuberculosis-present-knowledge-and-future-perspectives
#19
REVIEW
Laurent Abel, Jacques Fellay, David W Haas, Erwin Schurr, Geetha Srikrishna, Michael Urbanowski, Nimisha Chaturvedi, Sudha Srinivasan, Daniel H Johnson, William R Bishai
Tuberculosis is an ancient human disease, estimated to have originated and evolved over thousands of years alongside modern human populations. Despite considerable advances in disease control, tuberculosis remains one of the world's deadliest communicable diseases with 10 million incident cases and 1·8 million deaths in 2015 alone based on the annual WHO report, due to inadequate health service resources in less-developed regions of the world, and exacerbated by the HIV/AIDS pandemic and emergence of multidrug-resistant strains of Mycobacterium tuberculosis...
October 27, 2017: Lancet Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29109555/pathogenesis-of-hiv-1-and-mycobacterium-tuberculosis-co-infection
#20
REVIEW
Lucy C K Bell, Mahdad Noursadeghi
Co-infection with Mycobacterium tuberculosis is the leading cause of death in individuals infected with HIV-1. It has long been known that HIV-1 infection alters the course of M. tuberculosis infection and substantially increases the risk of active tuberculosis (TB). It has also become clear that TB increases levels of HIV-1 replication, propagation and genetic diversity. Therefore, co-infection provides reciprocal advantages to both pathogens. In this Review, we describe the epidemiological associations between the two pathogens, selected interactions of each pathogen with the host and our current understanding of how they affect the pathogenesis of TB and HIV-1/AIDS in individuals with co-infections...
November 7, 2017: Nature Reviews. Microbiology
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