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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28087928/factors-associated-with-non-completion-of-follow-up-33-month-latent-tuberculous-infection-treatment-trial
#1
R N Moro, T R Sterling, J Saukkonen, A Vernon, C R Horsburgh, R E Chaisson, C D Hamilton, M E Villarino, S Goldberg
<h2>SETTING:</h2><p>A post-hoc exploratory analysis of a randomized, open-label clinical trial thatenrolled 8053 participants from the United States, Canada, Brazil, and Spain.</p><h2>OBJECTIVE:</h2><p>To assess factors associated with non-completion of study follow-up (NCF) in a 33-month latent tuberculous infection treatment trial, PREVENT TB.</p><h2>DESIGN:</h2><p>Participants were randomized to receive 3 months of weekly directly observed therapy vs...
January 13, 2017: International Journal of Tuberculosis and Lung Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28056848/high-prevalence-and-low-cure-rate-of-tuberculosis-among-patients-with-hiv-in-xinjiang-china
#2
Rena Maimaiti, Yuexin Zhang, Kejun Pan, Peierdun Mijiti, Maimaitiali Wubili, Maimaitijiang Musa, Rune Andersson
BACKGROUND: Tuberculosis and HIV co-epidemics are problems in many parts of the world. Xinjiang is a high tuberculosis and HIV prevalence area in China. We aimed to investigate the prevalence and cure rate of tuberculosis among HIV positive patients in Xinjiang. METHODS: In a retrospective study between 2006 and 2011, clinical and laboratory data on 333 patients with HIV and tuberculosis were compared to 2668 patients with HIV only. There were 31 HIV positive patients with no data on tuberculosis...
January 5, 2017: BMC Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28049455/effectiveness-of-isoniazid-preventative-therapy-in-reducing-incidence-of-active-tuberculosis-among-people-living-with-hiv-aids-in-public-health-facilities-of-addis-ababa-ethiopia-a-historical-cohort-study
#3
Mahlet Semu, Teferi Gedif Fenta, Girmay Medhin, Dawit Assefa
BACKGROUND: Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) pandemic has exacerbated tuberculosis disease especially in Sub-Saharan African countries. The World Health Organization (WHO) and Joint United Nations Program on HIV/AIDS (UNAIDS) have recommended Isoniazid Preventive Therapy (IPT) for HIV infected patients to reduce the burden of tuberculosis (TB). Ethiopia has been implementing IPT since 2007. However, effectiveness of IPT in averting occurrence of active tuberculosis among HIV infected patients has not been assessed...
January 3, 2017: BMC Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28043609/personalized-information-system-for-the-control-of-tuberculosis-in-resource-limited-settings-a-simplistic-proposal-approach
#4
Benjamin D Thumamo Pokam, Prisca W Guemdjom
Passive case finding remains the mainstay of tuberculosis (TB) control in several resource-limited countries. Although TB prevalence and mortality rates have declined in recent years, an estimated 3 million cases a year still go undetected and/or unreported, and delays in the diagnosis and treatment of TB continue to be widespread. It has been shown that identifying and treating individuals with latent TB infection (LTBI) prevents progression to active TB disease and is one of the key components of TB control strategies...
December 2016: International Journal of Mycobacteriology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28043594/incidence-of-tuberculosis-among-children-living-in-contact-with-smear-positive-tuberculosis-advantages-and-limits-of-the-quantiferon-tb-gold-in-tube-test
#5
Djohar Hannoun, Fadila Boulahbal
OBJECTIVE/BACKGROUND: Children living in contact with smear-positive pulmonary tuberculosis (TB) patients are highly exposed to TB infection. Our objective was to estimate the incidence of TB in children living in contact with a Smear Positive (M+) pulmonary tuberculosis (PTM+) index case during 2years following exposure. METHODS: This was a descriptive, cohort, prospective, multicenter study of children aged from 6months to 15years in contact with a PTM+ case. The recruitment of children has been based on the diagnosed PTM+ index case and taken in charge by the Services of Control of Tuberculosis and Respiratory Diseases located in Algiers during 2014...
December 2016: International Journal of Mycobacteriology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27999054/effects-of-isoniazid-resistance-on-tb-treatment-outcomes-under-programmatic-conditions-in-a-high-tb-and-hiv-setting-a-prospective-multicentre-study
#6
Tumaini J Nagu, Said Aboud, Mecky I Matee, Markus J Maeurer, Wafaie W Fawzi, Ferdinand Mugusi
OBJECTIVES: The scale and impact of background isoniazid resistance in TB- and HIV-endemic countries requires definition to improve treatment success and guide the scale-up of isoniazid preventive therapy (IPT). We describe the effects of isoniazid resistance on TB treatment outcomes among patients with or without HIV infection in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania. METHODS: A multicentre, prospective observational study was conducted among TB patients commencing WHO-recommended first-line TB treatment...
December 20, 2016: Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27911140/effect-of-secondary-preventive-therapy-on-recurrence-of-tuberculosis-in-hiv-infected-individuals-a-systematic-review
#7
Wassilis Sc Bruins, Frank van Leth
Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected individuals successfully treated for tuberculosis (TB) remain at risk of recurrence of the disease, especially in high TB incidence settings. We performed a systematic review, investigating whether secondary preventive therapy (sPT) with anti-TB drugs (preventive therapy in former TB patients with treatment success) is an effective strategy to prevent recurrence of TB in this patient group. We searched the databases PubMed, Cochrane Library, EMBASE, Web of Science and Google Scholar using the keywords HIV-infections, HIV, human immunodeficiency virus, AIDS, isoniazid, isoniazid preventive therapy (IPT), tuberculosis, TB, recurrence and recurrent disease, resulting in 253 potential publications...
December 2, 2016: Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27852682/disseminated-mycobacterium-tuberculosis-following-renal-transplant-with-alemtuzumab-induction
#8
Adam Baghban, Marwan Mikheal Azar, Raffaele Mario Bernardo, Maricar Malinis
Mycobacterium tuberculosis presents unique challenges in the peritransplant period. Here, we describe a case of disseminated tuberculosis following renal transplantation with alemtuzumab induction immunosuppression in a patient with remotely treated pulmonary tuberculosis and ongoing risk factors for re-infection. We also review the available literature regarding the prevalence of tuberculosis infection following solid organ transplant and management of high-risk patients, including the role for isoniazid preventative therapy...
November 16, 2016: BMJ Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27842624/health-system-challenges-an-obstacle-to-the-success-of-isoniazid-preventive-therapy
#9
E I Okoli, L Roets
BACKGROUND: The researchers identified infection with HIV as the strongest risk factor in the reactivation of latent tuberculosis (TB) infection or progression to active disease. Isoniazid preventive therapy (IPT) is one of the interventions recommended by the World Health Organization and the South African (SA) National Department of Health to prevent progression to active TB disease in people living with HIV. Adherence to IPT is therefore the responsibility of healthcare clients and clinicians...
November 2, 2016: South African Medical Journal, Suid-Afrikaanse Tydskrif Vir Geneeskunde
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27801499/six-month-therapy-for-abdominal-tuberculosis
#10
REVIEW
Sophie Jullien, Siddharth Jain, Hannah Ryan, Vineet Ahuja
BACKGROUND: Tuberculosis (TB) of the gastrointestinal tract and any other organ within the abdominal cavity is abdominal TB, and most guidelines recommend the same six-month regimen used for pulmonary TB for people with this diagnosis. However, some physicians are concerned whether a six-month treatment regimen is long enough to prevent relapse of the disease, particularly in people with gastrointestinal TB, which may sometimes cause antituberculous drugs to be poorly absorbed. On the other hand, longer regimens are associated with poor adherence, which could increase relapse, contribute to drug resistance developing, and increase costs to patients and health providers...
1, 2016: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27782966/benefits-of-continuous-isoniazid-preventive-therapy-may-outweigh-resistance-risks-in-a-declining-tuberculosis-hiv-coepidemic
#11
Amber Kunkel, Forrest W Crawford, James Shepherd, Ted Cohen
OBJECTIVE: Extending the duration of isoniazid preventive therapy (IPT) among people living with HIV (PLHIV) may improve its effectiveness at both individual and population levels, but could also increase selective pressure in favor of isoniazid-resistant tuberculosis (TB) strains. The objective of this study was to determine the relative importance of these two effects. METHODS: Transmission dynamic model. DESIGN: We created a mathematical model of TB transmission incorporating HIV incidence and treatment, mixed strain latent TB infections, and four different phenotypes of TB drug resistance (pan-susceptible, isoniazid monoresistant, rifampicin monoresistant, and multidrug resistant)...
November 13, 2016: AIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27752465/pulmonary-tuberculosis-followed-by-sarcoidosis-in-an-hiv-infected-patient-a-case-report-and-a-simplified-diagnostic-flowchart-for-diagnosis-and-treatment-of-sarcoidosis
#12
P Mencarini, R Bellagamba, A Oliva, P Ghirga, M L Giancola, A Corpolongo, T Ascoli Bartoli, P De Nardo, A Baiocchini, F Del Nonno, P Narciso, E Nicastri
The diagnosis of sarcoidosis in a patient living with HIV infection is an uncommon event and a challenge for clinicians. Clinical manifestations are variable and fluctuating depending to adherence to ARV therapy and to the level of CD4 count. We analyze here one chronic case in which sarcoidosis appeared clinically two years after pulmonary tuberculosis. The course of the disease was influenced and prolonged by frequent interruptions of antiretroviral therapy. Moreover the diagnosis and the decision to treat have been delayed by the need of exclusion of other pathologies, principally tuberculosis reactivation/reinfection, other mycobacterial diseases, hematologic malignancies...
2016: Respiratory Medicine Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27725045/predictors-of-adherence-to-isoniazid-preventive-therapy-in-people-living-with-hiv-in-ethiopia
#13
H T Ayele, M S M van Mourik, M J M Bonten
BACKGROUND: Although isoniazid preventive therapy (IPT) is effective in the prevention of tuberculosis (TB) in people living with the human immunodeficiency virus (PLHIV), patient adherence to this strategy is suboptimal. METHODS: This prospective cohort study was conducted in the HIV/AIDS (acquired immune-deficiency syndrome) out-patient chronic care unit of Dilla University Hospital, Dilla, Ethiopia, from May 2014 to February 2015. Adherence was defined as completion of the 6-month course of treatment with 90% of pills taken, as measured by diary and pill count...
October 2016: International Journal of Tuberculosis and Lung Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27720688/feasibility-of-achieving-the-2025-who-global-tuberculosis-targets-in-south-africa-china-and-india-a-combined-analysis-of-11-mathematical-models
#14
Rein M G J Houben, Nicolas A Menzies, Tom Sumner, Grace H Huynh, Nimalan Arinaminpathy, Jeremy D Goldhaber-Fiebert, Hsien-Ho Lin, Chieh-Yin Wu, Sandip Mandal, Surabhi Pandey, Sze-Chuan Suen, Eran Bendavid, Andrew S Azman, David W Dowdy, Nicolas Bacaƫr, Allison S Rhines, Marcus W Feldman, Andreas Handel, Christopher C Whalen, Stewart T Chang, Bradley G Wagner, Philip A Eckhoff, James M Trauer, Justin T Denholm, Emma S McBryde, Ted Cohen, Joshua A Salomon, Carel Pretorius, Marek Lalli, Jeffrey W Eaton, Delia Boccia, Mehran Hosseini, Gabriela B Gomez, Suvanand Sahu, Colleen Daniels, Lucica Ditiu, Daniel P Chin, Lixia Wang, Vineet K Chadha, Kiran Rade, Puneet Dewan, Piotr Hippner, Salome Charalambous, Alison D Grant, Gavin Churchyard, Yogan Pillay, L David Mametja, Michael E Kimerling, Anna Vassall, Richard G White
BACKGROUND: The post-2015 End TB Strategy proposes targets of 50% reduction in tuberculosis incidence and 75% reduction in mortality from tuberculosis by 2025. We aimed to assess whether these targets are feasible in three high-burden countries with contrasting epidemiology and previous programmatic achievements. METHODS: 11 independently developed mathematical models of tuberculosis transmission projected the epidemiological impact of currently available tuberculosis interventions for prevention, diagnosis, and treatment in China, India, and South Africa...
November 2016: Lancet Global Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27716730/survival-of-hiv-1-vertically-infected-children
#15
Mary-Ann Davies, Diana Gibb, Anna Turkova
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: It is 20 years since the start of the combination antiretroviral therapy (cART) era and more than 10 years since cART scale-up began in resource-limited settings. We examined survival of vertically HIV-infected infants and children in the cART era. RECENT FINDINGS: Good survival has been achieved on cART in all settings with up to 10-fold mortality reductions compared with before cART availability. Although mortality risk remains high in the first few months after cART initiation in young children with severe disease, it drops rapidly thereafter even for those who started with advanced disease, and longer term mortality risk is low...
September 2016: Current Opinion in HIV and AIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27708985/clinical-correlates-and-drug-resistance-in-hiv-infected-and-uninfected-pulmonary-tuberculosis-patients-in-south-india
#16
Chandy Sara, Heylen Elsa, Mishra Baijayanti, Ekstrand Maria Lennartsdotter
OBJECTIVES: To examine demographics, clinical correlates, sputum AFB (acid fast bacilli) smear grading DOTS (Directly Observed Therapy Short Course) uptake, and drug resistance in a cohort of newly-diagnosed, smear positive pulmonary tuberculosis (TB) patients with respect to HIV status at baseline, and compare smear conversion rates, side effects and mortality after two months. DESIGN: A prospective study among 54 HIV positive and 41 HIV negative pulmonary TB patients...
September 2016: World Journal of AIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27695679/dotting-the-three-i-s-for-collaborative-tb-hiv-activities-evaluation-of-a-pilot-programme-in-kathmandu-nepal
#17
S K Sah, S K Sahu, B Lamichhane, G K Bhatta, K B Bhandari, P Owiti, S S Majumdar
Setting: The three government tertiary care hospitals providing care for people living with the human immunodeficiency virus (PLHIV) in Kathmandu, Nepal. Objectives: To assess 1) the screening cascades for intensified case finding for tuberculosis (TB), 2) isoniazid preventive therapy (IPT), including demographic and clinical factors associated with treatment interruption, and 3) TB infection control (IC) in the health facilities. Design: A cross-sectional study of new PLHIV enrolled from January 2012 to December 2014...
September 2016: Public Health Action
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27659507/rapid-urine-based-screening-for-tuberculosis-to-reduce-aids-related-mortality-in-hospitalized-patients-in-africa-the-stamp-trial-study-protocol-for-a-randomised-controlled-trial
#18
Ankur Gupta-Wright, Katherine L Fielding, Joep J van Oosterhout, Douglas K Wilson, Elizabeth L Corbett, Clare Flach, Krishna P Reddy, Rochelle P Walensky, Jurgens A Peters, Melanie Alufandika-Moyo, Stephen D Lawn
BACKGROUND: HIV-associated tuberculosis (TB) co-infection remains an enormous burden to international public health. Post-mortem studies have highlighted the high proportion of HIV-positive adults admitted to hospital with TB. Determine TB-LAM and Xpert MTB/RIF assays can substantially increase diagnostic yield of TB within one day of hospital admission. However, it remains unclear if this approach can impact clinical outcomes. The STAMP trial aims to test the hypothesis that the implementation a urine-based screening strategy for TB can reduce all cause-mortality among HIV-positive patients admitted to hospital when compared to current, sputum-based screening...
September 22, 2016: BMC Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27581996/six-months-therapy-for-tuberculous-meningitis
#19
REVIEW
Sophie Jullien, Hannah Ryan, Manish Modi, Rohit Bhatia
BACKGROUND: Tuberculous meningitis (TBM) is the main form of tuberculosis that affects the central nervous system and is associated with high rates of death and disability. Most international guidelines recommend longer antituberculous treatment (ATT) regimens for TBM than for pulmonary tuberculosis disease to prevent relapse. However, longer regimens are associated with poor adherence, which could contribute to increased relapse, development of drug resistance, and increased costs to patients and healthcare systems...
September 1, 2016: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27543096/barriers-in-the-implementation-of-isoniazid-preventive-therapy-for-people-living-with-hiv-in-northern-ethiopia-a-mixed-quantitative-and-qualitative-study
#20
Gebrehiwot Teklay, Tsigemariam Teklu, Befikadu Legesse, Kiros Tedla, Eveline Klinkenberg
BACKGROUND: Isoniazid preventive therapy is a key public health intervention for the prevention of tuberculosis disease among people living with HIV. Despite the confirmed efficacy of isoniazid preventive therapy and global recommendations existing for decades, its implementation remains limited. In resource constrained settings, few have investigated why isoniazid preventive therapy is not implemented on full scale. This study was designed to investigate the level of isoniazid preventive therapy implementation and reasons for suboptimal implementation in Tigray region of Ethiopia...
2016: BMC Public Health
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