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Depth electrode

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28441637/subtle-pathological-changes-in-neocortical-temporal-lobe-epilepsy
#1
Juan G Ochoa, Diana Hentgarden, Audrey Paulzak, Melissa Ogden, Richard Pryson, Markus Lamle, Walter G Rusyniak
This was a prospective observational study to correlate the clinical symptoms, electrophysiology, imaging, and surgical pathology of patients with temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) without hippocampal sclerosis. We selected consecutive patients with TLE and normal MRI undergoing temporal lobe resection between April and September 2015. Clinical features, imaging, and functional data were reviewed. Intracranial monitoring and language mapping were performed when it was required according to our team recommendation...
April 22, 2017: Epilepsy & Behavior: E&B
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28431363/nanomaterial-based-electrochemical-sensors-for-arsenic-a-review
#2
REVIEW
Sureshkumar Kempahanumakkagari, Akash Deep, Ki-Hyun Kim, Suresh Kumar Kailasa, Hye-On Yoon
The existence of arsenic in the environment poses severe global health threats. Considering its toxicity, the sensing of arsenic is extremely important. Due to the complexity of environmental and biological samples, many of the available detection methods for arsenic have serious limitations on selectivity and sensitivity. To improve sensitivity and selectivity and to circumvent interferences, different electrode systems have been developed based on surface modification with nanomaterials including carbonaceous nanomaterials, metallic nanoparticles (MNPs), metal nanotubes (MNTs), and even enzymes...
April 13, 2017: Biosensors & Bioelectronics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28424292/loss-and-recovery-of-functional-connectivity-in-cultured-cortical-networks-exposed-to-hypoxia
#3
Joost le Feber, Niels Erkamp, Michel J A M van Putten, Jeannette Hofmeijer
In the core of a brain infarct, loss of neuronal function is followed by neuronal death within minutes. In an area surrounding the core (penumbra), some perfusion remains. Here, neurons initially remain structurally intact, but massive synaptic failure strongly reduces neural activity. Activity in the penumbra may eventually recover or further deteriorate towards massive cell death. Besides activity recovery, return of brain functioning requires restoration of connectivity. However, low activity has been shown to initiate compensatory mechanisms that affect network connectivity...
April 19, 2017: Journal of Neurophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28389718/oscillatory-reactivity-to-effortful-cognitive-processing-in-the-subthalamic-nucleus-and-internal-pallidum-a-depth-electrode-eeg-study
#4
Martina Bočková, Jan Chládek, Pavel Jurák, Josef Halámek, Steven Z Rapcsak, Marek Baláž, Jan Chrastina, Ivan Rektor
This study investigates how complex motor-cognitive activities are processed in the subthalamic nucleus (STN) and internal globus pallidum (GPi), as adverse neuropsychiatric effects may accompany deep brain stimulation (DBS), mainly in Parkinson's disease (PD) and STN-DBS. Dystonia patients with GPi-DBS electrodes (n = 5) and PD subjects (n = 5) with STN-DBS electrodes performed two tasks: (1) copying letters; and (2) writing any letter other than that appearing on the monitor. The cognitive load of the second task was greater than that of the first...
April 7, 2017: Journal of Neural Transmission
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28386924/subdural-grid-and-depth-electrode-monitoring-in-pediatric-patients
#5
Jesse Skoch, P David Adelson, Sanjiv Bhatia, Hansel M Greiner, Bertil Rydenhag, Didier Scavarda, Francesco T Mangano
Invasive electroencephalographic monitoring with implantable subdural electrodes and intraparenchymal depth electrodes has become a basic tenet of epilepsy surgery. Improved localization of epileptic foci justifies the secondary procedure and monitoring period in many patients. Informed use of invasive monitoring in conjunction with imaging and functional studies makes epilepsy surgery a smaller, safer, and more effective endeavor. Herein we review the history, indications, implementation, and foreseeable future of grid, strip, and depth electrode use...
April 2017: Epilepsia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28386920/insular-epilepsy-surgery
#6
Pramote Laoprasert, Jeffrey G Ojemann, Michael H Handler
Since it was originally described nearly 70 years ago, insular epilepsy has been increasingly recognized and may explain failures after apparently well-planned operations. We review the history of awareness of the phenomenon, techniques for its assessment, and its surgical management. Insular epilepsy can mimic features of frontal, parietal, or temporal seizures. It should be considered when a combination of somatosensory, visceral, and motor symptoms is observed early in a seizure. Extraoperative intracranial recordings are required to accurately diagnose insular seizures...
April 2017: Epilepsia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28377210/similar-patterns-of-neural-activity-predict-memory-function-during-encoding-and-retrieval
#7
James E Kragel, Youssef Ezzyat, Michael R Sperling, Richard Gorniak, Gregory A Worrell, Brent M Berry, Cory Inman, Jui-Jui Lin, Kathryn A Davis, Sandhitsu R Das, Joel M Stein, Barbara C Jobst, Kareem A Zaghloul, Sameer A Sheth, Daniel S Rizzuto, Michael J Kahana
Neural networks that span the medial temporal lobe (MTL), prefrontal cortex, and posterior cortical regions are essential to episodic memory function in humans. Encoding and retrieval are supported by the engagement of both distinct neural pathways across the cortex and common structures within the medial temporal lobes. However, the degree to which memory performance can be determined by neural processing that is common to encoding and retrieval remains to be determined. To identify neural signatures of successful memory function, we administered a delayed free-recall task to 187 neurosurgical patients implanted with subdural or intraparenchymal depth electrodes...
April 1, 2017: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28374623/retrospective-evaluation-of-a-technique-for-patient-customized-placement-of-precurved-cochlear-implant-electrode-arrays
#8
Jianing Wang, Benoit M Dawant, Robert F Labadie, Jack H Noble
Objective Precurved electrode arrays (EAs) are commonly used in cochlear implants (CIs). Modiolar placement of such arrays has been shown to lead to better hearing outcomes. In this project, we retrospectively evaluated the modiolar positioning of EAs within a large CI imaging database. We aimed to discover the rate at which perimodiolar placement is successfully achieved and to evaluate a new technique we propose to preoperatively plan patient-customized EA insertion depths to improve perimodiolar placement at the time of surgery...
March 1, 2017: Otolaryngology—Head and Neck Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28372436/three-dimensional-measurement-with-an-electrically-tunable-focused-plenoptic-camera
#9
Yu Lei, Qing Tong, Zhaowei Xin, Dong Wei, Xinyu Zhang, Jing Liao, Haiwei Wang, Changsheng Xie
A liquid crystal microlens array (LCMLA) with an arrayed microhole pattern electrode based on nematic liquid crystal materials using a fabrication method including traditional UV-photolithography and wet etching is presented. Its focusing performance is measured under different voltage signals applied between the electrodes of the LCMLA. The experimental outcome shows that the focal length of the LCMLA can be tuned easily by only changing the root mean square value of the voltage signal applied. The developed LCMLA is further integrated with a main lens and an imaging sensor to construct a LCMLA-based focused plenoptic camera (LCFPC) prototype...
March 2017: Review of Scientific Instruments
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28367628/in-vitro-analysis-of-dna-protein-interactions-in-gene-transcription-using-dnazyme-based-electrochemical-assay
#10
Chao Li, Yaqin Tao, Yi Yang, Yang Xiang, Genxi Li
The interaction between protein and DNA elements controls a variety of functions of genomes. The development of convenient and cost-effective method for investigating the sequence specificity of DNA-binding proteins represents an important challenge. In response, we have introduced an electrochemical assay in this work for specific and sensitive analysis of interaction between protein and nucleic acid in nucleic extracts, based on the protein-induced distinctive motion behavior of DNA deoxyribozyme (DNAzyme) on an electrode surface...
April 3, 2017: Analytical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28367568/evaporation-induced-nanoparticle-binder-interaction-in-electrode-film-formation
#11
Zhixiao Liu, David L Wood, Partha P Mukherjee
Processing induced nanoparticle agglomeration and binder distribution affect the electrode microstructure formation and corresponding electrochemical performance in lithium-ion batteries. In the present study, stochastic dynamics computations based on a morphologically detailed mesoscale model are performed to illustrate the microstructural variability of electrode films affected by the evaporation condition (drying temperature) and the binder length (molecular weight). Micropores are observed at the surface of the electrode film when dried at a lower temperature...
April 12, 2017: Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics: PCCP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28367117/representation-of-glossy-material-surface-in-ventral-superior-temporal-sulcal-area-of-common-marmosets
#12
Naohisa Miyakawa, Taku Banno, Hiroshi Abe, Toshiki Tani, Wataru Suzuki, Noritaka Ichinohe
The common marmoset (Callithrix jacchus) is one of the smallest species of primates, with high visual recognition abilities that allow them to judge the identity and quality of food and objects in their environment. To address the cortical processing of visual information related to material surface features in marmosets, we presented a set of stimuli that have identical three-dimensional shapes (bone, torus or amorphous) but different material appearances (ceramic, glass, fur, leather, metal, stone, wood, or matte) to anesthetized marmoset, and recorded multiunit activities from an area ventral to the superior temporal sulcus (STS) using multi-shanked, and depth resolved multi-electrode array...
2017: Frontiers in Neural Circuits
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28361249/does-trajectory-matter-a-study-looking-into-the-relationship-of-trajectory-with-target-engagement-and-error-accommodation-in-subthalamic-nucleus-deep-brain-stimulation
#13
David Anthony Steel, Surajit Basu
BACKGROUND: Deep brain stimulation (DBS) of the subthalamic nucleus (STN) is now a key treatment choice for advanced Parkinson's disease. The optimum target area within the STN is well established. However, no emphasis on the impact of trajectory exists. The ellipsoid shape of the STN and the off-centre traditional target point mean that variation in the electrode inclination should affect STN engagement. Understanding of this relationship could inform trajectory selection during planning by improving STN engagements and margins for error...
March 30, 2017: Acta Neurochirurgica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28338314/surface-layer-evolution-on-graphite-during-electrochemical-sodium-tetraglyme-co-intercalation
#14
Julia Maibach, Fabian Jeschull, Daniel Brandell, Kristina Edström, Mario Valvo
One obstacle in sodium ion batteries is the lack of suitable anode materials. As recently shown, the most common anode material of the state of the art lithium ion batteries, graphite, can be used for sodium ion storage as well, if ether-based electrolyte solvents are used. These solvents cointercalate with the sodium ions leading to the highly reversible formation of ternary graphite intercalation compounds (t-GIC). In order for the solvent cointercalation to work efficiently, it is expected that only a very thin surface layer forms during electrochemical cycling...
April 3, 2017: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28304096/insertion-depth-impacts-speech-perception-and-hearing-preservation-for-lateral-wall-electrodes
#15
Brendan P O'Connell, Jacob B Hunter, David S Haynes, Jourdan T Holder, Matt M Dedmon, Jack H Noble, Benoit M Dawant, George B Wanna
OBJECTIVES: 1) Examine angular insertion depths (AID) and scalar location of Med-El (GmbH Innsbruck, Austria) electrodes; and 2) determine the relationship between AID and audiologic outcomes controlling for scalar position. STUDY DESIGN: Retrospective review. METHODS: Postlingually deafened adults undergoing cochlear implantation with Flex 24, Flex 28, and Standard electrode arrays (Med-El) were identified. Patients with preoperative and postoperative computed tomography scans were included so that electrode location and AID could be determined...
March 17, 2017: Laryngoscope
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28303098/ielectrodes-a-comprehensive-open-source-toolbox-for-depth-and-subdural-grid-electrode-localization
#16
Alejandro O Blenkmann, Holly N Phillips, Juan P Princich, James B Rowe, Tristan A Bekinschtein, Carlos H Muravchik, Silvia Kochen
The localization of intracranial electrodes is a fundamental step in the analysis of invasive electroencephalography (EEG) recordings in research and clinical practice. The conclusions reached from the analysis of these recordings rely on the accuracy of electrode localization in relationship to brain anatomy. However, currently available techniques for localizing electrodes from magnetic resonance (MR) and/or computerized tomography (CT) images are time consuming and/or limited to particular electrode types or shapes...
2017: Frontiers in Neuroinformatics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28284918/intracortical-microstimulation-differentially-activates-cortical-layers-based-on-stimulation-depth
#17
Mathias Benjamin Voigt, Peter Hubka, Andrej Kral
BACKGROUND: Intracortical microstimulation is one of the most common techniques to causally interfere with neuronal processing, but neuronal recordings spanning the whole cortical depth during stimulation are exceptionally rare. OBJECTIVE/HYPOTHESIS: Here we combined layer-specific intracortical microstimulation with extracellular recordings on the same shank of a linear multi-electrode array to study the effects of electrical stimulation in different cortical depths on intracortical processing in the auditory cortex in vivo...
February 27, 2017: Brain Stimulation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28279512/intracranial-video-eeg-monitoring-in-presurgical-evaluation-of-patients-with-refractory-epilepsy
#18
Marlena Hupalo, Rafal Wojcik, Dariusz J Jaskolski
OBJECTIVE: Reviewing our experience in intracranial video-EEG monitoring in the presurgical evaluation of patients with refractory epilepsy. METHODS: We report on 62 out of 202 (31%) patients with refractory epilepsy, who underwent a long term video-EEG monitoring (LTM). The epileptogenic zone (EZ) was localised either based on the results of LTM or after intracranial EEG recordings from depth, subdural or foramen ovale electrodes. The decision on the location of the electrodes was based upon semiology of the seizures, EEG findings and the lesions visualised in MRI brain scan...
March 2, 2017: Neurologia i Neurochirurgia Polska
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28269504/synchronization-of-brain-activity-during-induction-of-propofol-anesthesia-comparison-of-methods
#19
Tarmo Lipping, Jaanika Saareleht, Elzbieta Olejarczyk, Eila Sonkajarvi, Tuomo Ylinen, Ville Jantti
Synchrony patterns between the EEG measured from the subthalamic nucleus and scalp are analyzed during induction of propofol anesthesia. Various methods such as Coherence, Phase Locking Value, Partial Directed Coherence, Mutual Information, and Transfer Entropy are applied. The results indicate that, in general, the synchrony patterns seen in the depth-scalp electrode pair are similar to those seen between two scalp electrodes of opposite hemispheres. A clear change of state is revealed at about 10 minutes before burst suppression; this event is revealed by linear (Coherence) as well as nonlinear (Phase Locking Value) and information theoretic (Mutual Information and Transfer Entropy) measures...
August 2016: Conference Proceedings: Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28269446/current-distribution-in-tissues-with-conducted-electrical-weapons-operated-in-drive-stun-mode
#20
Dorin Panescu, Mark W Kroll, Michael Brave
INTRODUCTION: The TASER® conducted electrical weapon (CEW) is best known for delivering electrical pulses that can temporarily incapacitate subjects by overriding normal motor control. The alternative drive-stun mode is less understood and the goal of this paper is to analyze the distribution of currents in tissues when the CEW is operated in this mode. METHODS AND RESULTS: Finite element modeling (FEM) was used to approximate current density in tissues with boundary electrical sources placed 40 mm apart...
August 2016: Conference Proceedings: Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society
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