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thyrotropin releasing hormone

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28821377/ischemic-stroke-and-impact-of-thyroid-profile-at-presentation-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis-of-observational-studies
#1
Rashmi Dhital, Dilli Ram Poudel, Niranjan Tachamo, Bishal Gyawali, Sijan Basnet, Pragya Shrestha, Paras Karmacharya
BACKGROUND: Stroke is the fifth leading cause of mortality in the United States and a leading cause of disability. A complex relationship between thyroid hormone levels and severity of, and outcome after, stroke has been described. AIM: Our objective is to identify the association between baseline thyroid function profile and outcome after acute ischemic stroke. METHODS: Studies looking at the association between thyroid function and functional stroke outcomes were identified from available electronic databases from inception to December 16, 2016...
August 15, 2017: Journal of Stroke and Cerebrovascular Diseases: the Official Journal of National Stroke Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28720519/taltirelin-alleviates-fatigue-like-behavior-in-mouse-models-of-cancer-related-fatigue
#2
John P Dougherty, Brian S Wolff, Mary J Cullen, Leorey N Saligan, Marvin C Gershengorn
Fatigue affects most cancer patients and has numerous potential causes, including cancer itself and cancer treatment. Cancer-related fatigue (CRF) is not relieved by rest, can decrease quality of life, and has no FDA-approved therapy. Thyrotropin-releasing hormone (TRH) has been proposed as a potential novel treatment for CRF, but its efficacy against CRF remains largely untested. Thus, we tested the TRH analog, taltirelin (TAL), in mouse models of CRF. To model fatigue, we used a mouse model of chemotherapy, a mouse model of radiation therapy, and mice bearing colon 26 carcinoma tumors...
July 15, 2017: Pharmacological Research: the Official Journal of the Italian Pharmacological Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28686898/prenatal-transfer-of-decabromodiphenyl-ether-bde-209-results-in-disruption-of-the-thyroid-system-and-developmental-toxicity-in-zebrafish-offspring
#3
Zhihua Han, Yufei Li, Shenghu Zhang, Ninghui Song, Huaizhou Xu, Yao Dang, Chunsheng Liu, John P Giesy, Hongxia Yu
Decabromodiphenyl ether (BDE-209) was one of most widely-used polybrominated diphenyl ether (PBDE) flame retardants and is frequently detected in both abiotic and biotic samples from environment. However, knowledge of its transgenerational risks is limited. Here, 4-month-old zebrafish were exposed to various concentrations of BDE-209 (0, 3, 30 or 300μg/L) for 28days and spawned in clean water without BDE-209. Concentrations of triiodothyronine (T3) and thyroxine (T4) as well as expressions of genes involved in the hypothalamic-pituitary-thyroid (HPT) axis were measured in offspring after exposure of adult zebrafish to BDE-209...
September 2017: Aquatic Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28684460/abdominal-surgery-induced-gastric-ileus-and-activation-of-m1-like-macrophages-in-the-gastric-myenteric-plexus-prevention-by-central-vagal-activation-in-rats
#4
Pu-Qing Yuan, Yvette Taché
Inflammation plays a role in abdominal surgery (AS)-induced intestinal ileus that is alleviated by electrical vagal stimulation. The stable thyrotropin-releasing hormone agonist, RX77368 injected intracisternally (ic) activates dorsal motor nucleus neurons and gastric vagal efferent discharges. We investigated the gastric inflammation induced by AS and the modulation by ic RX-77368 in rats. RX77368 (50 ng/rat) or saline was injected ic followed, 1 h later, by laparotomy and small intestinal/cecal manipulation...
July 6, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Gastrointestinal and Liver Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28639207/the-cell-biology-of-the-thyroid-disrupting-mechanism-of-dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane-ddt
#5
REVIEW
M Rossi, A R Taddei, I Fasciani, R Maggio, F Giorgi
OBJECTIVE: Dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT) is an organochlorine known for its pesticide properties and for its negative effects on human health. It was banned in most countries for its toxicity to the endocrine system, but due to its persistence at clinically relevant concentrations in both soil and animal tissues, DDT is still linked to several health and social problems. METHODS: We have previously shown that DDT exposure is causally related to the extracellular release of vesicular organelles such as microvesicles and/or exosomes by using immunocytochemistry with gold-tagged antibodies and various fluorescent membrane markers...
June 21, 2017: Journal of Endocrinological Investigation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28621684/expression-of-hypothalamic-neurohormones-and-their-receptors-in-the-human-eye
#6
Sander R Dubovy, Maria P Fernandez, Jose J Echegaray, Norman L Block, Noriyuki Unoki, Roberto Perez, Irving Vidaurre, Richard K Lee, Mehrdad Nadji, Andrew V Schally
Extrapituitary roles for hypothalamic neurohormones have recently become apparent and clinically relevant, based on the use of synthetic peptide analogs for the treatment of multiple conditions including cancers, pulmonary edema and myocardial infarction. In the eye, it has been suggested that some of these hormones and their receptors may be present in the ciliary body, iris, trabecular meshwork and retina, but their physiological role has yet to be elucidated. Our study intends to comprehensively demonstrate the expression of some hypothalamic neuroendocrine hormones and their receptors within different retinal and extraretinal structures of the human eye...
June 3, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28586435/fetal-exposure-to-high-maternal-thyroid-hormone-th-levels-causes-central-resistance-to-th-in-adult-humans-and-mice
#7
Panudda Srichomkwun, João Anselmo, Xiao-Hui Liao, G Sebastian Hönes, Lars C Moeller, Manuela Alonso-Sampedro, Roy E Weiss, Alexandra M Dumitrescu, Samuel Refetoff
Context: Fetuses exposed to the high thyroid hormone (TH) levels of mothers with resistance to thyroid hormone beta (RTHβ), due to mutations in the THRB gene, have low birth weight and suppressed TSH. Objective: Determine if such exposure to high TH levels in embryonic life has a long-term effect into adulthood. Design: Observations in humans with a parallel design on animals to obtain a preliminary information regarding mechanism. Setting: University research centers...
June 6, 2017: Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28557707/novel-mutation-t273r-in-thyroid-hormone-receptor-%C3%AE-gene-provides-further-insight-into-cryptic-negative-regulation-by-thyroid-hormone
#8
F Kaššák, V Hána, V Saudek, M Kostrouchová
Production of thyroid hormone is precisely regulated in a negative feed-back mechanism that depends critically on thyroid hormone receptor β (TRβ). This mechanism decreases production of thyrotropin- releasing hormone (TRH) and thyrotropin (TSH) in the hypothalamus and pituitary gland in response to high levels of circulating thyroid hormones (TH). Despite the wealth of accumulated knowledge, it is still not clear how exactly this negative regulation is executed. The syndrome of resistance to thyroid hormone (RTH), in which the levels of TH are not properly sensed, represents naturally occurring situations in which molecular components of this regulation are displayed and may be uncovered...
2017: Folia Biologica (Praha)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28556305/hypothalamic-dopamine-is-required-for-salsolinol-induced-prolactin-secretion-in-goats
#9
Tsutomu Hashizume, Ryunosuke Watanabe, Yuki Inaba, Ken Sawai, Ferenc Fülöp, György Miklos Nagy
The aim of the present study was to clarify the relationship between hypothalamic dopamine (DA) and salsolinol (SAL) for the secretion of prolactin (PRL) in goats. SAL or thyrotropin-releasing hormone (TRH) was intravenously injected into female goats treated with or without the D2 DA receptor antagonist haloperidol (Hal), which crosses the blood-brain barrier, and the PRL-releasing response to SAL was compared with that to TRH. PRL-releasing responses to SAL, Hal, and Hal plus SAL were also examined after a pretreatment to augment central DA using carbidopa (Carbi) and L-dopa...
May 29, 2017: Animal Science Journal, Nihon Chikusan Gakkaihō
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28538378/effects-of-intensive-training-on-menstrual-function-and-certain-serum-hormones-and-peptides-related-to-the-female-reproductive-system
#10
Geum Joon Cho, Sung Won Han, Jung-Ho Shin, Tak Kim
The aim of this study was to assess the effects of intensive training on menstrual function and related serum hormones and peptides.Forty female participants who attended a training course for an officer at the Korea Third Military Academy, and had regular menstrual periods were enrolled. Menstrual questionnaires and fasting blood samples were collected before entry and at 4-week intervals for 8 weeks. The levels of corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH), cortisol, prolactin, endorphin-β, neuropeptide Y (NPY), leptin, orexin-A, ghrelin, follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH), luteinizing hormone (LH), estradiol (E2), thyrotropin (TSH), and thyroxine (T4) were determined...
May 2017: Medicine (Baltimore)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28524176/lentivirus-mediated-microrna-124-gene-modified-bone-marrow-mesenchymal-stem-cell-transplantation-promotes-the-repair-of-spinal-cord-injury-in-rats
#11
Jia-Lin Song, Wei Zheng, Wei Chen, Yun Qian, Yuan-Ming Ouyang, Cun-Yi Fan
Our study aims to explore the effects of lentivirus-mediated microRNA-124 (miR-124) gene-modified bone marrow mesenchymal stem cell (BMSC) transplantation on the repair of spinal cord injury (SCI) in rats. BMSCs were isolated from the bone marrow of rats. The target gene miR-124 was identified using a luciferase-reporter gene assay. Seventy-two rats were selected for construction of the SCI model, and the rats were randomly divided into the blank group, sham group, SCI group, negative control (NC) group, overexpressed miR-124 group and si-PDXK group...
May 19, 2017: Experimental & Molecular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28515030/congenital-central-hypothyroidism-caused-by-a-novel-tsh-beta-subunit-gene-mutation-c-94g-a-in-two-siblings
#12
Bayram Özhan, Özlem Boz Anlaş, Bilge Sarıtepe, Burcu Albuz, Nur Gündüz Semerci
Congenital central hypothyroidism (C-CH) is a very rare disease. Alterations in genes included in pituitary development, mutations of the immunoglobulin superfamily member 1 (IGSF1) and transducin β-like protein 1(TBL1X ) can result in C-CH with multiple pituitary hormone deficiencies. However, mutations of the thyrotropin-releasing hormone receptor or TSH-beta (TSHB) gene are responsible for isolated congenital central hypothyroidism. In this paper, we present 2 patients from the same Turkish family with a novel mutation of TSHB...
May 17, 2017: Journal of Clinical Research in Pediatric Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28484426/structural-functional-features-of-the-thyrotropin-receptor-a-class-a-g-protein-coupled-receptor-at-work
#13
REVIEW
Gunnar Kleinau, Catherine L Worth, Annika Kreuchwig, Heike Biebermann, Patrick Marcinkowski, Patrick Scheerer, Gerd Krause
The thyroid-stimulating hormone receptor (TSHR) is a member of the glycoprotein hormone receptors, a sub-group of class A G-protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs). TSHR and its endogenous ligand thyrotropin (TSH) are of essential importance for growth and function of the thyroid gland and proper function of the TSH/TSHR system is pivotal for production and release of thyroid hormones. This receptor is also important with respect to pathophysiology, such as autoimmune (including ophthalmopathy) or non-autoimmune thyroid dysfunctions and cancer development...
2017: Frontiers in Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28461507/evolutionarily-conserved-trh-neuropeptide-pathway-regulates-growth-in-caenorhabditis-elegans
#14
Elien Van Sinay, Olivier Mirabeau, Geert Depuydt, Matthias Boris Van Hiel, Katleen Peymen, Jan Watteyne, Sven Zels, Liliane Schoofs, Isabel Beets
In vertebrates thyrotropin-releasing hormone (TRH) is a highly conserved neuropeptide that exerts the hormonal control of thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) levels as well as neuromodulatory functions. However, a functional equivalent in protostomian animals remains unknown, although TRH receptors are conserved in proto- and deuterostomians. Here we identify a TRH-like neuropeptide precursor in Caenorhabditis elegans that belongs to a bilaterian family of TRH precursors. Using CRISPR/Cas9 and RNAi reverse genetics, we show that TRH-like neuropeptides, through the activation of their receptor TRHR-1, promote growth in Celegans TRH-like peptides from pharyngeal motor neurons are required for normal body size, and knockdown of their receptor in pharyngeal muscle cells reduces growth...
May 16, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28444138/the-evolution-of-neuropeptide-signalling-insights-from-echinoderms
#15
Dean C Semmens, Maurice R Elphick
Neuropeptides are evolutionarily ancient mediators of neuronal signalling that regulate a wide range of physiological processes and behaviours in animals. Neuropeptide signalling has been investigated extensively in vertebrates and protostomian invertebrates, which include the ecdysozoans Drosophila melanogaster (Phylum Arthropoda) and Caenorhabditis elegans (Phylum Nematoda). However, until recently, an understanding of evolutionary relationships between neuropeptide signalling systems in vertebrates and protostomes has been impaired by a lack of genome/transcriptome sequence data from non-ecdysozoan invertebrates...
April 21, 2017: Briefings in Functional Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28424564/new-developments-in-the-management-of-narcolepsy
#16
REVIEW
Vivien C Abad, Christian Guilleminault
Narcolepsy is a life-long, underrecognized sleep disorder that affects 0.02%-0.18% of the US and Western European populations. Genetic predisposition is suspected because of narcolepsy's strong association with HLA DQB1*06-02, and genome-wide association studies have identified polymorphisms in T-cell receptor loci. Narcolepsy pathophysiology is linked to loss of signaling by hypocretin-producing neurons; an autoimmune etiology possibly triggered by some environmental agent may precipitate hypocretin neuronal loss...
2017: Nature and Science of Sleep
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28407664/fenugreek-a-potent-hypoglycaemic-herb-can-cause-central-hypothyroidism-via-leptin-a-threat-to-diabetes-phytotherapy
#17
Jayjeet Majumdar, Pratip Chakraborty, Analava Mitra, Nirmal Kumar Sarkar, Supriti Sarkar
Fenugreek (Trigonella foenum graecum), a medicinal herb with potent antihyperglycaemic and hypoglycaemic effects, is used to treat diabetes. This study is aimed to explore the interaction of fenugreek seed extract (FSE) and HPT (hypothalamic-pituitary-thyroid) axis in context of leptin secretion which have important role in normal and type-1 diabetic subjects. FSE (confirmed to contain trigonelline, diosgenin, 4 hydroxyisoleucine) was gavaged (0.25 gm/kg body weight/day) to normal and alloxan-induced type-1 diabetic rats for 4 weeks...
July 2017: Experimental and Clinical Endocrinology & Diabetes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28379580/association-of-tsh-with-cardiovascular-disease-risk-in-overweight-and-obese-children-during-lifestyle-intervention
#18
Jesse M Rijks, Jogchum Plat, Elke Dorenbos, Bas Penders, Willem-Jan M Gerver, Anita C E Vreugdenhil
Context: Overweight and obese children have an increased risk to develop cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) in which thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) has been suggested as an intermediary factor. However, results of cross-sectional studies are inconclusive, and intervention studies investigating changes in TSH concentrations in association with changes in cardiovascular risk parameters in overweight and obese children are scarce. Objective: To gain insight in associations of circulating TSH concentrations and cardiovascular risk parameters in overweight and obese children...
June 1, 2017: Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28356660/prevalence-of-hypothyroidism-in-nondiabetic-chronic-kidney-disease-and-effect-of-thyroxine-replacement-on-estimated-glomerular-filtration-rate
#19
S Bajaj, N Purwar, A Gupta, P Gupta, A Srivastava
Reduced T3 and free T4, elevated thyroid stimulating hormone, and hyporesponsiveness to thyrotropin releasing hormone raise questions about the presence of hypothyroidism in chronic kidney disease (CKD) and raise the possibility of benefit from thyroxine supplementation. A prospective cohort study was conducted on 73 nondiabetic CKD cases. Hypothyroid patients were started on levothyroxine and were reviewed after 3 and 6 months. The mean age of study population was 42.3 ± 16.8 years. Of the total population, 32 (43...
March 2017: Indian Journal of Nephrology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28339047/hypothalamo%C3%A2-hypophysial-system-in-rats-with-autotransplantation-of-the-adrenal-cortex
#20
Nae Takizawa, Susumu Tanaka, Souichi Oe, Taro Koike, Tadashi Matsuda, Hisao Yamada
Patients with bilateral pheochromocytoma often require an adrenalectomy. Autotransplantation of the adrenal cortex is an alternative therapy that could potentially be performed instead of receiving glucocorticoid replacement following adrenalectomy. Adrenal cortex autotransplantation aims to avoid the side effects of long‑term steroid treatment and adrenal insufficiency. Although the function of the hypothalamo‑hypophysial system is critical for patients who have undergone adrenal cortex autotransplantation, the details of that system, with the exception of adrenocorticotropic hormone in the subjects with adrenal autotransplantation, have been overlooked for a long time...
May 2017: Molecular Medicine Reports
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