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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29791554/chest-x-ray-and-chest-ct-findings-in-patients-diagnosed-with-pulmonary-tuberculosis-following-solid-organ-transplantation-a-systematic-review
#1
Irai Luis Giacomelli, Roberto Schuhmacher Neto, Edson Marchiori, Marisa Pereira, Bruno Hochhegger
The objective of this systematic review was to select articles including chest X-ray or chest CT findings in patients who developed pulmonary tuberculosis following solid organ transplantation (lung, kidney, or liver). The following search terms were used: "tuberculosis"; "transplants"; "transplantation"; "mycobacterium"; and "lung". The databases used in this review were PubMed and the Brazilian Biblioteca Virtual em Saúde (Virtual Health Library). We selected articles in English, Portuguese, or Spanish, regardless of the year of publication, that met the selection criteria in their title, abstract, or body of text...
April 2018: Jornal Brasileiro de Pneumologia: Publicaça̋o Oficial da Sociedade Brasileira de Pneumologia e Tisilogia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29791547/predictors-of-mortality-among-intensive-care-unit-patients-coinfected-with-tuberculosis-and-hiv
#2
Marcia Danielle Ferreira, Cynthia Pessoa das Neves, Alexandra Brito de Souza, Francisco Beraldi-Magalhães, Giovanni Battista Migliori, Afrânio Lineu Kritski, Marcelo Cordeiro-Santos
OBJECTIVE: To identify factors predictive of mortality in patients admitted to the ICU with tuberculosis (TB)/HIV coinfection in the Manaus, Amazon Region. METHODS: This was a retrospective cohort study of TB/HIV coinfected patients over 18 years of age who were admitted to an ICU in the city of Manaus, Brazil, between January of 2011 and December of 2014. Sociodemographic, clinical, and laboratory variables were assessed. To identify factors predictive of mortality, we employed a Cox proportional hazards model...
April 2018: Jornal Brasileiro de Pneumologia: Publicaça̋o Oficial da Sociedade Brasileira de Pneumologia e Tisilogia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29789565/the-wide-utility-of-rabbits-as-models-of-human-diseases
#3
REVIEW
Pedro J Esteves, Joana Abrantes, Hanna-Mari Baldauf, Lbachir BenMohamed, Yuxing Chen, Neil Christensen, Javier González-Gallego, Lorenzo Giacani, Jiafen Hu, Gilla Kaplan, Oliver T Keppler, Katherine L Knight, Xiang-Peng Kong, Dennis K Lanning, Jacques Le Pendu, Ana Lemos de Matos, Jia Liu, Shuying Liu, Ana M Lopes, Shan Lu, Sheila Lukehart, Yukari C Manabe, Fabiana Neves, Grant McFadden, Ruimin Pan, Xuwen Peng, Patricia de Sousa-Pereira, Ana Pinheiro, Masmudur Rahman, Natalie Ruvoën-Clouet, Selvakumar Subbian, Maria Jesús Tuñón, Wessel van der Loo, Michael Vaine, Laura E Via, Shixia Wang, Rose Mage
Studies using the European rabbit Oryctolagus cuniculus contributed to elucidating numerous fundamental aspects of antibody structure and diversification mechanisms and continue to be valuable for the development and testing of therapeutic humanized polyclonal and monoclonal antibodies. Additionally, during the last two decades, the use of the European rabbit as an animal model has been increasingly extended to many human diseases. This review documents the continuing wide utility of the rabbit as a reliable disease model for development of therapeutics and vaccines and studies of the cellular and molecular mechanisms underlying many human diseases...
May 22, 2018: Experimental & Molecular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29787596/survival-and-predictors-of-mortality-among-children-co-infected-with-tuberculosis-and-human-immunodeficiency-virus-at-university-of-gondar-comprehensive-specialized-hospital-northwest-ethiopia-a-retrospective-follow-up-study
#4
Kendalem Asmare Atalell, Nigusie Birhan Tebeje, Daniale Tekelia Ekubagewargies
BACKGROUND: Tuberculosis (TB) is the leading cause of death in Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infected children globally. The aims of this study were to determine the mortality rate and to identify the predictors of mortality among TB/HIV co-infected children at University of Gondar Comprehensive Specialized Hospital. METHOD: A retrospective follow-up study was conducted among TB/HIV co-infected children from February 2005 to March 2017. A Kaplan-Meier curve was used to estimate the median survival time...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29784840/oxidative-stress-and-first-line-antituberculosis-drug-induced-hepatotoxicity
#5
Wing Wai Yew, Kwok Chiu Chang, Denise P Chan
Hepatotoxicity induced by antituberculosis drugs is a serious adverse reaction with significant morbidity and even rarely mortality. This form of toxicity potentially impacts the treatment outcome of tuberculosis in some patients. Confining to first-line antituberculosis drugs, this review addresses whether and how oxidative stress, and more broadly, disturbance in redox homeostasis alongside mitochondrial dysfunction, may contribute to the hepatotoxicity induced by them. Risk factors for such toxicity that have been identified, in addition to genetic factors, principally include old age, malnutrition, alcoholism, chronic hepatitis C and chronic hepatitis B infection, HIV infection and pre-existing liver disease...
May 21, 2018: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29783953/immunologic-and-virological-response-to-art-among-hiv-infected-individuals-at-a-tertiary-hospital-in-ghana
#6
Dorcas Obiri-Yeboah, Faustina Pappoe, Ibrahim Baidoo, Francis Arthur, Anna Hayfron-Benjamin, Samuel Essien-Baidoo, Godwin Kwakye-Nuako, Stephen Ayisi Addo
BACKGROUND: The need to study the outcome of Antiretroviral Therapy (ART) among Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) infected individuals in Ghana, a sub-Saharan African country crucial in the era of the "Treat All" policy. The aim of this study was to analyze selected determinants of immunological and virological response to ART among HIV infected individuals in a tertiary facility in Cape Coast, Ghana. METHODS: An analytical cross sectional study with a retrospective component was conducted in the Cape Coast Teaching Hospital (CCTH), Central Region...
May 21, 2018: BMC Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29781696/barriers-to-tuberculosis-and-human-immunodeficiency-virus-treatment-guidelines-adherence-among-nurses-initiating-and-managing-anti-retroviral-therapy-in-kwazulu-natal-and-north-west-provinces
#7
Lufuno Makhado, Mashudu Davhana-Maselesele, Jason E Farley
BACKGROUND:  Nurses, as front-line care providers in the South Africa's health care system, are called upon to deliver integrated interventions for tuberculosis and human immunodeficiency virus (TB and HIV) including nurse-initiated management of anti-retroviral therapy (NIMART) and anti-TB treatment. Adherence to treatment guidelines and factors associated with non-adherence to treatment guidelines among nurses remain under explored. PURPOSE:  To explore and describe barriers to treatment guidelines adherence among nurses initiating and managing anti-retroviral therapy and anti-TB treatment in KwaZulu-Natal and North West provinces...
March 26, 2018: Curationis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29781693/collaborative-postgraduate-training-in-family-medicine-and-primary-care-reflections-on-my-visit-to-south-africa
#8
Felicity Goodyear-Smith
This reflection describes my funded visit to South Africa to assist in primary care research capacity building as Chair, WONCA Working Party on Research (WP-R). The trip included time at the Universities of Walter Sisulu, Limpopo and Stellenbosch to mentor postgraduate students working on master's and PhD theses. I held one-on-one and group sessions and ran interactive scientific writing workshops. I assisted with the establishment of a Stellenbosch University Family Physician Research Network of faculty academics and family physicians (FP) which will generate research questions from community stakeholders...
April 26, 2018: African Journal of Primary Health Care & Family Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29781677/community-health-workers-in-lesotho-experiences-of-health-promotion-activities
#9
Thato Seutloali, Lizeka Napoles, Nomonde Bam
BACKGROUND: Lesotho adopted primary health care in 1979, and community health workers (CHWs) were included in the programme to focus on health promotion, particularly to reach people in underserved rural areas. Although the CHW programme has been successful, the heavy burden of disease because of HIV and/or AIDS and tuberculosis shifted resources from health promotion to home-based care. AIM: The study explored the lived experience of CHWs in conducting health promotion activities in Lesotho...
February 27, 2018: African Journal of Primary Health Care & Family Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29779777/interleukin-23-interleukin-17-axis-activated-by-mycobacterium-avium-complex-mac-is-attenuated-in-patients-with-mac-lung-disease
#10
Chin-Chung Shu, Jann-Yuan Wang, Ming-Fang Wu, Hsin-Chih Lai, Bor-Luen Chiang, Chong-Jen Yu
BACKGROUND: Mycobacterium avium complex (MAC)-lung disease (LD) is increasing in patients without human immunodeficiency virus infection. However, data on host vulnerability to MAC-related immune responses, and in particular the interleukin (IL)-23/IL-17 axis, are lacking. METHODS: We enrolled 50 patients with MAC-LD, 25 age-matched patients with tuberculosis (TB) and 25 controls. We measured levels of plasma cytokines, and studied IL-12/IL-17 responses in macrophage and lymphocyte activation to MAC...
May 2018: Tuberculosis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29778672/defective-myd88-and-irak4-but-not-tlr-2-expression-in-hiv-individuals-with-latent-tuberculosis-infection
#11
Kamakshi Prudhula Devalraju, Venkata Sanjeev Kumar Neela, Ramulu Gaddam, Arunabala Chaudhury, Abhinav Van, Siva Sai Krovvidi, Ramakrishna Vankayalapati, Vijaya Lakshmi Valluri
HIV infection markedly increases the likelihood of latent tuberculosis infection progressing to active TB. Information on expression of TLR-2, myeloid differentiation factor (MyD88), IL-1R- associated kinase-4 (IRAK4) and nuclear factor kappa B (NF-kB) in HIV+LTBI+ and HIV+ patients with active TB disease is limited. We found significantly higher percentages of CD14+TLR2+ cells in PBMCs of HIV+LTBI+ patients compared to HIV-LTBI+ individuals. γ-irradiated Mtb was unable to induce MyD88, IRAK4 expression and IL-1β, MCP-1, IP-10 production in HIV+LTBI+ patients...
May 17, 2018: Cytokine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29778620/-factors-associated-with-non-conversion-of-the-direct-smear-after-the-initial-phase-of-anti-tuberculous-treatment-a-study-undertaken-in-three-tuberculosis-management-centres-in-south-benin
#12
G Agodokpessi, A P Wachinou, B Awanou, M Gninafon
The objective of this work was to describe the profile of routinely managed tuberculosis patients whose sputum smear did not become negative after the initial phase of anti-tuberculous treatment and to analyze the factors associated with this. With this aim a cross-sectional, retrospective, descriptive and analytical study was carried out in a population of adults with pulmonary tuberculosis (PTB) between 2013 and 2014 in three cities in southern Benin (Cotonou, Porto-Novo and Abomey). The data of the patients who did not convert (PTB +) were compared with those who did (PTB-)...
May 16, 2018: Revue des Maladies Respiratoires
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29778396/how-effective-are-approaches-to-migrant-screening-for-infectious-diseases-in-europe-a-systematic-review
#13
REVIEW
Farah Seedat, Sally Hargreaves, Laura B Nellums, Jing Ouyang, Michael Brown, Jon S Friedland
Rates of migration to Europe, and within Europe, have increased in recent years, with considerable implications for health systems. Migrants in Europe face a disproportionate burden of tuberculosis, HIV, and hepatitis B and C, yet experience a large number of barriers to accessing statutory health care on arrival. A better understanding of how to deliver effective and cost-effective screening, vaccination, and health services to this group is now crucial. We did a systematic review to document and assess the effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of approaches used for infectious diseases screening, and to explore facilitators and barriers experienced by migrants to accessing screening programmes...
May 16, 2018: Lancet Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29770360/biomarkers-associated-with-death-after-initiating-treatment-for-tuberculosis-and-hiv-in-patients-with-very-low-cd-4-cells
#14
Fred R Sattler, Daniel Chelliah, Xingye Wu, Alejandro Sanchez, Michelle A Kendall, Evelyn Hogg, David Lagat, Umesh Lalloo, Valdilea Veloso, Diane V Havlir, Alan Landay
Background: The risk of short-term death for treatment naive patients dually infected with Mycobacterium tuberculosis and HIV may be reduced by early anti-retroviral therapy. Of those dying, mechanisms responsible for fatal outcomes are unclear. We hypothesized that greater malnutrition and/or inflammation when initiating treatment are associated with an increased risk for death. Methods: We utilized a retrospective case-cohort design among participants of the ACTG A5221 study who had baseline CD4 < 50 cells/mm3 ...
2018: Pathogens & Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29770102/rolling-out-hiv-antiretroviral-therapy-in-sub-saharan-africa-2003-2017
#15
G Taylor
Multiple issues need to be addressed in order to control the HIV pandemic in sub-Saharan Africa. Combination antiretroviral therapy (cART) is key to reducing morbidity and mortality among people living with HIV and has a role in preventing HIV transmission. However, access to cART is very unevenly distributed globally, especially in sub-Saharan Africa. Although cost of cART is no longer a major barrier as effective treatment can be had for under US$100 per year, HIV management is compromised by the inadequate number of trained clinicians, the lack of clinical and laboratory infrastructure and the increased prevalence of co-morbidities (e...
February 1, 2018: Canada Communicable Disease Report, Relevé des Maladies Transmissibles Au Canada
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29770077/outbreaks-in-the-age-of-syndemics-new-insights-for-improving-indigenous-health
#16
A Andermann
Conventional approaches for the prevention and control of communicable diseases within Indigenous contexts may benefit from new insights arising from the growing interest in syndemics. Syndemics is a term used to describe a conceptual framework for understanding diseases or health conditions, and how these are exacerbated by the social, economic, environmental and political milieu in which a population is immersed. The use of conventional approaches for outbreak prevention and control remains the bedrock of intervention in the field of communicable diseases; yet on their own, these strategies are not always successful, especially within contexts of marginalization and disadvantage...
June 1, 2017: Canada Communicable Disease Report, Relevé des Maladies Transmissibles Au Canada
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29770076/the-use-of-technology-to-improve-health-care-to-saskatchewan-s-first-nations-communities
#17
I Khan, N Ndubuka, K Stewart, V McKinney, I Mendez
Background: Saskatchewan is a province of over one million people and over 13% are Indigenous peoples, many of whom live on reserve lands. Despite continued efforts, access to health care remains a significant challenge for these Indigenous people, especially those in the North. Objective: To address this challenge, Saskatchewan's health care providers have been incorporating the use of technology for various health services. This paper describes various ways technology has been used in First Nations communities in Saskatchewan...
June 1, 2017: Canada Communicable Disease Report, Relevé des Maladies Transmissibles Au Canada
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29769102/securitizing-hiv-aids-a-game-changer-in-state-societal-relations-in-china
#18
Catherine Yuk-Ping Lo
BACKGROUND: China has experienced unprecedented economic growth since the 1980s. Despite this impressive economic development, this growth exists side by side with the human immunodeficiency virus/acquired immune deficiency syndrome (HIV/AIDS) and severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) crises and the persisting deficiencies in public health provision in China. Acknowledging the prevailing health problems, the Chinese government has encouraged the development of health non-governmental organizations (NGOs) to respond to the health challenges and address the gaps in public health provision of the government...
May 16, 2018: Globalization and Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29768302/pharmacogenomics-in-papua-new-guineans-unique-profiles-and-implications-for-enhancing-drug-efficacy-while-improving-drug-safety
#19
Joseph D Tucci, Paul P Pumuye, Nuala A Helsby, Daniel T Barratt, Percy P Pokeya, Francis Hombhanje, Andrew A Somogyi
Papua New Guinea (PNG) can be roughly divided into highland, coastal and island peoples with significant mitochondrial DNA differentiation reflecting early and recent distinct migrations from Africa and East Asia, respectively. Infectious diseases such as tuberculosis, malaria and HIV severely impact on the health of its peoples for which drug therapy is the major treatment and pharmacogenetics has clinical relevance for many of these drugs. Although there is generally little information about known single nucleotide polymorphisms in the population, in some instances, their frequencies have been shown to be higher than anywhere worldwide...
June 2018: Pharmacogenetics and Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29764370/-tuberculosis-in-advanced-hiv-infection-is-associated-with-increased-expression-of-ifn%C3%AE-and-its-downstream-targets
#20
Sheetal Verma, Peicheng Du, Damalie Nakanjako, Sabine Hermans, Jessica Briggs, Lydia Nakiyingi, Jerrold J Ellner, Yukari C Manabe, Padmini Salgame
BACKGROUND: Tuberculosis (TB) is the major cause of death in Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV)-infected individuals. However, diagnosis of TB in HIV remains challenging particularly when HIV infection is advanced. Several gene signatures and serum protein biomarkers have been identified that distinguish active TB from latent infection. Our study was designed to assess if gene expression signatures and cytokine levels would distinguish active TB in advanced HIV. METHODS: We conducted a case-control study of whole blood RNA-Seq and plasma cytokine/chemokine analysis in HIV-infected with CD4+ T cell count of ≤ 100 cells/μl, with and without active TB...
May 15, 2018: BMC Infectious Diseases
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