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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28529202/an-evaluation-of-automated-chest-radiography-reading-software-for-tuberculosis-screening-among-public-and-private-sector-patients
#1
Md Toufiq Rahman, Andrew J Codlin, Md Mahfuzur Rahman, Ayenun Nahar, Mehdi Reja, Tariqul Islam, Zhi Zhen Qin, Md Abdus Shakur Khan, Sayera Banu, Jacob Creswell
Computer-aided reading (CAR) of medical images is becoming increasingly common, but few studies exist for CAR in tuberculosis (TB). We designed a prospective study evaluating CAR for chest radiography (CXR) as a triage tool before Xpert MTB/RIF (Xpert).Consecutively enrolled adults in Dhaka, Bangladesh, with TB symptoms received CXR and Xpert. Each image was scored by CAR and graded by a radiologist. We compared CAR with the radiologist for sensitivity and specificity, area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC), and calculated the potential Xpert tests saved...
May 2017: European Respiratory Journal: Official Journal of the European Society for Clinical Respiratory Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28527251/-pathological-findings-in-patients-with-hiv-infection-and-lymphadenopathies
#2
Federico Rodríguez-Vega, Miguel Botero, Jorge Alberto Cortés, Ángela Tobón
INTRODUCTION: Lymphadenopathy is a frequent clinical finding in HIV-infected patients. The differential diagnosis includes infection, malignancy or reactive changes. Currently, there are no data on this topic in the region. OBJECTIVES: To describe the etiology of lymph node pathology in HIV-infected patients from the Hospital La María in Medellín, Colombia. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The medical records of HIV-infected patients with lymphadenopathy who underwent excisional lymph node biopsy between June 2009 and October 2011 were retrospectively evaluated...
January 24, 2017: Biomédica: Revista del Instituto Nacional de Salud
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28521714/development-and-implementation-of-the-dhapp-military-ehealth-information-network-system
#3
Mary Kratz, Anne Thomas, Ricardo Hora, Delphis Vera, Mickey Lutz, Mark D Johnson
As the Joint United Nations Programme on HIV/AIDS, the Global Fund, and the US President's Emergency Plan for AIDS Relief focus on reaching 90-90-90 goals, military health systems are scaling up to meet the data demands of these ambitious objectives. Since 2008, the US Department of Defense HIV/AIDS Prevention Program (DHAPP) has been working with military partners in 14 countries on implementation and adoption of a Military eHealth Information Network (MeHIN). Each country implementation plan followed a structured process using international eHealth standards...
May 16, 2017: Current HIV Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28520768/mobile-phone-reminders-and-peer-counseling-improve-adherence-and-treatment-outcomes-of-patients-on-art-in-malaysia-a-randomized-clinical-trial
#4
Surajudeen Abiola Abdulrahman, Lekhraj Rampal, Faisal Ibrahim, Anuradha P Radhakrishnan, Hayati Kadir Shahar, Norlijah Othman
BACKGROUND: Adherence to treatment remains the cornerstone of long term viral suppression and successful treatment outcomes among patients receiving Antiretroviral Therapy (ART). OBJECTIVE(S): Evaluate the effectiveness of mobile phone reminders and peer counseling in improving adherence and treatment outcomes among HIV positive patients on ART in Malaysia. METHODS: A single-blind, parallel group RCT conducted in Hospital Sungai Buloh, Malaysia in which 242 adult Malaysian patients were randomized to intervention or control groups...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28511395/clinical-and-cytological-spectrum-of-granulomatous-mastitis-and-utility-of-fnac-in-picking-up-tubercular-mastitis-an-eight-year-study
#5
Divya Achutha Ail, Pallavi Bhayekar, Avinash Joshi, Nidhi Pandya, Anuja Nasare, Pranoti Lengare, Ketan Ashok Narkhede
INTRODUCTION: Granulomatous Mastitis (GM) is a rare, benign, inflammatory disease of the breast. It is a well known mimicker of malignancy, clinically and radiologically. Patients are often subjected to number of tests for the right diagnosis. Non-specific Granulomatous Mastitis (NGM) and Tubercular Mastitis (TBM) are chief among the various causes of GM. They are important to be diagnosed early as their treatment varies significantly. Fine Needle Aspiration Cytology (FNAC) is simple, patient friendly and primary investigation modality in cases of lump in breast...
March 2017: Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research: JCDR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28506781/implementation-of-quality-management-for-clinical-bacteriology-in-low-resource-settings
#6
REVIEW
Barbara Barbé, Cedric P Yansouni, Dissou Affolabi, Jan Jacobs
BACKGROUND: The declining trend of malaria and the recent prioritization of containment of antimicrobial resistance have created a momentum to implement clinical bacteriology in low-resource settings (LRS). Successful implementation relies on guidance by a quality management system (QMS). Over the past decade, international initiatives were launched towards implementation of QMS in HIV/AIDS, tuberculosis and malaria. AIMS: To describe the progress towards accreditation of medical laboratories and to identify the challenges and "Best practices" for implementation of QMS in clinical bacteriology in LRS...
May 12, 2017: Clinical Microbiology and Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28506258/health-care-waste-management-in-community-based-care-experiences-of-community-health-workers-in-low-resource-communities-in-south-africa
#7
Lydia Hangulu, Olagoke Akintola
BACKGROUND: In South Africa, community health workers (CHWs) working in community-based care (CBC) programmes provide care to patients most of whom are living with HIV/AIDS and tuberculosis (TB). Although studies have shown that the caregiving activities provided by the CHWs generate health care waste (HCW), there is limited information about the experiences of CHWs on health care waste management (HCWM) in CBC. This study explored HCWM in CBC in Durban, South Africa from the perspectives CHWs...
May 15, 2017: BMC Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28499434/development-of-a-novel-immunochromatographic-lateral-flow-assay-specific-for-mycobacterium-bovis-cells-and-its-application-in-combination-with-immunomagnetic-separation-to-test-badger-faeces
#8
Linda D Stewart, Nuria Tort, Paul Meakin, Jose M Argudo, Ruramayi Nzuma, Neil Reid, Richard J Delahay, Roland Ashford, W Ian Montgomery, Irene R Grant
BACKGROUND: The European badger is an important wildlife reservoir of Mycobacterium bovis implicated in the spread of bovine tuberculosis in the United Kingdom and Ireland. Infected badgers are known to shed M. bovis in their urine and faeces, which may contaminate the environment. To aid bovine tuberculosis control efforts novel diagnostic tests for detecting infected and shedding badgers are needed. We proposed development of a novel, rapid immunochromatographic lateral flow device (LFD) as a non-invasive test to detect M...
May 12, 2017: BMC Veterinary Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28499359/cystic-fibrosis-carriership-and-tuberculosis-hints-toward-an-evolutionary-selective-advantage-based-on-data-from-the-brazilian-territory
#9
Lander Bosch, Barbara Bosch, Kris De Boeck, Tim Nawrot, Isabelle Meyts, Dominique Vanneste, Cleonice Alexandre Le Bourlegat, Julio Croda, Luiz Vicente Ribeiro Ferreira da Silva Filho
BACKGROUND: The reason why Cystic Fibrosis (CF) is the most common fatal genetic disease among Caucasians has been incompletely studied. We aimed at deepening the hypothesis that CF carriers have a relative protection against Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) infection. METHODS: Applying spatial epidemiology, we studied the link between CF carriership rate and tuberculosis (TB) incidence in Brazil. We corrected for 5 potential environmental and 2 immunological confounders in this relation: monthly income, sanitary provisions, literacy rates, racial composition and population density along with AIDS incidence rates and diabetes mellitus type 2...
May 12, 2017: BMC Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28487675/new-insights-in-to-the-intrinsic-and-acquired-drug-resistance-mechanisms-in-mycobacteria
#10
REVIEW
Mohammad J Nasiri, Mehri Haeili, Mona Ghazi, Hossein Goudarzi, Ali Pormohammad, Abbas A Imani Fooladi, Mohammad M Feizabadi
Infectious diseases caused by clinically important Mycobacteria continue to be an important public health problem worldwide primarily due to emergence of drug resistance crisis. In recent years, the control of tuberculosis (TB), the disease caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB), is hampered by the emergence of multidrug resistance (MDR), defined as resistance to at least isoniazid (INH) and rifampicin (RIF), two key drugs in the treatment of the disease. Despite the availability of curative anti-TB therapy, inappropriate and inadequate treatment has allowed MTB to acquire resistance to the most important anti-TB drugs...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28482964/the-sensitivity-of-the-quantiferon-%C3%A2-tb-gold-plus-assay-in-zambian-adults-with-active-tuberculosis
#11
L Telisinghe, M Amofa-Sekyi, K Maluzi, D Kaluba-Milimo, M Cheeba-Lengwe, K Chiwele, B Kosloff, S Floyd, S-L Bailey, H Ayles
SETTING AND OBJECTIVE: To investigate the sensitivity of the new interferon-gamma release assay (IGRA), QuantiFERON®-TB Gold Plus (QFT-Plus), for active TB (used as a surrogate for latent tuberculous infection) in a Zambian TB clinic. DESIGN: Consecutive smear or Xpert® MTB/RIF-positive adult (age 18 years) pulmonary TB patients were recruited between June 2015 and March 2016. Venous blood was tested using QFT-Plus. The sensitivity was defined as the number positive divided by the total number tested...
June 1, 2017: International Journal of Tuberculosis and Lung Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28472981/infectious-diseases-of-poverty-the-first-five-years
#12
EDITORIAL
Wei Wang, Jin Chen, Hui-Feng Sheng, Na-Na Wang, Pin Yang, Xiao-Nong Zhou, Robert Bergquist
Although the focus in the area of health research may be shifting from infectious to non-communicable diseases, the infectious diseases of poverty remain a major burden of disease of global health concern. A global platform to communicate and share the research on these diseases is needed to facilitate the translation of knowledge into effective approaches and tools for their elimination. Based on the "One health, One world" mission, a new, open-access journal, Infectious Diseases of Poverty (IDP), was launched by BioMed Central in partnership with the National Institute of Parasitic Diseases (NIPD), Chinese Center for Disease Control and Prevention (China CDC) on October 25, 2012...
May 4, 2017: Infectious Diseases of Poverty
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28463853/the-role-of-activists-in-access-to-hiv-and-tuberculosis-treatment-and-prevention
#13
Nathan Geffen
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: We describe the role of activism in improving access to quality HIV treatment. RECENT FINDINGS: In many countries, AIDS activists have campaigned for improved access to HIV treatment and prevention interventions. Studying medicine, epidemiology and law, and developing expertise in these fields, has been crucial to the success of these campaigns. Also important has been the building of alliances by activists with clinicians, nurses, scientists, and public health policy experts, persuading them of the importance of these campaigns...
April 29, 2017: Current Opinion in HIV and AIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28462359/combination-hiv-prevention-strategy-implementation-in-el-salvador-perceived-barriers-and-adaptations-reported-by-outreach-peer-educators-and-supervisors
#14
Meredith Buck, Julia Dickson-Gomez, Gloria Bodnar
El Salvador was one of three countries to receive funding from the Global Fund to Fight AIDS, Tuberculosis and Malaria to conduct a combination HIV prevention intervention among transwomen (TW), men who have sex with men (MSM), and commercial sex workers (CSW). Program evaluation revealed that prevention activities reached only 50% of the target population. The purpose of this study is to examine the barriers that Salvadoran educators faced in implementing the peer education as designed and adaptations made as a result...
January 2017: Global Qualitative Nursing Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28453022/-evolution-of-epidemiological-and-clinical-characteristics-of-adults-patients-belonging-to-the-national-program-at-start-of-antiretroviral-therapy-in-the-chilean-aids-cohort-2001-2015
#15
Carlos Beltrán, Pedro Zitko, Marcelo Wolff, Fernando Bernal, Alicia Asenjo, Ana M Fernández, Ana Miles, Elizabeth Barthel, Gonzalo Wilson
BACKGROUND: Chilean AIDS Cohort is the oldest and extensive in Latin America and one of most numerous and with longer follow up time to international level. Records information from 14,873 patients out of approximately 22,000 in antiretroviral therapy in the public system and its results have allowed to know the national reality and have contributed to the adoption of public policies. AIM: To describe the demographic, clinical and immunological characteristics of patients who have started ART in Chile and its evolution over the past 15 years...
October 2016: Revista Chilena de Infectología: órgano Oficial de la Sociedad Chilena de Infectología
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28438139/digital-cxr-with-computer-aided-diagnosis-versus-symptom-screen-to-define-presumptive-tuberculosis-among-household-contacts-and-impact-on-tuberculosis-diagnosis
#16
Monde Muyoyeta, Nkatya Chanda Kasese, Deborah Milimo, Isaac Mushanga, Mapopa Ndhlovu, Nathan Kapata, Maureen Moyo-Chilufya, Helen Ayles
BACKGROUND: Household (HH) contact tracing is a strategy that targets high risk groups for TB. Symptom based screening is the standard used to identify HH contacts at risk for TB during HH contact tracing for TB. However, this strategy may be limited due to poor performance in predicting TB. The objective of this study was to compare CXR with Computer Aided Diagnosis (CAD) against symptom screen for defining presumptive TB and how TB detection changes with each method. METHODS: Household contacts of consecutive index bacteriologically confirmed TB cases were visited by study teams and given TB/HIV education to raise awareness of the risk of TB following close contact with a TB patient...
April 24, 2017: BMC Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28435232/self-reported-adherence-and-associated-factors-to-isoniazid-preventive-therapy-for-latent-tuberculosis-among-people-living-with-hiv-aids-at-health-centers-in-gondar-town-north-west-ethiopia
#17
Asnakew Achaw Ayele, Seyfe Asrade Atnafie, Demis Driba Balcha, Asegedech Tsegaw Weredekal, Birhanu Alemayehu Woldegiorgis, Mulgeta Melaku Wotte, Begashaw Melaku Gebresillasie
PURPOSE: This study aimed to assess self-reported adherence and associated factors to isoniazid preventive therapy (IPT) for latent tuberculosis among people living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHA) at health centers in Gondar town, North West Ethiopia. PATIENTS AND METHODS: An institution-based prospective cross-sectional study was conducted from March 10 to June 11, 2016. A total of 154 eligible participants were included in the study, using the simple random sampling method, from the available four health centers and one teaching referral hospital that provided antiretroviral therapy (ART) for HIV/AIDS patients...
2017: Patient Preference and Adherence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28429162/involvement-of-methylated-hbha-expressed-from-mycobacterium-smegmatis-in-an-ifn-%C3%AE-release-assay-to-aid-discrimination-between-latent-infection-and-active-tuberculosis-in-bcg-vaccinated-populations
#18
H-L Wen, C-L Li, G Li, Y-H Lu, H-C Li, T Li, H-M Zhao, K Wu, D B Lowrie, J-X Lv, S-H Lu, X-Y Fan
IFN-γ release assays (IGRAs) based on region of difference 1 (RD1) antigens have improved diagnosis of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (M. tb) infection. However, IGRAs with these antigens cannot discriminate between active tuberculosis (ATB) and latent tuberculosis infection (LTBI). M. tb heparin-binding-hemagglutinin (HBHA) induces relatively high IFN-γ responses in LTBI individuals and low responses in ATB patients, but purification of the native methylated HBHA from cultures of M. tb for immunological tests is complex and time-consuming...
April 20, 2017: European Journal of Clinical Microbiology & Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28428773/mutation-at-g103-of-mtbftsz-altered-their-sensitivity-to-coumarins
#19
Duggirala Sridevi, Karpagam U Sudhakar, Ragamanvitha Ananthathatmula, Rakesh P Nankar, Mukesh Doble
Coumarins are natural polyphenol lactones comprising of fused rings of benzene and α-pyrone. The current study demonstrates the inhibitory effect of coumarins with various substitutions on Mycobacterium smegmatis mc(2) 155. We also demonstrate the effect of pomegranate (Punica granatum) extract containing ellagic acid, on M. smegmatis as well as their affect on MtbFtsZ (FtsZ from Mycobacterium tuberculosis). The ellagic acid extracts from pomegranate peels inhibit mycobacteria with a MIC of 25 μM and 0.3 to 3...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28424682/interactions-between-type-1-interferons-and-the-th17-response-in-tuberculosis-lessons-learned-from-autoimmune-diseases
#20
REVIEW
Bas C Mourik, Erik Lubberts, Jurriaan E M de Steenwinkel, Tom H M Ottenhoff, Pieter J M Leenen
The classical paradigm of tuberculosis (TB) immunity, with a central protective role for Th1 responses and IFN-γ-stimulated cellular responses, has been challenged by unsatisfactory results of vaccine strategies aimed at enhancing Th1 immunity. Moreover, preclinical TB models have shown that increasing IFN-γ responses in the lungs is more damaging to the host than to the pathogen. Type 1 interferon signaling and altered Th17 responses have also been associated with active TB, but their functional roles in TB pathogenesis remain to be established...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
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