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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29747698/incidence-and-predictors-of-loss-to-follow-up-among-hiv-infected-adults-at-pawi-general-hospital-northwest-ethiopia-competing-risk-regression-model
#1
Moges Agazhe Assemie, Kindie Fentahun Muchie, Tadesse Awoke Ayele
OBJECTIVE: This study was aimed at assessing the incidence of lost-to-follow-up and its predictors among HIV-positive adults after initiation into antiretroviral therapy at Pawi General Hospital, northwest Ethiopia. RESULTS: The overall cumulative incidence of lost-to-follow-up after ART initiation was high, 11.6 (95% CI 9.8-13.7) per 100 adult-years follow-up time. Independent significant predictors of lost to follow up were being aged 15-28 years (aSHR = 0...
May 10, 2018: BMC Research Notes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29737591/expression-profile-of-markers-of-oxidative-stress-injury-and-apoptosis-in-anti-tuberculosis-drugs-induced-nephrotoxicity
#2
Radhika Sharma, Priya Battu, Mandakini Singla, Neha Goyal, Vijay L Sharma
AIM: Isoniazid (INH), Rifampicin (RIF) and Pyrazinamide (PZA) are part of first-line anti-tuberculosis therapy used against infection caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis. However these drugs are known to be potentially harmful as these are associated with numerous side effects and when taken together their harmful outcomes are elevated in a synergistic manner. Identification of possible mechanism underlying RIF+INH+PZA induced nephrotoxicity may be advantageous in developing strategies to prevent their toxic implications...
May 8, 2018: Nephrology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29722039/mortality-from-adverse-drug-reaction-related-hospitalizations-in-south-west-ethiopia-a-cross-sectional-study
#3
M T Angamo, L Chalmers, C M Curtain, D Yilma, L Bereznicki
WHAT IS KNOWN AND OBJECTIVE: Adverse drug reactions (ADRs) are an important cause of mortality during medical care. To our knowledge, no Ethiopian studies have reported on mortality due to ADRs in patients presenting to hospital from the community setting. The aim of this study was to determine the mortality rate attributable to ADRs in patients presenting to hospital, identify drugs implicated in the ADR-related deaths and identify factors contributing to ADR-related mortality at Jimma University Specialised Hospital (JUSH), south-west Ethiopia METHODS: This cross-sectional study included 1001 patients aged ≥18 years consecutively admitted to medical wards from May 2015 to August 2016...
May 2, 2018: Journal of Clinical Pharmacy and Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29718223/outcomes-of-treatment-for-latent-tuberculosis-infection-in-patients-with-inflammatory-bowel-disease-receiving-biologic-therapy
#4
Guilherme P Ramos, Gregory Stroh, Badr Al-Bawardy, William A Faubion, Konstantinos A Papadakis, Patricio Escalante
Background: Treatment for latent tuberculosis infection (LTBI) is of particular concern in patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) initiating biologic therapies to prevent tuberculosis (TB) reactivation. This study aimed to evaluate the effectiveness of LTBI treatment in IBD patients receiving biologic therapy. Methods: There was a retrospective review of all IBD patients diagnosed with LTBI following a tuberculin skin test (TST) and/or interferon gamma release assay (IGRA) and who received biologic therapy between 2002 and 2016...
April 26, 2018: Inflammatory Bowel Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29661197/relevance-and-acceptability-of-using-the-quantiferon-gold-test-qgit-to-screen-cd4-blood-draws-for-latent-tb-infection-among-plhiv-in-south-africa-formative-qualitative-research-findings-from-the-teko-trial
#5
Deanna Kerrigan, Carrie Tudor, Katlego Motlhaoleng, Limakatso Lebina, Cokiswa Qomfu, Ebrahim Variava, Sandy Chon, Neil Martinson, Jonathan E Golub
BACKGROUND: Tuberculosis (TB) is the leading cause of mortality among people living with HIV (PLHIV), despite the availability of effective preventive therapy. The TEKO trial is assessing the impact of using a blood test, Quantiferon-TB Gold In-Tube Test (QGIT), to screen for latent TB compared to the Tuberculin Screening Test (TST) among PLHIV in South Africa. METHODS: Fifty-six qualitative interviews were conducted with PLHIV and clinical providers participating in the TEKO trial...
April 16, 2018: BMC Health Services Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29617965/cost-effectiveness-of-preventive-therapy-for-tuberculosis-with-isoniazid-and-rifapentine-versus-isoniazid-alone-in-high-burden-settings
#6
Karl T Johnson, Gavin J Churchyard, Hojoon Sohn, David W Dowdy
Background: A short-course regimen of three months of weekly rifapentine and isoniazid (3HP) has recently been recommended by the World Health Organization (WHO) as an alternative to at least six months of daily isoniazid (isoniazid preventive therapy, IPT) for prevention of tuberculosis (TB). The contexts in which 3HP may be cost-effective compared to IPT among people living with HIV (PLWH) are unknown. Methods: We used a Markov state-transition model to estimate the incremental cost-effectiveness of 3HP relative to IPT in high-burden settings, using a cohort of 1000 patients in a Ugandan HIV clinic as an emblematic scenario...
March 30, 2018: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29611626/quinoxaline-and-quinoxaline-1-4-di-n-oxides-an-emerging-class-of-antimycobacterials
#7
REVIEW
Rangappa S Keri, Sudam S Pandule, Srinivasa Budagumpi, Bhari M Nagaraja
Tuberculosis (TB) is a highly dreaded, infectious, chronic, airborne disease affecting more than two million people all around the world, with more than eight million cases every calendar year. TB is the second leading infectious cause of death after HIV/AIDS. Over the past few decades, numerous efforts have been undertaken to develop new anti-TB agents. The current frontline therapy for TB consists of administering three or more different drugs (usually isoniazid, rifampin, pyrazinamide, and ethambutol) over an extended period of time...
April 3, 2018: Archiv der Pharmazie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29595060/the-effect-of-partner-hiv-status-on-motivation-to-take-antiretroviral-and-isoniazid-preventive-therapies-a-conjoint-analysis
#8
Hae-Young Kim, Colleen F Hanrahan, David W Dowdy, Neil Martinson, Jonathan Golub, John F P Bridges
Antiretroviral therapy (ART) and isoniazid preventive therapy (IPT) are important to reduce morbidity and mortality among people newly diagnosed of HIV. The successful uptake of ART and IPT requires a comprehensive understanding of patients' motivation to take such therapies. Partners also play an important role in the decision to be initiated and retained in care. We quantified patients' motivation to take preventive therapies (ART and IPT) and compared by partner HIV status among people newly diagnosed of HIV...
March 29, 2018: AIDS Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29581939/ipt-during-hiv-treatment-in-myanmar-high-rates-of-coverage-completion-and-drug-adherence
#9
J Ousley, K P Soe, N T T Kyaw, R Anicete, P E Mon, H Lwin, T Win, S Cristofani, A Telnov, M Fernandez, I Ciglenecki
Setting: A southern Myanmar district providing isoniazid preventive therapy (IPT) in one of the last countries to formally recommend it as part of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) care. Objective: To assess coverage and adherence and the feasibility of IPT scale-up in a routine care setting in Myanmar. Design: A retrospective analysis of people living with HIV (PLHIV) screened for tuberculosis (TB) and enrolled in IPT over a 3-year period (July 2011-June 2014) using clinical databases. Results: Among 3377 patients under HIV care and screened for TB, 2740 (81...
March 21, 2018: Public Health Action
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29562983/predictors-of-isoniazid-preventive-therapy-completion-among-adults-newly-diagnosed-with-hiv-in-rural-malawi
#10
K M Little, M Khundi, G L Barnes, L G Ngwira, A Nkhoma, S Makombe, E L Corbett, R E Chaisson, D W Dowdy
SETTING: To reduce the risk of tuberculosis (TB) among individuals with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection, the World Health Organization recommends at least 6 months of isoniazid preventive therapy (IPT). Completion of IPT remains a major challenge in resource-limited settings. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate predictors of IPT completion in individuals newly diagnosed with HIV. DESIGN: Predictors of IPT completion among adults newly diagnosed with HIV in rural Malawi were evaluated using a multilevel logistic regression model...
April 1, 2018: International Journal of Tuberculosis and Lung Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29562982/high-rates-of-exposure-to-tuberculosis-patients-among-hiv-infected-health-care-workers-in-botswana
#11
S S Shin, C Modongo, N M Zetola, Q Wang, T Phologolo, M Kestler, A Ho-Foster
OBJECTIVE: To compare daily exposure to tuberculosis (TB) patients between HIV-infected and non-HIV-infected health care workers (HCWs), and examine the uptake of antiretroviral therapy (ART) and isoniazid preventive therapy (IPT) among HIV-infected HCWs in Botswana. DESIGN: We conducted a cross-sectional study among HCWs in 30 hospitals and clinics. We determined self-reported exposure frequency to TB patients and HIV status through in-person interviews. HCWs with unknown or negative HIV status were offered rapid HIV testing...
April 1, 2018: International Journal of Tuberculosis and Lung Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29514237/priorities-for-decreasing-morbidity-and-mortality-in-children-with-advanced-hiv-disease
#12
Lisa Frigati, Moherdran Archary, Helena Rabie, Martina Penazzato, Nathan Ford
Early mortality and morbidity remain high in children initiating antiretroviral therapy (ART), especially in sub-Saharan Africa. Many children still present with advanced human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) disease. Tuberculosis, pneumonia, and severe bacterial infections are the main causes of hospital admission in HIV-infected children. In contrast to adults with advanced HIV disease, cryptococcal disease is not common in childhood, although there is a peak in infancy and adolescence. Interventions such as TB screening in symptomatic children, and isoniazid and cotrimoxazole prophylaxis should be implemented...
March 4, 2018: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29513719/the-role-of-agency-in-the-implementation-of-isoniazid-preventive-therapy-ipt-lessons-from-omakoti-in-umgungundlovu-district-south-africa
#13
Jody Boffa, Maria Mayan, Sithembile Ndlovu, Tsholofelo Mhlaba, Tyler Williamson, Reginald Sauve, Dina Fisher
INTRODUCTION: In response to revisions in global and national policy in 2011, six-month isoniazid preventive therapy (IPT) became freely available as a preventive measure for people living with HIV in the uMgungundlovu District of KwaZulu-Natal province, South Africa. Given a difference in uptake and completion by sex, we sought to explore the reasons why Zulu women were more likely to accept and complete IPT compared to men in an effort to inform future implementation. METHODS: Utilising a community-based participatory research approach and ethnographic methods, we undertook 17 individual and group interviews, and met regularly with grassroots community advisory teams in three Zulu communities located in uMgungundlovu District between March 2012-December 2016...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29507756/integration-of-genome-scale-metabolic-networks-into-whole-body-pbpk-models-shows-phenotype-specific-cases-of-drug-induced-metabolic-perturbation
#14
Henrik Cordes, Christoph Thiel, Vanessa Baier, Lars M Blank, Lars Kuepfer
Drug-induced perturbations of the endogenous metabolic network are a potential root cause of cellular toxicity. A mechanistic understanding of such unwanted side effects during drug therapy is therefore vital for patient safety. The comprehensive assessment of such drug-induced injuries requires the simultaneous consideration of both drug exposure at the whole-body and resulting biochemical responses at the cellular level. We here present a computational multi-scale workflow that combines whole-body physiologically based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) models and organ-specific genome-scale metabolic network (GSMN) models through shared reactions of the xenobiotic metabolism...
2018: NPJ Systems Biology and Applications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29499060/household-point-of-care-cd4-testing-and-isoniazid-preventive-therapy-initiation-in-a-household-tb-contact-tracing-programme-in-two-districts-of-south-africa
#15
Liesl Page-Shipp, James J Lewis, Kavindhran Velen, Sedikanelo Senoge, Elizabeth Zishiri, Flora Popane, Violet N Chihota, Dave Clark, Gavin J Churchyard, Salome Charalambous
BACKGROUND: In South Africa, TB household contact tracing provides an opportunity for increased TB and HIV case finding. We aimed to determine the effect of two new potential interventions for TB contact tracing programmes: Point of Care CD4 (PoC CD4) on HIV linkage to care and household Isoniazid Preventive Therapy (IPT) provision on uptake and retention of IPT. METHODS: A pragmatic, three-arm, cluster-randomized trial was undertaken. TB Household contacts were randomised to 3 arms: 1) Standard of Care TB and HIV testing (SOC); 2) SOC with POC CD4 for those testing HIV positive; 3) SOC with POC CD4 and IPT for eligible household members...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29486815/implications-of-a-school-outbreak-of-multidrug-resistant-tuberculosis-in-northern-china
#16
Xiaoguang Wu, Yu Pang, Yanhua Song, Wenzhu Dong, Tingting Zhang, Shuan Wen, Hairong Huang, Mengqiu Gao
In this study, we identified a multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB) outbreak in a high school in northern China. The aim of this work was to describe TB transmission, drug resistance and treatment outcomes for this patient cluster. In January 2017, pulmonary TB was identified in a 17-year-old boy in northern China. Subsequently, a total of 11 TB cases were identified during 6-month follow-up of attendees of the same school. Of five students with latent TB infection (LTBI) receiving isoniazid preventive therapy (IPT), two pulmonary TB cases (40...
April 2018: Epidemiology and Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29472018/tuberculosis-control-interventions-targeted-to-previously-treated-people-in-a-high-incidence-setting-a-modelling-study
#17
Florian M Marx, Reza Yaesoubi, Nicolas A Menzies, Joshua A Salomon, Alyssa Bilinski, Nulda Beyers, Ted Cohen
BACKGROUND: In high-incidence settings, recurrent disease among previously treated individuals contributes substantially to the burden of incident and prevalent tuberculosis. The extent to which interventions targeted to this high-risk group can improve tuberculosis control has not been established. We aimed to project the population-level effect of control interventions targeted to individuals with a history of previous tuberculosis treatment in a high-incidence setting. METHODS: We developed a transmission-dynamic model of tuberculosis and HIV in a high-incidence setting with a population of roughly 40 000 people in suburban Cape Town, South Africa...
April 2018: Lancet Global Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29471904/completion-of-isoniazid-preventive-therapy-among-human-immunodeficiency-virus-positive-adults-in-urban-malawi
#18
D Thindwa, P MacPherson, A T Choko, M Khundi, R Sambakunsi, L G Ngwira, T Kalua, E L Webb, E L Corbett
SETTING: Despite worldwide scale-up of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) care services, relatively few countries have implemented isoniazid preventive therapy (IPT). Among other programmatic concerns, IPT completion tends to be low, especially when not fully integrated into HIV care clinics. OBJECTIVE: To estimate non-completion of 6-month IPT and its predictors among HIV-positive adults aged 16 years. DESIGN: A prospective cohort study nested within a cluster-randomised trial of TB prevention was conducted between February 2012 and June 2014...
March 1, 2018: International Journal of Tuberculosis and Lung Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29462104/high-incidence-of-tuberculosis-infection-in-hiv-exposed-children-exiting-an-isoniazid-preventive-therapy-trial
#19
Lisa M Cranmer, Heather R Draper, Anna M Mandalakas, Soyeon Kim, George McSherry, Emma Krezinski, Joan Coetzee, Charles Mitchell, Sharon Nachman, Mercia van der Linde, Mark F Cotton, Anneke C Hesseling
Young HIV-exposed children are at high risk for TB infection. We performed QuantiFERON®-TB Gold (QFT) among HIV-exposed children in South Africa at enrolment and one year follow-up. The incidence of TB infection was high for HIV+ (11 cases/100 child-years) and HIV-exposed uninfected (HEU) children (15 cases/100 child-years). QFT may identify HIV-exposed children at risk for TB disease progression.
February 16, 2018: Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29457055/tuberculin-skin-test-conversion-and-primary-progressive-tuberculosis-disease-in-the-first-5-years-of-life-a-birth-cohort-study-from-cape-town-south-africa
#20
Leonardo Martinez, David M le Roux, Whitney Barnett, Attie Stadler, Mark P Nicol, Heather J Zar
Background: Tuberculosis is a leading cause of global childhood mortality. However, the epidemiology and burden of tuberculosis in infancy is not well understood. We aimed to investigate tuberculin skin test conversion and tuberculosis in the Drakenstein Child Health study, a South African birth cohort in a community in which tuberculosis incidence is hyperendemic. Methods: In this prospective birth cohort study, we enrolled pregnant women older than 18 years who were between 20 and 28 weeks' gestation and who were attending antenatal care in a peri-urban, impoverished South African setting...
January 2018: Lancet Child & Adolescent Health
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