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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28822333/virtual-screening-and-repositioning-of-inconclusive-molecules-of-beta-lactamase-bioassays-a-data-mining-approach
#1
Akshata Gad, Andrew Titus Manuel, Jinuraj K R, Lijo John, Sajeev R, Shanmuga Priya V G, Abdul Jaleel U C
This study focuses on the best possible way forward in utilizing inconclusive molecules of PubChem bioassays AID 1332, AID 434987 and AID 434955, which are related to beta-lactamase inhibitors of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb). The inadequacy in the experimental methods that were observed during the invitro screening resulted in an inconclusive dataset. This could be due to certain moieties present within the molecules. In order to reconsider such molecules, insilico methods can be suggested in place of invitro methods For instance, datamining and medicinal chemistry methods: have been adopted to prioritise the inconclusive dataset into active or inactive molecules...
July 29, 2017: Computational Biology and Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28817570/increased-hepatotoxicity-among-hiv-infected-adults-co-infected-with-schistosoma-mansoni-in-tanzania-a-cross-sectional-study
#2
Amon I Marti, Soledad Colombe, Peter J Masikini, Samuel E Kalluvya, Luke R Smart, Bahati M Wajanga, Hyasinta Jaka, Robert N Peck, Jennifer A Downs
INTRODUCTION: Little is known about hepatotoxicity in patients with schistosome and HIV co-infections. Several studies have reported increased liver enzymes and bilirubin levels associated with schistosome infection. We investigated whether HIV-infected adults on antiretroviral therapy who had S. mansoni co-infection had a higher prevalence of hepatotoxicity than those without. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We determined the presence and grade of hepatotoxicity among 305 HIV-infected outpatients who had been on medium-term (3-6 months) and long-term (>36 months) antiretroviral therapy in a region of northwest Tanzania where S...
August 17, 2017: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28813625/detection-of-first-line-drug-resistance-mutations-and-drug-protein-interaction-dynamics-from-tuberculosis-patients-in-south-india
#3
Somanna Ajjamada Nachappa, Sumana M Neelambike, Chokkanna Amruthavalli, Nallur B Ramachandra
Diagnosis of drug-resistant tuberculosis predominantly relies on culture-based drug susceptibility testing, which take weeks to produce a result and a more time-efficient alternative method is multiplex allele-specific PCR (MAS-PCR). Also, understanding the role of mutations in causing resistance helps better drug designing. AIMS: To evaluate the ability of MAS-PCR in the detection of drug resistance and to understand the mechanism of interaction of drugs with mutant proteins in Mycobacterium tuberculosis...
August 16, 2017: Microbial Drug Resistance: MDR: Mechanisms, Epidemiology, and Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28807190/socioeconomic-differences-in-mortality-in-the-antiretroviral-therapy-era-in-agincourt-rural-south-africa-2001-13-a-population-surveillance-analysis
#4
Chodziwadziwa W Kabudula, Brian Houle, Mark A Collinson, Kathleen Kahn, Francesc Xavier Gómez-Olivé, Stephen Tollman, Samuel J Clark
BACKGROUND: Understanding the effects of socioeconomic disparities in health outcomes is important to implement specific preventive actions. We assessed socioeconomic disparities in mortality indicators in a rural South African population over the period 2001-13. METHODS: We used data from 21 villages of the Agincourt Health and socio-Demographic Surveillance System (HDSS). We calculated the probabilities of death from birth to age 5 years and from age 15 to 60 years, life expectancy at birth, and cause-specific and age-specific mortality by sex (not in children <5 years), time period, and socioeconomic status (household wealth) quintile for HIV/AIDS and tuberculosis, other communicable diseases (excluding HIV/AIDS and tuberculosis) and maternal, perinatal, and nutritional causes, non-communicable diseases, and injury...
September 2017: Lancet Global Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28797184/late-presentation-hiv-aids-are-still-a-challenge-in-brazil-and-worldwide
#5
Shirley Komninakis, Magaly Lima Mota, James Richard Hunter, Ricardo Sobhie Diaz
Despite all the efforts to contain the HIV/AIDS epidemics there still are individuals of unknown diagnosis. These present high risk of mortality, and following diagnosis respond very poorly to treatment. Late testing also represents a reduced opportunity in controlling the transmission of HIV and causes an indirect increase in the transmission rates of other diseases, such as tuberculosis. In European countries, as well as in the United States, a great number of people, represented specially by illegal immigrants, black individuals and women markedly present at a later state of infection...
August 11, 2017: AIDS Research and Human Retroviruses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28791686/the-role-of-dna-polymerase-chain-reaction-culture-and-histopathology-in-the-diagnosis-of-cutaneous-tuberculosis
#6
Puneet Agarwal, Elangbam Nelson Singh, Uma Shankar Agarwal, Ramsingh Meena, Saroj Purohit, Surendra Kumar
BACKGROUND: Cutaneous tuberculosis (TB) is re-emerging as a significant problem in India due to increased incidence of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS), other immunosuppressive states/factors like drugs, and emergence of multidrug resistance (MDR-TB). Proper diagnosis is warranted as there is varied clinical presentation and similarity with many other diseases. OBJECTIVE: To assess the sensitivities of DNA polymerase chain reaction (PCR), culture, and histopathology for the diagnosis of cutaneous TB in clinically suspected skin lesions...
August 9, 2017: International Journal of Dermatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28783093/impact-of-larger-sputum-volume-on-xpert-%C3%A2-mtb-rif-assay-detection-of-mycobacterium-tuberculosis-in-smear-negative-individuals-with-suspected-tuberculosis
#7
Sharlaa Badal-Faesen, Cynthia Firnhaber, Michelle A Kendall, Xingye Wu, Beatriz Grinsztejn, Rodrigo Otavio da Silva Escada, Michel Fernandez, Evelyn Hogg, Ian Sanne, Pamela Johnson, David Alland, Gerald H Mazurek, Debra A Benator, Anne F Luetkemeyer
As a strategy to improve the sensitivity of nucleic acid-based testing in acid-fast bacilli (AFB) negative samples, larger volumes of sputum (5-10 mL) were tested with Xpert(®) MTB/RIF from 176 individuals with smear-negative sputum undergoing tuberculosis evaluation. Despite larger volumes, this strategy had a suboptimal sensitivity of 50% (4/8).
August 7, 2017: Journal of Clinical Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28780547/paediatric-asthma-control-under-a-community-management-model-in-china-a-protocol-for-a-prospective-multicentre-cohort-study
#8
Juan Xu, Yong Yin, Hao Zhang, Wen Wei Zhong, Lei Zhang, Jing Zhang, Shu Hua Yuan, Fen Zhang, Li Xia Zhao
INTRODUCTION: Childhood asthma is globally one of the most common respiratory disorders and accounts for more school absences and more hospitalizations than any other chronic illness. The worldwide economic burden of this disease exceeds those of HIV/AIDS and tuberculosis combined. Proper intervention and effective management is of paramount importance for the control and prognosis of paediatric asthma. Unfortunately, the rate of uncontrolled and partially controlled paediatric asthma in China is >90%...
August 4, 2017: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28774674/concurrent-hepatic-tuberculosis-and-hepatic-graft-versus-host-disease-in-an-allogeneic-hematopoietic-stem-cell-transplant-recipient-a-case-report
#9
Z Zhao, W Q Leow
BACKGROUND: Infection and graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) are among the most common complications after hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT). With well-known risk factors including allogeneic HSCT and GVHD, tuberculosis (TB) has a higher incidence and shorter survival rate in HSCT recipients than in the general population. CASE REPORT: A 55-year-old Indonesian female with a history of latent TB was found to have acute myeloid leukemia 3 months after allogeneic HSCT...
July 31, 2017: Transplantation Proceedings
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28767491/medical-student-perceptions-of-global-surgery-at-an-academic-institution-identifying-gaps-in-global-health-education
#10
Ambar Mehta, Tim Xu, Matthew Murray, Kathleen M Casey
PURPOSE: Robust global health demands access to safe, affordable, timely surgical care for all. The long-term success of global surgery requires medical students to understand and engage with this emerging field. The authors characterized medical students' perceptions of surgical care relative to other fields within global health. METHOD: An optional, anonymous survey was given to all Johns Hopkins medical students from February to March 2016 to assess perceptions of surgical care and its role in global health...
August 1, 2017: Academic Medicine: Journal of the Association of American Medical Colleges
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28758017/towards-an-ideal-antiretroviral-regimen-for-the-global-hiv-epidemic
#11
EDITORIAL
Beatriz Grinsztejn, Lara E Coelho, Paula M Luz, Valdilea G Veloso
Currently, immediate initiation of antiretroviral therapy (ART) is recommended for all individuals with HIV infection. However, among the 37 million people estimated to be living with HIV/AIDS, only 17 million are actively on treatment. Optimal use of ART among HIV-infected and at-risk individuals reduces morbidity, mortality, transmission and acquisition of HIV infection. ART regimen choices are affected by factors such as economic differences between resource-rich and low- and middle-income countries (LIMC), drug availability, and considerations for use in special populations...
July 1, 2017: Journal of Virus Eradication
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28749757/paracoccidioidomycosis-epidemiological-and-clinical-aspects-in-546-cases-studied-in-the-state-of-esp%C3%A3-rito-santo-brazil
#12
Paulo Mendes Peçanha, Mayara Elisa Batista Ferreira, Maria Angélica Massaroni Peçanha, Edilaine Brandão Schmidt, Mariceli Lamas de Araújo, Raphael Lubiana Zanotti, Felipe Fonseca Potratz, Nilo Eduardo Delboni Nunes, Carlos Urbano Gonçalves Ferreira, Délio Delmaestro, Aloísio Falqueto
Paracoccidioidomycosis (PCM) is an endemic disease in the southeast region of Brazil, which includes the state of Espírito Santo (ES). This historic case series analyses 546 patients treated in this state from 1978 to 2012. Patients aged from 7 to 83 years, 509 males and 37 females, yielding a ratio of 13.7:1. Most of the patients (81.4%) originated from rural areas in ES, 71.0% being farmers. A higher concentration of cases was observed in municipalities located along the western range of the state. Sixty patients (11...
July 24, 2017: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28749750/microbial-offense-vs-host-defense-who-controls-the-tb-granuloma
#13
Amanda J Martinot
The granuloma is the hallmark of tuberculosis and simultaneously signifies acquisition of an infection and induction of a host immune response. But who benefits more from the development of the granuloma, the host or the pathogen? Is microbe or man dictating disease course and progression? Mycobacterial diseases affect humans and animals alike, and the concepts presented in this review reflect host-pathogen interactions that influence not only mycobacterial granulomas in humans and animals but also other infectious granulomatous diseases that are encountered in veterinary medicine...
January 1, 2017: Veterinary Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28748017/-factors-associated-with-immunovirologic-dissociation-in-hiv-1-infected-patients-under-highly-active-antiretroviral-therapy-in-the-ambulatory-treatment-center-atc-in-dakar
#14
Daye Kà, Noël Magloire Manga, Ndéye Fatou Ngom-Guéye, Diop Ndiaga, Moustapha Diop, Viviane Marie Pierre Cisse-Diallo, Khardiata Diallo-Mbaye, Ndèye Aissatou Lakhe, Louise Fortès-Déguenonvo, Cheikh Tidiane Ndour, Sylvie Audrey Diop-Nyafouna, Moussa Seydi
INTRODUCTION: The objective of this work is to evaluate the different factors associated with immunovirologic dissociation despite highly active and effective antiretroviral treatment. METHODS: We conducted a retrospective, cohort, descriptive and analytical study of the medical records of HIV-1 infected patients having received at least 12 months of antiretroviral therapy, followed in the ATC cohort from 2001 to 2011 and with undetectable viral load in the last 6 months...
2017: Pan African Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28736507/national-mortality-burden-due-to-communicable-non-communicable-and-other-diseases-in-ethiopia-1990-2015-findings-from-the-global-burden-of-disease-study-2015
#15
Awoke Misganaw, Tilahun N Haregu, Kebede Deribe, Gizachew Assefa Tessema, Amare Deribew, Yohannes Adama Melaku, Azmeraw T Amare, Semaw Ferede Abera, Molla Gedefaw, Muluken Dessalegn, Yihunie Lakew, Tolesa Bekele, Mesoud Mohammed, Biruck Desalegn Yirsaw, Solomon Abrha Damtew, Kristopher J Krohn, Tom Achoki, Jed Blore, Yibeltal Assefa, Mohsen Naghavi
BACKGROUND: Ethiopia lacks a complete vital registration system that would assist in measuring disease burden and risk factors. We used the Global Burden of Diseases, Injuries, and Risk Factors Study 2015 (GBD 2015) estimates to describe the mortality burden from communicable, non-communicable, and other diseases in Ethiopia over the last 25 years. METHODS: GBD 2015 mainly used cause of death ensemble modeling to measure causes of death by age, sex, and year for 195 countries...
2017: Population Health Metrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28732536/national-mortality-burden-due-to-communicable-non-communicable-and-other-diseases-in-ethiopia-1990-2015-findings-from-the-global-burden-of-disease-study-2015
#16
Awoke Misganaw, Tilahun N Haregu, Kebede Deribe, Gizachew Assefa Tessema, Amare Deribew, Yohannes Adama Melaku, Azmeraw T Amare, Semaw Ferede Abera, Molla Gedefaw, Muluken Dessalegn, Yihunie Lakew, Tolesa Bekele, Mesoud Mohammed, Biruck Desalegn Yirsaw, Solomon Abrha Damtew, Kristopher J Krohn, Tom Achoki, Jed Blore, Yibeltal Assefa, Mohsen Naghavi
BACKGROUND: Ethiopia lacks a complete vital registration system that would assist in measuring disease burden and risk factors. We used the Global Burden of Diseases, Injuries, and Risk Factors Study 2015 (GBD 2015) estimates to describe the mortality burden from communicable, non-communicable, and other diseases in Ethiopia over the last 25 years. METHODS: GBD 2015 mainly used cause of death ensemble modeling to measure causes of death by age, sex, and year for 195 countries...
July 21, 2017: Population Health Metrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28730751/tuberculosis-and-biologics-in-rheumatology-india-a-special-situation
#17
REVIEW
Rohini Handa, Sundeep Upadhyaya, Sanjiv Kapoor, Ramesh Jois, Bimlesh D Pandey, Anuj K Bhatnagar, Ashwani Khanna, Vishal Goyal, Kamal Kumar
India has a huge patient burden of rheumatic diseases (RDs) including rheumatoid arthritis. The use of biologics has transformed the treatment paradigm for RD; however, biologic treatment-related infections (especially tuberculosis [TB]) are an area of potential concern for TB-endemic nations like India. Anti-tumor necrosis factor (TNF) therapy impairs the physiological TNF-mediated signaling and may cause reactivation and dissemination of latent TB infection (LTBI). Careful screening is, thus, crucial in RD patients who are about to commence anti-TNF treatment...
July 21, 2017: International Journal of Rheumatic Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28725166/tuberculosis-and-hiv-are-the-leading-causes-of-adult-death-in-northwest-ethiopia-evidence-from-verbal-autopsy-data-of-dabat-health-and-demographic-surveillance-system-2007-2013
#18
Yigzaw Kebede, Gashaw Andargie, Abebaw Gebeyehu, Tadesse Awoke, Mezgebu Yitayal, Solomon Mekonnen, Mamo Wubshet, Temesgen Azmeraw, Yihunie Lakew, Kassahun Alemu
BACKGROUND: Reliable data on causes of death form the basis for building evidence on health policy, planning, monitoring, and evaluation. In Ethiopia, the majority of deaths occur at home and civil registration systems are not yet functional. The main objective of verbal autopsy (VA) is to describe the causes of death at the community or population level where civil registration and death certification systems are weak and where most people die at home without having had contact with the health system...
2017: Population Health Metrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28724374/cost-effectiveness-of-isoniazid-preventive-therapy-among-hiv-infected-patients-clinicaly-screened-for-latent-tuberculosis-infection-in-dar-es-salaam-tanzania-a-prospective-cohort-study
#19
Grace A Shayo, Dereck Chitama, Candida Moshiro, Said Aboud, Muhammad Bakari, Ferdinand Mugusi
BACKGROUND: One of the reasons why Isoniazid preventive therapy (IPT) for Tuberculosis (TB) is not widely used in low income countries is concerns on cost of excluding active TB. We analyzed the cost-effectiveness of IPT provision in Tanzania having ruled out active TB by a symptom-based screening tool. METHODS: Data on IPT cost-effectiveness was prospectively collected from an observational cohort study of 1283 HIV-infected patients on IPT and 1281 controls; followed up for 24 months...
July 19, 2017: BMC Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28721965/the-rise-of-global-health-diplomacy-an-interdisciplinary-concept-linking-health-and-international-relations
#20
Vijay Kumar Chattu
Global health diplomacy (GHD) is relatively a very new field that has yet to be clearly defined and developed though there are various definitions given by different experts from foreign policy, global health, diplomacy, international relations, governance, and law. With the intensification of globalization and increasing gaps between countries, new and reemerging health threats such as HIV/AIDS, tuberculosis, influenza, severe acute respiratory syndrome, Ebola, and Zika and a gradual rethinking on security concepts framed a new political context...
April 2017: Indian Journal of Public Health
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