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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29149774/hippocampal-ca1-activity-correlated-with-the-distance-to-the-goal-and-navigation-performance
#1
Hugo J Spiers, H Freyja Olafsdottir, Colin Lever
Coding the distance to a future goal is an important function of a neural system supporting navigation. While some evidence indicates the hippocampus increases activity with proximity to the goal, others have found activity to decreases with proximity. To explore goal distance coding in the hippocampus we recorded from CA1 hippocampal place cells in rats as they navigated to learned goals in an event arena with a win-stay lose-shift rule. CA1 activity was positively correlated with the distance - decreasing with proximity to the goal...
November 17, 2017: Hippocampus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29149619/association-of-snps-in-genes-encoding-zinc-transporters-on-blood-zinc-levels-in-humans
#2
Junko Fujihara, Toshihiro Yasuda, Kaori Kimura-Kataoka, Yoshikazu Takinami, Masataka Nagao, Haruo Takeshita
Zinc homeostasis in cells depends on zinc transporters, which are divided into 2 families: ZnT (SLC30A) and ZIP (SLC39A). In this study, we examined the effect of 20 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in 10 genes encoding zinc transporters on blood zinc concentration in Japanese subjects (n = 102). Blood zinc levels were determined by microwave plasma-atomic emission spectrometry, and SNPs were analyzed by polymerase chain reaction followed by restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis. Among the 20 SNPs examined, 3 SNPs (SLC30A3 rs11126936, SLC39A8 rs233804, and SLC39A14 rs4872479) were significantly associated with blood zinc concentration...
November 9, 2017: Legal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29149607/classifying-drosophila-olfactory-projection-neuron-subtypes-by-single-cell-rna-sequencing
#3
Hongjie Li, Felix Horns, Bing Wu, Qijing Xie, Jiefu Li, Tongchao Li, David J Luginbuhl, Stephen R Quake, Liqun Luo
The definition of neuronal type and how it relates to the transcriptome are open questions. Drosophila olfactory projection neurons (PNs) are among the best-characterized neuronal types: different PN classes target dendrites to distinct olfactory glomeruli, while PNs of the same class exhibit indistinguishable anatomical and physiological properties. Using single-cell RNA sequencing, we comprehensively characterized the transcriptomes of most PN classes and unequivocally mapped transcriptomes to specific olfactory function for six classes...
November 16, 2017: Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29149542/spectrally-encoded-coherence-tomography-and-reflectometry-sectr-simultaneous-en-face-and-cross-sectional-imaging-at-2-gigapixels-per-second
#4
Mohamed T El-Haddad, Ivan Bozic, Yuankai K Tao
Non-invasive biological imaging is crucial for understanding in vivo structure and function. Optical coherence tomography (OCT) and reflectance confocal microscopy are two of the most widely used optical modalities for exogenous contrast-free high-resolution three-dimensional imaging in non-fluorescent scattering tissues. However, sample motion remains a critical barrier to raster-scanned acquisition and reconstruction of wide-field anatomically accurate volumetric datasets. We introduce spectrally encoded coherence tomography and reflectometry (SECTR), a high-speed multimodality system for simultaneous OCT and spectrally-encoded reflectance (SER) imaging...
November 17, 2017: Journal of Biophotonics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29149435/equine-herpesvirus-type-1-orf51-encoding-ul11-as-an-essential-gene-for-replication-in-cultured-cells
#5
Yassien Badr, Ayaka Okada, Rania Abo-Sakaya, Emad Beshir, Kenji Ohya, Hideto Fukushi
Equine herpesvirus type 1 (EHV-1) UL11 is a 74-amino-acid tegument protein encoded by ORF51 of the EHV-1 genome. EHV-1 UL11 was previously reported by other researchers using the RacL22 and RacH strains to be nonessential for viral replication in cultured cells. Here, we constructed UL11 mutant viruses including a UL11 null mutant and three C-terminal truncated mutants, for further characterization of EHV-1 UL11 using bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) technology based on the neuropathogenic strain Ab4p...
November 17, 2017: Archives of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29149369/the-osps1-f-gene-regulates-growth-and-development-in-rice-by-modulating-photosynthetic-electron-transport-rate
#6
Rengasamy Ramamoorthy, Bhushan Vishal, Srinivasan Ramachandran, Prakash P Kumar
Ds insertion in rice OsPS1-F gene results in semi-dwarf plants with reduced tiller number and grain yield, while genetic complementation with OsPS1-F rescued the mutant phenotype. Photosynthetic electron transport is regulated in the chloroplast thylakoid membrane by multi-protein complexes. Studies about photosynthetic machinery and its subunits in crop plants are necessary, because they could be crucial for yield enhancement in the long term. Here, we report the characterization of OsPS1-F (encoding Oryza sativa PHOTOSYSTEM 1-F subunit) using a single copy Ds insertion rice mutant line...
November 17, 2017: Plant Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29149287/genomic-and-epigenomic-immunity-in-common-bean-the-unusual-features-of-nb-lrr-gene-family
#7
Manon M S Richard, Ariane Gratias, Vincent Thareau, Kyung Do Kim, Sandrine Balzergue, Johann Joets, Scott A Jackson, Valérie Geffroy
In plants, a key class of genes comprising most of disease resistance (R) genes encodes Nucleotide-binding leucine-rich repeat (NL) proteins. Access to common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) genome sequence provides unparalleled insight into the organization and evolution of this large gene family (∼400 NL) in this important crop. As observed in other plant species, most common bean NL are organized in cluster of genes. However, a particularity of common bean is that these clusters are often located in subtelomeric regions close to terminal knobs containing the satellite DNA khipu...
November 15, 2017: DNA Research: An International Journal for Rapid Publication of Reports on Genes and Genomes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29149285/draft-genome-analysis-provides-insights-into-the-fiber-yield-crude-protein-biosynthesis-and-vegetative-growth-of-domesticated-ramie-boehmeria-nivea-l-gaud
#8
Chan Liu, Liangbin Zeng, Siyuan Zhu, Lingqing Wu, Yanzhou Wang, Shouwei Tang, Hongwu Wang, Xia Zheng, Jian Zhao, Xiaorong Chen, Qiuzhong Dai, Touming Liu
Plentiful bast fiber, a high crude protein content, and vigorous vegetative growth make ramie a popular fiber and forage crop. Here, we report the draft genome of ramie, along with a genomic comparison and evolutionary analysis. The draft genome contained a sequence of approximately 335.6 Mb with 42,463 predicted genes. A high-density genetic map with 4,338 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) was developed and used to anchor the genome sequence, thus, creating an integrated genetic and physical map containing a 58...
November 15, 2017: DNA Research: An International Journal for Rapid Publication of Reports on Genes and Genomes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29149236/mutations-affecting-glycinergic-neurotransmission-in-hyperekplexia-increase-pain-sensitivity
#9
Pascal Henri Vuilleumier, Raphael Fritsche, Jürg Schliessbach, Bernhard Schmitt, Lars Arendt-Nielsen, Hanns Ulrich Zeilhofer, Michele Curatolo
Inhibitory interneurons in the spinal cord use glycine and GABA for fast inhibitory neurotransmission. While there is abundant research on these inhibitory pain pathways in animal models, their relevance in humans remains unclear, largely due to the limited possibility to manipulate selectively these pathways in humans. Hyperekplexia is a rare human disease that is caused by loss-of-function mutations in genes encoding for glycine receptors and glycine transporters. In the present study, we tested whether hyperekplexia patients display altered pain perception or central pain modulation compared with healthy subjects...
November 15, 2017: Brain: a Journal of Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29149205/kir-content-genotypes-associate-with-carriage-of-hepatitis-b-surface-antigen-e-antigen-and-hbv-viral-load-in-gambians
#10
Louis-Marie Yindom, Maimuna Mendy, Christopher Bodimeade, Caroline Chambion, Peter Aka, Hilton C Whittle, Sarah L Rowland-Jones, Robert Walton
BACKGROUND: Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) causes over 800,000 deaths worldwide annually, mainly in low income countries, and incidence is rising rapidly in the developed world with the spread of hepatitis B (HBV) and C (HCV) viruses. Natural Killer (NK) cells protect against viral infections and tumours by killing abnormal cells recognised by Killer-cell Immunoglobulin-like Receptors (KIR). Thus genes and haplotypes encoding these receptors may be important in determining both outcome of initial hepatitis infection and subsequent chronic liver disease and tumour formation...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29149186/cell-cycle-time-series-gene-expression-data-encoded-as-cyclic-attractors-in-hopfield-systems
#11
Anthony Szedlak, Spencer Sims, Nicholas Smith, Giovanni Paternostro, Carlo Piermarocchi
Modern time series gene expression and other omics data sets have enabled unprecedented resolution of the dynamics of cellular processes such as cell cycle and response to pharmaceutical compounds. In anticipation of the proliferation of time series data sets in the near future, we use the Hopfield model, a recurrent neural network based on spin glasses, to model the dynamics of cell cycle in HeLa (human cervical cancer) and S. cerevisiae cells. We study some of the rich dynamical properties of these cyclic Hopfield systems, including the ability of populations of simulated cells to recreate experimental expression data and the effects of noise on the dynamics...
November 17, 2017: PLoS Computational Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29149170/vibrio-parahaemolyticus-vtra-is-a-membrane-bound-regulator-and-is-activated-via-oligomerization
#12
Ryu Okada, Shigeaki Matsuda, Tetsuya Iida
Vibrio parahaemolyticus is a Gram-negative pathogen that causes food-borne gastroenteritis. A major virulence determinant of the organism is a type III secretion system (T3SS2) encoded on a pathogenicity island, Vp-PAI. Vp-PAI gene expression is regulated by two transcriptional regulators, VtrA and VtrB, whose N-terminal regions share homology with an OmpR-family DNA-binding domain. VtrA activates the gene expression of VtrB, which in turn activates Vp-PAI gene expression; however, the mechanism of this transcriptional activation by VtrA is not well understood...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29149087/taxonomic-classification-for-living-organisms-using-convolutional-neural-networks
#13
Saed Khawaldeh, Usama Pervaiz, Mohammed Elsharnoby, Alaa Eddin Alchalabi, Nayel Al-Zubi
Taxonomic classification has a wide-range of applications such as finding out more about evolutionary history. Compared to the estimated number of organisms that nature harbors, humanity does not have a thorough comprehension of to which specific classes they belong. The classification of living organisms can be done in many machine learning techniques. However, in this study, this is performed using convolutional neural networks. Moreover, a DNA encoding technique is incorporated in the algorithm to increase performance and avoid misclassifications...
November 17, 2017: Genes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29149077/rna-virus-evolution-via-a-quasispecies-based-model-reveals-a-drug-target-with-a-high-barrier-to-resistance
#14
Richard J Bingham, Eric C Dykeman, Reidun Twarock
The rapid occurrence of therapy-resistant mutant strains provides a challenge for anti-viral therapy. An ideal drug target would be a highly conserved molecular feature in the viral life cycle, such as the packaging signals in the genomes of RNA viruses that encode an instruction manual for their efficient assembly. The ubiquity of this assembly code in RNA viruses, including major human pathogens, suggests that it confers selective advantages. However, their impact on viral evolution cannot be assessed in current models of viral infection that lack molecular details of virus assembly...
November 17, 2017: Viruses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29149056/characterization-of-ovine-a3z1-restriction-properties-against-small-ruminant-lentiviruses-srlvs
#15
Lorena de Pablo-Maiso, Idoia Glaria, Helena Crespo, Estanislao Nistal-Villán, Valgerdur Andrésdóttir, Damián de Andrés, Beatriz Amorena, Ramsés Reina
Intrinsic factors of the innate immune system include the apolipoprotein B editing enzyme catalytic polypeptide-like 3 (APOBEC3) protein family. APOBEC3 inhibits replication of different virus families by cytosine deamination of viral DNA and a not fully characterized cytosine deamination-independent mechanism. Sheep are susceptible to small ruminant lentivirus (SRLVs) infection and contain three APOBEC3 genes encoding four proteins (A3Z1, Z2, Z3 and Z2-Z3) with yet not deeply described antiviral properties...
November 17, 2017: Viruses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29149043/local-homing-navigation-based-on-the-moment-model-for-landmark-distribution-and-features
#16
Changmin Lee, DaeEun Kim
[-10]For local homing navigation, an agent is supposed to return home based on the surrounding environmental information. According to the snapshot model, the home snapshot and the current view are compared to determine the homing direction. In this paper, we propose a novel homing navigation method using the moment model. The suggested moment model also follows the snapshot theory to compare the home snapshot and the current view, but the moment model defines a moment of landmark inertia as the sum of the product of the feature of the landmark particle with the square of its distance...
November 17, 2017: Sensors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29149036/identification-of-the-caprine-keratin-associated-protein-20-2-kap20-2-gene-and-its-effect-on-cashmere-traits
#17
Jiqing Wang, Longjie Che, Jon G H Hickford, Huitong Zhou, Zhiyun Hao, Yuzhu Luo, Jiang Hu, Xiu Liu, Shaobin Li
The gene encoding the high glycine/tyrosine keratin-associated protein 20-2 (KAP20-2) gene has been described in humans, but has not been identified in any livestock species. A search for similar sequences in the caprine genome using the human KAP20-2 gene (KRTAP20-2) revealed a homologous sequence on chromosome 1. Three different banding patterns representing distinct sequences (A-C) in Longdong cashmere goats were identified using polymerase chain reaction-single stranded conformational polymorphism (PCR-SSCP) analysis...
November 17, 2017: Genes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29149017/the-ms6-mycolyl-arabinogalactan-esterase-lysb-is-essential-for-an-efficient-mycobacteriophage-induced-lysis
#18
Adriano M Gigante, Cheri M Hampton, Rebecca S Dillard, Filipa Gil, Maria João Catalão, José Moniz-Pereira, Elizabeth R Wright, Madalena Pimentel
All dsDNA phages encode two proteins involved in host lysis, an endolysin and a holin that target the peptidoglycan and cytoplasmic membrane, respectively. Bacteriophages that infect Gram-negative bacteria encode additional proteins, the spanins, involved in disruption of the outer membrane. Recently, a gene located in the lytic cassette was identified in the genomes of mycobacteriophages, which encodes a protein (LysB) with mycolyl-arabinogalactan esterase activity. Taking in consideration the complex mycobacterial cell envelope that mycobacteriophages encounter during their life cycle, it is valuable to evaluate the role of these proteins in lysis...
November 17, 2017: Viruses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29148973/the-somatically-generated-portion-of-the-t-cell-receptor-cdr3%C3%AE-contributes-to-the-mhc-allele-specificity-of-the-t-cell-receptor
#19
Philippa Marrack, Sai Harsha Krovi, Daniel Silberman, Janice White, Eleanor Kushnir, Maki Nakayama, James Crooks, Thomas Danhorn, Sonia Leach, Randy Anselment, James Scott-Browne, Laurent Gapin, John Kappler
Mature T cells bearing αβ T cell receptors react with foreign antigens bound to alleles of major histocompatibility complex proteins (MHC) that they were exposed to during their development in the thymus, a phenomenon known as positive selection. The structural basis for positive selection has long been debated. Here, using mice expressing one of two different T cell receptor β chains and various MHC alleles, we show that positive selection-induced MHC bias of T cell receptors is affected both by the germline encoded elements of the T cell receptor α and β chain and, surprisingly, dramatically affected by the non germ line encoded portions of CDR3 of the T cell receptor α chain...
November 17, 2017: ELife
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29148737/site-specific-one-to-one-click-coupling-of-single-proteins-to-individual-carbon-nanotubes-a-single-molecule-approach
#20
Mark Freeley, Harley Worthy, Rochelle Ahmed, Ben Bowen, Daniel Watkins, John Emyr Macdonald, Ming Zheng, Darran Dafydd Jones, Matteo Palma
We report the site-specific coupling of single proteins to individual carbon nanotubes (CNTs) in solution and with single-molecule control. Using an orthogonal Click reaction, Green Fluorescent Protein (GFP) was engineered to contain a genetically encoded azide group and then bound to CNT ends in different configurations: in close proximity or at longer distances from the GFP's functional centre. Atomic force microscopy and fluorescence analysis in solution and on surfaces at the single-protein level confirmed the importance of bioengineering optimal protein attachment sites to achieve direct protein-nanotube communication and bridging...
November 17, 2017: Journal of the American Chemical Society
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