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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28642341/use-of-intraoperative-local-field-potential-spectral-analysis-to-differentiate-basal-ganglia-structures-in-parkinson-s-disease-patients
#1
Rachel Kolb, Aviva Abosch, Gidon Felsen, John A Thompson
Identification of brain structures traversed during implantation of deep brain-stimulating (DBS) electrodes into the subthalamic nucleus (STN-DBS) for the treatment of Parkinson's disease (PD) frequently relies on subjective correspondence between kinesthetic response and multiunit activity. However, recent work suggests that local field potentials (LFP) could be used as a more robust signal to objectively differentiate subcortical structures. The goal of this study was to analyze the spectral properties of LFP collected during STN-DBS in order to objectively identify commonly traversed brain regions and improve our understanding of aberrant oscillations in the PD-related pathophysiological cortico-basal ganglia network...
June 2017: Physiological Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28632390/atomistic-simulation-derived-insight-on-the-irreversible-structural-changes-of-si-electrode-during-fast-and-slow-delithiation
#2
Kwang Jin Kim, James Wortman, Sung-Yup Kim, Yue Qi
Quantifying the irreversible chemical and structural changes of Si during cycling remains challenging. In this study, a continuous reactive molecular dynamics delithiation algorithm, with well-controlled potential gradient and delithiation rate, was developed and used to investigate the "natural" delithiation responses of an aluminum-oxide coated silicon thin-film. Fast delithiation led to the formation of dense Si network near the surface and nanoporosity inside the a-LixSi, resulting in 141% volume dilation and significant amount of Li trapped inside (a-Li1...
June 23, 2017: Nano Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28627135/in-situ-electrochemistry-of-rechargeable-battery-materials-status-report-and-perspectives
#3
REVIEW
Yijun Yang, Xizheng Liu, Zhonghua Dai, Fangli Yuan, Yoshio Bando, Dmitri Golberg, Xi Wang
The development of rechargeable batteries with high performance is considered to be a feasible way to satisfy the increasing needs of electric vehicles and portable devices. It is of vital importance to design electrodes with high electrochemical performance and to understand the nature of the electrode/electrolyte interfaces during battery operation, which allows a direct observation of the complicated chemical and physical processes within the electrodes and electrolyte, and thus provides real-time information for further design and optimization of the battery performance...
June 19, 2017: Advanced Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28622664/mechanical-imaging-of-soft-tissues-with-a-highly-compliant-tactile-sensing-array
#4
Bin Li, Ye Shi, Adam K Fontecchio, Yon Visell
The mechanical imaging of lumps in tissues via surface measurements can permit the noninvasive detection of disease-related differences in body tissues. In routine clinical palpation, physicians frequently make decisions based on mechanical properties that they infer from tactile information felt via touch, but these examinations currently yield little quantitative information. This has motivated the development of electronic methods for mechanical imaging. However, conventional tactile sensors are rigid, unable to conform to curved geometries, and are not adaptable to the shape of all body parts, limiting their applicability in biomedical sensing applications...
June 13, 2017: IEEE Transactions on Bio-medical Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28621626/a-multimodal-concept-for-invasive-diagnostics-and-surgery-based-on-neuronavigated-voxel-based-morphometric-mri-postprocessing-data-in-previously-nonlesional-epilepsy
#5
Daniel Delev, Carlos M Quesada, Alexander Grote, Jan P Boström, Christian Elger, Hartmut Vatter, Rainer Surges
OBJECTIVE Diagnosis and surgical treatment of refractory and apparent nonlesional focal epilepsy is challenging. Morphometric MRI voxel-based and other postprocessing methods can help to localize the epileptogenic zone and thereby support the planning of further invasive electroencephalography (EEG) diagnostics, and maybe resective epilepsy surgery. METHODS The authors developed an algorithm to implement regions of interest (ROI), based on postprocessed MRI data, into a neuronavigation tool. This was followed by stereotactic ROI-guided implantation of depth electrodes and ROI-navigated resective surgery...
June 16, 2017: Journal of Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28621621/indications-technique-and-safety-profile-of-insular-stereoelectroencephalography-electrode-implantation-in-medically-intractable-epilepsy
#6
Soha Alomar, Jeffrey P Mullin, Saksith Smithason, Jorge Gonzalez-Martinez
OBJECTIVE Insular epilepsy is relatively rare; however, exploring the insular cortex when preoperative workup raises the suspicion of insular epilepsy is of paramount importance for accurate localization of the epileptogenic zone and achievement of seizure freedom. The authors review their clinical experience with stereoelectroencephalography (SEEG) electrode implantation in patients with medically intractable epilepsy and suspected insular involvement. METHODS A total of 198 consecutive cases in which patients underwent SEEG implantation with a total of 1556 electrodes between June 2009 and April 2013 were reviewed...
June 16, 2017: Journal of Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28620952/operando-3d-visualization-of-migration-and-degradation-of-pt-cathode-catalyst-in-a-polymer-electrolyte-fuel-cell
#7
Hirosuke Matsui, Nozomu Ishiguro, Tomoya Uruga, Oki Sekizawa, Kotaro Higashi, Naoyuki Maejima, Mizuki Tada
The three-dimensional (3D) distribution and oxidation state of a Pt cathode catalyst in a practical membrane electrode assembly (MEA) were visualized in a practical polymer electrolyte fuel cell (PEFC) under fuel-cell operating conditions. Operando 3D computed-tomography imaging with X-ray absorption near edge structure (XANES) spectroscopy (CT-XANES) clearly revealed the heterogeneous migration and degradation of Pt cathode catalyst in an MEA during accelerated degradation test (ADT) of PEFC. The degradative Pt migration proceeded over the entire cathode catalyst layer and spread to MEA depth direction into the Nafion membrane...
June 16, 2017: Angewandte Chemie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28617246/nanostructured-as-deposited-indium-tin-oxide-thin-films-for-broadband-antireflection-and-light-trapping
#8
Imran Khan, Martin Bauch, Theodoros Dimopoulos, Jakub Dostalek
Indium tin oxide (ITO) thin films were sputter-deposited at ambient temperature on a glass-like substrate that was periodically nanostructured by UV nanoimprint lithography. Cross gratings of the corrugated and conformal ITO, with different periods and modulation depths, were tailored to exhibit light trapping or antireflection properties at specific spectral windows by combined optical simulations and experiments. For dense gratings, the light transmission in the 450-850 nm range was enhanced by 8% (absolute) compared to flat ITO films, which is one of the largest performance improvements reported in the literature for nanostructured transparent electrodes...
June 15, 2017: Nanotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28617218/multi-scale-visual-analysis-of-time-varying-electrocorticography-data-via-clustering-of-brain-regions
#9
Sugeerth Murugesan, Kristofer Bouchard, Edward Chang, Max Dougherty, Bernd Hamann, Gunther H Weber
BACKGROUND: There exists a need for effective and easy-to-use software tools supporting the analysis of complex Electrocorticography (ECoG) data. Understanding how epileptic seizures develop or identifying diagnostic indicators for neurological diseases require the in-depth analysis of neural activity data from ECoG. Such data is multi-scale and is of high spatio-temporal resolution. Comprehensive analysis of this data should be supported by interactive visual analysis methods that allow a scientist to understand functional patterns at varying levels of granularity and comprehend its time-varying behavior...
June 6, 2017: BMC Bioinformatics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28615664/investigation-of-material-removal-in-inner-jet-electrochemical-grinding-of-gh4169-alloy
#10
Hansong Li, Shen Niu, Qingliang Zhang, Shuxing Fu, Ningsong Qu
Electrochemical grinding (ECG) is a low-cost and highly efficient process for application to difficult-to-machine materials. In this process, the electrolyte supply mode directly affects machining stability and efficiency. This paper proposes a flow channel structure for an abrasive tool to be used for inner-jet ECG of GH4169 alloy. The tool is based on a dead-end tube with electrolyte outlet holes located in the sidewall. The diameter and number of outlet holes are determined through numerical simulation with the aim of achieving uniform electrolyte flow in the inter-electrode gap...
June 14, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28595851/delineation-of-post-procedure-ablation-regions-with-electrode-displacement-elastography-with-a-comparison-to-acoustic-radiation-force-impulse-imaging
#11
Wenjun Yang, Tomy Varghese, Timothy Ziemlewicz, Marci Alexander, Meghan Lubner, James Louis Hinshaw, Shane Wells, Fred T Lee
We compared a quasi-static ultrasound elastography technique, referred to as electrode displacement elastography (EDE), with acoustic radiation force impulse imaging (ARFI) for monitoring microwave ablation (MWA) procedures on patients diagnosed with liver neoplasms. Forty-nine patients recruited to this study underwent EDE and ARFI with a Siemens Acuson S2000 system after an MWA procedure. On the basis of visualization results from two observers, the ablated region in ARFI images was recognizable on 20 patients on average in conjunction with B-mode imaging, whereas delineable ablation boundaries could be generated on 4 patients on average...
June 5, 2017: Ultrasound in Medicine & Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28594423/high-performance-bi-layer-atomic-switching-devices
#12
Jae Hyeok Ju, Sung Kyu Jang, Hyeonje Son, Jin-Hong Park, Sungjoo Lee
Atomic switches, also known as conductive bridging random access memory devices, are resistive-switching devices that utilize the electrochemical reactions within a solid electrolyte between metal electrodes, and are considered essential components of future information storage and logic building blocks. In spite of their advantages as next generation switching components such as high density, large scalability, and low power consumption, the large deviations in their electrical properties and the instability of their switching behaviors hinder their application in information processing systems...
June 8, 2017: Nanoscale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28594160/spontaneous-pt-deposition-on-defective-surfaces-of-in2o3-nanocrystals-confined-within-cavities-of-hollow-silica-nanoshells-pt-catalyst-modified-ito-electrode-with-enhanced-ecl-performance
#13
Young Shin Cho, Soo Min Kim, Youngwon Ju, Junghoon Kim, Ki-Wan Jeon, Seung Hwan Cho, Joohoon Kim, In Su Lee
Although the deposition of metallic domains on a preformed semiconductor nanocrystal provides an effective pathway to access diverse hybrid nanocrystals with synergistic metal/semiconductor heterojunction interface, those reactions that take place on the surface of semiconductor nanoscrystals have not been investigated thoroughly, because of the impediments caused by the surface-capping organic surfactants. By exploiting the interfacial reactions occurring between the solution and nanoparticles confined with the cavities of hollow nanoparticles, we propose a novel nanospace-confined strategy for assessing the innate reactivity of surfaces of inorganic semiconductor nanoparticles...
June 21, 2017: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28585268/pilot-scale-radio-frequency-blanching-of-potato-cuboids-heating-uniformity
#14
Zhenna Zhang, Chaofan Guo, Tong Gao, Hongfei Fu, Qin Chen, Yunyang Wang
BACKGROUND: Traditional hot water blanching has a slow heat transfer rate, while Radio frequency (RF) heating has the advantages of much faster heating rate and higher penetration depth. In this study, RF heating was applied to improve heating uniformity for the subsequent blanching experiments of potato cuboids. Potato cuboids were treated in a pilot-scale, 27.12 MHz, 6 KW RF heating system under different operating conditions. RESULTS: The dielectric constant increased firstly and then decreased with temperature, whereas loss factor increased as temperature increasing...
June 6, 2017: Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28584237/multiscale-characterization-of-a-lithium-sulfur-battery-by-coupling-operando-x-ray-tomography-and-spatially-resolved-diffraction
#15
Guillaume Tonin, Gavin Vaughan, Renaud Bouchet, Fannie Alloin, Marco Di Michiel, Laura Boutafa, Jean-François Colin, Céline Barchasz
Due to its high theoretical specific capacity, the lithium/sulfur battery is one of the most promising candidates for replacing current lithium-ion batteries. In this work, we investigate both chemical and morphological changes in the electrodes during cycling, by coupling operando spatially resolved X-ray diffraction and absorption tomography to characterize Li/S cells under real working conditions. By combining these tools, the state of the active material in the entire cell was correlated with its electrochemical behavior, leading to a deeper understanding of the performance limiting degradation phenomena in Li/S batteries...
June 5, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28578510/trans-falcine-and-contralateral-sub-frontal-electrode-placement-in-pediatric-epilepsy-surgery-technical-note
#16
Jonathan Pindrik, Nguyen Hoang, R Shane Tubbs, Brandon J Rocque, Curtis J Rozzelle
INTRODUCTION: Phase II monitoring with intracranial electroencephalography (ICEEG) occasionally requires bilateral placement of subdural (SD) strips, grids, and/or depth electrodes. While phase I monitoring often demonstrates a preponderance of unilateral findings, individual studies (video EEG, single photon emission computed tomography [SPECT], and positron emission tomography [PET]) can suggest or fail to exclude a contralateral epileptogenic onset zone. This study describes previously unreported techniques of trans-falcine and sub-frontal insertion of contralateral SD grids and depth electrodes for phase II monitoring in pediatric epilepsy surgery patients when concern about bilateral abnormalities has been elicited during phase I monitoring...
June 3, 2017: Child's Nervous System: ChNS: Official Journal of the International Society for Pediatric Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28575667/noninvasive-deep-brain-stimulation-via-temporally-interfering-electric-fields
#17
Nir Grossman, David Bono, Nina Dedic, Suhasa B Kodandaramaiah, Andrii Rudenko, Ho-Jun Suk, Antonino M Cassara, Esra Neufeld, Niels Kuster, Li-Huei Tsai, Alvaro Pascual-Leone, Edward S Boyden
We report a noninvasive strategy for electrically stimulating neurons at depth. By delivering to the brain multiple electric fields at frequencies too high to recruit neural firing, but which differ by a frequency within the dynamic range of neural firing, we can electrically stimulate neurons throughout a region where interference between the multiple fields results in a prominent electric field envelope modulated at the difference frequency. We validated this temporal interference (TI) concept via modeling and physics experiments, and verified that neurons in the living mouse brain could follow the electric field envelope...
June 1, 2017: Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28574952/the-hippocampus-and-cortex-together-generate-the-scalp-eeg-ictal-discharge-in-temporal-lobe-epilepsy
#18
David G Vossler, Diana L Kraemer, Anthony J Bell
PURPOSE: The scalp EEG ictal discharge in temporal lobe epilepsy is reportedly visible only after the intracranial discharge becomes well synchronized and present over 10 to 30 cm of cortex. We investigated the role of the hippocampal formation in the generation of the scalp EEG ictal discharge. METHODS: Intracranial EEG video monitors were recorded using simultaneous scalp, stereotaxic depth, and subdural strip electrodes in 19 subjects with temporal lobe epilepsy...
May 30, 2017: Journal of Clinical Neurophysiology: Official Publication of the American Electroencephalographic Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28574350/characterization-of-kerfless-linear-arrays-based-on-pzt-thick-film
#19
Tomasz Zawada, Louise Bierregaard, Erling Ringgaard, Ruichao Xu, Michele Guizzetti, Franck Levassort, Dominique Certon
Multi-element transducers enabling novel cost-effective fabrication of imaging arrays for medical applications have been presented earlier. Due to the favorable low lateral coupling of the screen-printed PZT, the elements can be defined by the top electrode pattern only, leading to a kerfless design with low cross-talk between the elements. The thick-film based linear arrays have proved to be compatible with a commercial ultrasonic scanner and to support linear array beamforming as well as phased array beamforming...
May 26, 2017: IEEE Transactions on Ultrasonics, Ferroelectrics, and Frequency Control
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28567633/technical-insight-on-the-requirements-for-co2-saturated-growth-of-microalgae-in-photobioreactors
#20
Yuvraj, Padmini Padmanabhan
Microalgal cultures are usually sparged with CO2-enriched air to preclude CO2 limitation during photoautotrophic growth. However, the CO2 vol% specifically required at operating conditions to meet the carbon requirement of algal cells in photobioreactor is never determined and 1-10% v/v CO2-enriched air is arbitrarily used. A scheme is proposed and experimentally validated for Chlorella vulgaris that allows computing CO2-saturated growth feasible at given CO2 vol% and volumetric O2 mass-transfer coefficient (k L a)O...
June 2017: 3 Biotech
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