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Sonam Grover, Tarina Sharma, Yadvir Singh, Sakshi Kohli, Manjunath P, Aditi Singh, Torsten Semmler, Lothar H Wieler, Karsten Tedin, Nasreen Z Ehtesham, Seyed E Hasnain
The genome of Mycobacterium tuberculosis , the causal organism of tuberculosis (TB), encodes a unique protein family known as the PE/PPE/PGRS family, present exclusively in the genus Mycobacterium and nowhere else in the living kingdom, with largely unexplored functions. We describe the functional significance of the PGRS domain of Rv0297, a member of this family. In silico analyses revealed the presence of intrinsically disordered stretches and putative endoplasmic reticulum (ER) localization signals in the PGRS domain of Rv0297 (Rv0297PGRS)...
June 19, 2018: MBio
Lázaro Moreira Marques Neto, Nicholas Zufelato, Ailton Antônio de Sousa-Júnior, Monalisa Martins Trentini, Adeliane Castro da Costa, Andris Figueiroa Bakuzis, André Kipnis, Ana Paula JunqueiraKipnis
Metal-based nanoparticles (NPs) stimulate innate immunity; however, they have never been demonstrated to be capable of aiding the generation of specific cellular immune responses. Therefore, our objective was to evaluate whether iron oxide-based NPs have adjuvant properties in generating cellular Th1, Th17 and TCD8 (Tc1) immune responses. For this purpose, a fusion protein (CMX) composed of Mycobacterium tuberculosis antigens was used as a subunit vaccine. Citrate-coated MnFe2 O4 NPs were synthesized by co-precipitation and evaluated by transmission electron microscopy...
June 18, 2018: Human Vaccines & Immunotherapeutics
Susan Swindells
People with HIV infection with latent tuberculosis (TB) infection (LTBI) are at a 10-fold greater risk of developing active disease. Interferon gamma release assays and tuberculin skin testing have approximately 65% to 70% specificity for diagnosing LTBI in HIV-infected patients. LTBI can be successfully treated with isoniazid preventive therapy and early antiretroviral therapy (ART). Rapid molecular diagnostics have approximately 88% sensitivity and 98% specificity for identifying active TB. ART should be started early in patients with TB...
June 2018: Topics in Antiviral Medicine
Dylan W White, Sarah R Elliott, Evan Odean, Lynne T Bemis, Anna D Tischler
Mycobacterium tuberculosis releases membrane vesicles (MV) that modulate host immune responses and aid in iron acquisition, although they may have additional unappreciated functions. MV production appears to be a regulated process, but virR remains the only characterized genetic regulator of vesiculogenesis. Here, we present data supporting a role for the M. tuberculosis Pst/SenX3-RegX3 signal transduction system in regulating MV production. Deletion of pstA1 , which encodes a transmembrane component of the phosphate-specific transport (Pst) system, causes constitutive activation of the SenX3-RegX3 two-component system, leading to increased protein secretion via the specialized ESX-5 type VII secretion system...
June 12, 2018: MBio
Daniele Maria Pelissari, Marli Souza Rocha, Patricia Bartholomay, Mauro Niskier Sanchez, Elisabeth Carmen Duarte, Denise Arakaki-Sanchez, Cíntia Oliveira Dantas, Marina Gasino Jacobs, Kleydson Bonfim Andrade, Stefano Barbosa Codenotti, Elaine Silva Nascimento Andrade, Wildo Navegantes de Araújo, Fernanda Dockhorn Costa, Walter Massa Ramalho, Fredi Alexander Diaz-Quijano
OBJECTIVES: To identify scenarios based on socioeconomic, epidemiological and operational healthcare factors associated with tuberculosis incidence in Brazil. DESIGN: Ecological study. SETTINGS: The study was based on new patients with tuberculosis and epidemiological/operational variables of the disease from the Brazilian National Information System for Notifiable Diseases and the Mortality Information System. We also analysed socioeconomic and demographic variables...
June 6, 2018: BMJ Open
Biljana Ilievska-Poposka, Maja Zakoska, Vladimir Mitreski
BACKGROUND: Directly observed therapy (DOT) is a specific strategy endorsed by the World Health Organization in 1994 to improve adherence by requiring health workers, community volunteers or family members to observe and record tuberculosis (TB) patients for taking each dose. The implementation of DOT strategy in the National Tuberculosis Programme (NTP) in Macedonia was introduced in 2006 and was realised by 6 nurses engaged through the Project of Global Fund against HIV/AID and TB. AIM: This study aimed to evaluate how these visits conducted by the DOT nurses engaged through the GF were accepted by TB patients and to evaluate the impact on the treatment outcomes...
May 20, 2018: Open Access Macedonian Journal of Medical Sciences
Mina Sadeq, Jamal Eddine Bourkadi
BACKGROUND: Tuberculosis (TB) is a major health problem in Morocco. This study aims at examining trends in TB in Morocco and identifying TB spatial clusters and TB-associated predictors. METHOD: Country-level surveillance data was exploited. Kendall's correlation test was used to examine trends and an exploratory spatial data analysis was conducted to assess the global and local patterns of spatial autocorrelation in TB rates (Moran's I and local indicator of spatial association [LISA]) at the prefecture/province level...
June 7, 2018: Infectious Diseases of Poverty
W Zheng, Y C Li
The Mogan Mt.Sanatorium for Pulmonary Tuberculosis, founded in 1927, was the first tuberculosis sanatorium in modern China, with an initial intention of "treating and caring the diseased, not seeking profits" , and its name was then changed to Mogan Mountain Sanatorium in 1931. During the early period of Anti-Japanese War, it became an asylum for refugees and carrying out charitable rehabilitation activity.In May 1939, the Sanatorium was compelled to close because of the bombardment of Japanese aircraft, andonly formally opened in 1948 until today...
September 28, 2017: Zhonghua Yi Shi za Zhi, Chinese Journal of Medical History
Amsalu Bokore, Belay Korme, Getu Bayisa
BACKGROUND: Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) is one of the main causes of morbidity and mortality; because of this it continues to be a major global public health concern. It has believed to kill more than 34 million lives so far. Sub Saharan Africa constitutes about 70% of people living with HIV among the 37 million on the globe. This region, accounted for more than two third of the global new HIV infections and about 15 million (40%) were receiving antiretroviral therapy (ART) at the end of 2014 throught the world...
June 5, 2018: BMC Pharmacology & Toxicology
Bereket Gebremichael, Tsega-Ab Abebaw, Tsedey Moges, Admas Abera Abaerei, Nadia Worede
BACKGROUND: Tuberculosis is among the top ten cause of death (9th) from a single infectious agent worldwide. It even ranks above HIV/AIDS. It is among the top 10 causes of death among children. Globally there are estimates of one million cases of TB in children, 76% occur in 22 high-burden countries among which Ethiopia ranked 8th. Despite this fact, children with TB are given low priority in most national health programs. Moreover reports on childhood TB and its predictors are very limited...
June 4, 2018: BMC Infectious Diseases
M G Jacobs, D M Pelissari, V L Pinto
SETTING: The selection and transmission of drug-resistant strains of tuberculosis (TB) hamper disease control. OBJECTIVE: To identify health conditions, demographic and socio-economic factors, as well as individual factors associated with the incidence of drug-resistant TB (DR-TB), in Brazil at the municipal level. DESIGN: This was an ecological study covering Brazilian municipalities that had reported DR-TB cases in 2014. Associations were evaluated in a multilevel analysis using negative binomial regression...
June 1, 2018: International Journal of Tuberculosis and Lung Disease
Sarah Wood Pallas, Marissa Courey, Chhaily Hy, Wm Perry Killam, Dora Warren, Brittany Moore
BACKGROUND: The Xpert® MTB/RIF (Xpert) test has been shown to be effective and cost-effective for diagnosing tuberculosis (TB) under conditions with high HIV prevalence and HIV-TB co-infection but less is known about Xpert's cost in low HIV prevalence settings. Cambodia, a country with low HIV prevalence (0.7%), high TB burden, and low multidrug-resistant (MDR) TB burden (1.4% of new TB cases, 11% of retreatment cases) introduced Xpert into its TB diagnostic algorithms for people living with HIV (PLHIV) and people with presumptive MDR TB in 2012...
June 4, 2018: Applied Health Economics and Health Policy
Harinder Singh Chahal, Peter Capella, Ryan Presto, Jeffrey S Murray, Martin Shimer, Mary Lou Valdez, Peter G Lurie
Background: Since 2004, the US Food and Drug Administration's (USFDA) dedicated drug review process in support of President's Emergency Plan for AIDS Relief (PEPFAR) has made safe, effective and quality antiretrovirals (ARVs) available for millions of patients. Furthermore, the WHO and Global Fund to Fight AIDS, Tuberculosis and Malaria (Global Fund) can add the USFDA-reviewed products to their respective formularies, through a novel process of 'one-way reliance'. We assessed the number of ARVs made available through WHO and Global Fund based on the USFDA review...
2018: BMJ Global Health
Michelle M Coleman, Sharee A Basdeo, Amy M Coleman, Clíona Ní Cheallaigh, Celia Peral de Castro, Anne Marie McLaughlin, Padraic J Dunne, James Harris, Joseph Keane
Vitamin A deficiency strongly predicts the risk of developing tuberculosis (TB) in individuals exposed to Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb). The burden of antibiotic resistant TB is increasing globally therefore there is an urgent need to develop host-directed adjunctive therapies to treat TB. Alveolar macrophages (AM), the niche cell for Mtb, metabolize vitamin A to all-trans retinoic acid (atRA), which influences host immune responses. We sought to determine the mechanistic effects of atRA on the host immune response to intracellular bacterial infection in primary human and murine macrophages...
May 31, 2018: American Journal of Respiratory Cell and Molecular Biology
Vicente Soriano, José M Ramos, Pablo Barreiro, Jose V Fernandez-Montero
The first cases of AIDS in Spain were reported in 1982. Since then over 85,000 persons with AIDS have been cumulated, with 60,000 deaths. Current estimates for people living with HIV are of 145,000, of whom 20% are unaware of it. This explains the still high rate of late HIV presenters. Although the HIV epidemic in Spain was originally driven mostly by injection drug users, since the year 2000 men having sex with men (MSM) account for most new incident HIV cases. Currently, MSM represent over 80% of new yearly HIV diagnoses...
May 30, 2018: Viruses
G Watermeyer, S Thomson
BACKGROUND: Overlapping clinical, endoscopic, radiographic and histological features, coupled with poor microbiological yield, make differentiating Crohn's disease (CD) from intestinal tuberculosis (ITB) challenging. Granulomas are present in both diseases; in CD they predict the need for immunosuppressive therapy that requires ITB to be excluded before initiation. OBJECTIVES: To compare granuloma-positive CD and ITB, to identify factors that may aid in diagnosis...
April 25, 2018: South African Medical Journal, Suid-Afrikaanse Tydskrif Vir Geneeskunde
Anmol Shrestha, V Rajesh, Sneha Shamrao Dessai, Sharon Mary Stanly, Uday Venkat Mateti
INTRODUCTION: Patient education is of paramount importance with regard to the condition of the disease and the treatment given besides lifestyle remodelling in order to get the desired therapeutic outcome. When verbal information is provided to the patients, they often tend to forget it. Pictorial aids or pictograms, as they are commonly known, are tools that are widely used for imparting knowledge to the patients. The aim of the study is to prepare and validate a Pictogram-based Patient Information Leaflet (P-PILs) on Tuberculosis (TB)...
May 25, 2018: Pulmonary Pharmacology & Therapeutics
Ayodeji E Iyanda
Before 2030, deaths from road traffic accidents (RTAs) will surpass cerebrovascular disease, tuberculosis, and HIV/AIDS. Yet, there is little knowledge on the geographic distribution of RTA severity in Nigeria. Accident Severity Index is the proportion of deaths that result from a road accident. This study analysed the geographic pattern of RTA severity based on the data retrieved from Federal Road Safety Corps (FRSC). The study predicted a two-year data from a historic road accident data using exponential smoothing technique...
May 28, 2018: International Journal of Injury Control and Safety Promotion
Farzad Khademi, Ramazan-Ali Taheri, Arshid Yousefi Avarvand, Hamid Vaez, Amir Abbas Momtazi-Borojeni, Saman Soleimanpour
Today, the effectiveness of the only approved tuberculosis (TB) vaccine, bacillus Calmette-Guerin (BCG), has encountered several serious problem in the control of TB infections including variable protection in adolescents and adults, the emergence of drug-resistant strains of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) as well as HIV/AIDS co-infection. Various studies have shown that chitosan, a natural polymer, can serve as a potent carrier for the delivery of various hydrophilic molecules such as peptide, protein and drug agents due to some of its excellent characteristics including low toxicity, biodegradable and biocompatible properties and stability...
May 22, 2018: Microbial Pathogenesis
(no author information available yet)
The continuous increase in our knowledge of HIV medicine and antiretroviral treatment has led us to draft specific consensus documents focused on topics other than antiretroviral therapy, such as treatment of opportunistic diseases, pre- and post-exposure prophylaxis, metabolic abnormalities, treatment of HBV or HCV coinfection, treatment of patients coinfected with tuberculosis, osteoporosis, kidney disorders, and cardiovascular risk. Accordingly, the AIDS Study Group (GeSIDA) of the Spanish Society of Infectious Diseases and Clinical Microbiology has promoted the drafting of this consensus document on the control and monitoring of adult patients infected with HIV...
May 21, 2018: Enfermedades Infecciosas y Microbiología Clínica
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