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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28916760/responses-of-lai-to-rainfall-explain-contrasting-sensitivities-to-carbon-uptake-between-forest-and-non-forest-ecosystems-in-australia
#1
Longhui Li, Ying-Ping Wang, Jason Beringer, Hao Shi, James Cleverly, Lei Cheng, Derek Eamus, Alfredo Huete, Lindsay Hutley, Xingjie Lu, Shilong Piao, Lu Zhang, Yongqiang Zhang, Qiang Yu
Non-forest ecosystems (predominant in semi-arid and arid regions) contribute significantly to the increasing trend and interannual variation of land carbon uptake over the last three decades, yet the mechanisms are poorly understood. By analysing the flux measurements from 23 ecosystems in Australia, we found the the correlation between gross primary production (GPP) and ecosystem respiration (Re) was significant for non-forest ecosystems, but was not for forests. In non-forest ecosystems, both GPP and Re increased with rainfall, and, consequently net ecosystem production (NEP) increased with rainfall...
September 15, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28903068/the-influence-of-hydroalcoholic-media-on-the-performance-of-grewia-polysaccharide-in-sustained-release-tablets
#2
E I Nep, M H Mahdi, A O Adebisi, C Dawson, K Walton, P Bills, B R Conway, A M Smith, K Asare-Addo
Co-administration of drugs with alcohol can affect the plasma concentration of drugs in patients. It is also known that the excipients used in the formulation of drugs may not always be resistant to alcohol. This study evaluates effect of varying alcohol concentrations on theophylline release from two grades of Grewia mollis polysaccharides. X-ray microtomography showed that native polysaccharide formulation compacts were not homogenous after the mixing process resulting in its failure in swelling studies. Removal of starch from the native polysaccharide resulted in homogenous formulation compacts resistant to damage in high alcoholic media in pH 6...
September 10, 2017: International Journal of Pharmaceutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28886412/re-evaluation-of-acute-erythroid-leukemia-according-to-the-2016-who-classification
#3
Yan Chen, Maryam Pourabdollah, Eshetu G Atenafu, Anne Tierens, Aaron Schimmer, Hong Chang
In the recent update of WHO classification, the definition of myeloid neoplasms with erythroid predominance has been modified shifting the main criteria for calculating blast percentage from non-erythroid cells (NEC) to all nucleated marrow cells (ANC). Thus, the cases previously classified as erythroid/myeloid subtype of acute erythroid leukemia (AEL) based on the 2008 WHO will now be categorized either as myelodysplastic syndrome with excess blasts (MDS-EB) or acute myeloid leukemia, not otherwise specified (AML-NOS)...
August 25, 2017: Leukemia Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28882215/review-of-current-conservation-genetic-analyses-of-northeast-pacific-sharks
#4
Shawn E Larson, Toby S Daly-Engel, Nicole M Phillips
Conservation genetics is an applied science that utilizes molecular tools to help solve problems in species conservation and management. It is an interdisciplinary specialty in which scientists apply the study of genetics in conjunction with traditional ecological fieldwork and other techniques to explore molecular variation, population boundaries, and evolutionary relationships with the goal of enabling resource managers to better protect biodiversity and identify unique populations. Several shark species in the northeast Pacific (NEP) have been studied using conservation genetics techniques, which are discussed here...
2017: Advances in Marine Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28882214/age-and-growth-of-elasmobranchs-and-applications-to-fisheries-management-and-conservation-in-the-northeast-pacific-ocean
#5
Mary E Matta, Cindy A Tribuzio, David A Ebert, Kenneth J Goldman, Christopher M Gburski
In addition to being an academic endeavour, the practical purpose of conducting age and growth studies on fishes is to provide biological data to stock assessment scientists and fisheries managers so they may better understand population demographics and manage exploitation rates. Age and size data are used to build growth models, which are a critical component of stock assessments. Though age determination of elasmobranchs in the northeast Pacific Ocean (NEP) began in the 1930s, the field has evolved substantially in recent years, allowing scientists to incorporate age data into assessments for more species than ever before...
2017: Advances in Marine Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28882213/stable-isotope-applications-for-understanding-shark-ecology-in-the-northeast-pacific-ocean
#6
Jonathan C P Reum, Gregory D Williams, Chris J Harvey
Stable isotopes are used to address a wide range of ecological questions and can help researchers and managers better understand the movement and trophic ecology of sharks. Here, we review how shark studies from the Northeast Pacific Ocean (NEP) have employed stable isotopes to estimate trophic level and diet composition and infer movement and habitat-use patterns. To date, the number of NEP shark studies that have used stable isotopes is limited, suggesting that the approach is underutilized. To aid shark researchers in understanding the strengths and limitations of the approach, we provide a brief overview of carbon and nitrogen stable isotope trophic discrimination properties (e...
2017: Advances in Marine Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28882212/diet-composition-and-trophic-ecology-of-northeast-pacific-ocean-sharks
#7
Joseph J Bizzarro, Aaron B Carlisle, Wade D Smith, Enric Cortés
Although there is a general perception of sharks as large pelagic, apex predators, most sharks are smaller, meso- and upper-trophic level predators that are associated with the seafloor. Among 73 shark species documented in the eastern North Pacific (ENP), less than half reach maximum lengths >200cm, and 78% occur in demersal or benthic regions of the continental shelf or slope. Most small (≤200cm) species (e.g., houndsharks) and demersal, nearshore juveniles of larger species (e.g., requiem sharks) consume small teleosts and decapod crustaceans, whereas large species in pelagic coastal and oceanic environments feed on large teleosts and squids...
2017: Advances in Marine Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28878070/effect-of-the-phosphorylation-of-the-cm2-protein-on-influenza-c-virus-replication
#8
Takanari Goto, Yoshitaka Shimotai, Yoko Matsuzaki, Yasushi Muraki, Ri Sho, Kanetsu Sugawara, Seiji Hongo
CM2 is the second membrane protein of the influenza C virus and has been demonstrated to play a role in the uncoating and genome packaging processes in influenza C virus replication. Although the effects of N-linked glycosylation, disulfide-linked oligomerization, and palmitoylation of CM2 on virus replication have been analyzed, the effect of the phosphorylation of CM2 on virus replication remains to be determined. In this study, phosphorylation site(s) at residues 78 and/or 103 of CM2 were substituted with alanine residue(s) and the effects of the loss of phosphorylation on influenza C virus replication were analyzed...
September 6, 2017: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28874881/oceanographic-drivers-of-the-vertical-distribution-of-a-highly-migratory-endothermic-shark
#9
Daniel M Coffey, Aaron B Carlisle, Elliott L Hazen, Barbara A Block
Salmon sharks Lamna ditropis are highly migratory, upper trophic level predators in North Pacific ecosystems. We analysed a multi-year satellite tag dataset to investigate the habitat use of female salmon sharks across their broad range in the eastern North Pacific (NEP) and identified key environmental factors that influence vertical distribution. Salmon sharks displayed remarkable plasticity in habitat use across disparate oceanographic regions in the NEP and increased utilization of deeper waters in offshore habitats...
September 5, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28874549/molecular-basis-of-mammalian-transmissibility-of-avian-h1n1-influenza-viruses-and-their-pandemic-potential
#10
Mark Zanin, Sook-San Wong, Subrata Barman, Challika Kaewborisuth, Peter Vogel, Adam Rubrum, Daniel Darnell, Atanaska Marinova-Petkova, Scott Krauss, Richard J Webby, Robert G Webster
North American wild birds are an important reservoir of influenza A viruses, yet the potential of viruses in this reservoir to transmit and cause disease in mammals is not well understood. Our surveillance of avian influenza viruses (AIVs) at Delaware Bay, USA, revealed a group of similar H1N1 AIVs isolated in 2009, some of which were airborne-transmissible in the ferret model without prior adaptation. Comparison of the genomes of these viruses revealed genetic markers of airborne transmissibility in the Polymerase Basic 2 (PB2), PB1, PB1-F2, Polymerase Acidic-X (PA-X), Nonstructural Protein 1 (NS1), and Nuclear Export Protein (NEP) genes...
September 5, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28854227/relational-values-resonate-broadly-and-differently-than-intrinsic-or-instrumental-values-or-the-new-ecological-paradigm
#11
Sarah C Klain, Paige Olmsted, Kai M A Chan, Terre Satterfield
Value orientations used to explain or justify conservation have been rooted in arguments about how much and in what context to emphasize the intrinsic versus instrumental value of nature. Equally prominent are characterizations of beliefs known as the New Ecological Paradigm (NEP), often used to help explain pro-environmental behaviour. A recent alternative to these positions has been identified as 'relational value'-broadly, values linking people and ecosystems via tangible and intangible relationships to nature as well as the principles, virtues and notions of a good life that may accompany these...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28844000/epigallocatechin-gallate-induces-extracellular-degradation-of-amyloid-%C3%AE-protein-by-increasing-neprilysin-secretion-from-astrocytes-through-activation-of-erk-and-pi3k-pathways
#12
Naoki Yamamoto, Mari Shibata, Ryo Ishikuro, Mamoru Tanida, Yuina Taniguchi, Yuri Ikeda-Matsuo, Kazuya Sobue
Amyloid-β (Aβ) production and clearance in the brain is a crucial focus of investigations into the pathogenesis of Alzheimer disease. Imbalance between production and clearance leads to accumulation of Aβ. The important Aβ-degrading enzymes in the brain are neprilysin (NEP) and insulin-degrading enzyme (IDE), and defective enzyme expression may facilitate Aβ deposition in sporadic late-onset AD patients. It has been suggested that epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG), a member of the catechin family, might be an effective treatment for AD, because it has been shown to elevate NEP expression...
August 24, 2017: Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28841868/a-systematic-review-of-the-effectiveness-of-policies-restricting-access-to-pregabalin
#13
Brett R Stacey, Jonathan Liss, Regina Behar, Alesia Sadosky, Bruce Parsons, Elizabeth T Masters, Patrick Hlavacek
BACKGROUND: Formularies often employ restriction policies to reduce pharmacy costs. Pregabalin, an alpha-2-delta ligand, is approved for treatment of fibromyalgia (FM); neuropathic pain (NeP) due to postherpetic neuralgia (PHN), diabetic peripheral neuropathy (pDPN), spinal cord injury; and as adjunct therapy for partial onset seizures. Pregabalin is endorsed as first-line therapy for these indications by several US and EU medical professional societies. However, restriction policies such as prior authorization (PA) and step therapy (ST) often favor less costly generic pain medications over pregabalin...
August 25, 2017: BMC Health Services Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28840562/biases-in-multilevel-analyses-caused-by-cluster-specific-fixed-effects-imputation
#14
Matthias Speidel, Jörg Drechsler, Joseph W Sakshaug
When datasets are affected by nonresponse, imputation of the missing values is a viable solution. However, most imputation routines implemented in commonly used statistical software packages do not accommodate multilevel models that are popular in education research and other settings involving clustering of units. A common strategy to take the hierarchical structure of the data into account is to include cluster-specific fixed effects in the imputation model. Still, this ad hoc approach has never been compared analytically to the congenial multilevel imputation in a random slopes setting...
August 24, 2017: Behavior Research Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28840286/adrenal-chromaffin-cells-exposed-to-5-ns-pulses-require-higher-electric-fields-to-porate-intracellular-membranes-than-the-plasma-membrane-an-experimental-and-modeling-study
#15
Josette Zaklit, Gale L Craviso, Normand Leblanc, Lisha Yang, P Thomas Vernier, Indira Chatterjee
Nanosecond-duration electric pulses (NEPs) can permeabilize the endoplasmic reticulum (ER), causing release of Ca(2+) into the cytoplasm. This study used experimentation coupled with numerical modeling to understand the lack of Ca(2+) mobilization from Ca(2+)-storing organelles in catecholamine-secreting adrenal chromaffin cells exposed to 5-ns pulses. Fluorescence imaging determined a threshold electric (E) field of 8 MV/m for mobilizing intracellular Ca(2+) whereas whole-cell recordings of membrane conductance determined a threshold E-field of 3 MV/m for causing plasma membrane permeabilization...
August 24, 2017: Journal of Membrane Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28809959/expression-and-activity-of-angiotensin-regulating-enzymes-is-associated-with-prognostic-outcome-in-clear-cell-renal-cell-carcinoma-patients
#16
Peio Errarte, Maider Beitia, Itxaro Perez, Lorea Manterola, Charles H Lawrie, Jon Danel Solano-Iturri, Julio Calvete-Candenas, Miguel Unda, José I López, Gorka Larrinaga
The discovery of the intrarenal renin-angiotensin system (iRAS), which regulates angiogenesis, cell differentiation and proliferation, has opened new perspectives in the knowledge of kidney carcinogenesis. In this study we analyzed the immunohistochemical expression and fluorimetric activity of four key peptidases of iRAS in tumor tissue (n = 144) and serum samples (n = 128) from patients with renal neoplasms. Neutral endopeptidase (NEP/CD10), Angiotensin-converting enzyme-2 (ACE2), and aminopeptidase A (APA) were expressed in tumor cells whilst Angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) was expressed in the endothelial cells of intratumor blood vessels...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28805245/tropical-rainforest-carbon-sink-declines-during-el-ni%C3%A3-o-as-a-result-of-reduced-photosynthesis-and-increased-respiration-rates
#17
Molly A Cavaleri, Adam P Coble, Michael G Ryan, William L Bauerle, Henry W Loescher, Steven F Oberbauer
Changes in tropical forest carbon sink strength during El Niño Southern Oscillation (ENSO) events can indicate future behavior under climate change. Previous studies revealed ˜6 Mg C ha(-1)  yr(-1) lower net ecosystem production (NEP) during ENSO year 1998 compared with non-ENSO year 2000 in a Costa Rican tropical rainforest. We explored environmental drivers of this change and examined the contributions of ecosystem respiration (RE) and gross primary production (GPP) to this weakened carbon sink. For 1998-2000, we estimated RE using chamber-based respiration measurements, and we estimated GPP in two ways: using (1) the canopy process model MAESTRA, and (2) combined eddy covariance and chamber respiration data...
August 14, 2017: New Phytologist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28799847/the-willingness-of-people-who-inject-drugs-in-boston-to-use-a-supervised-injection-facility
#18
Casey León, Lena Cardoso, Sarah Mackin, Barry Bock, Jessie M Gaeta
BACKGROUND: In Massachusetts, the number of opioid-related deaths has increased 350% since 2000. In the setting of increasing overdose deaths, one potential intervention is Supervised Injection Facilities (SIFs). This study explores willingness of people who inject drugs in Boston to use a SIF and examines factors associated with willingness. METHODS: A cross-sectional survey of a convenience sample of 237 people who inject drugs and utilize Boston's needle exchange program (NEP)...
August 11, 2017: Substance Abuse
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28771913/influence-of-early-phase-clinical-trial-enrollment-on-patterns-of-end-of-life-care-for-children-with-advanced-cancer
#19
Prasanna Ananth, Chalinee Monsereenusorn, Clement Ma, Hasan Al-Sayegh, Joanne Wolfe, Carlos Rodriguez-Galindo
We conducted a retrospective cohort study of 125 pediatric oncology patients who died in 2010-2014 to explore how healthcare utilization, pediatric palliative care (PPC) receipt, and end-of-life care (EOLC) differed between patients enrolled in early phase clinical trials (EP) and those not enrolled (NEP). Baseline characteristics and healthcare utilization did not significantly differ between groups. EP patients received PPC consultation closer to death than NEP patients (median days before death = 58 [interquartile range = 16-84] vs...
August 3, 2017: Pediatric Blood & Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28765884/enhanced-expression-of-natriuretic-peptide-receptor-a-and-b-in-neutrophils-of-culprit-lesions-in-patients-with-acute-myocardial-infarction
#20
Masashi Nakagawa, Takahiko Naruko, Kenichi Sugioka, Chizuko Kitabayashi, Nobuyuki Shirai, Masahiko Takagi, Minoru Yoshiyama, Masahiko Ohsawa, Makiko Ueda
Natriuretic peptides and their specific receptors have been suggested to have regulatory effects on smooth muscle cell (SMC) growth and inflammatory cell reactions. However, the roles of natriuretic peptide receptor A (NPR‑A) and B (NPR‑B) in unstable plaques remain to be studied in detail. Frozen sections from 82 coronary artery segments were used. These segments were obtained at autopsy from 13 patients with acute myocardial infarction (AMI; 7 ruptured and 6 eroded plaques) and from 30 patients with non‑cardiovascular diseases...
September 2017: Molecular Medicine Reports
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