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Depth electrode

Kaushik Natarajan, Parth Bhatt, Pankaj Yadav, Kavita Pandey, Brijesh Tripathi, Manoj Kumar
Hematite (α-Fe2O3) nanostructures have been extensively studied as photo-anodes for the conversion of sunlight into chemical fuels by water splitting. A number of factors limit the photo-activity of pristine hematite nanostructures, including poor electrical conductivity and long penetration depth of light. Previous studies have shown that use of tin (Sn) as an n-type dopant can substantially enhance the photoactivity of hematite photoanodes by modifying their morphological, optical and electrical properties...
March 1, 2018: Journal of Nanoscience and Nanotechnology
Brandon M Wild, Renée Morris, Mihai Moldovan, Christian Krarup, Arun V Krishnan, Ria Arnold
Electrophysiology enables the objective assessment of peripheral nerve function in vivo. Traditional nerve conduction measures such as amplitude and latency detect chronic axon loss and demyelination, respectively. Axonal excitability techniques "by threshold tracking" expand upon these measures by providing information regarding the activity of ion channels, pumps and exchangers that relate to acute function and may precede degenerative events. As such, the use of axonal excitability in animal models of neurological disorders may provide a useful in vivo measure to assess novel therapeutic interventions...
February 6, 2018: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
Jianhua Qiu, Zhao Chen, Tianxiang Zhao, Zhihui Chen, Wenjing Chu, Ningyi Yuan, Jianning Ding
Nickel oxide (NiOx) films were deposited onto ITO-coated glass at room temperature by DC magnetron sputtering and the electrochromic properties were investigated. The effects of film thickness on structure, morphology, electrochemical and electrochromic properties of NiOx films were systematically studied. X-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopy results indicate NiOx films have the polycrystalline structure and the crystallinity improves with the increase of thickness. In atomic force microscopy analysis, the surface roughness of NiOx films increases as the thickness increases and large roughness is obtained in the films of more than 300 nm...
June 1, 2018: Journal of Nanoscience and Nanotechnology
Atsushi Sakaoka, Hisako Terao, Shintaro Nakamura, Hitomi Hagiwara, Toshihito Furukawa, Kiyoshi Matsumura, Kenichi Sakakura
BACKGROUND: Ablation lesion depth caused by radiofrequency-based renal denervation (RDN) was limited to <4 mm in previous animal studies, suggesting that radiofrequency-RDN cannot ablate a substantial percentage of renal sympathetic nerves. We aimed to define the true lesion depth achieved with radiofrequency-RDN using a fine sectioning method and to investigate biophysical parameters that could predict lesion depth. METHODS AND RESULTS: Radiofrequency was delivered to 87 sites in 14 renal arteries from 9 farm pigs at various ablation settings: 2, 4, 6, and 9 W for 60 seconds and 6 W for 120 seconds...
February 2018: Circulation. Cardiovascular Interventions
Aleksandar Zeradjanin
Enormous importance of the energy conversion and storage boosted research interest in various electrocatalytic materials. Characterization of solid/liquid interfaces during faradaic and non-faradaic processes is routinely conducted in many laboratories worldwide on a daily basis. This can be deemed as very positive tendency. However, careful insight into modern literature suggests frequent misuse of electroanalytical tools. This can have very negative implications and postpone overall development of electrocatalytic materials with desired properties...
February 12, 2018: ChemSusChem
Seyhmus Guler, Moritz Dannhauer, Biel Roig-Solvas, Alexis Gkogkidis, Rob Macleod, Tonio Ball, Jeffrey G Ojemann, Dana H Brooks
Direct stimulation of the cortical surface is used clinically for cortical mapping and modulation of local activity. Future applications of cortical modulation and brain-computer interfaces may also use cortical stimulation methods. One common method to deliver current is through electrocorticography (ECoG) stimulation in which a dense array of electrodes are placed subdurally or epidurally to stimulate the cortex. However, proximity to cortical tissue limits the amount of current that can be delivered safely...
February 7, 2018: NeuroImage
William P Nobis, Stephen Schuele, Jessica W Templer, Guangyu Zhou, Gregory Lane, Joshua M Rosenow, Christina Zelano
OBJECTIVE: Evidence suggests disordered breathing is critically involved in Sudden unexplained death in epilepsy (SUDEP). To that end, evaluating structures that are activated by seizures and can activate brain regions that produce cardiorespiratory changes can further our understanding of the pathophysiology of SUDEP. Prior preclinical studies have shown that electrical stimulation of the human amygdala induces apnea, suggesting a role for the amygdala in controlling respiration. In this study, we aimed to both confirm these findings in a larger group of patients with intractable temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) and also further explore the anatomical and cognitive properties of this effect...
February 8, 2018: Annals of Neurology
Christoph Helmstaedter, Gerrit H Gielen, Juri-Alexander Witt
In contrast to previous studies, Ljung et al. provide evidence of permanent cognitive consequences of bilateral intrahippocampal depth electrodes for verbal memory in patients who were not operated or operated in the right temporal lobe. Stimulated by this, we provide historical confirmatory and supplementary evidence of the detrimental effect of bilateral depth electrodes implanted along the longitudinal axis of the hippocampus on verbal learning and especially on delayed verbal memory and recognition performance...
February 7, 2018: Epilepsia
Peter M Lauro, Shane Lee, Minkyu Ahn, Andrei Barborica, Wael F Asaad
BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: To create an open-source method for reconstructing microelectrode recording (MER) and deep brain stimulation (DBS) electrode coordinates along multiple parallel trajectories with patient-specific DBS implantation platforms to facilitate DBS research. METHODS: We combined the surgical geometry (extracted from WayPoint Planner), pre-/intra-/postoperative computed tomography (CT) and/or magnetic resonance (MR) images, and integrated them into the Analysis of Functional NeuroImages (AFNI) neuroimaging analysis environment using functions written in Python...
February 7, 2018: Stereotactic and Functional Neurosurgery
Jingkai Zhao, Chunyan Zhang, Cheng Sun, Wei Li, Shihan Zhang, Sujing Li, Dongxiao Zhang
A biocathode with the function of Fe(III)EDTA and Fe(II)EDTA-NO reduction was applied in a microbial electrolysis cell coupled with chemical absorption for NO removal from flue gas. As the mediated electron transfer was excluded by the same electrochemical characterizations of the biocathodes before and after a 48 h continuous operation, the profiles of reduction experiments indicated that direct electron transfer was the main mechanism of Fe(III)EDTA reduction, while Fe(III)EDTA-NO was mainly reduced via Fe(II)-assisted autotrophic denitrification...
February 1, 2018: Bioresource Technology
Tae-Woo Kwon, Jang Wook Choi, Ali Coskun
Silicon (Si) anode is among the most promising candidates for the next-generation high-capacity electrodes in Li-ion batteries owing to its unparalleled theoretical capacity (4200 mA h g-1 for Li4.4Si) that is approximately 10 times higher than that of commercialized graphitic anodes (372 mA h g-1 for LiC6). The battery community has witnessed substantial advances in research on new polymeric binders for silicon anodes mainly due to the shortcomings of conventional binders such as polyvinylidene difluoride (PVDF) to address problems caused by the massive volume change of Si (300%) upon (de)lithiation...
February 7, 2018: Chemical Society Reviews
Raheel Ahmed, Luc Rubinger, Cristina Go, James M Drake, James T Rutka, O Carter Snead, Elysa Widjaja
PURPOSE: In patients with medically refractory epilepsy and normal magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), high-resolution dedicated MRI may identify cryptic lesions. The aim of this study was to assess improvement in lesion detection and its impact on clinical management, using additional high-resolution dedicated 3T MRI in children with medically refractory epilepsy who had normal 3T epilepsy protocol MRI. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Children who had resective epilepsy surgery and suspected focal cortical dysplasia (FCD) or normal 3T epilepsy protocol MRI were included...
February 2, 2018: Epilepsy Research
Malgosia A Kokoszka, Fedor Panov, Maite La Vega-Talbott, Patricia E McGoldrick, Steven M Wolf, Saadi Ghatan
The responsive neurostimulation (RNS) system, an adjunctive treatment for pharmacoresistant partial-onset seizures with 1 or 2 foci, has been available to patients aged 18 years or older since the device's FDA approval in 2013. Herein, the authors describe their off-label application of this technology in 2 pediatric patients and the consequent therapeutic benefit without surgical complications or treatment side effects. A 14-year-old nonambulatory, nonverbal male with severe developmental delay was considered for RNS therapy for medically and surgically refractory epilepsy with bilateral seizure onsets in the setting of a normal radiological examination and a known neuropathological diagnosis of type I cortical dysplasia...
February 2, 2018: Journal of Neurosurgery. Pediatrics
Lu Zhang, Hualing Sun, Jian Yu, Hongye Yang, Fangfang Song, Cui Huang
OBJECTIVES: This study aims to apply electrophoretic deposition (EPD) for occlusion of dentinal tubules in vitro and investigate its effect on tubule occlusion and shear bond strength (SBS). METHODS: Charged mesoporous silica nanoparticles (MSNs) were synthesized and characterized through field-emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), dynamic light scattering (DLS), and Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy analyses...
January 30, 2018: Journal of Dentistry
Paul Fischer, Stefan Knauer, Gerrit Marx, Lutz Schweikhard
The recently introduced method of ion separation by transversal ejection of unwanted species in electrostatic ion-beam traps and multi-reflection time-of-flight devices has been further studied in detail. As this separation is performed during the ion storage itself, there is no need for additional external devices such as ion gates or traps for either pre- or postselection of the ions of interest. The ejection of unwanted contaminant ions is performed by appropriate pulses of the potentials of deflector electrodes...
January 2018: Review of Scientific Instruments
Wei Feng, Jinxia Xu, Linhua Jiang, Yingbin Song, Yalong Cao, Qiping Tan
To improve the repair effect of electrochemical chloride extraction, a modified electrode configuration is applied in this investigation. In this configuration, two auxiliary electrodes placed in the anodic and cathodic electrolytes were used as the anode and cathode, respectively. Besides this, the steel in the mortar was grounded to protect it from corrosion. By a comparative experiment, the potential evolution, various ions concentrations (Cl-, OH-, Na⁺, and K⁺) in different mortar depths, the corrosion potential, and the current density of the steel were measured...
February 1, 2018: Materials
Ilias Pagkalos, Michelle Rogers, Martyn Gordon Boutelle, Emmanuel Mic Drakakis
This paper presents the first application specific integrated chip (ASIC) for the monitoring of patients who have suffered a Traumatic Brain Injury (TBI). By monitoring the neuralphysiological (ECoG) and neurochemical (glucose, lactate and potassium) signals of the injured human brain tissue, it is possible to detect spreading depolarisations, which have been shown to be associated with poor TBI patient outcome. This paper describes the testing of a new 7.5mm2 ASIC fabricated in the commercially available AMS 0...
January 31, 2018: Chemphyschem: a European Journal of Chemical Physics and Physical Chemistry
Cheng Tang, Hao-Fan Wang, Qiang Zhang
Various gas-involving energy electrocatalysis, including oxygen reduction reaction (ORR), oxygen evolution reaction (OER), and hydrogen evolution reaction (HER), has witnessed increasing concerns recently for the sake of clean, renewable, and efficient energy technologies. However, these heterogeneous reactions exhibit sluggish kinetics due to multistep electron transfer and only occur at triple-phase boundary regions. Up to now, tremendous attention has been attracted to develop cost-effective and high-performance electrocatalysts to boost the electrocatalytic activities as promising alternatives to noble metal counterparts...
January 31, 2018: Accounts of Chemical Research
Ursula S Hofstoetter, Brigitta Freundl, Heinrich Binder, Karen Minassian
Epidural electrical stimulation of the lumbar spinal cord is currently regaining momentum as a neuromodulation intervention in spinal cord injury (SCI) to modify dysregulated sensorimotor functions and augment residual motor capacity. There is ample evidence that it engages spinal circuits through the electrical stimulation of large-to-medium diameter afferent fibers within lumbar and upper sacral posterior roots. Recent pilot studies suggested that the surface electrode-based method of transcutaneous spinal cord stimulation (SCS) may produce similar neuromodulatory effects as caused by epidural SCS...
2018: PloS One
Hongling Li, Lin Jing, Wenwen Liu, Jinjun Lin, Roland Yingjie Tay, Siu Hon Tsang, Edwin Hang Tong Teo
Although two-dimensional boron (B) has attracted much attention in electronics and optoelectronics due to its unique physical and chemical properties, in-depth investigations and applications have been limited by the current synthesis techniques. Herein, we demonstrate that high-quality few-layer B sheets can be prepared in large quantities by sonication-assisted liquid-phase exfoliation. By simply varying the exfoliating solvent types and centrifugation speeds, lateral size and thickness of the exfoliated B sheets can be controllably tuned...
January 29, 2018: ACS Nano
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