keyword
MENU ▼
Read by QxMD icon Read
search

tuberculosis,aids

keyword
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28080991/minimizing-fungal-disease-deaths-will-allow-the-unaids-target-of-reducing-annual-aids-deaths-below-500-000-by-2020-to-be-realized
#1
REVIEW
David W Denning
Deaths from AIDS (1 500 000 in 2013) have been falling more slowly than anticipated with improved access to antiretroviral therapy. Opportunistic infections account for most AIDS-related mortality, with a median age of death in the mid-30s. About 360 000 (24%) of AIDS deaths are attributed to tuberculosis. Fungal infections deaths in AIDS were estimated at more than 700 000 deaths (47%) annually. Rapid diagnostic tools and antifungal agents are available for these diseases and would likely have a major impact in reducing deaths...
December 5, 2016: Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28075558/immunological-principles-guiding-the-rational-design-of-particles-for-vaccine-delivery
#2
Katelyn T Gause, Adam K Wheatley, Jiwei Cui, Yan Yan, Stephen J Kent, Frank Caruso
Despite the immense public health successes of immunization over the past century, effective vaccines are still lacking for globally important pathogens such as human immunodeficiency virus, malaria, and tuberculosis. Exciting recent advances in immunology and biotechnology over the past few decades have facilitated a shift from empirical to rational vaccine design, opening possibilities for improved vaccines. Some of the most important advancements include (i) the purification of subunit antigens with high safety profiles, (ii) the identification of innate pattern recognition receptors (PRRs) and cognate agonists responsible for inducing immune responses, and (iii) developments in nano- and microparticle fabrication and characterization techniques...
January 11, 2017: ACS Nano
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28073767/analyses-of-sensitivity-to-the-missing-at-random-assumption-using-multiple-imputation-with-delta-adjustment-application-to-a-tuberculosis-hiv-prevalence-survey-with-incomplete-hiv-status-data
#3
Finbarr P Leacy, Sian Floyd, Tom A Yates, Ian R White
Multiple imputation with delta adjustment provides a flexible and transparent means to impute univariate missing data under general missing-not-at-random mechanisms. This facilitates the conduct of analyses assessing sensitivity to the missing-at-random (MAR) assumption. We review the delta-adjustment procedure and demonstrate how it can be used to assess sensitivity to departures from MAR, both when estimating the prevalence of a partially observed outcome and when performing parametric causal mediation analyses with a partially observed mediator...
January 10, 2017: American Journal of Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28065639/imaging-features-and-diagnosis-of-tuberculosis-of%C3%A2-the-breast
#4
C F Longman, T Campion, B Butler, T D Suaris, A Khanam, H Kunst, S Tiberi, S A O'Keeffe
AIM: To outline the pathophysiology, clinical presentation, imaging features, and relevant investigations of the different subtypes of breast tuberculosis (TB). MATERIALS AND METHODS: A review was undertaken of all cases (33 in total) of breast TB presenting to Barts Health NHS Trust within a 10-year period, including patient demographics, imaging features, and route of diagnosis. RESULTS: Thirty-three cases of proven granulomatous TB of the breast were identified (11 mastitis obliterans, 10 nodular caseous form, five sclerosing form, four disseminated disease, and three abnormal axillary lymph nodes)...
January 6, 2017: Clinical Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28065185/predictors-of-immunodeficiency-related-death-in-a-cohort-of-low-income-people-living-with-hiv-a-competing-risks-survival-analysis
#5
M F P M Albuquerque, D N Alves, C C Bresani Salvi, J D L Batista, R A A Ximenes, D B Miranda-Filho, H R L Melo, M Maruza, U R Montarroyos
We conducted a survival analysis with competing risks to estimate the mortality rate and predictive factors for immunodeficiency-related death in people living with HIV/AIDS (PLWH) in northeast Brazil. A cohort with 2372 PLWH was enrolled between July 2007 and June 2010 and monitored until 31 December 2012 at two healthcare centres. The event of interest was immunodeficiency-related death, which was defined based on the Coding Causes of Death in HIV Protocol (CoDe). The predictor variables were: sociodemographic characteristics, illicit drugs, tobacco, alcohol, nutritional status, antiretroviral therapy, anaemia and CD4 cell count at baseline; and treatment or chemoprophylaxis for tuberculosis (TB) during follow-up...
January 9, 2017: Epidemiology and Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28063815/effect-of-immediate-initiation-of-antiretroviral-therapy-on-risk-of-severe-bacterial-infections-in-hiv-positive-people-with-cd4-cell-counts-of-more-than-500-cells-per-%C3%AE-l-secondary-outcome-results-from-a-randomised-controlled-trial
#6
Jemma O'Connor, Michael J Vjecha, Andrew N Phillips, Brian Angus, David Cooper, Beatriz Grinsztejn, Gustavo Lopardo, Satyajit Das, Robin Wood, Aimee Wilkin, Hartwig Klinker, Pacharee Kantipong, Karin L Klingman, David Jilich, Elbushra Herieka, Eileen Denning, Ibrahim Abubakar, Fred Gordin, Jens D Lundgren
BACKGROUND: The effects of antiretroviral therapy on risk of severe bacterial infections in people with high CD4 cell counts have not been well described. In this study, we aimed to quantify the effects of immediate versus deferred ART on the risk of severe bacterial infection in people with high CD4 cell counts in a preplanned analysis of the START trial. METHODS: The START trial was a randomised controlled trial in ART-naive HIV-positive patients with CD4 cell count of more than 500 cells per μL assigned to immediate ART or deferral until their CD4 cell counts were lower than 350 cells per μL...
January 4, 2017: Lancet HIV
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28052986/can-voluntary-pooled-procurement-reduce-the-price-of-antiretroviral-drugs-a-case-study-of-efavirenz
#7
Sung Wook Kim, Jolene Skordis-Worrall
PURPOSE: A number of strategies have aimed to assist countries in procuring antiretroviral therapy (ARV) at lower prices. In 2009, as the Global Fund to Fight AIDS, Tuberculosis and Malaria (GFATM) commenced a voluntary pooled procurement scheme, however, the impact of the scheme on ARV prices remains uncertain. This study aims to estimate the effect of VPP on drug prices using Efavirenz as a case study. METHODS: This analysis uses WHO Global price report mechanism (GPRM) data from 2004 to 2013...
January 4, 2017: Health Policy and Planning
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28049455/effectiveness-of-isoniazid-preventative-therapy-in-reducing-incidence-of-active-tuberculosis-among-people-living-with-hiv-aids-in-public-health-facilities-of-addis-ababa-ethiopia-a-historical-cohort-study
#8
Mahlet Semu, Teferi Gedif Fenta, Girmay Medhin, Dawit Assefa
BACKGROUND: Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) pandemic has exacerbated tuberculosis disease especially in Sub-Saharan African countries. The World Health Organization (WHO) and Joint United Nations Program on HIV/AIDS (UNAIDS) have recommended Isoniazid Preventive Therapy (IPT) for HIV infected patients to reduce the burden of tuberculosis (TB). Ethiopia has been implementing IPT since 2007. However, effectiveness of IPT in averting occurrence of active tuberculosis among HIV infected patients has not been assessed...
January 3, 2017: BMC Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28043565/drug-susceptibility-testing-of-mycobacterium-avium-subsp-avium-isolates-from-naturally-infected-domestic-pigeons-to-avian-tuberculosis
#9
Kaveh Parvandar, Mansour Mayahi, Nader Mosavari, Reza Aref Pajoohi
OBJECTIVE: Avian tuberculosis is one of the most important infections affecting most species of birds. Several mycobacterial species have been identified causing avian tuberculosis, and the organisms confirmed most frequently are Mycobacterium avium and Mycobacterium genavense. Any species of birds can be infected with M. avium. Generally, domesticated fowl or captive wild birds are affected more frequently than those living in the wild. M. avium can not only infect all species of birds, but can also infect some domesticated mammals to cause disease, usually with localized lesion...
December 2016: International Journal of Mycobacteriology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28043562/identification-of-nontuberculous-mycobacteria-by-high-performance-liquid-chromatography-from-patients-in-tehran
#10
Ali Mirzapour, Ali Nazari Alam, Saeed Z Bostanabadi, Abdolrazagh H Shahraki, Soltan A Ebrahimi, Masoud Yousefi
BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: The genus Mycobacterium contains over 140 species comprises pathogenic and nonpathogenic strains. Nontuberculous mycobacteria (NTM) causing clinical disease have become increasingly common and more diverse. Widespread features of NTM infection can make the diagnosis difficult. Precise species-level detection can aid in distinguishing environmental contamination from actual infection and, furthermore, can assist in making a choice of antimicrobial therapy. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Mycolic acids extracted from saponified mycobacterial cells were examined by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) in addition to phenotypic tests for the identification of 20 clinical isolates of mycobacteria at Masoud Laboratory during 2014-2015...
December 2016: International Journal of Mycobacteriology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28043543/investigation-of-urine-lipoarabinomannan-in-human-immunodeficiency-virus-patients-with-or-without-coinfection-with-tuberculosis-in-iran
#11
Payam Tabarsi, Majid Marjani, Afshin Moniri, Parissa Farnia, Mehdi Kazempour Dizaji, John Garssen, Ian M Adcock, Esmaeil Mortaz
OBJECTIVE/BACKGROUND: Tuberculosis (TB) remains the leading cause of AIDS-related deaths among adults in countries with resource limitations. The emergence of the Xpert MTB/RIF rapid molecular assay and its subsequent World Health Organization endorsement in 2010 transformed the TB-diagnostic landscape. Xpert provided diagnostic accuracy that was far superior to that of the sputum-smear microscopy test previously used. The detection of mycobacterial lipoarabinomannan (LAM) antigen in urine has emerged as a potential point-of-care test for TB...
December 2016: International Journal of Mycobacteriology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28043517/sequelae-of-extrapulmonary-tuberculosis-after-treatment-addressing-patient-needs
#12
Bushra Jamil, Sadia Shakoor, Rumina Hasan
AIMS AND OBJECTIVES: Extrapulmonary disease accounts for a significant proportion of all cases of tuberculosis (TB) in endemic areas. With increasing prevalence of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), the case numbers are rising; extrapulmonary involvement can be seen in >50% of patients with concurrent AIDS and TB. In both HIV-positive and HIV-negative cases, due to diagnostic difficulties, extrapulmonary disease is often recognized late and, hence, although completely curable in many cases, as far as bacterial eradication is concerned, is not without consequence...
December 2016: International Journal of Mycobacteriology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28043507/t-cell-cytokine-responses-in-peripheral-blood-mononuclear-cells-from-patients-with-multidrug-resistant-tuberculosis-following-stimulation-with-proteins-purified-from-mycobacterium-tuberculosis-mdr-clinical-isolates
#13
Alireza Hadizadeh Tasbiti, Shamsi Yari, Mostafa Ghanei, Seyed Davar Siadat, Amir Amanzadeh, Payam Tabarsi, Keyvan Saeedfar, Ahmadreza Bahrmand
OBJECTIVE: Tuberculosis (TB) is a devastating disease that remains a major health threat worldwide. The appearance of Mycobacterium tuberculosis strains resistance to current antibiotics is a growing problem, both in the third world and in developed countries. Completion of genomic sequencing of M. tuberculosis provides a strong foundation for subsequent identification of proteins to aid the understanding of protein function and the discovery of new drug targets or a TB vaccine. This study employed a proteomics approach to identify proteins from antibiotic resistant M...
December 2016: International Journal of Mycobacteriology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28043486/tuberculosis-in-children
#14
Ali Akbar Velayati
Tuberculosis (TB) is the main cause of infection-related death in the world. Children make up ∼5-15% of all TB cases. Severe forms of disease such as meningitis and disseminated form are more common in children. Due to current estimates of World Health Organization (WHO) in 2015, one million children suffer from TB around the world; of these, it is estimated that more than 136,000 die a year. One study estimated 67million children with latent TB which develops to active form with the rate of ∼850,000 each year...
December 2016: International Journal of Mycobacteriology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28005986/a-systematic-review-of-cost-effectiveness-studies-reporting-cost-per-daly-averted
#15
Peter J Neumann, Teja Thorat, Yue Zhong, Jordan Anderson, Megan Farquhar, Mark Salem, Eileen Sandberg, Cayla J Saret, Colby Wilkinson, Joshua T Cohen
INTRODUCTION: Calculating the cost per disability-adjusted life years (DALYs) averted associated with interventions is an increasing popular means of assessing the cost-effectiveness of strategies to improve population health. However, there has been no systematic attempt to characterize the literature and its evolution. METHODS: We conducted a systematic review of cost-effectiveness studies reporting cost-per-DALY averted from 2000 through 2015. We developed the Global Health Cost-Effectiveness Analysis (GHCEA) Registry, a repository of English-language cost-per-DALY averted studies indexed in PubMed...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28003022/the-variability-and-reproducibility-of-whole-genome-sequencing-technology-for-detecting-resistance-to-anti-tuberculous-drugs
#16
Jody Phelan, Denise M O'Sullivan, Diana Machado, Jorge Ramos, Alexandra S Whale, Justin O'Grady, Keertan Dheda, Susana Campino, Ruth McNerney, Miguel Viveiros, Jim F Huggett, Taane G Clark
BACKGROUND: The emergence of resistance to anti-tuberculosis drugs is a serious and growing threat to public health. Next-generation sequencing is rapidly gaining traction as a diagnostic tool for investigating drug resistance in Mycobacterium tuberculosis to aid treatment decisions. However, there are few little data regarding the precision of such sequencing for assigning resistance profiles. METHODS: We investigated two sequencing platforms (Illumina MiSeq, Ion Torrent PGM™) and two rapid analytic pipelines (TBProfiler, Mykrobe predictor) using a well characterised reference strain (H37Rv) and clinical isolates from patients with tuberculosis resistant to up to 13 drugs...
December 22, 2016: Genome Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27998171/co-infections-of-tuberculosis-hepatitis-b-or-c-viruses-in-a-cohort-of-people-living-with-hiv-aids-in-china-predictors-and-sequelae
#17
Chen Zhang, Xiaoming Li, Yu Liu, Shan Qiao, Yi Chen, Yuejiao Zhou, Zhiyong Shen
The co-infection of viral hepatitis and tuberculosis (TB) among people living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHA) makes the syndemic of HIV even worse as there is higher mortality and morbidity among PLWHA with co-infections compared to people with HIV mono-infection. In the current study, we explored predictors and sequelae among a group of Chinese PLWHA to guide future program strategies and enhance the repertoire of action for both preventative and clinical purposes. Between October 2012 and August 2013, we conducted a cross-sectional study in Guangxi Autonomous Region (Guangxi) of China...
December 21, 2016: AIDS Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27994580/correlation-of-rpob-mutations-with-minimal-inhibitory-concentration-of-rifampin-and-rifabutin-in-mycobacterium-tuberculosis-in-an-hiv-aids-endemic-setting-south-africa
#18
Ivy Rukasha, Halima M Said, Shaheed V Omar, Hendrik Koornhof, Andries W Dreyer, Alfred Musekiwa, Harry Moultrie, Anwar A Hoosen, Gilla Kaplan, Dorothy Fallows, Nazir Ismail
Treatment of tuberculosis (TB) and HIV co-infections is often complicated by drug-to-drug interactions between anti-mycobacterial and anti-retroviral agents. Rifabutin (RFB) is an alternative to rifampin (RIF) for TB regimens and is recommended for HIV patients concurrently receiving protease inhibitors because of reduced induction of CYP3A4. This study sought to determine the proportion of RFB susceptible isolates among RIF-resistant strains in a high HIV prevalence setting in South Africa. In addition, the study explored the association between rpoB mutations and minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC) of RIF and RFB...
2016: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27986840/dedicated-health-systems-strengthening-of-the-global-fund-to-fight-aids-tuberculosis-and-malaria-an-analysis-of-grants
#19
Victoria Y Fan, Feng-Jen J Tsai, Zubin C Shroff, Branden Nakahara, Nabil Vargha, Scott Weathers
BACKGROUND: This study aims to understand the determinants of the Global Fund to Fight AIDS, Tuberculosis, and Malaria's dedicated channel for health systems strengthening (HSS) funding across countries and to analyze their health system priorities expressed in budgets and performance indicators. METHODS: We obtained publicly available data for disease-specific and HSS grants from the Global Fund over 2004-2013 prior to the new funding model. Regression analysis was employed to assess the determinants of dedicated HSS funding across 111 countries...
December 15, 2016: International Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27979784/less-research-on-tuberculosis-than-hiv-and-malaria-when-research-agendas-are-poorly-coordinated-a-systematic-review-of-research-outputs-from-cambodia
#20
REVIEW
Mishal Khan, Richard James, Neisha Sundaram, Shishi Wu, Mao Tang Eang, Saphonn Vonthanak, Richard Coker
OBJECTIVE: Coordination of health interventions and research is often weak during periods of political transition and unprecedented aid inflows, which Cambodia has recently experienced. Although HIV, tuberculosis (TB), and malaria have been a focus of international funding, TB has received much less. This study compares the numbers and methodologies of studies conducted on TB, malaria, and HIV in Cambodia, identifying evidence gaps and future research needs. METHODS: Three electronic databases and the grey literature were searched for studies on HIV, TB, and malaria published between January 2000 and October 2015...
December 12, 2016: International Journal of Infectious Diseases: IJID
keyword
keyword
30359
1
2
Fetch more papers »
Fetching more papers... Fetching...
Read by QxMD. Sign in or create an account to discover new knowledge that matter to you.
Remove bar
Read by QxMD icon Read
×

Search Tips

Use Boolean operators: AND/OR

diabetic AND foot
diabetes OR diabetic

Exclude a word using the 'minus' sign

Virchow -triad

Use Parentheses

water AND (cup OR glass)

Add an asterisk (*) at end of a word to include word stems

Neuro* will search for Neurology, Neuroscientist, Neurological, and so on

Use quotes to search for an exact phrase

"primary prevention of cancer"
(heart or cardiac or cardio*) AND arrest -"American Heart Association"