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thyrotropin releasing hormone

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29674333/intravenous-and-intratracheal-thyrotropin-releasing-hormone-and-its-analog-taltirelin-reverse-opioid-induced-respiratory-depression-in-isoflurane-anesthetized-rats
#1
James D Boghosian, Anita Luethy, Joseph F Cotten
Thyrotropin releasing hormone (TRH) is a tripeptide hormone and a neurotransmitter widely-expressed in the CNS that regulates thyroid function and that maintains physiologic homeostasis. Following injection in rodents, TRH has multiple effects including increased blood pressure and breathing. We tested the hypothesis that TRH and its long-acting analog, taltirelin, will reverse morphine-induced respiratory depression in anesthetized rats following intravenous(IV) or intratracheal(IT) administration. TRH (1 mg/kg plus 5 mg/kg/hour IV) and talitrelin (1 mg/kg IV), when administered to rats pretreated with morphine (5 mg/kg IV), increased ventilation from 50±6 to 131±7% and 45±6 to 168±13% (percent baseline; n=4±SEM), primarily through increased breathing rates (from 76+/-9 to 260±14% and 66±8 to 318±37%)...
April 19, 2018: Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29622766/olfactory-marker-protein-regulates-prolactin-secretion-and-production-by-modulating-ca-2-and-trh-signaling-in-lactotrophs
#2
Chan Woo Kang, Ye Eon Han, Mi Kyung Lee, Yoon Hee Cho, NaNa Kang, JaeHyung Koo, Cheol Ryong Ku, Eun Jig Lee
Olfactory marker protein (OMP) is a marker of olfactory receptor-mediated chemoreception, even outside the olfactory system. Here, we report that OMP expression in the pituitary gland plays a role in basal and thyrotropin-releasing hormone (TRH)-induced prolactin (PRL) production and secretion. We found that OMP was expressed in human and rodent pituitary glands, especially in PRL-secreting lactotrophs. OMP knockdown in GH4 rat pituitary cells increased PRL production and secretion via extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK)1/2 signaling...
April 6, 2018: Experimental & Molecular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29599723/brain-transcriptome-profiling-analysis-of-nile-tilapia-oreochromis-niloticus-under-long-term-hypersaline-stress
#3
Yan Liu, Erchao Li, Chang Xu, Yujie Su, Jian G Qin, Liqiao Chen, Xiaodan Wang
The fish brain plays an important role in controlling growth, development, reproduction, and adaptation to environmental change. However, few studies stem from the perspective of whole transcriptome change in a fish brain and its response to long-term hypersaline stress. This study compares the differential transcriptomic responses of juvenile Nile tilapia ( Oreochromis niloticus ) maintained for 8 weeks in brackish water (16 practical salinity units, psu) and in freshwater. Fish brains from each treatment were collected for RNA-seq analysis to identify potential genes and pathways responding to hypersaline stress...
2018: Frontiers in Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29594256/from-consternation-to-revelation-discovery-of-a-role-for-igsf1-in-pituitary-control-of-thyroid-function
#4
REVIEW
Daniel J Bernard, Emilie Brûlé, Courtney L Smith, Sjoerd D Joustra, Jan M Wit
Immunoglobulin superfamily, member 1 (IGSF1) is a transmembrane glycoprotein highly expressed in the mammalian pituitary gland. Shortly after its discovery in 1998, the protein was proposed to function as a coreceptor for inhibins (and was even temporarily renamed inhibin binding protein). However, subsequent investigations, both in vitro and in vivo , failed to support a role for IGSF1 in inhibin action. Research on IGSF1 nearly ground to a halt until 2011, when next-generation sequencing identified mutations in the X-linked IGSF1 gene in boys and men with congenital central hypothyroidism...
March 1, 2018: Journal of the Endocrine Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29553984/averting-opioid-induced-respiratory-depression-without-affecting-analgesia
#5
Albert Dahan, Rutger van der Schrier, Terry Smith, Leon Aarts, Monique van Velzen, Marieke Niesters
The ventilatory control system is highly vulnerable to exogenous administered opioid analgesics. Particularly respiratory depression is a potentially lethal complication that may occur when opioids are overdosed or consumed in combination with other depressants such as sleep medication or alcohol. Fatalities occur in acute and chronic pain patients on opioid therapy and individuals that abuse prescription or illicit opioids for their hedonistic pleasure. One important strategy to mitigate opioid-induced respiratory depression is cotreatment with nonopioid respiratory stimulants...
March 19, 2018: Anesthesiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29487539/impact-of-air-exposure-on-vasotocinergic-and-isotocinergic-systems-in-gilthead-sea-bream-sparus-aurata-new-insights-on-fish-stress-response
#6
Arleta K Skrzynska, Elisabetta Maiorano, Marco Bastaroli, Fatemeh Naderi, Jesús M Míguez, Gonzalo Martínez-Rodríguez, Juan M Mancera, Juan A Martos-Sitcha
The hypothalamus-pituitary-interrenal (HPI) and hypothalamus-sympathetic-chromaffin cell (HSC) axes are involved in the regulation of the stress response in teleost. In this regard, the activation of a complex network of endocrine players is needed, including corticotrophin-releasing hormone (Crh), Crh binding protein (Crhbp), proopiomelanocortin (Pomc), thyrotropin-releasing hormone (Trh), arginine vasotocin (Avt), and isotocin (It) to finally produce pleiotropic functions. We aimed to investigate, using the gilthead sea bream ( Sparus aurata ) as a biological model, the transcriptomic response of different endocrine factors ( crh, crhbp, pomc s, trh ), neuropeptides ( avt and it ), and their specific receptors ( avtrv1a, avtrv2 , and itr ) in four important target tissues (hypothalamus, pituitary, kidney and liver), after an acute stress situation...
2018: Frontiers in Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29483626/vasopressin-secreting-neurons-derived-from-human-embryonic-stem-cells-through-specific-induction-of-dorsal-hypothalamic-progenitors
#7
Koichiro Ogawa, Hidetaka Suga, Chikafumi Ozone, Mayu Sakakibara, Tomiko Yamada, Mayuko Kano, Kazuki Mitsumoto, Takatoshi Kasai, Yu Kodani, Hiroshi Nagasaki, Naoki Yamamoto, Daisuke Hagiwara, Motomitsu Goto, Ryoichi Banno, Yoshihisa Sugimura, Hiroshi Arima
Arginine-vasopressin (AVP) neurons exist in the hypothalamus, a major region of the diencephalon, and play an essential role in water balance. Here, we established the differentiation method for AVP-secreting neurons from human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) by recapitulating in vitro the in vivo embryonic developmental processes of AVP neurons. At first, the differentiation efficiency was improved. That was achieved through the optimization of the culture condition for obtaining dorsal hypothalamic progenitors...
February 26, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29462796/p38-trhr-dependent-regulation-of-tpo-in-thyroid-cells-contributes-to-the-hypothyroidism-of-triclosan-treated-rats
#8
Pei Zhang, Min Yang, Li Zeng, Changjiang Liu
BACKGROUND/AIMS: Triclosan, as an antimicrobial agent and a potential endocrine disruptor, has been used extensively in diverse products, resulting in widespread human exposure. In recent years, studies suggest that triclosan could disturb thyroid functions and decline thyroid hormones (THs). METHODS: To verify our hypothesis that the MAPK pathway may function significantly in triclosan-induced hypothyroidism, Sprague-Dawley rats were gavaged with triclosan for 31 consecutive days; Nthy-ori 3-1 cells were treated with triclosan in the presence/absence of NAC, inhibitors (SB203580 and SB202474), or TRHr siRNA...
February 15, 2018: Cellular Physiology and Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29460723/model-of-traumatic-spinal-cord-injury-for-evaluating-pharmacologic-treatments-in-cynomolgus-macaques-macaca-fasicularis
#9
Nitin Seth, Heather A Simmons, Farah Masood, William A Graham, Douglas L Rosene, Susan V Westmoreland, Sheila M Cummings, Basia Gwardjan, Ervin Sejdic, Amber F Hoggatt, Dane R Schalk, Hussein A Abdullah, John B Sledge, Shanker Nesathurai
Here we present the results of experiments involving cynomolgus macaques, in which a model of traumatic spinal cord injury (TSCI) was created by using a balloon catheter inserted into the epidural space. Prior to the creation of the lesion, we inserted an EMG recording device to facilitate measurement of tail movement and muscle activity before and after TSCI. This model is unique in that the impairment is limited to the tail: the subjects do not experience limb weakness, bladder impairment, or bowel dysfunction...
February 1, 2018: Comparative Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29440566/comprehensive-systematic-review-summary-treatment-of-cerebellar-motor-dysfunction-and-ataxia-report-of-the-guideline-development-dissemination-and-implementation-subcommittee-of-the-american-academy-of-neurology
#10
Theresa A Zesiewicz, George Wilmot, Sheng-Han Kuo, Susan Perlman, Patricia E Greenstein, Sarah H Ying, Tetsuo Ashizawa, S H Subramony, Jeremy D Schmahmann, K P Figueroa, Hidehiro Mizusawa, Ludger Schöls, Jessica D Shaw, Richard M Dubinsky, Melissa J Armstrong, Gary S Gronseth, Kelly L Sullivan
OBJECTIVE: To systematically review evidence regarding ataxia treatment. METHODS: A comprehensive systematic review was performed according to American Academy of Neurology methodology. CONCLUSIONS: For patients with episodic ataxia type 2, 4-aminopyridine 15 mg/d probably reduces ataxia attack frequency over 3 months (1 Class I study). For patients with ataxia of mixed etiology, riluzole probably improves ataxia signs at 8 weeks (1 Class I study)...
March 6, 2018: Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29395660/new-quantitative-method-for-evaluation-of-motor-functions-applicable-to-spinal-muscular-atrophy
#11
Naoki Matsumaru, Ryo Hattori, Takashi Ichinomiya, Katsura Tsukamoto, Zenichiro Kato
OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to develop and introduce new method to quantify motor functions of the upper extremity. METHODS: The movement was recorded using a three-dimensional motion capture system, and the movement trajectory was analyzed using newly developed two indices, which measure precise repeatability and directional smoothness. Our target task was shoulder flexion repeated ten times. We applied our method to a healthy adult without and with a weight, simulating muscle impairment...
March 2018: Brain & Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29351420/fourth-ventricular-tsh-induces-satiety-and-increases-body-temperature-in-rats
#12
Ulrika Smedh, Karen A Scott, Timothy H Moran
Besides its well-known action to stimulate thyroid hormone release, Thyrotropin mRNA is expressed within the brain and Thyrotropin and its receptor have been shown to be present in brain areas that control feeding and gastrointestinal function. Here, the hypothesis that Thyrotropin acts on receptors in the dorsal hindbrain to alter food intake and/or gastric function was tested. Fourth ventricular injections of Thyrotropin (0.06, 0.6 and 6.0 µg) were given to rats with chronic intracerebroventricular cannulas aimed at the fourth ventricle...
January 3, 2018: American Journal of Physiology. Regulatory, Integrative and Comparative Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29300135/non-clinical-pharmacokinetic-profiles-of-rovatirelin-an-orally-available-thyrotropin-releasing-hormone-analogue
#13
Kaoru Kobayashi, Yoshikazu Abe, Hiroshi Harada, Emiko Oota, Takuro Endo, Hiroo Takeda
1. The non-clinical pharmacokinetic profiles of rovatirelin, a novel thyrotropin-releasing hormone (TRH) analogue, were investigated in vivo and in vitro. 2. Rovatirelin orally administered to rats and dogs was rapidly absorbed and bioavailability was estimated to be 7.3 and 41.3%, respectively. The extent of plasma protein binding of rovatirelin in rats, dogs, and humans was low in all species (∼15%). The permeability of rovatirelin from blood to brain (permeability-surface area) ranged from 1.04 ± 0...
January 31, 2018: Xenobiotica; the Fate of Foreign Compounds in Biological Systems
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29290039/evidence-of-g-protein-coupled-receptor-and-substrate-transporter-heteromerization-at-a-single-molecule-level
#14
Jana Fischer, Gunnar Kleinau, Claudia Rutz, Denise Zwanziger, Noushafarin Khajavi, Anne Müller, Maren Rehders, Klaudia Brix, Catherine L Worth, Dagmar Führer, Heiko Krude, Burkhard Wiesner, Ralf Schülein, Heike Biebermann
G-protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) can constitute complexes with non-GPCR integral membrane proteins, while such interaction has not been demonstrated at a single molecule level so far. We here investigated the potential interaction between the thyrotropin receptor (TSHR) and the monocarboxylate transporter 8 (MCT8), a member of the major facilitator superfamily (MFS), using fluorescence cross-correlation spectroscopy (FCCS). Both the proteins are expressed endogenously on the basolateral plasma membrane of the thyrocytes and are involved in stimulation of thyroid hormone production and release...
December 30, 2017: Cellular and Molecular Life Sciences: CMLS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29275437/gene-expression-of-thyrotropin-and-corticotrophin-releasing-hormones-is-regulated-by-environmental-salinity-in-the-euryhaline-teleost-sparus-aurata
#15
Ignacio Ruiz-Jarabo, J A Martos-Sitcha, C Barragán-Méndez, G Martínez-Rodríguez, J M Mancera, F J Arjona
In euryhaline teleosts, the hypothalamus-pituitary-thyroid and hypothalamus-pituitary-interrenal axes (HPT and HPI, respectively) are regulated in response to environmental stimuli such as salinity changes. However, the molecular players participating in this physiological process in the gilthead seabream (Sparus aurata), a species of high value for aquaculture, are still not identified and/or fully characterized in terms of gene expression regulation. In this sense, this study identifies and isolates the thyrotropin-releasing hormone (trh) mRNA sequence from S...
April 2018: Fish Physiology and Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29225205/effect-of-di-2-ethylhexyl-phthalate-on-the-hypothalamus-pituitary-thyroid-axis-in-adolescent-rat
#16
Di Sun, Liting Zhou, Shuyue Wang, Te Liu, Jian Zhu, Yiyang Jia, Jin Xu, Huaiji Chen, Qi Wang, Feng Xu, Yuezhu Zhang, Lin Ye
Di-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) is extensively used in many personal care and consumer products, which has resulted in widespread human exposure. Limited studies have suggested that exposure to DEHP may affect thyroid function, but little is known about the effect and mechanisms of DEHP exposure on the hypothalamic-pituitary-thyroid axis (HPTA). The present study was conducted to elucidate the potential mechanisms in which DEHP disrupts the function of the HPTA. Wistar rats were administered DEHP by gavage at 0, 5, 50, and 500 mg/kg/day for 28 days and then sacrificed within 24 h following the last dose...
December 9, 2017: Endocrine Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29196977/self-organized-cerebellar-tissue-from-human-pluripotent-stem-cells-and-disease-modeling-with-patient-derived-ipscs
#17
REVIEW
Keiko Muguruma
Recent advances in the techniques that differentiate induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) into specific types of cells enabled us to establish in vitro cell-based models as a platform for drug discovery. iPSC-derived disease models are advantageous to generation of a large number of cells required for high-throughput screening. Furthermore, disease-relevant cells differentiated from patient-derived iPSCs are expected to recapitulate the disorder-specific pathogenesis and physiology in vitro. Such disease-relevant cells will be useful for developing effective therapies...
February 2018: Cerebellum
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29195115/effect-of-dietary-carbohydrates-and-time-of-year-on-acth-and-cortisol-concentrations-in-adult-and-aged-horses
#18
S I Jacob, R J Geor, P S D Weber, P A Harris, M E McCue
Diagnosis of equine pituitary pars intermedia dysfunction (PPID) remains a challenge as multiple factors (stress, exercise, and time of year) influence ACTH and cortisol concentrations. To assess endocrine status in a study designed to evaluate the effects of age and diet on glucose and insulin dynamics, we performed thyrotropin-releasing hormone (TRH) stimulation tests and overnight dexamethasone suppression tests in March, May, August, and October on 16 healthy Thoroughbred and Standardbred mares and geldings...
April 2018: Domestic Animal Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29161598/roles-and-potential-mechanisms-of-selenium-in-countering-thyrotoxicity-of-dehp
#19
Pei Zhang, Xie Guan, Min Yang, Li Zeng, Changjiang Liu
Di-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) as a ubiquitous environmental contaminant could disturb thyroid hormone (TH) homeostasis. Selenium as an essential trace element has protective effects on thyroids. To verify roles of selenium in countering thyrotoxicity of DEHP and elucidate potential mechanisms, Sprague-Dawley rats and Nthy-ori 3-1 cells were treated with DEHP or/and selenomethionine (SeMet). Results showed that selenium supplementation elevated plasma free thyroxine (FT4) that was decreased by DEHP, and free triiodothyronine (FT3) and thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) levels were also partially recovered...
November 18, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29142837/preoperative-management-in-patients-with-graves-disease
#20
REVIEW
Eliana Piantanida
Graves' disease is the most frequent cause of hyperthyroidism in iodine-sufficient geographical areas and is characterized by the presence in patients' serum of autoantibodies directed against the thyrotropin receptor (TRAb) that cause overproduction and release of thyroid hormones. Clinical presentation results from both hyperthyroidism and underlying autoimmunity. The diagnosis is based on characteristic clinical features and biochemical abnormalities. If serum thyrotropin (TSH) is low, serum free thyroxine (FT4) and free triiodothyronine (FT3) concentrations should be measured to distinguish between subclinical (with normal circulating thyroid hormones) and overt hyperthyroidism (with increased circulating thyroid hormones)...
October 2017: Gland Surgery
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