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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28938749/the-testicular-transcriptome-associated-with-spermatogonia-differentiation-initiated-by-gonadotrophin-stimulation-in-the-juvenile-rhesus-monkey-macaca-mulatta
#1
Suresh Ramaswamy, William H Walker, Paula Aliberti, Rahil Sethi, Gary R Marshall, Alyxzandria Smith, Seyedmehdi Nourashrafeddin, Alicia Belgorosky, Uma R Chandran, Mark P Hedger, Tony M Plant
STUDY QUESTION: What is the genetic landscape within the testis of the juvenile rhesus monkey (Macaca mulatta) that underlies the decision of undifferentiated spermatogonia to commit to a pathway of differentiation when puberty is induced prematurely by exogenous LH and FSH stimulation? SUMMARY ANSWER: Forty-eight hours of gonadotrophin stimulation of the juvenile monkey testis resulted in the appearance of differentiating B spermatogonia and the emergence of 1362 up-regulated and 225 down-regulated testicular mRNAs encoding a complex network of proteins ranging from enzymes regulating Leydig cell steroidogenesis to membrane receptors, and from juxtacrine and paracrine factors to transcriptional factors governing spermatogonial stem cell fate...
October 1, 2017: Human Reproduction
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28938639/spondin2-is-a-new-prognostic-biomarker-for-lung-adenocarcinoma
#2
Xiaopeng Yuan, Tingting Bian, Jian Liu, Honggang Ke, Jia Feng, Qing Zhang, Li Qian, Xiaoli Li, Yifei Liu, Jianguo Zhang
Spondin 2 (SPON2) is a member of the F-spondin superfamily of genes that encode an extracellular matrix protein. SPON2 has been identified by mRNA differential display screening of cancerous and noncancerous lung cell lines in vitro [1], however, its role in pulmonary adenocarcinoma (ADC) patients remains unclear. In our study, we evaluated whether SPON2 can be used as a biomarker for the diagnosis of pulmonary ADC and any association between SPON2 protein levels and clinicopathological characteristics. Firstly, the mRNA levels of SPON2 in pulmonary ADCs and normal adjacent tissue samples were detected by quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) (n = 60) assay and the expression of SPON2 protein were detected by tissue microarray immunohistochemistry analysis (TMA-IHC) (n = 280)...
August 29, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28938603/inhibition-of-avian-tumor-virus-replication-by-ccch-type-zinc-finger-antiviral-protein
#3
Mingjun Zhu, Xiaoqian Ma, Xiyao Cui, Jing Zhou, Chengui Li, Libo Huang, Yingli Shang, Ziqiang Cheng
CCCH type zinc finger antiviral protein (ZAP) is a host restriction factor that inhibits the replication of a variety of viruses in mammals. However, little is known about its antiviral activity on avian tumor virus. Avian leukosis virus subgroup J (ALV-J), an oncogenic retrovirus, induces myelocytomas and various other tumors in meat and egg type chickens. Here, we identified a chicken ZAP (chZAP) that increased at early stage, and subsequently decreased after infection of ALV-J in DF-1 cells, indicating the inducible feature of the endogenous chZAP...
August 29, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28938457/the-association-of-estrogen-receptor-%C3%AE-gene-variation-with-salt-sensitive-blood-pressure
#4
Worapaka Manosroi, Jia Wei Tan, Chevon M Rariy, Bei Sun, Mark O Goodarzi, Aditi R Saxena, Jonathan S Williams, Luminita H Pojoga, Jessica Lasky-Su, Jinrui Cui, Xiuqing Guo, Kent D Taylor, Yii-Der I Chen, Anny H Xiang, Willa A Hsueh, Leslie J Raffel, Thomas A Buchanan, Jerome I Rotter, Gordon H Williams, Ellen W Seely
Context: Hypertension in young women is uncommon compared to young men and older women. Estrogen appears to protect most women against hypertension with incidence increasing after menopause. Since some premenopausal women develop hypertension, estrogen may play a different role in these women. Genetic variations in the estrogen receptor (ER) are associated with cardiovascular disease. ER-β, encoded by ESR2, is the ER predominantly expressed in vascular smooth muscle. Objective: To determine an association of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in ESR2 with salt-sensitivity of blood pressure (SSBP) and estrogen status in women...
September 5, 2017: Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28938432/mitochondrial-function-regulated-by-mitoguardin-1-2-is-crucial-for-ovarian-endocrine-functions-and-ovulation
#5
Xiao-Man Liu, Yin-Li Zhang, Shu-Yan Ji, Long-Wen Zhao, Wei-Na Shang, Dali Li, Zijiang Chen, Chao Tong, Heng-Yu Fan
The balances of mitochondrial dynamic changes, mitochondrial morphology, and mitochondrial number are critical in cell metabolism. Once disturbed, disorders in these processes generally cause diseases or even death in animals. We performed large-scale genetic screenings in fruit flies and discovered the new gene mitoguardin (miga) that encodes for a mitochondrial outer membrane protein. In order to examine the physiological functions of its mammalian homologs Miga1 and 2, we generated Miga1 and Miga2 single- and double-knockout mouse strains and found that the knockout mice were viable, but the females were subfertile...
August 23, 2017: Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28938163/tumor-cell-targeted-delivery-of-crispr-cas9-by-aptamer-functionalized-lipopolymer-for-therapeutic-genome-editing-of-vegfa-in-osteosarcoma
#6
Chao Liang, Fangfei Li, Luyao Wang, Zong-Kang Zhang, Chao Wang, Bing He, Jie Li, Zhihao Chen, Atik Badshah Shaikh, Jin Liu, Xiaohao Wu, Songlin Peng, Lei Dang, Baosheng Guo, Xiaojuan He, D W T Au, Cheng Lu, Hailong Zhu, Bao-Ting Zhang, Aiping Lu, Ge Zhang
Osteosarcoma (OS) is a highly aggressive pediatric cancer, characterized by frequent lung metastasis and pathologic bone destruction. Vascular endothelial growth factor A (VEGFA), highly expressed in OS, not only contributes to angiogenesis within the tumor microenvironment via paracrine stimulation of vascular endothelial cells, but also acts as an autocrine survival factor for tumor cell themselves, thus making it a promising therapeutic target for OS. CRISPR/Cas9 is a versatile genome editing technology and holds tremendous promise for cancer treatment...
September 13, 2017: Biomaterials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28938116/a-unifying-theory-of-branching-morphogenesis
#7
Edouard Hannezo, Colinda L G J Scheele, Mohammad Moad, Nicholas Drogo, Rakesh Heer, Rosemary V Sampogna, Jacco van Rheenen, Benjamin D Simons
The morphogenesis of branched organs remains a subject of abiding interest. Although much is known about the underlying signaling pathways, it remains unclear how macroscopic features of branched organs, including their size, network topology, and spatial patterning, are encoded. Here, we show that, in mouse mammary gland, kidney, and human prostate, these features can be explained quantitatively within a single unifying framework of branching and annihilating random walks. Based on quantitative analyses of large-scale organ reconstructions and proliferation kinetics measurements, we propose that morphogenesis follows from the proliferative activity of equipotent tips that stochastically branch and randomly explore their environment but compete neutrally for space, becoming proliferatively inactive when in proximity with neighboring ducts...
September 21, 2017: Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28938099/plasmid-dna-launches-live-attenuated-japanese-encephalitis-virus-and-elicits-virus-neutralizing-antibodies-in-balb-c-mice
#8
Brian Nickols, Irina Tretyakova, Alexander Tibbens, Elena Klyushnenkova, Peter Pushko
We describe novel plasmid DNA that encodes the full-length Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV) genomic cDNA and launches live-attenuated JEV vaccine in vitro and in vivo. The synthetic cDNA based on the sequence of JEV SA14-14-2 live-attenuated virus was placed under transcriptional control of the cytomegalovirus major immediate-early promoter. The stability and yields of the plasmid in E. coli were optimized by inserting three synthetic introns that disrupted JEV cDNA in the structural and nonstructural genes...
September 19, 2017: Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28938026/hiv-exposed-seronegative-hesn-compared-to-hiv-infected-individuals-have-higher-frequencies-of-telomeric-killer-immunoglobulin-like-receptor-kir-b-motifs-contribution-of-kir-b-motif-encoded-genes-to-nk-cell-responsiveness
#9
Elise Jackson, Cindy Xinyu Zhang, Zahra Kiani, Irene Lisovsky, Benjamin Tallon, Alexa Del Corpo, Louise Gilbert, Julie Bruneau, Réjean Thomas, Pierre Côté, Benoit Trottier, Roger LeBlanc, Danielle Rouleau, Cécile Tremblay, Christos M Tsoukas, Jean-Pierre Routy, Xiaoyan Ni, Tsoarello Mabanga, Nicole F Bernard
Previously, we showed that Killer Immunoglobulin-like Receptor (KIR)3DS1 homozygotes (hmz) are more frequent in HIV exposed seronegative (HESN) than in recently HIV infected (HIV+) individuals. KIR3DS1 encodes an activating Natural Killer (NK) cell receptor (NKR). The link between KIR genotype and HIV outcomes likely arises from the function that NK cells acquire through expression of particular NKRs. An initial screen of 97 HESN and 123 HIV+ subjects for the frequency of KIR region gene carriage observed between-group differences for several telomeric KIR region loci...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28937985/interference-with-plastome-gene-expression-and-clp-protease-activity-in-arabidopsis-triggers-a-chloroplast-unfolded-protein-response-to-restore-protein-homeostasis
#10
Ernesto Llamas, Pablo Pulido, Manuel Rodriguez-Concepcion
Disruption of protein homeostasis in chloroplasts impairs the correct functioning of essential metabolic pathways, including the methylerythritol 4-phosphate (MEP) pathway for the production of plastidial isoprenoids involved in photosynthesis and growth. We previously found that misfolded and aggregated forms of the first enzyme of the MEP pathway are degraded by the Clp protease with the involvement of Hsp70 and Hsp100/ClpC1 chaperones in Arabidopsis thaliana. By contrast, the combined unfolding and disaggregating actions of Hsp70 and Hsp100/ClpB3 chaperones allow solubilization and hence reactivation of the enzyme...
September 22, 2017: PLoS Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28937836/optimizing-a-3d-model-system-for-molecular-manipulation-of-tenogenesis
#11
Chun Chien, Brian Pryce, Sara F Tufa, Douglas R Keene, Alice H Huang
PURPOSE: Tendon injuries are clinically challenging due to poor healing. A better understanding of the molecular events that regulate tendon differentiation would improve current strategies for repair. The mouse model system has been instrumental to tendon studies and several key molecules were initially established in mouse. However, the study of gene function has been limited by the absence of a standard in vitro tendon system for efficiently testing multiple mutations, physical manipulations, and mis-expression...
September 22, 2017: Connective Tissue Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28937743/rational-design-of-an-anticalin-type-sugar-binding-protein-using-a-genetically-encoded-boronate-side-chain
#12
Selvakumar Edwardraja, Andreas Eichinger, Ina Theobald, Carina Andrea Sommer, Andreas J Reichert, Arne Skerra
The molecular recognition of carbohydrates plays a fundamental role in many biological processes. However, the development of carbohydrate-binding reagents for biomedical research and use poses a challenge due to the generally poor affinity of proteins towards sugars in aqueous solution. Here, we describe the effective molecular recognition of pyranose monosaccharides (in particular, galactose and mannose) by a rationally designed protein receptor based on the human lipocalin scaffold (Anticalin). Complexation relies on reversible covalent cis-diol boronate diester formation with a genetically encoded L-boronophenylalanine (Bpa) residue which was incorporated as a non-natural amino acid at a sterically permissive position in the binding site of the Anticalin, as confirmed by X-ray crystallography...
September 22, 2017: ACS Synthetic Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28937620/dysbindin-1-involvement-in-the-etiology-of-schizophrenia
#13
REVIEW
Haitao Wang, Jiangping Xu, Philip Lazarovici, Wenhua Zheng
Schizophrenia is a major psychiatric disorder that afflicts about 1% of the world's population, falling into the top 10 medical disorders causing disability. Existing therapeutic strategies have had limited success on cognitive impairment and long-term disability and are burdened by side effects. Although new antipsychotic medications have been launched in the past decades, there has been a general lack of significant innovation. This lack of significant progress in the pharmacotherapy of schizophrenia is a reflection of the complexity and heterogeneity of the disease...
September 22, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28937538/severe-neonatal-cholestasis-in-cerebrotendinous-xanthomatosis-genetics-immunostaining-mass-spectrometry
#14
Jing-Yu Gong, Kenneth D R Setchell, Jing Zhao, Wujuan Zhang, Brian Wolfe, Yi Lu, Karolin Lackner, A S Knisely, Neng-Li Wang, Chen-Zhi Hao, Mei-Hong Zhang, Jian-She Wang
OBJECTIVES: Cerebrotendinous xanthomatosis (CTX) is caused by defects in sterol 27-hydroxylase (CYP27A1, encoded by CYP27A1), a key enzyme in the bile acid synthesis pathway. CTX usually presents as neurologic disease in adults or older children. The very rare reports of CTX manifest as neonatal cholestasis assess the cholestasis as transient, with patient survival. Our experience differs. METHODS: Homozygous or compound heterozygous CYP27A1 mutations were detected in 8 neonatal cholestasis patients by whole exome sequencing, panel sequencing, or Sanger sequencing...
September 20, 2017: Journal of Pediatric Gastroenterology and Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28937369/study-of-association-of-epstein-barr-virus-in-lymphomas-by-epstein-barr-virus-encoded-rna-in-situ-hybridization-an-indian-perspective-from-a-tertiary-care-cancer-institute
#15
Roshani Gala, Jatin S Gandhi, Gurudutt Gupta, Shrruti K Grover, Anila Sharma, Sunil Pasricha, Anurag Mehta
BACKGROUND: The Epstein-Barr virus (EBV), also called human herpesvirus 4, is a virus of the herpes family. The EBV-associated lymphomas include Burkitt lymphoma, classic Hodgkin lymphoma (HL), lymphomas arising in immunocompromised individuals, peripheral T-cell lymphomas, angioimmunoblastic T-cell lymphoma, extranodal nasal-type natural killer/T-cell lymphoma, and other rare histotypes. OBJECTIVE: The present study evaluated the role of EBV as an etiologic agent in various lymphomas and determined an Indian perspective in a tertiary care cancer center compared to that of Western literature...
July 2017: Indian Journal of Pathology & Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28936969/systematic-integration-of-biomedical-knowledge-prioritizes-drugs-for-repurposing
#16
Daniel Scott Himmelstein, Antoine Lizee, Christine Hessler, Leo Brueggeman, Sabrina L Chen, Dexter Hadley, Ari Green, Pouya Khankhanian, Sergio E Baranzini
The ability to computationally predict whether a compound treats a disease would improve the economy and success rate of drug approval. This study describes Project Rephetio to systematically model drug efficacy based on 755 existing treatments. First, we constructed Hetionet (neo4j.het.io), an integrative network encoding knowledge from millions of biomedical studies. Hetionet v1.0 consists of 47,031 nodes of 11 types and 2,250,197 relationships of 24 types. Data was integrated from 29 public resources to connect compounds, diseases, genes, anatomies, pathways, biological processes, molecular functions, cellular components, pharmacologic classes, side effects, and symptoms...
September 22, 2017: ELife
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28936836/-molecular-cloning-and-characterization-of-two-kind-of-heat-shock-protein-gene-from-polyporus-umbellatus
#17
Meng-Meng Liu, Yong-Mei Xing, Shun-Xing Guo
With RT-PCR approaches, the full-length cDNA of two heat shock protein genes were cloned from total RNA of the Polyporus umbellatus sclerotium. The full open reading frame cDNA sequence of the Hsp90 was 2 091 bp, encoding 696 amino acid residues with a predicted molecular mass of 78.9 kDa. The full open reading frame cDNA sequence of the Hsp70 was 1 944 bp, encoding 647 amino acid residues with a predicted molecular mass of 70.5 kDa. The Hsp90 and Hsp70 protein contained the conservative structure domain, respectively...
December 2016: Zhongguo Zhong Yao za Zhi, Zhongguo Zhongyao Zazhi, China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28936825/optical-demodulation-system-for-digitally-encoded-suspension-array-in-fluoroimmunoassay
#18
Qinghua He, Dongmei Li, Yonghong He, Tian Guan, Yilong Zhang, Zhiyuan Shen, Xuejing Chen, Siyu Liu, Bangrong Lu, Yanhong Ji
A laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy and fluorescence spectroscopy-coupled optical system is reported to demodulate digitally encoded suspension array in fluoroimmunoassay. It takes advantage of the plasma emissions of assembled elemental materials to digitally decode the suspension array, providing a more stable and accurate recognition to target biomolecules. By separating the decoding procedure of suspension array and adsorption quantity calculation of biomolecules into two independent channels, the cross talk between decoding and label signals in traditional methods had been successfully avoided, which promoted the accuracy of both processes and realized more sensitive quantitative detection of target biomolecules...
September 2017: Journal of Biomedical Optics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28936771/functional-investigation-of-a-grin2a-variant-associated-with-rolandic-epilepsy
#19
Xing-Xing Xu, Xiao-Rong Liu, Cui-Ying Fan, Jin-Xing Lai, Yi-Wu Shi, Wei Yang, Tao Su, Jun-Yu Xu, Jian-Hong Luo, Wei-Ping Liao
N-methyl-D-aspartate receptors (NMDARs), a subtype of glutamate-gated ion channels, play a central role in epileptogenesis. Recent studies have identified an increasing number of GRIN2A (a gene encoding the NMDAR GluN2A subunit) mutations in patients with epilepsy. Phenotypes of GRIN2A mutations include epilepsy-aphasia disorders and other epileptic encephalopathies, which pose challenges in clinical treatment. Here we identified a heterozygous GRIN2A mutation (c.1341T>A, p.N447K) from a boy with Rolandic epilepsy by whole-exome sequencing...
September 21, 2017: Neuroscience Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28936718/identification-of-candidate-genes-for-generalized-tonic-clonic-seizures-in-noda-epileptic-rat
#20
Takashi Kuramoto, Birger Voigt, Satoshi Nakanishi, Kazuhiro Kitada, Tadashi Nakamura, Kaori Wakamatsu, Minako Yoshihara, Mikita Suyama, Risa Uemura, Miyuu Tanaka, Mitsuru Kuwamura, Saki Shimizu, Yukihiro Ohno, Masashi Sasa, Tadao Serikawa
The Noda epileptic rat (NER) exhibits generalized tonic-clonic seizures (GTCS). A genetic linkage analysis identified two GTCS-associated loci, Ner1 on Chr 1 and Ner3 on Chr 5. The wild-type Ner1 and Ner3 alleles suppressed GTCS when combined in double-locus congenic lines, but not when present in single-locus congenic lines. Global expression analysis revealed that cholecystokinin B receptor (Cckbr) and suppressor of tumorigenicity 5 (St5), which map within Ner1, and PHD finger protein 24 (Phf24), which maps within Ner3, were significantly downregulated in NER...
September 21, 2017: Behavior Genetics
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