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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29774213/a-rapid-growth-independent-antibiotic-resistance-detection-test-by-sybr-green-propidium-iodide-viability-assay
#1
Jie Feng, Rebecca Yee, Shuo Zhang, Lili Tian, Wanliang Shi, Wen-Hong Zhang, Ying Zhang
Antibiotic-resistant bacteria have caused huge concerns and demand innovative approaches for their prompt detection. Current antimicrobial susceptibility tests (AST) rely on the growth of the organisms which takes 1-2 days for fast-growing organisms and several weeks for slow growing organisms. Here, we show for the first time the utility of the SYBR Green I/propidium iodide (PI) viability assay for rapidly identifying antibiotic resistance in less than 30 min for major, antibiotic-resistant, fast-growing bacteria, such as Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae , and Acinetobacter baumannii for bactericidal and bacteriostatic agents and in 16 h for extremely rapid detection of drug resistance for isoniazid and pyrazinamide in slow-growing Mycobacterium tuberculosis ...
2018: Frontiers in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29765372/is-iqg-607-a-potential-metallodrug-or-metallopro-drug-with-a-defined-molecular-target-in-mycobacterium-tuberculosis
#2
REVIEW
Bruno L Abbadi, Valnês da Silva Rodrigues-Junior, Adilio da Silva Dadda, Kenia Pissinate, Anne D Villela, Maria M Campos, Luiz G de França Lopes, Cristiano V Bizarro, Pablo Machado, Eduardo H S Sousa, Luiz A Basso
The emergence of strains of Mycobacterium tuberculosis resistant to isoniazid (INH) has underscored the need for the development of new anti-tuberculosis agents. INH is activated by the mycobacterial katG -encoded catalase-peroxidase, forming an acylpyridine fragment that is covalently attached to the C4 of NADH. This isonicotinyl-NAD adduct inhibits the activity of 2- trans -enoyl-ACP(CoA) reductase (InhA), which plays a role in mycolic acid biosynthesis. A metal-based INH analog, Na3 [FeII (CN)5 (INH)]·4H2 O, IQG-607, was designed to have an electronic redistribution on INH moiety that would lead to an intramolecular electron transfer to bypass KatG activation...
2018: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29762657/prospects-for-tuberculosis-elimination-in-the-united-states-results-of-a-transmission-dynamic-model
#3
Nicolas A Menzies, Ted Cohen, Andrew N Hill, Reza Yaesoubi, Kara Galer, Emory Wolf, Suzanne M Marks, Joshua A Salomon
We estimated long-term tuberculosis (TB) trends in the US population and assessed prospects for TB elimination. We used a detailed simulation model allowing for changes in TB transmission, immigration, and other TB risk determinants. We evaluated 5 hypothetical scenarios from 2017 to 2100: 1) maintain current TB prevention and treatment activities (base-case), 2) provision of latent TB infection testing and treatment for new legal immigrants, 3) increased uptake of latent TB infection screening and treatment among high-risk populations, including a 3-month isoniazid-rifapentine regimen, 4) improved TB case detection, 5) improved TB treatment quality...
May 14, 2018: American Journal of Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29758082/adjunct-antibody-administration-with-standard-treatment-reduces-relapse-rates-in-a-murine-tuberculosis-model-of-necrotic-granulomas
#4
Alvaro A Ordonez, Supriya Pokkali, Sunhwa Kim, Brian Carr, Mariah H Klunk, Leah Tong, Vikram Saini, Yong S Chang, Matthew McKevitt, Victoria Smith, David L Gossage, Sanjay K Jain
Matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-9 is a zinc-dependent protease associated with early immune responses to Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection, macrophage recruitment and granuloma formation. We evaluated whether adjunctive inhibition of MMP-9 could improve the response to standard TB treatment in a mouse model that develops necrotic lesions. Six weeks after an aerosol infection with M. tuberculosis, C3HeB/FeJ mice received standard TB treatment (12 weeks) comprising rifampin, isoniazid and pyrazinamide alone or in combination with either anti-MMP-9 antibody, etanercept (positive control) or isotype antibody (negative control) for 6 weeks...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29757355/a-prospective-study-to-monitor-for-tuberculosis-during-anti-tumour-necrosis-factor-therapy-in-patients-with-inflammatory-bowel-disease-and-immune-mediated-inflammatory-diseases
#5
Choon Kin Lee, Sunny H Wong, Grace Lui, Whitney Tang, Lai San Tam, Margaret Ip, Esther Hung, Minhu Chen, Justin C Wu, Siew C Ng
Background: Biologic therapies have revolutionised the treatment of immune- mediated diseases including inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) and rheumatological disorders. However, biologic treatments are associated with an increased risk of reactivation of latent tuberculosis. Data of regular monitoring for latent tuberculosis infection (LTBI) during biologic treatment are lacking. Methods: Consecutive patients eligible for biologic therapies were screened for LTBI and prospectively followed-up for 3 years...
May 11, 2018: Journal of Crohn's & Colitis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29756725/-tuberculosis-by-multiresistant-mycobacterium-africanum-pediatric-clinical-case
#6
Júlia Morata Alba, Paloma Beltrán Catalá, Nelson Orta Sibú
Tuberculosis, considered since 2003 by the World Health Organization a global health emergency, causes annual mortality of approximately 2 million people, mainly in developing countries. In the Spanish pediatric population, the incidence is 5 cases/100 000 children between 5 and 14 years and 13 cases/100 000 children between 0 and 4 years. The infection is transmitted through the respiratory tract by baciliferous patients. Children eliminate few bacilli in respiratory secretions and do not usually transmit the infection...
June 1, 2018: Archivos Argentinos de Pediatría
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29755068/-tuberculous-pleurisy-diagnosed-by-thoracoscopic-lung-biopsy
#7
Jun Yamamoto, Miho Nishiura, Takanori Ohata, Ho Namkoong, Shinji Sakaguchi, Fumitake Saito, Hideki Yuki
A 44-year-old woman was referred to our hospital with pleural effusion and unknown fever. Mycobacterium tuberculosis was not detected by culture of pleural effusion and sputum and gastric fluid. Pleural fluid was serous and exudative, and cytological examination showed no malignant cells. Computed tomography revealed a little pleural thickening of the right middle lobe and massive pleural effusion. As acute pleurisy was suspected based on the findings of imaging studies, thoracoscopy was performed under general anesthesia...
March 2018: Kyobu Geka. the Japanese Journal of Thoracic Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29751140/nanoparticle-based-delivery-of-carbamazepine-a-promising-approach-for-the-treatment-of-refractory-epilepsy
#8
Anna Zybina, Anastasiya Anshakova, Julia Malinovskaya, Pavel Melnikov, Vladimir Baklaushev, Vladimir Chekhonin, Olga Maksimenko, Sergey Titov, Vadim Balabanyan, Jörg Kreuter, Svetlana Gelperina, Kenul Abbasova
Resistance to antiepileptic drugs (AEDs) is a major clinical problem. The overexpression of P-glycoprotein (Pgp), one of the main transporters limiting the entry of xenobiotics into the brain, is among the factors contributing to the AED resistance. Presently, there is no consensus on the interaction of carbamazepine (CBZ) with the Pgp. This study investigates the effect of the Pgp inhibitor verapamil on the anticonvulsant effect of CBZ and its nanoparticulate formulation in the rat model of isoniazid-induced epilepsy...
May 8, 2018: International Journal of Pharmaceutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29751121/evaluation-of-dried-blood-spot-sampling-for-pharmacokinetic-research-and-therapeutic-drug-monitoring-of-anti-tuberculosis-drugs-in-children
#9
Lisa C Martial, Jordy Kerkhoff, Nilza Martinez, Mabel Rodríguez, Rosarito Coronel, Gladys Molinas, Myriam Roman, Roscio Gomez, Sarita Aguirre, Erwin Jongedijk, Justine Huisman, Daan J Touw, Domingo Pérez, Gilberto Chaparro, Felipe Gonzalez, Rob E Aarnoutse, Jan-Willem Alffenaar, Cecile Magis-Escurra
BACKGROUND: Dried blood spot sampling (DBS) for pharmacokinetic (PK) studies and Therapeutic Drug Monitoring has unique advantages over venous sampling. We aimed to evaluate a DBS method for first-line anti-TB drugs in children, implemented DBS to assess PK parameters. METHODS: Paraguayan children were treated according to the revised paediatric WHO dosing scheme. A PK curve was performed both with DBS and conventional venous sampling for rifampicin, pyrazinamide and ethambutol...
May 8, 2018: International Journal of Antimicrobial Agents
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29751030/high-throughput-toxicity-testing-of-chemicals-and-mixtures-in-organotypic-multi-cellular-cultures-of-primary-human-hepatic-cells
#10
Sophia M Orbach, Marion F Ehrich, Padmavathy Rajagopalan
High-throughput screening (HTS) of liver toxicants can bridge the gap in understanding adverse effects of chemicals on humans. Toxicity testing of mixtures is time consuming and expensive, since the number of possible combinations increases exponentially with the number of chemicals. The combination of organotypic culture models and HTS assays can lead to the rapidly evaluation of chemical toxicity in a cost and time-effective manner while prioritizing chemicals that warrant additional investigation. We describe the design, assembly and toxicant response of multi-cellular hepatic organotypic culture models comprised of primary human or rat cells assembled in 96-well plates (denoted as μOCMs)...
May 8, 2018: Toxicology in Vitro: An International Journal Published in Association with BIBRA
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29748300/stability-of-isoniazid-injection-in-i-v-solutions
#11
Jun H Lee, Brad Moriyama, Stacey A Henning, Robert L Danner, Thomas J Walsh, Scott R Penzak, George J Grimes, Gopal K Potti
PURPOSE: Results of an assessment of the chemical stability of isoniazid injection in 0.9% sodium chloride injection and 5% dextrose injection are reported. METHODS: Triplicate solutions of isoniazid (0.5 and 6.0 mg/mL) in the 2 diluents were prepared in ethylene and propylene copolymer i.v. containers and stored under light protection at room temperature (20-25 °C) or under refrigeration (2-8 °C). Standard aliquots were removed from each solution at time points up to 72 hours and analyzed via high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC)...
May 15, 2018: American Journal of Health-system Pharmacy: AJHP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29747698/incidence-and-predictors-of-loss-to-follow-up-among-hiv-infected-adults-at-pawi-general-hospital-northwest-ethiopia-competing-risk-regression-model
#12
Moges Agazhe Assemie, Kindie Fentahun Muchie, Tadesse Awoke Ayele
OBJECTIVE: This study was aimed at assessing the incidence of lost-to-follow-up and its predictors among HIV-positive adults after initiation into antiretroviral therapy at Pawi General Hospital, northwest Ethiopia. RESULTS: The overall cumulative incidence of lost-to-follow-up after ART initiation was high, 11.6 (95% CI 9.8-13.7) per 100 adult-years follow-up time. Independent significant predictors of lost to follow up were being aged 15-28 years (aSHR = 0...
May 10, 2018: BMC Research Notes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29746491/emergence-and-selection-of-isoniazid-and-rifampin-resistance-in-tuberculosis-granulomas
#13
Elsje Pienaar, Jennifer J Linderman, Denise E Kirschner
Drug resistant tuberculosis is increasing world-wide. Resistance against isoniazid (INH), rifampicin (RIF), or both (multi-drug resistant TB, MDR-TB) is of particular concern, since INH and RIF form part of the standard regimen for TB disease. While it is known that suboptimal treatment can lead to resistance, it remains unclear how host immune responses and antibiotic dynamics within granulomas (sites of infection) affect emergence and selection of drug-resistant bacteria. We take a systems pharmacology approach to explore resistance dynamics within granulomas...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29744042/prevalence-and-patterns-of-drug-resistance-among-pulmonary-tuberculosis-patients-in-hangzhou-china
#14
Qingchun Li, Gang Zhao, Limin Wu, Min Lu, Wei Liu, Yifei Wu, Le Wang, Ke Wang, Han-Zhu Qian, Li Xie
Background: To evaluate prevalence and patterns of drug resistance among pulmonary tuberculosis (TB) patients in Hangzhou City, China. Methods: Sputum samples of smear positive TB patients enrolled in 2011 and 2015 were collected and tested for drug susceptibility, and demographic and medical record data were extracted from the electronic database of China Information System for Disease Control and Prevention. Chi-square test was used to compare drug resistance prevalence between new and treated patients and between male and female patients, and Chi-square test for trend was used to compare the prevalence over calendar years 2011 and 2015...
2018: Antimicrobial Resistance and Infection Control
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29740727/the-first-case-of-bacillus-calmette-gu%C3%A3-rin-induced-small-vessel-central-nervous-system-vasculitis
#15
REVIEW
Marc-Etienne Parent, Maxime Richer, Patrick Liang
To present an unrecognized vascular complication of bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG) therapy administered for superficial bladder carcinoma. We also review the potential mimickers for primary angiitis of the central nervous system (PACNS) as well as complications of intravesical BCG therapy. An 89-year-old Caucasian man with a history of relapsing high-grade bladder carcinoma treated with intravesical BCG presented with recurring episodes of right upper limb paresthesia with clumsiness and dysarthria. Magnetic resonance imaging of the head revealed multiple predominantly left-sided frontotemporal micronodular peri-vascular lesions...
May 9, 2018: Clinical Rheumatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29738954/antibacterial-and-anti-tb-tat-peptidomimetics-with-improved-efficacy-and-half-life
#16
Govind S Bhosle, Laxman Nawale, Amar M Yeware, Dhiman Sarkar, Moneesha Fernandes
Non-natural antimicrobial peptides are ideal as next-generation antibiotics because of their ability to circumvent the problems of drug resistance and in vivo instability. We report novel all-α- and α,γ-mixed Tat peptide analogues as potential antibacterial and anti-TB agents. These peptides have broad spectrum antibacterial activities against Gram-positive (MICs 0.61 ± 0.03 to 1.35 ± 0.21 μM with the peptide γTatM4) and Gram-negative (MICs 0.71 ± 0.005 to 1.26 ± 0.02 μM with γTatM4) bacteria and are also effective against active and dormant forms of Mycobacterium tuberculosis, including strains that are resistant to rifampicin and isoniazid...
April 30, 2018: European Journal of Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29737591/expression-profile-of-markers-of-oxidative-stress-injury-and-apoptosis-in-anti-tuberculosis-drugs-induced-nephrotoxicity
#17
Radhika Sharma, Priya Battu, Mandakini Singla, Neha Goyal, Vijay L Sharma
AIM: Isoniazid (INH), Rifampicin (RIF) and Pyrazinamide (PZA) are part of first-line anti-tuberculosis therapy used against infection caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis. However these drugs are known to be potentially harmful as these are associated with numerous side effects and when taken together their harmful outcomes are elevated in a synergistic manner. Identification of possible mechanism underlying RIF+INH+PZA induced nephrotoxicity may be advantageous in developing strategies to prevent their toxic implications...
May 8, 2018: Nephrology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29735566/protein-binding-of-first-line-antituberculous-drugs
#18
Wael A Alghamdi, Mohammad H Al-Shaer, Charles A Peloquin
INTRODUCTION: The 4-drug regimen of rifampin, isoniazid, pyrazinamide, and ethambutol is inexpensive, reliable option for treating patients with drug-susceptible tuberculosis (TB). Its efficacy could be further improved by determining the free drug concentrations in plasma, knowing that only the unbound drug can freely penetrate to the tissues. METHODS: Using an ultrafiltration technique, we determined the protein binding (PB) extent and variability of the first-line anti-TB drugs when given simultaneously to TB patients, representing a real-life case scenario...
May 7, 2018: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29732452/katg-mediated-oxidation-leading-to-reduced-susceptibility-of-bacteria-to-kanamycin
#19
Peter C Loewen, P Malaka De Silva, Lynda J Donald, Jacek Switala, Jacylyn Villanueva, Ignacio Fita, Ayush Kumar
Resistance to antibiotics has become a serious problem for society, and there are increasing efforts to understand the reasons for and sources of resistance. Bacterial-encoded enzymes and transport systems, both innate and acquired, are the most frequent culprits for the development of resistance, although in Mycobacterium tuberculosis , the catalase-peroxidase, KatG, has been linked to the activation of the antitubercular drug isoniazid. While investigating a possible link between aminoglycoside antibiotics and the induction of oxidative bursts, we observed that KatG reduces susceptibility to aminoglycosides...
April 30, 2018: ACS Omega
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29732401/posttranslational-modification-of-a-histone-like-protein-regulates-phenotypic-resistance-to-isoniazid-in-mycobacteria
#20
Alexandra Sakatos, Gregory H Babunovic, Michael R Chase, Alexander Dills, John Leszyk, Tracy Rosebrock, Bryan Bryson, Sarah M Fortune
There is increasing evidence that phenotypically drug-resistant bacteria may be important determinants of antibiotic treatment failure. Using high-throughput imaging, we defined distinct subpopulations of mycobacterial cells that exhibit heritable but semi-stable drug resistance. These subpopulations have distinct transcriptional signatures and growth characteristics at both bulk and single-cell levels, which are also heritable and semi-stable. We find that the mycobacterial histone-like protein HupB is required for the formation of these subpopulations...
May 2018: Science Advances
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