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Mitsuko Kishi-Kaboshi, Shigemi Seo, Akira Takahashi, Hirohiko Hirochika
Phenylpropanoids including diverse compounds, such as monolignols and hydroxycinnamic acids (HCAAs), are essential for land plants to protect them against abiotic stresses, and create physical and chemical barriers to pathogen infection. However, the production control of these compounds against to pathogens has been poorly understood. Previously we showed that a MAMP (microbe-associated molecular pattern) -responsive MAPK (mitogen-activated protein kinase) cascade (MKK4-MPK3/MPK6) comprehensively induced the expression of cinnamate/monolignol synthesis genes in rice cells...
March 19, 2018: Plant & Cell Physiology
Arthur Aronson
The spore coat of Bacilli is a relatively complex structure comprised of about 70 species of proteins in 2 or 3 layers. While some are involved in assembly or protection, the regulation of many are not well defined so lacZ transcriptional fusions were constructed to six Bacillus anthracis spore coat genes in order to gain insight into their possible functions. The genes were selected on the basis of the location of the encoded proteins within the coat and distribution among spore forming species. Conditions tested were temperature and media either as solid or liquid...
March 17, 2018: FEMS Microbiology Letters
Jade-Emmanuelle Deshaies, Lulzim Shkreta, Alexander J Moszczynski, Hadjara Sidibé, Sabrina Semmler, Aurélien Fouillen, Estelle R Bennett, Uriya Bekenstein, Laurie Destroismaisons, Johanne Toutant, Quentin Delmotte, Kathryn Volkening, Stéphanie Stabile, Anaïs Aulas, Yousra Khalfallah, Hermona Soreq, Antonio Nanci, Michael J Strong, Benoit Chabot, Christine Vande Velde
The RNA binding proteins TDP-43 (encoded by TARDBP) and hnRNP A1 (HNRNPA1) are each mutated in certain amyotrophic lateral sclerosis cases and are often mislocalized in cytoplasmic aggregates within motor neurons of affected patients. Cytoplasmic inclusions of TDP-43, which are accompanied by a depletion of nuclear TDP-43, are observed in most amyotrophic lateral sclerosis cases and nearly half of frontotemporal dementia cases. Here, we report that TDP-43 binds HNRNPA1 pre-mRNA and modulates its splicing, and that depletion of nuclear TDP-43 results in increased inclusion of a cassette exon in the HNRNPA1 transcript, and consequently elevated protein levels of an isoform containing an elongated prion-like domain, referred to as hnRNP A1B...
March 19, 2018: Brain: a Journal of Neurology
Carlos A Campos, Anna J Bowen, Carolyn W Roman, Richard D Palmiter
Animals must respond to various threats to survive. Neurons that express calcitonin gene-related peptide in the parabrachial nucleus (CGRPPBN neurons) relay sensory signals that contribute to satiation and pain-induced fear behaviour, but it is unclear how they encode these distinct processes. Here, by recording calcium transients in vivo from individual neurons in mice, we show that most CGRPPBN neurons are activated by noxious cutaneous (shock, heat, itch) and visceral stimuli (lipopolysaccharide). The same neurons are inhibited during feeding, but become activated during satiation, consistent with evidence that CGRPPBN neurons prevent overeating...
March 21, 2018: Nature
Skyler L Jackman, Christopher H Chen, Selmaan N Chettih, Shay Q Neufeld, Iain R Drew, Chimuanya K Agba, Isabella Flaquer, Alexis N Stefano, Thomas J Kennedy, Justine E Belinsky, Keiramarie Roberston, Celia C Beron, Bernardo L Sabatini, Christopher D Harvey, Wade G Regehr
Optical methods of interrogating neural circuits have emerged as powerful tools for understanding how the brain drives behaviors. Optogenetic proteins are widely used to control neuronal activity, while genetically encoded fluorescent reporters are used to monitor activity. These proteins are often expressed by injecting viruses, which frequently leads to inconsistent experiments due to misalignment of expression and optical components. Here, we describe how silk fibroin films simplify optogenetic experiments by providing targeted delivery of viruses...
March 20, 2018: Cell Reports
Seiichiro Amemiya, A David Redish
During decision making, hippocampal activity encodes information sometimes about present and sometimes about potential future plans. The mechanisms underlying this transition remain unknown. Building on the evidence that gamma oscillations at different frequencies (low gamma [LG], 30-55 Hz; high gamma [HG], 60-90 Hz; and epsilon, 100-140 Hz) reflect inputs from different circuits, we identified how changes in those frequencies reflect different information-processing states. Using a unique noradrenergic manipulation by clonidine, which shifted both neural representations and gamma states, we found that future representations depended on gamma components...
March 20, 2018: Cell Reports
Noura S Abul-Husn, Xiping Cheng, Alexander H Li, Yurong Xin, Claudia Schurmann, Panayiotis Stevis, Yashu Liu, Julia Kozlitina, Stefan Stender, G Craig Wood, Ann N Stepanchick, Matthew D Still, Shane McCarthy, Colm O'Dushlaine, Jonathan S Packer, Suganthi Balasubramanian, Nehal Gosalia, David Esopi, Sun Y Kim, Semanti Mukherjee, Alexander E Lopez, Erin D Fuller, John Penn, Xin Chu, Jonathan Z Luo, Uyenlinh L Mirshahi, David J Carey, Christopher D Still, Michael D Feldman, Aeron Small, Scott M Damrauer, Daniel J Rader, Brian Zambrowicz, William Olson, Andrew J Murphy, Ingrid B Borecki, Alan R Shuldiner, Jeffrey G Reid, John D Overton, George D Yancopoulos, Helen H Hobbs, Jonathan C Cohen, Omri Gottesman, Tanya M Teslovich, Aris Baras, Tooraj Mirshahi, Jesper Gromada, Frederick E Dewey
BACKGROUND: Elucidation of the genetic factors underlying chronic liver disease may reveal new therapeutic targets. METHODS: We used exome sequence data and electronic health records from 46,544 participants in the DiscovEHR human genetics study to identify genetic variants associated with serum levels of alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and aspartate aminotransferase (AST). Variants that were replicated in three additional cohorts (12,527 persons) were evaluated for association with clinical diagnoses of chronic liver disease in DiscovEHR study participants and two independent cohorts (total of 37,173 persons) and with histopathological severity of liver disease in 2391 human liver samples...
March 22, 2018: New England Journal of Medicine
Amanda C Carroll, Alex Wong
Plasmids are extrachromosomal DNA elements that can be found throughout bacteria, as well as in other domains of life. Nonetheless, the evolutionary processes underlying the persistence of plasmids are incompletely understood. Bacterial plasmids may encode genes for traits which are sometimes beneficial to their hosts, such as antimicrobial resistance, virulence, heavy metal tolerance, and the catabolism of unique nutrient sources. In the absence of selection for these traits, however, plasmids generally impose a fitness cost on their hosts...
March 21, 2018: Canadian Journal of Microbiology
Wing Lee Chan, Magdalena Steiner, Tomasz Witkos, Johannes Egerer, Björn Busse, Shuji Mizumoto, Jan M Pestka, Haikuo Zhang, Ingrid Hausser, Layal Abo Khayal, Claus-Eric Ott, Mateusz Kolanczyk, Bettina Willie, Thorsten Schinke, Chiara Paganini, Antonio Rossi, Kazuyuki Sugahara, Michael Amling, Petra Knaus, Danny Chan, Martin Lowe, Stefan Mundlos, Uwe Kornak
Gerodermia osteodysplastica (GO) is characterized by skin laxity and early-onset osteoporosis. GORAB, the responsible disease gene, encodes a small Golgi protein of poorly characterized function. To circumvent neonatal lethality of the GorabNull full knockout, Gorab was conditionally inactivated in mesenchymal progenitor cells (Prx1-cre), pre-osteoblasts (Runx2-cre), and late osteoblasts/osteocytes (Dmp1-cre), respectively. While in all three lines a reduction in trabecular bone density was evident, only GorabPrx1 and GorabRunx2 mutants showed dramatically thinned, porous cortical bone and spontaneous fractures...
March 21, 2018: PLoS Genetics
Qian Fei, E-Bin Gao, Biao Liu, Yao Wei, Degang Ning
Type II toxin-antitoxin (TA) systems play important roles in bacterial stress survival by regulating cell growth or death. They are highly abundant in cyanobacteria yet remain poorly characterized. Here, we report the identification and regulation of a putative type II TA system from Synechocystis PCC6803, VapBC15. The VapBC15 system is encoded by the chromosomal operon vapBC15 . Exogenous expression of VapC15 dramatically arrested cell growth of Escherichia coli and reduced the numbers of colony-forming units (CFU)...
March 21, 2018: Genes
Songzhen He, Xiaoling Tong, Minjin Han, Yanmin Bai, Fangyin Dai
The tyrosine kinases (TKs) are important parts of metazoan signaling pathways and play significant roles in cell growth, development, apoptosis and disease. Genome-wide characterization of TKs has been conducted in many metazoans, however, systematic information about this family in Lepidoptera is still lacking. We retrieved 33 TK-encoding genes in silkworm and classified them into 25 subfamilies by sequence analysis, without members in AXL, FRK, PDGFR, STYK1 and TIE subfamilies. Although domain sequences in each subfamily are conserved, TKs in vertebrates tend to be remarkably conserved and stable...
March 21, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Zhenzhen Wang, Lin Huang, Bihua Wu, Jiliang Hu, Zilong Jiang, Pengfei Qi, Youliang Zheng, Dengcai Liu
Glu-1Ay , one of six genes encoding a high molecular weight glutenin subunit (HMW-GS), is frequently silenced in hexaploid common wheat. Here, an active allele of Glu-1Ay was integrated from wild emmer wheat ( Triticum turgidum ssp. dicoccoides ) accession D97 into the common wheat ( Triticum aestivum ) cultivar Chuannong 16 via the repeated self-fertilization of the pentaploid interspecific hybrid, culminating in the selection of a line TaAy7-40 shown to express the wild emmer Glu-1Ay allele. The open reading frame of this allele was a 1830 bp long sequence, demonstrated by its heterologous expression in Escherichia coli to encode a 608-residue polypeptide...
March 21, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Andrew VonHandorf, Francisco Javier Sánchez-Martín, Jacek Biesiada, Hongxia Zhang, Xiang Zhang, Mario Medvedovic, Alvaro Puga
Hexavalent chromium compounds are well-established respiratory carcinogens used in industrial processes. While inhalation exposure constitutes an occupational risk affecting mostly chromium workers, environmental exposure from drinking water is a widespread gastrointestinal cancer risk, affecting millions of people throughout the world. Cr(VI) is genotoxic, forming protein-Cr-DNA adducts and silencing tumor suppressor genes, but its mechanism of action at the molecular level is poorly understood. Our prior work using FAIRE showed that Cr(VI) disrupted the binding of transcription factors CTCF and AP-1 to their cognate chromatin sites...
March 21, 2018: Epigenetics: Official Journal of the DNA Methylation Society
Marco K Wittmann, Patricia L Lockwood, Matthew F S Rushworth
Activity in a network of areas spanning the superior temporal sulcus, dorsomedial frontal cortex, and anterior cingulate cortex is concerned with how nonhuman primates negotiate the social worlds in which they live. Central aspects of these circuits are retained in humans. Activity in these areas codes for primates' interactions with one another, their attempts to find out about one another, and their attempts to prevent others from finding out too much about themselves. Moreover, important features of the social world, such as dominance status, cooperation, and competition, modulate activity in these areas...
March 21, 2018: Annual Review of Neuroscience
Sicheng Tang, Yang Zhang, Pravat Dhakal, Laura Ravelo, Cheyenne L Anderson, Kevin M Collins, Françisco M Raymo
A photochemical strategy to encode fluorescence signals in vivo with spatial control was designed around the unique properties of a photoactivatable borondipyrromethene (BODIPY). The photoinduced disconnection of two oxazines, flanking a single BODIPY, in two consecutive steps produces a mixture of three emissive molecules with resolved fluorescence inside polymer beads. The relative amounts and emission intensities of the three fluorophores can be regulated precisely in each bead by adjusting the dose of activating photons to mark individual particles with distinct codes of fluorescence signals...
March 21, 2018: Journal of the American Chemical Society
Lei Lei, Kesava Phaneendra Cherukuri, Uria Alcolombri, Diana Meltzer, Dan S Tawfik
Marine organisms release dimethylsulfide (DMS) via cleavage of dimethylsulfoniopropionate (DMSP). Different genes encoding proteins with DMSP lyase activity are known, yet these exhibit highly variable levels of activity. Most assigned bacterial DMSP lyases, including DddK, DddL, DddQ, DddW and DddY, appear to belong to one, cupin-like superfamily. Here, we attempted to define and map this superfamily dubbed Cupin-DLL: DMSP lyases and lyase-like. To this end, we have pursued the characterization of various recombinant DMSP lyases belonging to this superfamily of metallo-enzymes, and especially of DddY and DddL that seem to be the most active DMSP lyases in this superfamily...
March 21, 2018: Biochemistry
Liaoyuan Wang, Qing Wang, Yue Zhou, Qian Xue, Xiao Sun, Zhinong Wang, Guangyu Ji
RATIONALE: Carney complex (CNC) accounts for up to two-thirds of familial cardiac myxoma, which is a rare autosomal dominant syndrome characterized by multiple mucocutaneous lesions and endocrine tumors. Mutation in the cAMP-dependent protein kinase A (PKA) regulatory (R) subunit 1 (PRKAR1A) gene has been identified as a cause of CNC. In this article, we report 3 first-degree relatives with cardiac myxoma who were diagnosed with CNC and underwent surgical resection. PRESENTING CONCERNS: The recurrence of cardiac myxoma was detected in a 45-year-old male by echocardiography 5 years after the resection was carried out, without any additional symptoms...
March 2018: Medicine (Baltimore)
Lihong Wang, Chih-Hsin Tang, Tingting Lu, Yi Sun, Guohong Xu, Chien-Chung Huang, Shun-Fa Yang, Chen-Ming Su
Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is a chronic systemic inflammatory disease. To date, the specific mechanisms that drive RA disease remain unknown and provide the impetus for genetic investigations into the development of RA. Researchers hope to identify gene polymorphisms that could serve as treatment targets in patients with RA. We have previously suggested that the gene encoding the pro-inflammatory adipokine resistin (RETN) may correlate with RA development. In this report, we sought to determine whether selected RETN single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) are associated with RA susceptibility and clinicopathological characteristics...
March 2018: Medicine (Baltimore)
Jane E Wilcox, Ray E Hershberger
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: To describe recent advancements in cardiovascular genetics made possible by leveraging next-generation sequencing (NGS), and to provide a framework for practical applications of genetic testing for hypertrophic (HCM), dilated (DCM), and arrhythmogenic right ventricular cardiomyopathies (ARVC). RECENT FINDINGS: The availability of NGS has made possible extensive reference databases. These, combined with recent initiatives to compile previously siloed commercial and research cardiomyopathy data sets, provide a more powerful and precise approach to cardiovascular genetic medicine...
March 19, 2018: Current Opinion in Cardiology
Patrycja Plewka, Agnieszka Thompson, Maciej Szymanski, Przemyslaw Nuc, Katarzyna Knop, Agnieszka Rasinska, Aleksandra Bialkowska, Zofia Szweykowska-Kulinska, Wojciech M Karlowski, Artur Jarmolowski
The Arabidopsis GUT15 RNA belongs to a class of noncoding RNAs that are expressed from the intergenic regions of protein-coding genes. We show that the RNA polymerase II transcribed GUT15 transcript serves as a precursor for two stable RNA species, a tRNA-like molecule and GUT15-tRF-F5, which are both encoded by the final intron in the GUT15 gene. The GUT15-encoded tRNA-like molecule cannot be autonomously transcribed by RNA polymerase III. However, this molecule contains a CCA motif, suggesting that it may enter the tRNA maturation pathway...
March 21, 2018: RNA Biology
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