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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27911140/effect-of-secondary-preventive-therapy-on-recurrence-of-tuberculosis-in-hiv-infected-individuals-a-systematic-review
#1
Wassilis Sc Bruins, Frank van Leth
Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected individuals successfully treated for tuberculosis (TB) remain at risk of recurrence of the disease, especially in high TB incidence settings. We performed a systematic review, investigating whether secondary preventive therapy (sPT) with anti-TB drugs (preventive therapy in former TB patients with treatment success) is an effective strategy to prevent recurrence of TB in this patient group. We searched the databases PubMed, Cochrane Library, EMBASE, Web of Science and Google Scholar using the keywords HIV-infections, HIV, human immunodeficiency virus, AIDS, isoniazid, isoniazid preventive therapy (IPT), tuberculosis, TB, recurrence and recurrent disease, resulting in 253 potential publications...
December 2, 2016: Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27852682/disseminated-mycobacterium-tuberculosis-following-renal-transplant-with-alemtuzumab-induction
#2
Adam Baghban, Marwan Mikheal Azar, Raffaele Mario Bernardo, Maricar Malinis
Mycobacterium tuberculosis presents unique challenges in the peritransplant period. Here, we describe a case of disseminated tuberculosis following renal transplantation with alemtuzumab induction immunosuppression in a patient with remotely treated pulmonary tuberculosis and ongoing risk factors for re-infection. We also review the available literature regarding the prevalence of tuberculosis infection following solid organ transplant and management of high-risk patients, including the role for isoniazid preventative therapy...
November 16, 2016: BMJ Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27842624/health-system-challenges-an-obstacle-to-the-success-of-isoniazid-preventive-therapy
#3
E I Okoli, L Roets
BACKGROUND: The researchers identified infection with HIV as the strongest risk factor in the reactivation of latent tuberculosis (TB) infection or progression to active disease. Isoniazid preventive therapy (IPT) is one of the interventions recommended by the World Health Organization and the South African (SA) National Department of Health to prevent progression to active TB disease in people living with HIV. Adherence to IPT is therefore the responsibility of healthcare clients and clinicians...
November 2, 2016: South African Medical Journal, Suid-Afrikaanse Tydskrif Vir Geneeskunde
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27801499/six-month-therapy-for-abdominal-tuberculosis
#4
REVIEW
Sophie Jullien, Siddharth Jain, Hannah Ryan, Vineet Ahuja
BACKGROUND: Tuberculosis (TB) of the gastrointestinal tract and any other organ within the abdominal cavity is abdominal TB, and most guidelines recommend the same six-month regimen used for pulmonary TB for people with this diagnosis. However, some physicians are concerned whether a six-month treatment regimen is long enough to prevent relapse of the disease, particularly in people with gastrointestinal TB, which may sometimes cause antituberculous drugs to be poorly absorbed. On the other hand, longer regimens are associated with poor adherence, which could increase relapse, contribute to drug resistance developing, and increase costs to patients and health providers...
November 1, 2016: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27782966/benefits-of-continuous-isoniazid-preventive-therapy-may-outweigh-resistance-risks-in-a-declining-tuberculosis-hiv-coepidemic
#5
Amber Kunkel, Forrest W Crawford, James Shepherd, Ted Cohen
OBJECTIVE: Extending the duration of isoniazid preventive therapy (IPT) among people living with HIV (PLHIV) may improve its effectiveness at both individual and population levels, but could also increase selective pressure in favor of isoniazid-resistant tuberculosis (TB) strains. The objective of this study was to determine the relative importance of these two effects. METHODS: Transmission dynamic model. DESIGN: We created a mathematical model of TB transmission incorporating HIV incidence and treatment, mixed strain latent TB infections, and four different phenotypes of TB drug resistance (pan-susceptible, isoniazid monoresistant, rifampicin monoresistant, and multidrug resistant)...
November 13, 2016: AIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27752465/pulmonary-tuberculosis-followed-by-sarcoidosis-in-an-hiv-infected-patient-a-case-report-and-a-simplified-diagnostic-flowchart-for-diagnosis-and-treatment-of-sarcoidosis
#6
P Mencarini, R Bellagamba, A Oliva, P Ghirga, M L Giancola, A Corpolongo, T Ascoli Bartoli, P De Nardo, A Baiocchini, F Del Nonno, P Narciso, E Nicastri
The diagnosis of sarcoidosis in a patient living with HIV infection is an uncommon event and a challenge for clinicians. Clinical manifestations are variable and fluctuating depending to adherence to ARV therapy and to the level of CD4 count. We analyze here one chronic case in which sarcoidosis appeared clinically two years after pulmonary tuberculosis. The course of the disease was influenced and prolonged by frequent interruptions of antiretroviral therapy. Moreover the diagnosis and the decision to treat have been delayed by the need of exclusion of other pathologies, principally tuberculosis reactivation/reinfection, other mycobacterial diseases, hematologic malignancies...
2016: Respiratory Medicine Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27725045/predictors-of-adherence-to-isoniazid-preventive-therapy-in-people-living-with-hiv-in-ethiopia
#7
H T Ayele, M S M van Mourik, M J M Bonten
BACKGROUND: Although isoniazid preventive therapy (IPT) is effective in the prevention of tuberculosis (TB) in people living with the human immunodeficiency virus (PLHIV), patient adherence to this strategy is suboptimal. METHODS: This prospective cohort study was conducted in the HIV/AIDS (acquired immune-deficiency syndrome) out-patient chronic care unit of Dilla University Hospital, Dilla, Ethiopia, from May 2014 to February 2015. Adherence was defined as completion of the 6-month course of treatment with 90% of pills taken, as measured by diary and pill count...
October 2016: International Journal of Tuberculosis and Lung Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27720688/feasibility-of-achieving-the-2025-who-global-tuberculosis-targets-in-south-africa-china-and-india-a-combined-analysis-of-11-mathematical-models
#8
Rein M G J Houben, Nicolas A Menzies, Tom Sumner, Grace H Huynh, Nimalan Arinaminpathy, Jeremy D Goldhaber-Fiebert, Hsien-Ho Lin, Chieh-Yin Wu, Sandip Mandal, Surabhi Pandey, Sze-Chuan Suen, Eran Bendavid, Andrew S Azman, David W Dowdy, Nicolas Bacaër, Allison S Rhines, Marcus W Feldman, Andreas Handel, Christopher C Whalen, Stewart T Chang, Bradley G Wagner, Philip A Eckhoff, James M Trauer, Justin T Denholm, Emma S McBryde, Ted Cohen, Joshua A Salomon, Carel Pretorius, Marek Lalli, Jeffrey W Eaton, Delia Boccia, Mehran Hosseini, Gabriela B Gomez, Suvanand Sahu, Colleen Daniels, Lucica Ditiu, Daniel P Chin, Lixia Wang, Vineet K Chadha, Kiran Rade, Puneet Dewan, Piotr Hippner, Salome Charalambous, Alison D Grant, Gavin Churchyard, Yogan Pillay, L David Mametja, Michael E Kimerling, Anna Vassall, Richard G White
BACKGROUND: The post-2015 End TB Strategy proposes targets of 50% reduction in tuberculosis incidence and 75% reduction in mortality from tuberculosis by 2025. We aimed to assess whether these targets are feasible in three high-burden countries with contrasting epidemiology and previous programmatic achievements. METHODS: 11 independently developed mathematical models of tuberculosis transmission projected the epidemiological impact of currently available tuberculosis interventions for prevention, diagnosis, and treatment in China, India, and South Africa...
November 2016: Lancet Global Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27716730/survival-of-hiv-1-vertically-infected-children
#9
Mary-Ann Davies, Diana Gibb, Anna Turkova
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: It is 20 years since the start of the combination antiretroviral therapy (cART) era and more than 10 years since cART scale-up began in resource-limited settings. We examined survival of vertically HIV-infected infants and children in the cART era. RECENT FINDINGS: Good survival has been achieved on cART in all settings with up to 10-fold mortality reductions compared with before cART availability. Although mortality risk remains high in the first few months after cART initiation in young children with severe disease, it drops rapidly thereafter even for those who started with advanced disease, and longer term mortality risk is low...
September 2016: Current Opinion in HIV and AIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27708985/clinical-correlates-and-drug-resistance-in-hiv-infected-and-uninfected-pulmonary-tuberculosis-patients-in-south-india
#10
Chandy Sara, Heylen Elsa, Mishra Baijayanti, Ekstrand Maria Lennartsdotter
OBJECTIVES: To examine demographics, clinical correlates, sputum AFB (acid fast bacilli) smear grading DOTS (Directly Observed Therapy Short Course) uptake, and drug resistance in a cohort of newly-diagnosed, smear positive pulmonary tuberculosis (TB) patients with respect to HIV status at baseline, and compare smear conversion rates, side effects and mortality after two months. DESIGN: A prospective study among 54 HIV positive and 41 HIV negative pulmonary TB patients...
September 2016: World Journal of AIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27695679/dotting-the-three-i-s-for-collaborative-tb-hiv-activities-evaluation-of-a-pilot-programme-in-kathmandu-nepal
#11
S K Sah, S K Sahu, B Lamichhane, G K Bhatta, K B Bhandari, P Owiti, S S Majumdar
Setting: The three government tertiary care hospitals providing care for people living with the human immunodeficiency virus (PLHIV) in Kathmandu, Nepal. Objectives: To assess 1) the screening cascades for intensified case finding for tuberculosis (TB), 2) isoniazid preventive therapy (IPT), including demographic and clinical factors associated with treatment interruption, and 3) TB infection control (IC) in the health facilities. Design: A cross-sectional study of new PLHIV enrolled from January 2012 to December 2014...
September 2016: Public Health Action
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27659507/rapid-urine-based-screening-for-tuberculosis-to-reduce-aids-related-mortality-in-hospitalized-patients-in-africa-the-stamp-trial-study-protocol-for-a-randomised-controlled-trial
#12
Ankur Gupta-Wright, Katherine L Fielding, Joep J van Oosterhout, Douglas K Wilson, Elizabeth L Corbett, Clare Flach, Krishna P Reddy, Rochelle P Walensky, Jurgens A Peters, Melanie Alufandika-Moyo, Stephen D Lawn
BACKGROUND: HIV-associated tuberculosis (TB) co-infection remains an enormous burden to international public health. Post-mortem studies have highlighted the high proportion of HIV-positive adults admitted to hospital with TB. Determine TB-LAM and Xpert MTB/RIF assays can substantially increase diagnostic yield of TB within one day of hospital admission. However, it remains unclear if this approach can impact clinical outcomes. The STAMP trial aims to test the hypothesis that the implementation a urine-based screening strategy for TB can reduce all cause-mortality among HIV-positive patients admitted to hospital when compared to current, sputum-based screening...
September 22, 2016: BMC Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27581996/six-months-therapy-for-tuberculous-meningitis
#13
Sophie Jullien, Hannah Ryan, Manish Modi, Rohit Bhatia
BACKGROUND: Tuberculous meningitis (TBM) is the main form of tuberculosis that affects the central nervous system and is associated with high rates of death and disability. Most international guidelines recommend longer antituberculous treatment (ATT) regimens for TBM than for pulmonary tuberculosis disease to prevent relapse. However, longer regimens are associated with poor adherence, which could contribute to increased relapse, development of drug resistance, and increased costs to patients and healthcare systems...
September 1, 2016: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27543096/barriers-in-the-implementation-of-isoniazid-preventive-therapy-for-people-living-with-hiv-in-northern-ethiopia-a-mixed-quantitative-and-qualitative-study
#14
Gebrehiwot Teklay, Tsigemariam Teklu, Befikadu Legesse, Kiros Tedla, Eveline Klinkenberg
BACKGROUND: Isoniazid preventive therapy is a key public health intervention for the prevention of tuberculosis disease among people living with HIV. Despite the confirmed efficacy of isoniazid preventive therapy and global recommendations existing for decades, its implementation remains limited. In resource constrained settings, few have investigated why isoniazid preventive therapy is not implemented on full scale. This study was designed to investigate the level of isoniazid preventive therapy implementation and reasons for suboptimal implementation in Tigray region of Ethiopia...
2016: BMC Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27536981/benefits-of-continuous-isoniazid-preventive-therapy-may-outweigh-resistance-risks-in-a-declining-tb-hiv-co-epidemic
#15
Amber Kunkel, Forrest W Crawford, James Shepherd, Ted Cohen
OBJECTIVE: Extending the duration of isoniazid preventive therapy (IPT) among people living with HIV (PLHIV) may improve its effectiveness at both the individual and population level, but could also increase selective pressure in favor of isoniazid resistant tuberculosis (TB) strains. The objective of this study was to determine the relative importance of these two effects. METHODS: Transmission dynamic model DESIGN:: We created a mathematical model of TB transmission incorporating HIV incidence and treatment, mixed strain latent TB infections, and four different phenotypes of TB drug resistance (pan-susceptible, isoniazid mono-resistant, rifampicin mono-resistant, and multi-drug resistant)...
August 17, 2016: AIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27536864/antiretroviral-treatment-scale-up-and-tuberculosis-mortality-in-high-tb-hiv-burden-countries-an-econometric-analysis
#16
Isabel Yan, Eran Bendavid, Eline L Korenromp
INTRODUCTION: Antiretroviral therapy (ART) reduces mortality in patients with active tuberculosis (TB), but the population-level relationship between ART coverage and TB mortality is untested. We estimated the reduction in population-level TB mortality that can be attributed to increasing ART coverage across 41 high HIV-TB burden countries. METHODS: We compiled TB mortality trends between 1996 and 2011 from two sources: (1) national program-reported TB death notifications, adjusted for annual TB case detection rates, and (2) WHO TB mortality estimates...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27499399/implications-of-the-2015-world-health-organization-isoniazid-preventive-therapy-recommendations-on-tuberculosis-prevention-efforts-in-namibia
#17
Stella Anne Oloo
The World Health Organization recently released guidelines recommending 36-month use of isoniazid preventive therapy in adults and adolescents living with HIV in resource-limited settings. Namibia continues to grapple with one of the highest incidences of tuberculosis (TB) worldwide. Implementation of these guidelines requires considerations of TB epidemiology, health infrastructure, programmatic priorities and patient adherence. This article explores the challenges Namibia currently faces in its fight against TB and the implications of the new guidelines on Namibian TB prevention efforts...
August 2016: South African Medical Journal, Suid-Afrikaanse Tydskrif Vir Geneeskunde
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27497728/zidovudine-and-isoniazid-induced-liver-toxicity-and-oxidative-stress-evaluation-of-mitigating-properties-of-silibinin
#18
Ramanathan Raghu, Sivanesan Karthikeyan
HIV/AIDS patients are more prone for opportunistic TB infections and they are administered the combined regimen of anti-retroviral drug zidovudine (AZT) and isoniazid (INH) for therapy. However, AZT+INH treatment has been documented to induce injury and remedial measures to prevent this adversity are not clearly defined. Silibinin (SBN) is a natural hepatoprotective principle isolated from medicinal plant Silybum marianum and is currently used for therapy of various liver diseases. This study investigate the hepatotoxic potentials of AZT alone, INH alone and AZT+INH treatments and the mitigating potentials of SBN against these drugs induced toxic insults of liver in rats...
September 2016: Environmental Toxicology and Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27412415/bacillus-calmette-gu%C3%A3-rin-bcg-revaccination-of-adults-with-latent-mycobacterium-tuberculosis-infection-induces-long-lived-bcg-reactive-nk-cell-responses
#19
Sara Suliman, Hennie Geldenhuys, John L Johnson, Jane E Hughes, Erica Smit, Melissa Murphy, Asma Toefy, Lesedi Lerumo, Christiaan Hopley, Bernadette Pienaar, Phalkun Chheng, Elisa Nemes, Daniel F Hoft, Willem A Hanekom, W Henry Boom, Mark Hatherill, Thomas J Scriba
One third of the global population is estimated to be latently infected with Mycobacterium tuberculosis We performed a phase I randomized controlled trial of isoniazid preventive therapy (IPT) before revaccination with bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG) in healthy, tuberculin skin test-positive (≥15-mm induration), HIV-negative South African adults. We hypothesized that preclearance of latent bacilli with IPT modulates BCG immunogenicity following revaccination. Frequencies and coexpression of IFN-γ, TNF-α, IL-2, IL-17, and/or IL-22 in CD4 T cells and IFN-γ-expressing CD8 T, γδ T, CD3(+)CD56(+) NKT-like, and NK cells in response to BCG were measured using whole blood intracellular cytokine staining and flow cytometry...
August 15, 2016: Journal of Immunology: Official Journal of the American Association of Immunologists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27393543/a-mixed-methods-evaluation-of-adherence-to-preventive-treatment-among-child-tuberculosis-contacts-in-indonesia
#20
R Triasih, R S Padmawati, T Duke, C Robertson, S M Sawyer, S M Graham
BACKGROUND: Tuberculosis (TB) can be prevented using isoniazid preventive therapy (IPT) among child contacts. However, the benefits of IPT depend on adherence to at least 6 months of daily treatment. A greater understanding of the barriers to and facilitators of adherence to IPT in resource-poor settings is required to optimise the benefits. METHODS: We prospectively evaluated adherence to IPT and its associated factors among child contacts (age 0-5 years) eligible for IPT...
August 2016: International Journal of Tuberculosis and Lung Disease
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