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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27933073/mistletoe-berry-outline-mapping-with-a-path-curve-function-and-recording-the-circadian-rhythm-of-their-phenotypic-shape-change
#1
Renatus Derbidge, Stephan Baumgartner, Peter Heusser
This paper presents a discovery: the change of the outline shape of mistletoe (Viscum album ssp. album) berries in vivo and in situ during ripening. It was found that a plant organ that is usually considered to merely increase in size actually changes shape in a specific rhythmic fashion. We introduce a new approach to chronobiological research on a macro-phenotypic scale to trace changes over long periods of time (with a resolution from hours to months) by using a dynamic form-determining parameter called Lambda (λ)...
2016: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27931190/daily-rhythmicity-of-clock-gene-transcript-levels-in-fast-and-slow-muscle-fibers-from-chinese-perch-siniperca-chuatsi
#2
Ping Wu, Yu-Long Li, Jia Cheng, Lin Chen, Xin Zhu, Zhi-Guo Feng, Jian-She Zhang, Wu-Ying Chu
BACKGROUND: Clock genes are considered to be the molecular core of biological clock in vertebrates and they are directly involved in the regulation of daily rhythms in vertebrate tissues such as skeletal muscles. Fish myotomes are composed of anatomically segregated fast and slow muscle fibers that possess different metabolic and contractile properties. To date, there is no report on the characterization of the circadian clock system components of slow muscles in fish. RESULTS: In the present study, the molecular clock components (clock, arntl1/2, cry1/2/3, cry-dash, npas2, nr1d1/2, per1/2/3, rorα and tim genes) and their daily transcription levels were characterized in slow and fast muscles of Chinese perch (Siniperca chuatsi)...
December 8, 2016: BMC Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27931005/microfluidic-immunosensor-for-rapid-and-highly-sensitive-salivary-cortisol-quantification
#3
V Pinto, P Sousa, S O Catarino, M Correia-Neves, G Minas
This paper presents a novel poly(dimethylsiloxane) (PDMS) microfluidic immunosensor that integrates a complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor (CMOS) optical detection system for a rapid and highly-sensitive quantification of salivary cortisol. The simple and non-invasive method of saliva sampling provides an interesting alternative to the blood, allowing a fast sampling at short intervals, relevant for many clinical diagnostic applications. The developed approach is based on the covalent immobilization of a coating antibody (Ab), a polyclonal anti-IgG, onto a treated PDMS surface...
November 30, 2016: Biosensors & Bioelectronics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27929387/real-time-analysis-of-isoprene-in-breath-by-using-ultraviolet-absorption-spectroscopy-with-a-hollow-optical-fiber-gas-cell
#4
Takuro Iwata, Takashi Katagiri, Yuji Matsuura
A breath analysis system based on ultraviolet-absorption spectroscopy was developed by using a hollow optical fiber as a gas cell for real-time monitoring of isoprene in breath. The hollow optical fiber functions as an ultra-small-volume gas cell with a long path. The measurement sensitivity of the system was evaluated by using nitric-oxide gas as a gas sample. The evaluation result showed that the developed system, using a laser-driven, high-intensity light source and a 3-m-long, aluminum-coated hollow optical fiber, could successfully measure nitric-oxide gas with a 50 ppb concentration...
December 5, 2016: Sensors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27929128/extraordinary-behavioral-entrainment-following-circadian-rhythm-bifurcation-in-mice
#5
Elizabeth M Harrison, Thijs J Walbeek, Jonathan Sun, Jeremy Johnson, Qays Poonawala, Michael R Gorman
The mammalian circadian timing system uses light to synchronize endogenously generated rhythms with the environmental day. Entrainment to schedules that deviate significantly from 24 h (T24) has been viewed as unlikely because the circadian pacemaker appears capable only of small, incremental responses to brief light exposures. Challenging this view, we demonstrate that simple manipulations of light alone induce extreme plasticity in the circadian system of mice. Firstly, exposure to dim nocturnal illumination (<0...
December 8, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27929109/a-novel-method-to-visualise-and-quantify-circadian-misalignment
#6
Dorothee Fischer, Céline Vetter, Till Roenneberg
The circadian clock governs virtually all processes in the human body, including sleep-wake behaviour. Circadian misalignment describes the off-set between sleep-wake cycles and clock-regulated physiology. This strain is predominantly caused by external (societal) demands including shift work, early school start times and fast travels across time zones. Sleeping at the 'wrong' internal time can jeopardise health and safety, and we therefore need a good quantification of this phenomenon. Here, we propose a novel method to quantify the mistiming of sleep-wake rhythms and demonstrate its versatility in day workers and shift workers...
December 8, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27928822/-solanum-tuberosum-zpr1-encodes-a-light-regulated-nuclear-dna-binding-protein-adjusting-the-circadian-expression-of-stbbx24-to-light-cycle
#7
Agnieszka Kiełbowicz-Matuk, Jagoda Czarnecka, Ewa Banachowicz, Pascal Rey, Tadeusz Rorat
ZPR1 proteins belong to the C4-type of zinc finger coordinators known in animal cells to interact with other proteins and participate in cell growth and proliferation. In contrast, the current knowledge regarding plant ZPR1 proteins is very scarce. Here, we identify a novel potato nuclear factor belonging to this family and named StZPR1. StZPR1 is specifically expressed in photosynthetic organs during the light period and the ZPR1 protein is located in the nuclear chromatin fraction. Based on modeling and experimental analyses, we reveal the StZPR1 ability to bind the circadian DNA cis motif 'CAACAGCATC', named CIRC and present in the promoter of the clock-controlled double B-box StBBX24 gene, the expression of which peaks in the middle of the day...
December 8, 2016: Plant, Cell & Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27927713/high-fibre-diet-and-acetate-supplementation-change-the-gut-microbiota-and-prevent-the-development-of-hypertension-and-heart-failure-in-doca-salt-hypertensive-mice
#8
Francine Z Marques, Erin M Nelson, Po-Yin Chu, Duncan Horlock, April Fiedler, Mark Ziemann, Jian K Tan, Sanjaya Kuruppu, Niwanthi W Rajapakse, Assam El-Osta, Charles R Mackay, David M Kaye
BACKGROUND: -Dietary intake of fruit and vegetables is associated with lower incidence of hypertension, but the mechanisms involved have not been elucidated. Here we evaluated the effect of a high fibre diet and supplementation with the short-chain fatty acid (SFCA) acetate on the gut microbiota and the prevention of cardiovascular disease. METHODS: -Gut microbiome, cardiorenal structure/function and blood pressure were examined in sham and mineralocorticoid-excess treated mice with a control diet, high fibre diet or acetate supplementation...
December 7, 2016: Circulation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27926536/a-minimal-titration-model-of-the-mammalian-dynamical-heat-shock-response
#9
Aude Sivéry, Emmanuel Courtade, Quentin Thommen
Environmental stress, such as oxidative or heat stress, induces the activation of the heat shock response (HSR) and leads to an increase in the heat shock proteins (HSPs) level. These HSPs act as molecular chaperones to maintain cellular proteostasis. Controlled by highly intricate regulatory mechanisms, having stress-induced activation and feedback regulations with multiple partners, the HSR is still incompletely understood. In this context, we propose a minimal molecular model for the gene regulatory network of the HSR that reproduces quantitatively different heat shock experiments both on heat shock factor 1 (HSF1) and HSPs activities...
December 7, 2016: Physical Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27925286/bone-resorption-is-regulated-by-circadian-clock-in-osteoblasts
#10
Takeshi Takarada, Cheng Xu, Hiroki Ochi, Ryota Nakazato, Daisuke Yamada, Saki Nakamura, Ayumi Kodama, Shigeki Shimba, Michihiro Mieda, Kazuya Fukasawa, Kakeru Ozaki, Takashi Iezaki, Koichi Fujikawa, Yukio Yoneda, Rika Numano, Akiko Hida, Hajime Tei, Shu Takeda, Eiichi Hinoi
We have previously shown that endochondral ossification is finely regulated by the Clock system expressed in chondrocytes during postnatal skeletogenesis. Here we show a sophisticated modulation of bone resorption and bone mass by the Clock system through its expression in bone-forming osteoblasts. Brain and muscle aryl hydrocarbon receptor nuclear translocator-like protein 1 (Bmal1) and Period1 (Per1) were expressed with oscillatory rhythmicity in the bone in vivo, and circadian rhythm was also observed in cultured osteoblasts of Per1::luciferase transgenic mice...
December 7, 2016: Journal of Bone and Mineral Research: the Official Journal of the American Society for Bone and Mineral Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27925052/night-eating-syndrome-how-to-treat-it
#11
Thisciane Ferreira Pinto, Francisco Girleudo Coutinho da Silva, Veralice Meireles Sales de Bruin, Pedro Felipe Carvalhedo de Bruin
Night eating syndrome (NES) is characterized by caloric intake ≥ 25% of total daily after dinner and/or by two or more weekly nocturnal awakenings accompanied by food ingestion. Causes of NES are not entirely clear and seem to involve a desynchronization between the circadian rhythms of food ingestion and sleep, resulting in a delayed pattern of food intake. Estimates of the prevalence of NES in the general population are around 1.5%, and although much higher frequencies have been described in obese individuals, a causal relationship between NES and obesity is not clearly established...
October 2016: Revista da Associação Médica Brasileira
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27924279/accelerating-in-vitro-studies-on-circadian-clock-systems-using-an-automated-sampling-device
#12
Yoshihiko Furuike, Jun Abe, Atsushi Mukaiyama, Shuji Akiyama
KaiC, a core protein of the cyanobacterial circadian clock, is rhythmically autophosphorylated and autodephosphorylated with a period of approximately 24 h in the presence of two other Kai proteins, KaiA and KaiB. In vitro experiments to investigate the KaiC phosphorylation cycle consume considerable time and effort. To automate the fractionation, quantification, and evaluation steps, we developed a suite consisting of an automated sampling device equipped with an 8-channel temperature controller and accompanying analysis software...
2016: Biophysics and Physicobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27923457/micrornas-in-the-hypothalamus
#13
REVIEW
Mohammed Taouis
The brain is considered a major site for microRNA (miRNA) expression; as evidenced by several studies reporting microarray data of different brain substructures. The hypothalamus is among the brain regions that plays a crucial role in integrating signals from other brain nuclei as well as environmental, hormonal, metabolic and neuronal signals from the periphery in order to deliver an adequate response. The hypothalamus controls vital functions such as reproduction, energy homeostasis, water balance, circadian rhythm and stress...
October 2016: Best Practice & Research. Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27923220/differential-regulation-of-bmal1-clock-and-endothelial-signaling-in-the-aortic-arch-and-ligated-common-carotid-artery
#14
Xia Shang, Paramita Pati, Ciprian B Anea, David J R Fulton, R Daniel Rudic
The circadian clock is rhythmically expressed in blood vessels, but the interaction between the circadian clock and disturbed blood flow remains unclear. We examined the relationships between BMAL1 and CLOCK and 2 regulators of endothelial function, AKT1 and endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS), in vascular regions of altered blood flow. We found that the aortic arch from WT mice exhibited reduced sensitivity to acetylcholine (Ach)-mediated relaxation relative to the thoracic aorta. In Clock-mutant (mut) mice the aorta exhibited a reduced sensitivity to Ach...
December 7, 2016: Journal of Vascular Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27922614/molecular-mechanisms-at-the-core-of-the-plant-circadian-oscillator
#15
REVIEW
Maria A Nohales, Steve A Kay
Circadian clocks are endogenous timekeeping networks that allow organisms to align their physiology with their changing environment and to perform biological processes at the most relevant times of the day and year. Initial feedback-loop models of the oscillator have been enriched by emerging evidence highlighting the increasing variety of factors and mechanisms that contribute to the generation of rhythms. In this Review, we consider the two major input pathways that connect the circadian clock of the model plant Arabidopsis thaliana to its environment and discuss recent advances in understanding of how transcriptional, post-translational and post-transcriptional mechanisms contribute to clock function...
December 2016: Nature Structural & Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27922612/the-intricate-dance-of-post-translational-modifications-in-the-rhythm-of-life
#16
REVIEW
Arisa Hirano, Ying-Hui Fu, Louis J Ptáček
Endogenous biological rhythms with approximately 24-h periodicity are generated by the circadian clock, in which clock genes coordinate with one another and form a transcriptional-translational negative feedback loop. The precision of the circadian clock is further regulated by multiple post-translational modifications (PTMs), including phosphorylation, ubiquitination, acetylation and SUMOylation. Here, we review current understanding of the regulatory mechanisms of the core clock proteins by PTMs in the mammalian circadian clock...
December 6, 2016: Nature Structural & Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27922611/genetic-and-epigenomic-mechanisms-of-mammalian-circadian-transcription
#17
REVIEW
Romeo Papazyan, Yuxiang Zhang, Mitchell A Lazar
The mammalian molecular clock comprises a complex network of transcriptional programs that integrates environmental signals with physiological pathways in a tissue-specific manner. Emerging technologies are extending knowledge of basic clock features by uncovering their underlying molecular mechanisms, thus setting the stage for a 'systems' view of the molecular clock. Here we discuss how recent data from genome-wide genetic and epigenetic studies have informed the understanding of clock function. In addition to its importance in human physiology and disease, the clock mechanism provides an ideal model to assess general principles of dynamic transcription regulation in vivo...
December 6, 2016: Nature Structural & Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27922609/the-molecular-basis-of-metabolic-cycles-and-their-relationship-to-circadian-rhythms
#18
REVIEW
Jane Mellor
Metabolic cycles result from the partitioning of oxidative and reductive metabolism into rhythmic phases of gene expression and oscillating post-translational protein modifications. Relatively little is known about how these switches in gene expression are controlled, although recent studies have suggested that transcription itself may play a central role. This review explores the molecular basis of the metabolic and gene-expression oscillations in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, as well as how they relate to other biological time-keeping mechanisms, such as circadian rhythms...
December 6, 2016: Nature Structural & Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27922568/sex-differences-in-the-relationship-between-depressive-symptoms-and-actigraphic-assessments-of-sleep-and-rest-activity-rhythms-in-a-population-based-sample
#19
Kaitlin Hanley White, Meredith E Rumble, Ruth M Benca
OBJECTIVE: Depression is often associated with disruptions in sleep and circadian rhythms. We aimed to confirm these relationships via actigraphic assessment in a large, population-based sample, and test whether sex moderates these relationships. METHODS: 418 participants (age 35-85, mean 57.04, SD = 11.47) completed questionnaires and one week of actigraphy, used to calculate sleep and rest-activity statistics including mesor (mean activity level), amplitude (height of rhythm), and acrophase (time of day that rhythm peaks)...
December 2, 2016: Psychosomatic Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27920546/chronotherapy-with-low-dose-modified-release-prednisone-for-the-management-of-rheumatoid-arthritis-a-review
#20
REVIEW
Stefano Paolo Beltrametti, Aurora Ianniello, Clara Ricci
To date, rheumatoid arthritis (RA) remains a debilitating, life-threatening disease. One major concern is morning symptoms (MS), as they considerably impair the patients' quality of life and ability to work. MS change in a circadian fashion, resembling the fluctuations of inflammatory cytokines such as interleukin-6, whose levels are higher in RA patients compared to healthy donors. Conversely, serum levels of the potent anti-inflammatory glucocorticoid cortisol are similar to that of healthy subjects, suggesting an imbalance that sustains a pro-inflammatory state...
2016: Therapeutics and Clinical Risk Management
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