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thyrotropin releasing hormone

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29196977/self-organized-cerebellar-tissue-from-human-pluripotent-stem-cells-and-disease-modeling-with-patient-derived-ipscs
#1
REVIEW
Keiko Muguruma
Recent advances in the techniques that differentiate induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) into specific types of cells enabled us to establish in vitro cell-based models as a platform for drug discovery. iPSC-derived disease models are advantageous to generation of a large number of cells required for high-throughput screening. Furthermore, disease-relevant cells differentiated from patient-derived iPSCs are expected to recapitulate the disorder-specific pathogenesis and physiology in vitro. Such disease-relevant cells will be useful for developing effective therapies...
December 2, 2017: Cerebellum
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29195115/effect-of-dietary-carbohydrates-and-time-of-year-on-acth-and-cortisol-concentrations-in-adult-and-aged-horses
#2
S I Jacob, R J Geor, P S D Weber, P A Harris, M E McCue
Diagnosis of equine pituitary pars intermedia dysfunction (PPID) remains a challenge as multiple factors (stress, exercise, and time of year) influence ACTH and cortisol concentrations. To assess endocrine status in a study designed to evaluate the effects of age and diet on glucose and insulin dynamics, we performed thyrotropin-releasing hormone (TRH) stimulation tests and overnight dexamethasone suppression tests in March, May, August, and October on 16 healthy Thoroughbred and Standardbred mares and geldings...
November 1, 2017: Domestic Animal Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29161598/roles-and-potential-mechanisms-of-selenium-in-countering-thyrotoxicity-of-dehp
#3
Pei Zhang, Xie Guan, Min Yang, Li Zeng, Changjiang Liu
Di-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) as a ubiquitous environmental contaminant could disturb thyroid hormone (TH) homeostasis. Selenium as an essential trace element has protective effects on thyroids. To verify roles of selenium in countering thyrotoxicity of DEHP and elucidate potential mechanisms, Sprague-Dawley rats and Nthy-ori 3-1 cells were treated with DEHP or/and selenomethionine (SeMet). Results showed that selenium supplementation elevated plasma free thyroxine (FT4) that was decreased by DEHP, and free triiodothyronine (FT3) and thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) levels were also partially recovered...
November 18, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29142837/preoperative-management-in-patients-with-graves-disease
#4
REVIEW
Eliana Piantanida
Graves' disease is the most frequent cause of hyperthyroidism in iodine-sufficient geographical areas and is characterized by the presence in patients' serum of autoantibodies directed against the thyrotropin receptor (TRAb) that cause overproduction and release of thyroid hormones. Clinical presentation results from both hyperthyroidism and underlying autoimmunity. The diagnosis is based on characteristic clinical features and biochemical abnormalities. If serum thyrotropin (TSH) is low, serum free thyroxine (FT4) and free triiodothyronine (FT3) concentrations should be measured to distinguish between subclinical (with normal circulating thyroid hormones) and overt hyperthyroidism (with increased circulating thyroid hormones)...
October 2017: Gland Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29139221/evaluation-of-hypothalamus-pituitary-thyroid-axis-function-by-chronic-perchlorate-exposure-in-male-rats
#5
Caroline Serrano-Nascimento, Jamile Calil-Silveira, Rafael Dalbosco, Telma Tenorio Zorn, Maria Tereza Nunes
Perchlorate is a widespread endocrine disruptor that was previously correlated with increased serum TSH levels and decreased thyroid hormones production both in animals and humans. Even so, the regulation of gene/protein expression in the hypothalamus, pituitary and thyroid by chronic perchlorate exposure was not completely elucidated. Therefore, this study aimed to investigate the underlying mechanisms involved in the disruption of hypothalamus-pituitary-thyroid axis by chronic perchlorate exposure. Male Wistar rats were treated or not with NaClO4 in the drinking water (35 mg/Kg/day) for 60 days...
November 15, 2017: Environmental Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29137494/trh-receptor-mobility-in-the-plasma-membrane-is-strongly-affected-by-agonist-binding-and-by-interaction-with-some-cognate-signaling-proteins
#6
Radka Moravcova, Barbora Melkes, Jiri Novotny
OBJECTIVES: Extensive research has been dedicated to elucidating the mechanisms of signal transduction through different G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs). However, relatively little is known about the regulation of receptor movement within the cell membrane upon ligand binding. In this study we focused our attention on the thyrotropin-releasing hormone (TRH) receptor that typically couples to Gq/11 proteins. METHODS: We monitored receptor diffusion in the plasma membrane of HEK293 cells stably expressing yellow fluorescent protein (YFP)-tagged TRH receptor (TRHR-YFP) by fluorescence recovery after photobleaching (FRAP)...
November 14, 2017: Journal of Receptor and Signal Transduction Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29124350/role-of-trh-ucn3-neurons-of-the-perifornical-area-bed-nucleus-of-stria-terminalis-region-in-the-regulation-of-the-anorexigenic-pomc-neurons-of-the-arcuate-nucleus-in-male-mice-and-rats
#7
Zoltán Péterfi, Erzsébet Farkas, Kata Nagyunyomi-Sényi, Andrea Kádár, Szenci Ottó, András Horváth, Tamás Füzesi, Ronald M Lechan, Csaba Fekete
Two anorexigenic peptides, thyrotropin-releasing hormone (TRH) and urocortin 3 (UCN3), are co-expressed in a continuous neuronal group that extends from the perifornical area to the bed nucleus of stria terminalis, raising the possibility that this cell group may be involved in the regulation of energy homeostasis. In this study, therefore, we tested the hypothesis that the TRH/UCN3 neurons regulate food intake by influencing feeding-related neuropeptide Y (NPY) and/or proopiomelanocortin (POMC) neurons in the arcuate nucleus (ARC)...
November 9, 2017: Brain Structure & Function
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29111305/landmark-discoveries-in-elucidating-the-origins-of-the-hypothalamic-pituitary-system-from-the-perspective-of-a-basal-vertebrate-sea-lamprey
#8
REVIEW
Stacia A Sower
The hypothalamic-pituitary (HP) system, which is specific to vertebrates, is considered to be an evolutionary innovation that emerged prior to or during the differentiation of the ancestral jawless vertebrates (agnathans) leading to the neuroendocrine control of many complex functions. Along with hagfish, lampreys represent the oldest lineage of vertebrates, agnathans (jawless fish). This review will highlight our discoveries of the major components of the lamprey HP axis. Generally, gnathostomes (jawed vertebrates) have one or two hypothalamic gonadotropin-releasing hormones (GnRH) while lampreys have three hypothalamic GnRHs...
October 27, 2017: General and Comparative Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29102876/maternal-high-fat-diet-induces-sex-specific-endocannabinoid-system-changes-in-newborn-rats-and-programs-adiposity-energy-expenditure-and-food-preference-in-adulthood
#9
Camilla P Dias-Rocha, Mariana M Almeida, Erika M Santana, Julia C B Costa, Juliana G Franco, Carmen C Pazos-Moura, Isis H Trevenzoli
Early life inadequate nutrition triggers developmental adaptations and adult chronic disease. Maternal high-fat (HF) diet promotes visceral obesity and hypothalamic leptin resistance in male rat offspring at weaning and adulthood. Obesity is related to over active endocannabinoid system (ECS). The ECS consists mainly of endogenous ligands, cannabinoid receptors (CB1 and CB2), and the enzymes fatty acid anandamide hydrolase (FAAH) and monoacylglycerol lipase (MAGL). We hypothesized that perinatal maternal HF diet would regulate offspring ECS in hypothalamus and brown adipose tissue (BAT) at birth, prior to visceral obesity development, and program food preference and energy expenditure of adult offspring...
October 5, 2017: Journal of Nutritional Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29074327/thyrotropic-activity-of-corticotropin-releasing-hormone-in-an-altricial-bird-species-the-zebra-finch-taeniopygia-guttata
#10
Yugo Watanabe, Sylvia V H Grommen, Bert De Groef
In chicken, corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH) acts as a thyrotropin (TSH)-releasing factor, mediated by the type 2 CRH receptor (CRHR2) on the thyrotropes of the pituitary gland. It is not known whether CRH also controls TSH release in non-precocial avian species that have a different pattern of thyroidal activity during their life cycle. Therefore, we investigated the TSH-releasing capacity of CRH in an altricial species, the zebra finch (Taeniopygia guttata). Cellular localisation of type 1 CRH receptor (CRHR1) and CRHR2 mRNA in the pituitary was determined by in situ hybridisation, combined with immunohistochemical staining of pituitary thyrotropes...
October 23, 2017: General and Comparative Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29069397/radiation-related-thyroid-autoimmunity-and-dysfunction
#11
Yuji Nagayama
The thyroid gland is vulnerable not only to external radiation but also to internal radiation, because the thyroid cells can incorporate radioactive iodine when synthesizing thyroid hormones. Since radiation-induction of thyroid neoplasia, including thyroid cancer, is well recognized, the data on radiation-related thyroid autoimmunity and dysfunction are summarized and reviewed. High-dose irradiation, irrespective of being external or internal, is strongly associated with a risk of hypothyroidism (with the prevalence ranging from 2...
October 24, 2017: Journal of Radiation Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29064607/hypothalamic-pituitary-thyroid-hpt-axis-functioning-in-anxiety-disorders-a-systematic-review
#12
REVIEW
Susanne Fischer, Ulrike Ehlert
Depression has repeatedly been linked to subclinical hypothyroidism, and thyroid hormones have successfully been used to augment antidepressant treatment. By contrast, the extent of thyroid dysfunction in anxiety disorders remains less clear. This is surprising, given that anxiety-related symptoms (e.g., nervousness, palpitations, increased perspiration) are highly prevalent in hyperthyroidism. The present study was undertaken to synthesize the literature on hypothalamic-pituitary-thyroid (HPT) axis functioning in anxiety disorders...
October 24, 2017: Depression and Anxiety
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29057835/intrauterine-zn-deficiency-favors-thyrotropin-releasing-hormone-increasing-effects-on-thyrotropin-serum-levels-and-induces-subclinical-hypothyroidism-in-weaned-rats
#13
Viridiana Alcántara-Alonso, Elena Alvarez-Salas, Gilberto Matamoros-Trejo, Patricia de Gortari
Individuals who consume a diet deficient in zinc (Zn-deficient) develop alterations in hypothalamic-pituitary-thyroid axis function, i.e., a low metabolic rate and cold insensitivity. Although those disturbances are related to primary hypothyroidism, intrauterine or postnatal Zn-deficient adults have an increased thyrotropin (TSH) concentration, but unchanged thyroid hormone (TH) levels and decreased body weight. This does not support the view that the hypothyroidism develops due to a low Zn intake. In addition, intrauterine or postnatal Zn-deficiency in weaned and adult rats reduces the activity of pyroglutamyl aminopeptidase II (PPII) in the medial-basal hypothalamus (MBH)...
October 18, 2017: Nutrients
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29021704/the-effect-of-red-ginseng-and-ginseng-leaves-on-the-substance-and-energy-metabolism-in-hypothyroidism-rats
#14
Hang Xiao, Cheng Tan, Guanlin Yang, Deqiang Dou
BACKGROUND: Recent studies have revealed that the properties Traditional Chinese Medicine is mostly associated with are substance and energy metabolism. Our study aimed to compare the effect of red ginseng (RG) (warm property) and ginseng leaves (GL; cold property) on the substance and energy metabolism of rats with hypothyroidism. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Rats were administered propylthiouracil intraperitoneally for 20 d to cause hypothyroidism. The reference group was orally administered Aconiti Lateralis Radix Praeparaia [FZ (Fuzi in Chinese)], while both the RG and GL groups were orally administrated crude drugs...
October 2017: Journal of Ginseng Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28984394/impaired-hypothalamic-cart-expression-in-lha-and-pvn-nuclei-of-dehydration-induced-anorexic-rats
#15
C García-Luna, P Soberanes-Chávez, P de Gortari
Negative energy balance promotes physiological adaptations that ensure the survival of animals. Hypothalamic-pituitary-thyroid axis regulates basal energy expenditure and its down-regulating adaptation to negative energy balance is well described: in fasting, serum content of thyrotropin (TSH) and thyroid hormones (TH) decreases, enhancing survival odds of individuals. In contrast, dehydration-induced anorexic (DIA) rats present an impaired hypothalamic-pituitary-thyroid (HPT) axis adaptation despite their negative energy balance: increased circulating TSH levels...
October 6, 2017: Journal of Neuroendocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28984032/effects-of-dietary-selenium-and-moisture-on-the-physical-activity-and-thyroid-axis-of-cats
#16
S E Hooper, R Backus, S Amelon
Consumption of canned cat food is considered a risk factor for the development of feline hyperthyroidism. Because selenium and water are substantially higher in canned diets compared to dry diets, objectives of this study were to determine whether increased dietary selenium or water alters the function of the hypothalamic-pituitary-thyroid axis and leads to an increase in activity level. Employing a 28-day latin square design with a 14-day washout, six lean, neutered male domestic shorthair cats were fed (i) commercially available adult dry feline diet containing 0...
October 6, 2017: Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28980233/molecular-and-neuroendocrine-mechanisms-of-avian-seasonal-reproduction
#17
T Katherine Tamai, Takashi Yoshimura
Animals living outside tropical zones experience seasonal changes in the environment and accordingly, adapt their physiology and behavior in reproduction, molting, and migration. Subtropical birds are excellent models for the study of seasonal reproduction because of their rapid and dramatic response to changes in photoperiod. For example, testicular weight typically changes by more than a 100-fold. In birds, the eyes are not necessary for seasonal reproduction, and light is instead perceived by deep brain photoreceptors...
2017: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28977997/expression-of-hypothalamic-neurohormones-and-their-receptors-in-the-human-eye
#18
Sander R Dubovy, Maria P Fernandez, Jose J Echegaray, Norman L Block, Noriyuki Unoki, Roberto Perez, Irving Vidaurre, Richard K Lee, Mehrdad Nadji, Andrew V Schally
Extrapituitary roles for hypothalamic neurohormones have recently become apparent and clinically relevant, based on the use of synthetic peptide analogs for the treatment of multiple conditions including cancers, pulmonary edema and myocardial infarction. In the eye, it has been suggested that some of these hormones and their receptors may be present in the ciliary body, iris, trabecular meshwork and retina, but their physiological role has yet to be elucidated. Our study intends to comprehensively demonstrate the expression of some hypothalamic neuroendocrine hormones and their receptors within different retinal and extraretinal structures of the human eye...
September 15, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28883467/tanycytes-control-the-hormonal-output-of-the-hypothalamic-pituitary-thyroid-axis
#19
Helge Müller-Fielitz, Marcus Stahr, Mareike Bernau, Marius Richter, Sebastian Abele, Victor Krajka, Anika Benzin, Jan Wenzel, Kathrin Kalies, Jens Mittag, Heike Heuer, Stefan Offermanns, Markus Schwaninger
The hypothalamic-pituitary-thyroid (HPT) axis maintains circulating thyroid hormone levels in a narrow physiological range. As axons containing thyrotropin-releasing hormone (TRH) terminate on hypothalamic tanycytes, these specialized glial cells have been suggested to influence the activity of the HPT axis, but their exact role remained enigmatic. Here, we demonstrate that stimulation of the TRH receptor 1 increases intracellular calcium in tanycytes of the median eminence via Gαq/11 proteins. Activation of Gαq/11 pathways increases the size of tanycyte endfeet that shield pituitary vessels and induces the activity of the TRH-degrading ectoenzyme...
September 7, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28874095/seasonal-rhythms-the-role-of-thyrotropin-and-thyroid-hormones
#20
Tomoya Nakayama, Takashi Yoshimura
BACKGROUND: Seasonal changes in various physiological events have been reported in humans, including metabolism, immune function, and mood. However, the molecular and endocrine basis of these seasonal changes remains unclear. SUMMARY: Animals that breed seasonally, such as Japanese quail and the Siberian hamster, have sophisticated seasonal mechanisms, and hence they provide excellent opportunities to understand the underlying processes. Functional genomic analysis in quail uncovered the photoperiodic signal transduction pathway, which regulates avian seasonal reproduction: a long-day stimulus induces secretion of thyrotropin (TSH) from the pars tuberalis (PT) of the anterior pituitary gland...
October 5, 2017: Thyroid: Official Journal of the American Thyroid Association
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