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isoniazid prophylaxis therapy

Mary-Ann Davies, Diana Gibb, Anna Turkova
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: It is 20 years since the start of the combination antiretroviral therapy (cART) era and more than 10 years since cART scale-up began in resource-limited settings. We examined survival of vertically HIV-infected infants and children in the cART era. RECENT FINDINGS: Good survival has been achieved on cART in all settings with up to 10-fold mortality reductions compared with before cART availability. Although mortality risk remains high in the first few months after cART initiation in young children with severe disease, it drops rapidly thereafter even for those who started with advanced disease, and longer term mortality risk is low...
September 2016: Current Opinion in HIV and AIDS
Chandy Sara, Heylen Elsa, Mishra Baijayanti, Ekstrand Maria Lennartsdotter
OBJECTIVES: To examine demographics, clinical correlates, sputum AFB (acid fast bacilli) smear grading DOTS (Directly Observed Therapy Short Course) uptake, and drug resistance in a cohort of newly-diagnosed, smear positive pulmonary tuberculosis (TB) patients with respect to HIV status at baseline, and compare smear conversion rates, side effects and mortality after two months. DESIGN: A prospective study among 54 HIV positive and 41 HIV negative pulmonary TB patients...
September 2016: World Journal of AIDS
Tsai-Ling Liao, Ching-Heng Lin, Yi-Ming Chen, Chia-Li Chang, Hsin-Hua Chen, Der-Yuan Chen
Increasing evidence indicates an increased risk of tuberculosis (TB) for rheumatoid arthritis (RA) patients receiving biologic therapy, and the effectiveness of isoniazid prophylaxis (INHP) in TB prevention. We aimed to examine 1) the incidence rate (IR) and risk factors for TB among RA patients receiving different therapies; 2) INHP effectiveness for TB prevention; 3) mortality rates after TB diagnosis in patients receiving different therapies. This retrospective study was conducted using a nationwide database: 168,720 non-RA subjects and a total of 42,180 RA patients including 36,162 csDMARDs-exposed, 3,577 etanercept-exposed, 1,678 adalimumab-exposed and 763 rituximab-exposed patients...
2016: PloS One
Angela M Crook, Anna Turkova, Victor Musiime, Mutsa Bwakura-Dangarembizi, Sabrina Bakeera-Kitaka, Patricia Nahirya-Ntege, Margaret Thomason, Peter Mugyenyi, Philippa Musoke, Adeodata Kekitiinwa, Paula Munderi, Kusum Nathoo, Andrew J Prendergast, A Sarah Walker, Diana M Gibb
BACKGROUND: There are few data on tuberculosis (TB) incidence in HIV-infected children on antiretroviral therapy (ART). Observational studies suggest co-trimoxazole prophylaxis may prevent TB, but there are no randomized data supporting this. The ARROW trial, which enrolled HIV-infected children initiating ART in Uganda and Zimbabwe and included randomized cessation of co-trimoxazole prophylaxis, provided an opportunity to estimate the incidence of TB over time, to explore potential risk factors for TB, and to evaluate the effect of stopping co-trimoxazole prophylaxis...
2016: BMC Medicine
Kazuhiko Higashioka, Noriko Miyake, Ruriko Nishida, Yong Chong, Shinji Shimoda, Nobuyuki Shimono
Bacillus Calmette-Guèrin (BCG) is commonly used not only as an infant vaccination, but also as a treatment of and prophylaxis to prevent recurrence in the management of non-muscle-invasive bladder cancer. However, the use of "live" BCG is sometimes complicated by associated infection. We present a case study of a 77-year-old man who developed bilateral renal masses after intravesical BCG therapy was initiated in November 2013, following transurethral resection of non-muscle-invasive bladder cancer. After four courses of BCG (Japan strain, 80 mg per treatment) instillations, a computed tomography examination for febrile episodes showed multiple bilateral renal masses, accompanied by a histological finding of a granulomatous reaction...
July 2015: Kansenshōgaku Zasshi. the Journal of the Japanese Association for Infectious Diseases
Jong Gyun Ahn, Dong Soo Kim, Ki Hwan Kim
BACKGROUND: Nosocomial transmission of tuberculosis (TB) in a neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) is a recognized risk. We investigated TB transmission to neonates and health care workers (HCWs) exposed to a nurse with active TB in a NICU. METHODS: A NICU nurse in a tertiary referral hospital in Seoul, Korea, developed pulmonary TB. The investigation included 108 infants and 75 HCWs. Tuberculin skin test (TST) and chest radiograph were performed at baseline. Isoniazid prophylaxis was started in neonates...
December 1, 2015: American Journal of Infection Control
Fabrizio Cantini, Ennio Lubrano, Antonio Marchesoni, Alessandro Mathieu, Ignazio Olivieri, Carlo Salvarani, Raffaele Scarpa, Antonio Spadaro
AIMS: Primary: to investigate Italian rheumatology practice regarding latent tubercular infection (LTBI) detection and tuberculosis (TB) prevention in patients requiring anti-tumor necrosis factor (anti-TNF) therapy. Secondary: to assess the overall number of TB cases over 10 years and their distribution by drug. METHODS: An anonymous, 24 multiple-response questionnaire was completed by 393/449 (87.5%) rheumatologists prescribing anti-TNF therapy. Six questions provided setting information, and 18 the compliance with recommendations and the recorded TB cases...
August 2016: International Journal of Rheumatic Diseases
Tuğrul Çakır, Cengiz Ara, Hacı Vural Soyer, Suleyman Koc
Progressive liver failure is rarely seen in tuberculosis chemoprophylaxis with isoniazid. We present a case of a 32-year-old woman admitted to our clinic reporting abdominal pain, nausea and vomiting for 2 days. The initial diagnosis was fulminant toxic hepatitis due to isoniazid chemoprophylaxis, which was treated successfully with living donor transplantation. Tuberculosis continues to be a significant public health problem. Isoniazid-related hepatotoxicity is extremely rare in adults. The only treatment in cases of fulminant liver failure is orthotopic liver transplantation from a deceased or living donor...
2015: BMJ Case Reports
Wondu Teshome, Mehretu Belayneh, Mathewos Moges, Emebet Mekonnen, Misganu Endrias, Sinafiksh Ayele, Tebeje Misganaw, Mekonnen Shiferaw, Tigist Tesema
BACKGROUND: Decentralization and task shifting has significantly improved access to antiretroviral therapy (ART). Many studies conducted to determine the attrition rate in Ethiopia have not compared attrition rates between hospitals and health centers in a relatively recent cohort of patients. This study compared death and loss to follow-up (LTFU) rates among ART patients in hospitals and health centers in south Ethiopia. METHODS: Data routinely collected from patients aged older than 15 years who started ART between July 2011 and August 2012 in 20 selected health facilities (12 being hospitals) were analyzed...
2015: HIV/AIDS: Research and Palliative Care
Amber Kunkel, Caroline Colijn, Marc Lipsitch, Ted Cohen
Various forms of preventive and prophylactic antimicrobial therapies have been proposed to combat HIV (e.g. pre-exposure prophylaxis), tuberculosis (e.g. isoniazid preventive therapy) and malaria (e.g. intermittent preventive treatment). However, the potential population-level effects of preventative therapy (PT) on the prevalence of drug resistance are not well understood. PT can directly affect the rate at which resistance is acquired among those receiving PT. It can also indirectly affect resistance by altering the rate at which resistance is acquired through treatment for active disease and by modifying the level of competition between transmission of drug-resistant and drug-sensitive pathogens...
June 5, 2015: Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences
Cem Çekiç, Fatih Aslan, Sezgin Vatansever, Firdevs Topal, Elif Sarıtaş Yüksel, Emrah Alper, Ayşe Dallı, Belkıs Ünsal
BACKGROUND: Tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α inhibitors increase the risk of tuberculosis (TB). The objective of the present study was to determine the rate of active TB infection in inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) patients receiving anti-TNF therapy and to determine the results of their latent TB infection (LTBI) screening tests during the follow up. METHODS: This is a retrospective observational study of IBD patients receiving anti-TNF therapy. Tuberculin skin test (TST), interferon-γ release assay (IGRA), and chest radiography were used to determine LTBI...
April 2015: Annals of Gastroenterology: Quarterly Publication of the Hellenic Society of Gastroenterology
Melissa A Briggs, Courtney Emerson, Surbhi Modi, Nicholas Kenji Taylor, Anand Date
BACKGROUND: Tuberculosis (TB) is the leading preventable cause of death in persons living with HIV (PLHIV), accounting for over a quarter of all HIV-associated deaths in 2012. Isoniazid preventive therapy (IPT) has the potential to decrease TB-related cases and deaths in PLHIV; however, implementation of this has been slow in many high HIV- and TB-burden settings. METHODOLOGY: We performed an assessment of the evidence for the use of IPT in adults living with HIV based on a review of the literature published from 1995 to 2013...
April 15, 2015: Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes: JAIDS
Birahim Pierre Ndiaye, Friedrich Thienemann, Martin Ota, Bernard S Landry, Makhtar Camara, Siry Dièye, Tandakha Ndiaye Dieye, Hanif Esmail, Rene Goliath, Kris Huygen, Vanessa January, Ibrahima Ndiaye, Tolu Oni, Michael Raine, Marta Romano, Iman Satti, Sharon Sutton, Aminata Thiam, Katalin A Wilkinson, Souleymane Mboup, Robert J Wilkinson, Helen McShane
BACKGROUND: HIV-1 infection is associated with increased risk of tuberculosis and a safe and effective vaccine would assist control measures. We assessed the safety, immunogenicity, and efficacy of a candidate tuberculosis vaccine, modified vaccinia virus Ankara expressing antigen 85A (MVA85A), in adults infected with HIV-1. METHODS: We did a randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled, phase 2 trial of MVA85A in adults infected with HIV-1, at two clinical sites, in Cape Town, South Africa and Dakar, Senegal...
March 2015: Lancet Respiratory Medicine
Petr Sedláček, Peter Múdrý, Júlia Horáková, Petra Keslová, Lucie Šrámková, Vanda Chrenková, Petr Hubáček, Jaroslav Štěrba
OBJECTIVES: Problems with importing non-registered medicines for treating rare life-threatening infectious diseases led to establishment of the Emergency Anti-Infective Drug Reserve (EAIDR) for the Czech Republic. METHODS: Thirteen anti-infective drugs are included in the project: antisera against rabies virus, varicella-zoster virus, and botulinum toxin; antituberculosis drugs (intravenous rifampicin and isoniazid; capreomycin, cycloserine, and clofazimine); antiparasitics (intravenous quinine, primaquine, meglumine antimoniate, and praziquantel); and pentamidine...
September 2014: Klinická Mikrobiologie a Infekc̆ní Lékar̆ství
Taraz Samandari, Tefera B Agizew, Samba Nyirenda, Zegabriel Tedla, Thabisa Sibanda, Barudi Mosimaneotsile, Oaitse I Motsamai, Nong Shang, Charles E Rose, James Shepherd
OBJECTIVE: Thirty-six months of isoniazid preventive therapy (36IPT) was superior to 6 months of IPT (6IPT) in preventing tuberculosis (TB) among HIV-infected adults in Botswana. We assessed the posttrial durability of this benefit. DESIGN: A 36-month double-blind placebo controlled trial (1 : 1 randomization) with recruitment between November 2004 and July 2006 and observation until June 2011. METHODS: One thousand, nine hundred and ninety-five participants were followed in eight public health clinics...
January 28, 2015: AIDS
Eleonora Ballanti, Paola Conigliaro, Maria Sole Chimenti, Barbara Kroegler, Gioia Di Muzio, Maria Domenica Guarino, Paola Triggianese, Gianfranco Gigliucci, Lucia Novelli, Carmen Barbato, Roberto Perricone
The safety of tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) inhibitors in the setting of hepatitis B virus (HBV) and hepatitis C virus (HCV) infections is controversial. The use of anti-TNF-α in rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is associated with an increased risk of hepatitis re-activation. This paper reports experience of using etanercept and adalimumab in 32 patients with RA and previous HBV or HCV infection. No cases of HBV or HCV reactivation were seen. In just over a fifth of patients, increased transaminases levels were seen, which were associated with concomitant use of disease-modifying antirheumatic drugs, isoniazid prophylaxis, or alcohol abuse...
November 2014: Drug Development Research
Tezera Moshago Berheto, Demissew Berihun Haile, Salahuddin Mohammed
BACKGROUND: Long-term regular follow up of ART is an important component of HIV care. Patients who are lost to follow-up (LTFU) while on treatment compromise their own health and the long-term success of ART programs. AIM: This study was aimed at determining the incidence and risk factors for LTFU in HIV patients on ART at ART clinic of Mizan-Aman General Hospital, Ethiopia. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A retrospective cohort study of 2133 people living with HIV/AIDS and attending an ART clinic between 2005 and 2013 was undertaken...
September 2014: North American Journal of Medical Sciences
Khalid Ahmed Al-Anazi, Asma Marzouq Al-Jasser, Khalid Alsaleh
Mycobacterium tuberculosis (M. tuberculosis) infections are uncommon in recipients of hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. These infections are 10-40 times commoner in recipients of stem cell transplantation than in the general population but they are 10 times less in stem cell transplantation recipients compared to solid organ transplant recipients. The incidence of M. tuberculosis infections in recipients of allogeneic stem cell transplantation ranges between <1 and 16% and varies considerably according to the type of transplant and the geographical location...
2014: Frontiers in Oncology
Appolinaire Tiam, Rhoderick Machekano, Celine R Gounder, Llang B M Maama-Maime, Keletso Ntene-Sealiete, Maitreyi Sahu, Anthony Isavwa, Oyebola Oyebanji, Allan Ahimbisibwe, Majoalane Mokone, Grace L Barnes, Richard E Chaisson, Laura Guay, Seble Kassaye
BACKGROUND: The Lesotho Ministry of Health issued guidelines on active case finding (ACF) for tuberculosis (TB) and isoniazid preventive therapy (IPT) in April 2011. ACF has been recommended in maternal and child health (MCH) settings globally, however, the feasibility of implementing IPT within MCH in countries with high concurrent HIV and TB epidemics is unknown. DESIGN/METHODS: The study evaluated the implementation of ACF and IPT guidelines in MCH settings in 2 health facilities in Lesotho...
September 1, 2014: Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes: JAIDS
P Gisondi, E Pezzolo, G Lo Cascio, G Girolomoni
BACKGROUND: Screening for latent tuberculosis infection (LTBI) is mandatory in patients with psoriasis prior to biological therapy. OBJECTIVES: To investigate the prevalence of LTBI in patients with psoriasis who are candidates for biological therapy. METHODS: LTBI was investigated in patients with moderate-to-severe psoriasis (n = 243), Crohn disease (n = 64) or rheumatoid arthritis (RA) (n = 56) and in healthcare workers (n = 1683). LTBI diagnosis was based on positive QuantiFERON-B Gold In-Tube (QFT-GIT) in vitro assay without any clinical, radiological or microbiological evidence of active tuberculosis...
October 2014: British Journal of Dermatology
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