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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28333341/systemic-administration-of-sialorphin-attenuates-experimental-colitis-in-mice-via-interaction-with-mu-and-kappa-opioid-receptors
#1
M Salaga, A Mokrowiecka, D Jacenik, A I Cygankiewicz, E Malecka-Panas, R Kordek, W M Krajewska, M K Sobocinska, E Kamysz, J Fichna
Background and Aims: Pharmacological treatment and/or maintenance of remission in inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is currently one of the biggest challenges in the field of gastroenterology. Here we aimed to assess the anti-inflammatory effect and the mechanism of action of sialorphin, the natural blocker of the endogenous opioid peptide-degrading enzymes neprilysin (NEP) and aminopeptidase N (APN), in the mouse models of IBD and the changes in the expression of these enzymes in IBD patients...
March 18, 2017: Journal of Crohn's & Colitis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28323997/degradation-paradigm-of-the-gut-hormone-pancreatic-polypeptide-by-hepatic-and-renal-peptidases
#2
Joyceline Cuenco, James Minnion, Tricia Tan, Rebecca Scott, Natacha Germain, Yiin Ling, Rong Chen, Mohammad Ghatei, Stephen Bloom
Pancreatic polypeptide (PP) is a gut hormone that acts on Y4 receptors to reduce appetite. Obese humans display a reduced postprandial rise in PP and remain fully sensitive to the anorectic effects of exogenous PP. The utility of PP as an antiobesity treatment is limited by its short circulating half-life. Insight into the mechanisms by which PP is degraded may aid design of long-acting PP analogues.We aimed to investigate the role of peptidases in PP degradation with a view to determining whether inhibition of these enzymes enhanced PP plasma levels and bioactivity in vivo...
March 9, 2017: Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28323816/an-ns-segment-exonic-splicing-enhancer-regulates-influenza-a-virus-replication-in-mammalian-cells
#3
Xiaofeng Huang, Min Zheng, Pui Wang, Bobo Wing-Yee Mok, Siwen Liu, Siu-Ying Lau, Pin Chen, Yen-Chin Liu, Honglian Liu, Yixin Chen, Wenjun Song, Kwok-Yung Yuen, Honglin Chen
Influenza virus utilizes host splicing machinery to process viral mRNAs expressed from both M and NS segments. Through genetic analysis and functional characterization, we here show that the NS segment of H7N9 virus contains a unique G540A substitution, located within a previously undefined exonic splicing enhancer (ESE) motif present in the NEP mRNA of influenza A viruses. G540A supports virus replication in mammalian cells while retaining replication ability in avian cells. Host splicing regulator, SF2, interacts with this ESE to regulate splicing of NEP/NS1 mRNA and G540A substitution affects SF2-ESE interaction...
March 21, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28322459/effects-of-microrna-19b-on-the-proliferation-apoptosis-and-migration-of-wilms-tumor-cells-via-the-pten-pi3k-akt-signaling-pathway
#4
Ge-Liang Liu, Han-Jie Yang, Bo Liu, Tian Liu
Wilms' tumor (WT) is a most common renal cancer that occurs among children, and microRNA-19b (miR-19b) usually participates in various human cancers. Importantly, the PTEN/PI3K/Akt signaling pathway plays a key role in cell apoptosis, growth and proliferation. Thus, our present study aims to investigate the effect of miR-19b on the PTEN/PI3K/Akt signaling pathway during WT cell proliferation, migration and apoptosis. WT tissues and adjacent normal tissues from WT patients were collected. qRT-PCR was applied to detect miR-19b expression in both the WT tissues and the adjacent normal tissues, immunohistochemistry was applied to detect the protein expressions of PTEN, P13K and p-Akt, SK-NEP-1 cells were divided into the blank, negative control (NC), miR-19b mimics and miR-19b inhibitors groups...
March 21, 2017: Journal of Cellular Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28315356/the-effect-of-angiotensin-receptor-neprilysin-inhibitor-sacubitril-valsartan-on-central-nervous-system-amyloid-%C3%AE-concentrations-and-clearance-in-the-cynomolgus-monkey
#5
Heidi A Schoenfeld, Tim West, Philip B Verghese, Mary Holubasch, Neeta Shenoy, David Kagan, Chiara Buono, Wei Zhou, Marc DeCristofaro, Julie Douville, Geoffrey G Goodrich, Keith Mansfield, Chandra Saravanan, Frederic Cumin, Randy L Webb, Randall J Bateman
Sacubitril/valsartan (LCZ696) is the first angiotensin receptor neprilysin inhibitor approved to reduce cardiovascular mortality and hospitalization in patients with heart failure with reduced ejection fraction. As neprilysin (NEP) is one of several enzymes known to degrade amyloid-β (Aβ), there is a theoretical risk of Aβ accumulation following long-term NEP inhibition. The primary objective of this study was to evaluate the potential effects of sacubitril/valsartan on central nervous system clearance of Aβ isoforms in cynomolgus monkeys using the sensitive Stable Isotope Labeling Kinetics (SILK™)-Aβ methodology...
March 15, 2017: Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28298655/dual-nep-ece-inhibition-improves-endothelial-function-in-mesenteric-resistance-arteries-of-32-week-old-shr
#6
Pieter Lemkens, Leon Ja Spijkers, Merlijn J Meens, Jelly Nelissen, Ben Janssen, Stephan Lm Peters, Paul Mh Schiffers, Jo Gr De Mey
Endothelin 1 (ET-1), a potent vasoconstrictor, pro-mitogenic and pro-inflammatory peptide, may promote development of endothelial dysfunction and arterial remodeling. ET-1 can be formed through cleavage of big-ET-1 by endothelin-converting enzyme (ECE) or neutral endopeptidase (NEP). We investigated whether chronic treatment with the novel dual NEP/ECE inhibitor SOL1 improves functional and structural properties of resistance-sized arteries of 32-week-old male spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR). SHR received a chronic 4-week treatment with SOL1, losartan or hydralazine...
March 16, 2017: Hypertension Research: Official Journal of the Japanese Society of Hypertension
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28295911/co2-exchange-and-evapotranspiration-across-dryland-ecosystems-of-southwestern-north-america
#7
Joel A Biederman, Russell L Scott, Tom W Bell, David R Bowling, Sabina Dore, Jaime Garatuza-Payan, Thomas E Kolb, Praveena Krishnan, Dan J Krofcheck, Marcy E Litvak, Gregory E Maurer, Tilden P Meyers, Walter C Oechel, Shirley A Papuga, Guillermo E Ponce-Campos, Julio C Rodriguez, William K Smith, Rodrigo Vargas, Christopher J Watts, Enrico A Yepez, Michael L Goulden
Global-scale studies suggest that dryland ecosystems dominate an increasing trend in the magnitude and interannual variability of the land CO2 sink. However, such analyses are poorly constrained by measured CO2 exchange in drylands. Here we address this observation gap with eddy covariance data from 25 sites in the water-limited Southwest region of North America with observed ranges in annual precipitation of 100 - 1000 mm, annual temperatures of 2 - 25 °C, and records of 3 - 10 years (150 site-years in total)...
March 13, 2017: Global Change Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28294061/the-association-of-mme-microrna-binding-site-polymorphism-with-risk-of-late-onset-alzheimer-s-disease-in-northern-han-chinese
#8
Chun-Xia Liu, Lin Tan, Fu-Rong Sun, Wei Zhang, Dan Miao, Meng-Shan Tan, Yu Wan, Chen-Chen Tan, Jin-Tai Yu, Lan Tan
Background Although amyloid β (Aβ) degradation has been normally implicated in the pathogenesis of late onset Alzheimer's disease (LOAD) through cellular biological studies, genetic studies linking Aβ degradation and LOAD are still not deeply investigated. Neprilysin (NEP), as one of the most crucial Aβ-degrading enzymes in AD, is the metalloendopeptidases which particularly participates in the monomeric Aβ species degradation. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) exert posttranscriptional dysregulation and their target sequence on the 3' untranslated regions (3'UTR) may be regulated by single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs)...
March 13, 2017: Current Neurovascular Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28285126/expression-of-neprilysin-in-periodontitis-affected-gingival-tissues
#9
A Nezu, T Kubota, S Maruyama, M Nagata, K Nohno, T Morozumi, H Yoshie
OBJECTIVE: Although the pathogeneses of Alzheimer's disease (AD) and periodontal diseases have overlapping features, including ageing and chronic inflammation, the association between AD and periodontitis remains unclear. To explore the pathogenesis of periodontitis, a comprehensive gene expression/transcriptome analysis in periodontitis-affected gingival tissues found that the AD pathway was significantly up-regulated in periodontitis-affected gingival tissues. AD-related genes, amyloid beta precursor protein (APP), interleukin-1 beta and compliment 1QA, were significantly elevated in periodontitis...
March 6, 2017: Archives of Oral Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28274928/effects-of-childbirth-on-podocyturia-in-women-with-normotensive-uncomplicated-pregnancies
#10
Itsuko Furuta, Tianyue Zhai, Takeshi Umazume, Satoshi Ishikawa, Kinuko Nakagawa, Takashi Kojima, Takahiro Yamada, Mamoru Morikawa, Hisanori Minakami
Changes in hemodynamics and blood pressure occur shortly before and after childbirth regardless of the mode of delivery. This study aimed to test the hypothesis that parturition induces a temporal increase in podocyturia monitored by podocyte-specific protein podocin mRNA expression levels (Pod-mRNA). A total of 105 urine specimens, consisting of 43 and 62 from 18 and 20 otherwise healthy women with vaginal (VD) and elective cesarean deliveries (ECS), respectively, were studied. Determination of urine protein and creatinine concentrations and quantitative analyses of Pod-mRNA, nephrin mRNA (Nep-mRNA), synaptopodin mRNA (Syn-mRNA), and aquaporin 2 mRNA expression (AQP2-mRNA) were performed using RT-PCR in pelleted urine samples...
March 8, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Renal Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28259159/measurement-properties-of-paindetect-rasch-analysis-of-responses-from-community-dwelling-adults-with-neuropathic-pain
#11
Tara L Packham, Joseph C Cappelleri, Alesia Sadosky, Joy C MacDermid, Florian Brunner
BACKGROUND: painDETECT (PD-Q) is a self-reported assessment of pain qualities developed as a screening tool for pain of neuropathic origin. Rasch analysis is a strategy for examining the measurement characteristics of a scale using a form of item response theory. We conducted a Rasch analysis to consider if the scoring and measurement properties of PD-Q would support its use as an outcome measure. METHODS: Rasch analysis was conducted on PD-Q scores drawn from a cross-sectional study of the burden and costs of NeP...
March 4, 2017: BMC Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28239754/neprilysin-facilitates-adipogenesis-through-potentiation-of-the-phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase-pi3k-signaling-pathway
#12
Juwan Kim, Dasol Han, Sung-Hyun Byun, Mookwang Kwon, Sun-Jung Cho, Young Ho Koh, Keejung Yoon
Neprilysin (NEP) is a zinc metallopeptidase that cleaves a number of small peptides into inactive forms. Despite the recent evidence of a significant correlation between the levels of NEP in plasma and the severity of obesity in humans, a cause-and-effect relationship or a functional role of NEP in obesity has remained uncertain. In this study, we show that NEP has a positive regulatory effect on fat cell formation from precursor cells. NEP increases the accumulation of cytoplasmic triglycerides in 3T3-L1 preadipocytes or the C3H10T1/2 mesenchymal stem cell line in differentiation conditions...
February 27, 2017: Molecular and Cellular Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28222922/biomass-production-and-carbon-sequestration-of-a-short-rotation-forest-with-different-poplar-clones-in-northwest-china
#13
Yan Meifang, Wang Lu, Ren Honghui, Zhang Xinshi
Short Rotation Forestry (SRF) is of interest as producers of biomass for bio-energy, but also as carbon (C) sinks to mitigate CO2 emission. To investigate biomass production and C sequestration of SRF, ecosystem C stock (including C stored in tree biomass, litter and soil), NPP (net primary productivity), heterotrophic respiration (Rh) and NEP (net ecosystem productivity) of three poplar clone plantations were estimated by repeated field sampling in northwest China. Ecosystem C stock (105.62MgCha(-1)) was significantly lower in PB (P...
May 15, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28214117/evaluating-carbon-fluxes-of-global-forest-ecosystems-by-using-an-individual-tree-based-model-forcchn
#14
Jianyong Ma, Herman H Shugart, Xiaodong Yan, Cougui Cao, Shuang Wu, Jing Fang
The carbon budget of forest ecosystems, an important component of the terrestrial carbon cycle, needs to be accurately quantified and predicted by ecological models. As a preamble to apply the model to estimate global carbon uptake by forest ecosystems, we used the CO2 flux measurements from 37 forest eddy-covariance sites to examine the individual tree-based FORCCHN model's performance globally. In these initial tests, the FORCCHN model simulated gross primary production (GPP), ecosystem respiration (ER) and net ecosystem production (NEP) with correlations of 0...
May 15, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28208205/-social-determinants-of-subjective-health-life-satisfaction-and-absence-from-school-due-to-illness-among-adolescents-first-results-of-the-german-national-educational-panel-study-neps
#15
Kristina Heilmann, Janina Bräsen, Max Herke, Matthias Richter, Katharina Rathmann
The aim of this study is to examine the impact of social determinants on subjective health, life satisfaction and absence from school due to illness among adolescents in secondary schools, by using data from the German National Educational Panel Study (NEPS). Data was obtained from the National Educational Panel Study (NEPS). The sample included (n=5 790) 6(th) grade pupils in regular schools in 2011 (Starting Cohort 3, Wave 2). The socioeconomic background of adolescents was measured by pupils' school type as well as household income and parental education level...
February 16, 2017: Das Gesundheitswesen
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28202040/subcellular-localization-and-interactions-of-infectious-salmon-anemia-virus-isav-m1-and-nep-as-well-as-host-hsc70
#16
Wenting Zhang, Chengzhi Cai, Li Lin, Yizhi Jane Tao, Meilin Jin
BACKGROUND: Infectious salmon anemia virus (ISAV) is an important fish pathogen that causes high mortality in farmed Atlantic salmon. The ISAV genome consists of eight single-stranded, negative-sense RNA segments. The six largest segments contain one open reading frame (ORF) each, and encode three polymerase proteins, nucleoprotein, fusion protein, and hemagglutinin esterase protein. The two smallest segments contain more than one ORF each. The segment 7 encodes non-structural protein 1 (NS1) and nuclear export protein (NEP), while segment 8 encodes matrix protein 1 and 2 (M1 and M2)...
February 15, 2017: Virology Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28188955/increased-podocyturia-in-pregnant-women-compared-to-non-pregnant-women
#17
Itsuko Furuta, Tianyue Zhai, Takeshi Umazume, Satoshi Ishikawa, Kinuko Nakagawa, Rina Akaishi, Takahiro Yamada, Mamoru Morikawa, Hisanori Minakami
AIM: Hyperfiltration is a cause of podocyturia and occurs physiologically in the kidney of pregnant women. Podocyturia is increased in preeclamptic pregnancies, but it is unclear whether there is also any increase in uncomplicated pregnancies. This study was performed to examine whether podocyturia and urine aquaporin 2 mRNA expression are increased in healthy pregnant women (PW) compared to healthy non-pregnant women (NPW). METHODS: Eleven urines obtained from 11 NPW and longitudinal 76 urines from 40 PW with uncomplicated pregnancies (median number [range] of urine samples/person, 2 [1 - 3]) were studied...
February 11, 2017: Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28188358/protective-effect-of-valproic-acid-in-streptozotocin-induced-sporadic-alzheimer-s-disease-mouse-model-possible-involvement-of-the-cholinergic-system
#18
Mirna Ezzat Sorial, Nesrine Salah El Dine El Sayed
Sporadic Alzheimer's disease (SAD) is a slowly progressive neurological disorder that is the most common form of dementia. Cholinergic system dysfunction and amyloid beta formation are the two main underlying pathological mechanisms for the disease development. In recent studies, insulin receptor desensitization and disturbances in the downstream effects of insulin receptor signaling were observed in the brains of Alzheimer's patients. Currently, intracereberoventricular (ICV) injection of streptozotocin (STZ) is found to induce behavioral, neurochemical, and structural alterations in animals resembling those found in SAD patients...
February 10, 2017: Naunyn-Schmiedeberg's Archives of Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28174624/sex-differences-in-the-aging-pattern-of-renin-angiotensin-system-serum-peptidases
#19
A Fernández-Atucha, A Izagirre, A B Fraile-Bermúdez, M Kortajarena, G Larrinaga, P Martinez-Lage, E Echevarría, J Gil
BACKGROUND: Serum peptidases, such as angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE), angiotensin-converting enzyme-2 (ACE2), neutral endopeptidase (NEP), aminopeptidase N (APN), and aminopeptidase A (APA), are important elements of the renin-angiotensin system (RAS). Dysregulation of these enzymes has been associated with hypertension and cardiovascular risk. In the present study, serum activities of RAS peptidases were analyzed to evaluate the existence of sexual differences, with a possible different pattern in pre- and post-andropausal/post-menopausal participants...
2017: Biology of Sex Differences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28161985/reliability-of-the-english-version-of-the-paindetect-questionnaire
#20
B Tampin, T Bohne, M Callan, M Kvia, A Melsom Myhre, E C Neoh, C Bharat, H Slater
BACKGROUND: The painDETECT questionnaire (PD-Q) has been used widely for the identification of neuropathic pain (NeP); however, the reliability of the English version of the PD-Q has never been investigated. OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to determine the reliability of the PD-Q pre- (T0) and immediately post- (T1) clinical consultation and at one-week follow-up (T2). METHODS: We recruited 157 patients attending a Neurosurgery Spinal Clinic and Pain Management Department...
February 5, 2017: Current Medical Research and Opinion
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