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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28800213/on-the-dynamics-of-additive-migration-to-form-cathodic-interlayers-in-organic-solar-cells
#1
Jane Vinokur, Stas Obuchovsky, Igal Deckman, Lishai Shoham, Tom Mates, Michael L Chabinyc, Gitti L Frey
Migration of additives to organic/metal interfaces can be used to self-generate interlayers in organic electronic devices. To generalize this approach for different additives, metals and organic electronic devices it is first necessary to study the dynamics of additive migration from the bulk to the top organic/metal interface. In this study we focus a known cathode interlayer material, polyethylene glycol (PEG), as additive in P3HT:PC71BM blends and study its migration to the blend/Al interface during metal deposition, and its effect on organic solar cell (OSC) performance...
August 11, 2017: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28796326/gustatory-and-olfactory-responses-to-stimulation-of-the-human-insula
#2
Laure Mazzola, Jean-Pierre Royet, Hélène Catenoix, Alexandra Montavont, Jean Isnard, François Mauguière
OBJECTIVE: Despite numerous studies suggesting the role of insular cortex in the processing of gustatory and olfactory inputs, the exact location of olfacto-gustatory representation in the insula remains controversial. Here we provide a functional mapping of olfactory-gustatory responses to stimulation of the human insular cortex. METHODS: We reviewed 651 electrical stimulations of the insula that were performed in 221 patients, using stereotactically implanted depth electrodes, during the pre-surgical evaluation of drug refractory epilepsy...
August 10, 2017: Annals of Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28796083/a-new-slim-modiolar-electrode-array-for-cochlear-implantation-a-radiological-and-histological-study
#3
Matti Iso-Mustajärvi, Hanna Matikka, Frank Risi, Sini Sipari, Teemu Koski, Tytti Willberg, Antti Lehtimäki, Jyrki Tervaniemi, Heikki Löppönen, Aarno Dietz
HYPOTHESIS: To explore the results of a new slim modiolar electrode array (SMA) with respect to intracochlear placement and trauma evaluated by detailed radiologic imaging and histology. BACKGROUND: Hearing and structure preservation is the goal of cochlear implantation for advanced hearing outcomes. Currently, this is most consistently achieved with thin lateral wall electrodes. Modiolar electrodes are located nearer the modiolus and may provide some electrophysiological advantages, but have a greater tendency for causing insertion trauma...
August 8, 2017: Otology & Neurotology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28792458/amalgam-electrode-based-electrochemical-detector-for-on-site-direct-determination-of-cadmium-ii-and-lead-ii-from-soils
#4
Lukas Nejdl, Jindrich Kynicky, Martin Brtnicky, Marketa Vaculovicova, Vojtech Adam
Toxic metal contamination of the environment is a global issue. In this paper, we present a low-cost and rapid production of amalgam electrodes used for determination of Cd(II) and Pb(II) in environmental samples (soils and wastewaters) by on-site analysis using difference pulse voltammetry. Changes in the electrochemical signals were recorded with a miniaturized potentiostat (width: 80 mm, depth: 54 mm, height: 23 mm) and a portable computer. The limit of detection (LOD) was calculated for the geometric surface of the working electrode 15 mm² that can be varied as required for analysis...
August 9, 2017: Sensors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28783313/electrically-tunable-dye-emission-via-microcavity-integrated-pdms-gel-actuator
#5
Markus Franke, Irma Slowik, Philipp Jan Mehner, Georgi Paschew, Andreas Voigt, Hartmut Fröb, Karl Leo, Andreas Richter
Electrically tunable microcavities are essential elements for tunable laser sources indispensable for modern telecommunication and spectroscopy. However, most device concepts suffer from extensive lithography or etching for membrane processing. Here, we present an electrically and continuously tunable, multi half-wavelength microcavity with a quality factor > 1000 as an easy-to-fabricate platform with potential use for vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers. The microcavity has a Fabry-Pérot structure consisting of ultra-soft PDMS gel with a thickness of 14 - 15 µm and capped by a distributed Bragg reflector on the bottom end and a silver layer serving as top mirror and electrode...
August 7, 2017: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28774044/oxygen-evolution-at-manganite-perovskite-ruddlesden-popper-type-particles-trends-of-activity-on-structure-valence-and-covalence
#6
Majid Ebrahimizadeh Abrishami, Marcel Risch, Julius Scholz, Vladimir Roddatis, Norbert Osterthun, Christian Jooss
An improved understanding of the correlation between the electronic properties of Mn-O bonds, activity and stability of electro-catalysts for the oxygen evolution reaction (OER) is of great importance for an improved catalyst design. Here, an in-depth study of the relation between lattice structure, electronic properties and catalyst performance of the perovskite Ca1-xPrxMnO₃ and the first-order RP-system Ca2-xPrxMnO₄ at doping levels of x = 0, 0.25 and 0.5 is presented. Lattice structure is determined by X-ray powder diffraction and Rietveld refinement...
November 14, 2016: Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28773941/using-noise-and-fluctuations-for-in-situ-measurements-of-nitrogen-diffusion-depth
#7
Cornel Samoila, Doru Ursutiu, Walter-Harald Schleer, Vlad Jinga, Victor Nascov
In manufacturing processes involving diffusion (of C, N, S, etc.), the evolution of the layer depth is of the utmost importance: the success of the entire process depends on this parameter. Currently, nitriding is typically either calibrated using a "post process" method or controlled via indirect measurements (H2, O2, H2O + CO2). In the absence of "in situ" monitoring, any variation in the process parameters (gas concentration, temperature, steel composition, distance between sensors and furnace chamber) can cause expensive process inefficiency or failure...
October 5, 2016: Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28772439/methodology-for-fast-and-facile-characterisation-of-carbon-based-electrodes-focused-on-bioelectrochemical-systems-development-and-scale-up
#8
Raúl Mateos, Raúl M Alonso, Adrián Escapa, Antonio Morán
The development and practical implementation of bioelectrochemical systems (BES) requires an in-depth characterisation of their components. The electrodes, which are critical elements, are usually built from carbon-based materials due to their high specific surface area, biocompatibility and chemical stability. In this study, a simple methodology to electrochemically characterise carbon-based electrodes has been developed, derived from conventional electrochemical analyses. Combined with classical electrochemical theory and the more innovative fractal geometry approach, our method is aimed at comparing and characterising the performance of carbon electrodes through the determination of the electroactive surface and its fractal dimension...
January 20, 2017: Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28769749/attention-in-and-out-scalp-level-and-intracranial-eeg-correlates-of-interoception-and-exteroception
#9
Indira García-Cordero, Sol Esteves, Ezequiel P Mikulan, Eugenia Hesse, Fabricio H Baglivo, Walter Silva, María Del Carmen García, Esteban Vaucheret, Carlos Ciraolo, Hernando S García, Federico Adolfi, Marcos Pietto, Eduar Herrera, Agustina Legaz, Facundo Manes, Adolfo M García, Mariano Sigman, Tristán A Bekinschtein, Agustín Ibáñez, Lucas Sedeño
Interoception, the monitoring of visceral signals, is often presumed to engage attentional mechanisms specifically devoted to inner bodily sensing. In fact, most standardized interoceptive tasks require directing attention to internal signals. However, most studies in the field have failed to compare attentional modulations between internally- and externally-driven processes, thus probing blind to the specificity of the former. Here we address this issue through a multidimensional approach combining behavioral measures, analyses of event-related potentials and functional connectivity via high-density electroencephalography, and intracranial recordings...
2017: Frontiers in Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28768920/neuronavigation-guided-frameless-stereoelectroencephalography-seeg
#10
Ayataka Fujimoto, Tohru Okanishi, Sotaro Kanai, Keishiro Sato, Mitsuyo Nishimura, Hideo Enoki
Stereoelectroencephalography (SEEG) is an invasive surgical procedure used to identify epileptogenic zones. The combination of both subdural grids and depth electrodes (DEs) is currently used for invasive intracranial monitoring in many epilepsy centers. To perform DE implantation, some centers use frame-based stereotactic techniques and others use stereotactic robotic techniques. However, not all epilepsy centers have access to these tools. We hypothesized that DE implantation using a neuronavigation system can be utilized for subsequent epilepsy surgery...
August 1, 2017: Neurologia Medico-chirurgica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28762016/ica-based-muscle-tendon-units-localization-and-activation-analysis-during-dynamic-motion-tasks
#11
Xiang Chen, Shaoping Wang, Chengjun Huang, Shuai Cao, Xu Zhang
This study proposed an independent component analysis (ICA)-based framework for localization and activation level analysis of muscle-tendon units (MTUs) within skeletal muscles during dynamic motion. The gastrocnemius muscle and extensor digitorum communis were selected as target muscles. High-density electrode arrays were used to record surface electromyographic (sEMG) data of the targeted muscles during dynamic motion tasks. First, the ICA algorithm was used to decompose multi-channel sEMG data into a weight coefficient matrix and a source matrix...
July 18, 2017: Medical & Biological Engineering & Computing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28760858/segregation-of-visual-response-properties-in-the-mouse-superior-colliculus-and-their-modulation-during-locomotion
#12
Shinya Ito, David A Feldheim, Alan M Litke
The superior colliculus (SC) receives direct input from the retina and integrates it with information about sound, touch and state of the animal that is relayed from other parts of the brain to initiate specific behavioral outcomes. The superficial SC layers (sSC) contain cells that respond to visual stimuli, while the deep SC layers (dSC) contain cells that also respond to auditory and somatosensory stimuli. Here we used a large-scale silicon probe recording system to examine the visual response properties of SC cells of head-fixed and alert male mice...
July 31, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28748244/a-high-performance-and-low-cost-hole-transporting-layer-for-efficient-and-stable-perovskite-solar-cells
#13
Md Arafat Mahmud, Naveen Kumar Elumalai, Mushfika Baishakhi Upama, Dian Wang, Vinicius R Gonçales, Matthew Wright, Cheng Xu, Faiazul Haque, Ashraf Uddin
Here we report a small molecule oxidant 2,3,5,6-tetrafluoro-7,7,8,8-tetracyano-quinodimethane (F4TCNQ) doped, low cost 2',7'-bis(bis(4-methoxyphenyl)amino)spiro[cyclopenta[2,1-b:3,4-b']dithiophene-4,9'-fluorene] (FDT) hole transporting layer (HTL) for efficient mixed organic cation based MA0.6FA0.4PbI3 (MA = methyl ammonium, FA = formamidinium) perovskite solar cells (PSCs), fabricated via a highly reproducible controlled nucleation assisted restricted volume solvent annealing method, having full temperature compatibility with flexible substrates...
August 9, 2017: Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics: PCCP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28741577/comparison-of-new-generation-renal-artery-denervation-systems-assessing-lesion-size-and-thermodynamics-using-a-thermochromic-liquid-crystal-phantom-model
#14
Sara I Al Raisi, Michael T Barry, Pierre Qian, Abhishek Bhaskaran, Jim Pouliopoulos, Pramesh Kovoor
AIM: To evaluate and compare lesion dimensions and thermodynamics of the new generation multi-electrode Symplicity Spyral and the new generation multi-electrode EnligHTN renal artery denervation systems, using a thermochromic liquid crystal phantom model. METHODS AND RESULTS: A previously described renal artery phantom model was used as a platform for radiofrequency ablation. A total of 32 radiofrequency ablations were performed using multi-electrode Symplicity Spyral (n=16) and new generation EnligHTN systems (n=16)...
July 25, 2017: EuroIntervention
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28738007/comparison-of-intraosseous-pentobarbital-administration-and-thoracic-compression-for-euthanasia-of-anesthetized-sparrows-passer-domesticus-and-starlings-sturnus-vulgaris
#15
Joanne R Paul-Murphy, Andrew Engilis, Peter J Pascoe, D Colette Williams, Kate A Gustavsen, Tracy L Drazenovich, M Kevin Keel, Tamsen M Polley, Irene E Engilis
OBJECTIVE To compare intraosseous pentobarbital treatment (IPT) and thoracic compression (TC) on time to circulatory arrest and an isoelectric electroencephalogram (EEG) in anesthetized passerine birds. ANIMALS 30 wild-caught adult birds (17 house sparrows [Passer domesticus] and 13 European starlings [Sturnus vulgaris]). PROCEDURES Birds were assigned to receive IPT or TC (n = 6/species/group). Birds were anesthetized, and carotid arterial pulses were monitored by Doppler methodology. Five subdermal braided-wire electrodes were used for EEG...
August 2017: American Journal of Veterinary Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28734866/label-free-profiling-of-cell-dynamics-a-sequence-of-impedance-based-assays-to-estimate-tumor-cell-invasiveness-in-vitro
#16
Orsolya Láng, L Ai, Joachim Wegener
Dynamic properties of cancer cells, most notably their ability to migrate, have been correlated successfully with their invasive nature in vivo. To establish a stronger experimental basis for such a correlation we subjected five different cancer cell lines of well-defined metastatic potential to a sequence of three independent assays reporting on three different aspects of cell dynamics, namely (1) the kinetics of cell spreading, (2) cell shape fluctuations, and (3) cell migration. The sequentially applied assays correspond to different measuring modes of the well-established ECIS technique that is based on non-invasive and label-free impedance readings of planar gold-film electrodes that serve as the growth substrate for the cells under study...
July 19, 2017: Experimental Cell Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28730817/efficient-solid-state-electrochemiluminescence-from-high-quality-perovskite-quantum-dot-films
#17
Jingjing Xue, Ziyi Zhang, Fenfen Zheng, Qin Xu, Jinchun Xu, Guizheng Zou, Lingling Li, Jun-Jie Zhu
Halide perovskite materials have emerged as a new class of revolutionary photovoltaic and optoelectronic nanomaterials. However, the study on electrochemiluminescence (ECL) from halide perovskite nanomaterials is still in its infancy due to their instability, sensitivity, and difficulties in purification and film formation. Here, we propose a scraping coating method for the fabrication of high-quality halide perovskite quantum dot (QD) film on electrode, which shows dense and uniform packing with minimum grain size...
July 24, 2017: Analytical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28725924/effect-of-training-status-on-beta-range-corticomuscular-coherence-in-agonist-vs-antagonist-muscles-during-isometric-knee-contractions
#18
Fabien Dal Maso, Marieke Longcamp, Sylvain Cremoux, David Amarantini
Antagonist muscle co-activation is thought to be partially regulated by cortical influences, but direct motor cortex involvement is not fully understood. Corticomuscular coherence (CMC) measures direct functional coupling of the motor cortex and muscles. As antagonist co-activation differs according to training status, comparison of CMC in agonist and antagonist muscles and in strength-trained and endurance-trained individuals may provide in-depth knowledge of cortical implication in antagonist muscle co-activation...
July 19, 2017: Experimental Brain Research. Experimentelle Hirnforschung. Expérimentation Cérébrale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28725554/successful-surgical-management-of-new-onset-refractory-status-epilepticus-norse-presenting-with-gelastic-seizures-in-a-3%C3%A2-year-old-girl
#19
Ahmad Marashly, Sean Lew, Jennifer Koop
Gelastic seizures (GS) are typically associated with hypothalamic hamartomas and present during childhood. However it is now known that GS can be found in focal epilepsies arising from other regions in the brain, including mesial and neocortical frontal, temporal and parietal regions. GS have rarely been described as the presenting manifestation of New Onset Refractory Status Epilepticus (NORSE). In this article we describe a previously healthy 3-year-old who presented with an explosive onset of GS that were refractory to multiple anti-seizure medications...
2017: Epilepsy & Behavior Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28718878/deep-brain-and-cortical-stimulation-for-epilepsy
#20
REVIEW
Mathieu Sprengers, Kristl Vonck, Evelien Carrette, Anthony G Marson, Paul Boon
BACKGROUND: Despite optimal medical treatment, including epilepsy surgery, many epilepsy patients have uncontrolled seizures. Since the 1970s interest has grown in invasive intracranial neurostimulation as a treatment for these patients. Intracranial stimulation includes both deep brain stimulation (DBS) (stimulation through depth electrodes) and cortical stimulation (subdural electrodes). This is an updated version of a previous Cochrane review published in 2014. OBJECTIVES: To assess the efficacy, safety and tolerability of DBS and cortical stimulation for refractory epilepsy based on randomized controlled trials (RCTs)...
July 18, 2017: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
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