Read by QxMD icon Read

isoniazid prophylaxis therapy

Helen McIlleron, Paolo Denti, Silvia Cohn, Fildah Mashabela, Jennifer D Hoffmann, Saba Shembe, Regina Msandiwa, Lubbe Wiesner, Sithembiso Velaphi, Sanjay G Lala, Richard E Chaisson, Neil Martinson, Kelly E Dooley
Background: Newborns of HIV-infected mothers are given daily doses of nevirapine to prevent HIV-1 acquisition. Infants born to mothers with TB should also receive TB preventive therapy. TB preventive regimens include isoniazid for 6 months or rifampicin plus isoniazid for 3 months (RH preventive therapy). The effect of concomitant RH preventive therapy on nevirapine concentrations in infants is unknown. Patients and methods: Tshepiso was a prospective case-control cohort study of pregnant HIV-infected women with and without TB whose newborn infants received standard doses of nevirapine for HIV prophylaxis...
April 16, 2017: Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy
T Arscott-Mills, L Masole, R Ncube, A P Steenhoff
BACKGROUND: Quantifying health care workers' (HCWs') knowledge about tuberculosis (TB) informs educational interventions. We assessed HCWs' knowledge about childhood TB in Botswana. METHODS: Semi-structured interviews were conducted with HCWs at 46 sites around Botswana using a piloted instrument. Transcripts were double-coded using a coding schema. Discrepancies were resolved by consensus and a systematic thematic analysis was performed. RESULTS: The sites (42 clinics and 4 hospitals) were urban (n = 9, 20%), semi-urban (n = 10, 22%) and rural (n = 27, 58%)...
May 1, 2017: International Journal of Tuberculosis and Lung Disease
Ashenafi Abossie, Tsegaye Yohanes
BACKGROUND: Tuberculosis (TB) is the most frequent life-threatening opportunistic disease among people living with HIV and remains a leading cause of mortality, even among persons receiving antiretroviral therapy (ART). Isoniazid preventive therapy (IPT) and cotrimoxazole prophylaxis have been recommended for the benefit of HIV/AIDS-infected individuals to prevent opportunistic infections. The aim of this study was to assess IPT prophylaxis in the reduction of TB among ART patients. METHODS: The study was a hospital-based retrospective study...
2017: Therapeutics and Clinical Risk Management
Erol Demir, Mehmet Sukru Sever
Tuberculosis is a major problem in the posttransplantation period, because of its high incidence and prevalence, difficulty in diagnosis as well as high risk of morbidity and mortality. In solid-organ transplant recipients, the diagnosis of tuberculosis is complex because it is paucisymptomatic. Tuberculin skin testing results may be negative, and interferon-gamma release assays may be insufficiently sensitive. Furthermore, imaging technique findings are mostly atypical, and sputum smear results can be negative despite the presence of active disease...
February 2017: Experimental and Clinical Transplantation
Ne Myo Aung, Josh Hanson, Tint Tint Kyi, Zaw Win Htet, David A Cooper, Mark A Boyd, Mar Mar Kyi, Htin Aung Saw
BACKGROUND: Approximately 0.8% of adults aged 18-49 in Myanmar are seropositive for Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV). Identifying the demographic, epidemiological and clinical characteristics of people living with HIV (PLHIV) is essential to inform optimal management strategies in this resource-limited country. METHODS: To create a "snapshot" of the PLHIV seeking anti-retroviral therapy (ART) in Myanmar, data were collected from the registration cards of all patients who had been prescribed ART at two large referral hospitals in Yangon, prior to March 18, 2016...
March 4, 2017: AIDS Research and Therapy
B Zeldow, S Kim, G McSherry, M F Cotton, P Jean-Philippe, A Violari, R Bobat, S Nachman, L M Mofenson, S A Madhi, C Mitchell
SETTING: International Maternal Pediatric Adolescent AIDS Clinical Trials (IMPAACT) P1041, a tuberculosis (TB) prevention trial conducted among children enrolled from 2004 to 2008 during South Africa's roll-out of combination antiretroviral therapy (ART). OBJECTIVE: To estimate TB incidence and mortality and the effect of ART. DESIGN: Children were pre-screened to exclude TB disease and exposure, actively screened 3-monthly for TB exposure and symptoms, and provided post-exposure isoniazid prophylaxis therapy (IPT)...
January 1, 2017: International Journal of Tuberculosis and Lung Disease
Tumaini J Nagu, Said Aboud, Mecky I Matee, Markus J Maeurer, Wafaie W Fawzi, Ferdinand Mugusi
Objectives: The scale and impact of background isoniazid resistance in TB- and HIV-endemic countries requires definition to improve treatment success and guide the scale-up of isoniazid preventive therapy (IPT). We describe the effects of isoniazid resistance on TB treatment outcomes among patients with or without HIV infection in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania. Methods: A multicentre, prospective observational study was conducted among TB patients commencing WHO-recommended first-line TB treatment...
March 1, 2017: Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy
Der-Yuan Chen, Ju-Pi Li, Yi-Ming Chen, Tsai-Ling Liao, Hsin-Hua Chen, Chia-Wei Hsieh, Yea-Wen Yeh, Joung-Liang Lan
QuantiFERON-TB-Gold (QFT-G) conversion is frequently observed in rheumatoid arthritis (RA) patients receiving biologic therapy. However, there have not been any known biomarkers available for detecting tuberculosis (TB) in QFT-G converters. We aimed to evaluate clinical utility of cytokines/chemokines for detecting TB in patients with QFT-G conversion. Among a total of 227 RA patients who underwent QFT-G assay, 187 QFT-G-negative patients received biologic therapy without isoniazid prophylaxis. QFT-G assay was repeated at week 52 of biologic therapy or at the time of TB diagnosis...
2016: PloS One
Mary-Ann Davies, Diana Gibb, Anna Turkova
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: It is 20 years since the start of the combination antiretroviral therapy (cART) era and more than 10 years since cART scale-up began in resource-limited settings. We examined survival of vertically HIV-infected infants and children in the cART era. RECENT FINDINGS: Good survival has been achieved on cART in all settings with up to 10-fold mortality reductions compared with before cART availability. Although mortality risk remains high in the first few months after cART initiation in young children with severe disease, it drops rapidly thereafter even for those who started with advanced disease, and longer term mortality risk is low...
September 2016: Current Opinion in HIV and AIDS
Chandy Sara, Heylen Elsa, Mishra Baijayanti, Ekstrand Maria Lennartsdotter
OBJECTIVES: To examine demographics, clinical correlates, sputum AFB (acid fast bacilli) smear grading DOTS (Directly Observed Therapy Short Course) uptake, and drug resistance in a cohort of newly-diagnosed, smear positive pulmonary tuberculosis (TB) patients with respect to HIV status at baseline, and compare smear conversion rates, side effects and mortality after two months. DESIGN: A prospective study among 54 HIV positive and 41 HIV negative pulmonary TB patients...
September 2016: World Journal of AIDS
Tsai-Ling Liao, Ching-Heng Lin, Yi-Ming Chen, Chia-Li Chang, Hsin-Hua Chen, Der-Yuan Chen
Increasing evidence indicates an increased risk of tuberculosis (TB) for rheumatoid arthritis (RA) patients receiving biologic therapy, and the effectiveness of isoniazid prophylaxis (INHP) in TB prevention. We aimed to examine 1) the incidence rate (IR) and risk factors for TB among RA patients receiving different therapies; 2) INHP effectiveness for TB prevention; 3) mortality rates after TB diagnosis in patients receiving different therapies. This retrospective study was conducted using a nationwide database: 168,720 non-RA subjects and a total of 42,180 RA patients including 36,162 csDMARDs-exposed, 3,577 etanercept-exposed, 1,678 adalimumab-exposed and 763 rituximab-exposed patients...
2016: PloS One
Angela M Crook, Anna Turkova, Victor Musiime, Mutsa Bwakura-Dangarembizi, Sabrina Bakeera-Kitaka, Patricia Nahirya-Ntege, Margaret Thomason, Peter Mugyenyi, Philippa Musoke, Adeodata Kekitiinwa, Paula Munderi, Kusum Nathoo, Andrew J Prendergast, A Sarah Walker, Diana M Gibb
BACKGROUND: There are few data on tuberculosis (TB) incidence in HIV-infected children on antiretroviral therapy (ART). Observational studies suggest co-trimoxazole prophylaxis may prevent TB, but there are no randomized data supporting this. The ARROW trial, which enrolled HIV-infected children initiating ART in Uganda and Zimbabwe and included randomized cessation of co-trimoxazole prophylaxis, provided an opportunity to estimate the incidence of TB over time, to explore potential risk factors for TB, and to evaluate the effect of stopping co-trimoxazole prophylaxis...
March 23, 2016: BMC Medicine
Kazuhiko Higashioka, Noriko Miyake, Ruriko Nishida, Yong Chong, Shinji Shimoda, Nobuyuki Shimono
Bacillus Calmette-Guèrin (BCG) is commonly used not only as an infant vaccination, but also as a treatment of and prophylaxis to prevent recurrence in the management of non-muscle-invasive bladder cancer. However, the use of "live" BCG is sometimes complicated by associated infection. We present a case study of a 77-year-old man who developed bilateral renal masses after intravesical BCG therapy was initiated in November 2013, following transurethral resection of non-muscle-invasive bladder cancer. After four courses of BCG (Japan strain, 80 mg per treatment) instillations, a computed tomography examination for febrile episodes showed multiple bilateral renal masses, accompanied by a histological finding of a granulomatous reaction...
July 2015: Kansenshōgaku Zasshi. the Journal of the Japanese Association for Infectious Diseases
Jong Gyun Ahn, Dong Soo Kim, Ki Hwan Kim
BACKGROUND: Nosocomial transmission of tuberculosis (TB) in a neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) is a recognized risk. We investigated TB transmission to neonates and health care workers (HCWs) exposed to a nurse with active TB in a NICU. METHODS: A NICU nurse in a tertiary referral hospital in Seoul, Korea, developed pulmonary TB. The investigation included 108 infants and 75 HCWs. Tuberculin skin test (TST) and chest radiograph were performed at baseline. Isoniazid prophylaxis was started in neonates...
December 1, 2015: American Journal of Infection Control
Fabrizio Cantini, Ennio Lubrano, Antonio Marchesoni, Alessandro Mathieu, Ignazio Olivieri, Carlo Salvarani, Raffaele Scarpa, Antonio Spadaro
AIMS: Primary: to investigate Italian rheumatology practice regarding latent tubercular infection (LTBI) detection and tuberculosis (TB) prevention in patients requiring anti-tumor necrosis factor (anti-TNF) therapy. Secondary: to assess the overall number of TB cases over 10 years and their distribution by drug. METHODS: An anonymous, 24 multiple-response questionnaire was completed by 393/449 (87.5%) rheumatologists prescribing anti-TNF therapy. Six questions provided setting information, and 18 the compliance with recommendations and the recorded TB cases...
August 2016: International Journal of Rheumatic Diseases
Tuğrul Çakır, Cengiz Ara, Hacı Vural Soyer, Suleyman Koc
Progressive liver failure is rarely seen in tuberculosis chemoprophylaxis with isoniazid. We present a case of a 32-year-old woman admitted to our clinic reporting abdominal pain, nausea and vomiting for 2 days. The initial diagnosis was fulminant toxic hepatitis due to isoniazid chemoprophylaxis, which was treated successfully with living donor transplantation. Tuberculosis continues to be a significant public health problem. Isoniazid-related hepatotoxicity is extremely rare in adults. The only treatment in cases of fulminant liver failure is orthotopic liver transplantation from a deceased or living donor...
2015: BMJ Case Reports
Wondu Teshome, Mehretu Belayneh, Mathewos Moges, Emebet Mekonnen, Misganu Endrias, Sinafiksh Ayele, Tebeje Misganaw, Mekonnen Shiferaw, Tigist Tesema
BACKGROUND: Decentralization and task shifting has significantly improved access to antiretroviral therapy (ART). Many studies conducted to determine the attrition rate in Ethiopia have not compared attrition rates between hospitals and health centers in a relatively recent cohort of patients. This study compared death and loss to follow-up (LTFU) rates among ART patients in hospitals and health centers in south Ethiopia. METHODS: Data routinely collected from patients aged older than 15 years who started ART between July 2011 and August 2012 in 20 selected health facilities (12 being hospitals) were analyzed...
2015: HIV/AIDS: Research and Palliative Care
Amber Kunkel, Caroline Colijn, Marc Lipsitch, Ted Cohen
Various forms of preventive and prophylactic antimicrobial therapies have been proposed to combat HIV (e.g. pre-exposure prophylaxis), tuberculosis (e.g. isoniazid preventive therapy) and malaria (e.g. intermittent preventive treatment). However, the potential population-level effects of preventative therapy (PT) on the prevalence of drug resistance are not well understood. PT can directly affect the rate at which resistance is acquired among those receiving PT. It can also indirectly affect resistance by altering the rate at which resistance is acquired through treatment for active disease and by modifying the level of competition between transmission of drug-resistant and drug-sensitive pathogens...
June 5, 2015: Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences
Cem Çekiç, Fatih Aslan, Sezgin Vatansever, Firdevs Topal, Elif Sarıtaş Yüksel, Emrah Alper, Ayşe Dallı, Belkıs Ünsal
BACKGROUND: Tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α inhibitors increase the risk of tuberculosis (TB). The objective of the present study was to determine the rate of active TB infection in inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) patients receiving anti-TNF therapy and to determine the results of their latent TB infection (LTBI) screening tests during the follow up. METHODS: This is a retrospective observational study of IBD patients receiving anti-TNF therapy. Tuberculin skin test (TST), interferon-γ release assay (IGRA), and chest radiography were used to determine LTBI...
April 2015: Annals of Gastroenterology: Quarterly Publication of the Hellenic Society of Gastroenterology
Melissa A Briggs, Courtney Emerson, Surbhi Modi, Nicholas Kenji Taylor, Anand Date
BACKGROUND: Tuberculosis (TB) is the leading preventable cause of death in persons living with HIV (PLHIV), accounting for over a quarter of all HIV-associated deaths in 2012. Isoniazid preventive therapy (IPT) has the potential to decrease TB-related cases and deaths in PLHIV; however, implementation of this has been slow in many high HIV- and TB-burden settings. METHODOLOGY: We performed an assessment of the evidence for the use of IPT in adults living with HIV based on a review of the literature published from 1995 to 2013...
April 15, 2015: Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes: JAIDS
Fetch more papers »
Fetching more papers... Fetching...
Read by QxMD. Sign in or create an account to discover new knowledge that matter to you.
Remove bar
Read by QxMD icon Read

Search Tips

Use Boolean operators: AND/OR

diabetic AND foot
diabetes OR diabetic

Exclude a word using the 'minus' sign

Virchow -triad

Use Parentheses

water AND (cup OR glass)

Add an asterisk (*) at end of a word to include word stems

Neuro* will search for Neurology, Neuroscientist, Neurological, and so on

Use quotes to search for an exact phrase

"primary prevention of cancer"
(heart or cardiac or cardio*) AND arrest -"American Heart Association"