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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29351477/mathematical-analysis-of-circadian-disruption-and-metabolic-re-entrainment-of-hepatic-gluconeogenesis-the-intertwining-entraining-roles-of-light-and-feeding
#1
Seul-A Bae, Ioannis P Androulakis
The circadian rhythms influence the metabolic activity from molecular level to tissue, organ, and host level. Disruption of the circadian rhythms manifest to the host's health as metabolic syndromes including obesity, diabetes, and elevated plasma glucose, eventually leading to cardiovascular diseases. Therefore, it is imperative to understand the mechanism behind the relationship between circadian rhythms and metabolism. To start answering this question, we propose a semi-mechanistic mathematical model to study the effect of circadian disruption on hepatic gluconeogenesis in humans...
January 9, 2018: American Journal of Physiology. Endocrinology and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29351432/diurnal-pattern-in-skin-na-and-water-content-is-associated-with-salt-sensitive-hypertension-in-etb-receptor-deficient-rats
#2
Joshua S Speed, Kelly A Hyndman, Malgorzata Kasztan, Jermaine G Johnston, Kaehler J Roth, Jens M Titze, David M Pollock
Impairment in the ability of the skin to properly store Na+ non-osmotically (without water) has recently been hypothesized as contributing to salt-sensitive hypertension. Our lab has shown that endothelial production of endothelin-1 (ET-1) is crucial to skin Na+ handling. Further, it is well established that loss of ETB receptor function impairs Na+ excretion by the kidney. Thus we hypothesized that rats lacking functional ETB receptors (ETB def) will have a reduced capacity of the skin to store Na+ during chronic high salt (HS) intake...
December 13, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Regulatory, Integrative and Comparative Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29351294/a-had-family-phosphatase-csp-6-regulates-the-circadian-output-pathway-in-neurospora-crassa
#3
Xiaoying Zhou, Bin Wang, Jillian M Emerson, Carol S Ringelberg, Scott A Gerber, Jennifer J Loros, Jay C Dunlap
Circadian clocks are ubiquitous in eukaryotic organisms where they are used to anticipate regularly occurring diurnal and seasonal environmental changes. Nevertheless, little is known regarding pathways connecting the core clock to its output pathways. Here, we report that the HAD family phosphatase CSP-6 is required for overt circadian clock output but not for the core oscillation. The loss of function Δcsp-6 deletion mutant is overtly arrhythmic on race tubes under free running conditions; however, reporter assays confirm that the FREQUENCY-WHITE COLLAR COMPLEX core circadian oscillator is functional, indicating a discrete block between oscillator and output...
January 19, 2018: PLoS Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29351091/circadian-rhythms-disturbances-in-alzheimer-disease-current-concepts-diagnosis-and-management
#4
Ángela Milán-Tomás, Colin M Shapiro
The purpose of this review is to provide an overview of the research regarding circadian rhythms in Alzheimer disease (AD). Furthermore, this paper explores the role of melatonin in the pathogenesis of AD and the limitation of trials addressing circadian rhythms disturbances in the AD population. A literature search using Medline with PubMed and Embase was carried out identifying papers focusing on circadian rhythms in AD. Sleep disorders and especially circadian rhythm disturbances are very common in the elderly population but definitely more pronounced in patients with AD...
January 18, 2018: Alzheimer Disease and Associated Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29350420/over-expression-of-dec1-inhibits-myogenic-differentiation-by-modulating-myog-activity-in-bovine-satellite-cell
#5
Yongzhen Huang, Xinsheng Lai, Linyong Hu, Chuzhao Lei, Xianyong Lan, Chunlei Zhang, Yun Ma, Li Zheng, Yue-Yu Bai, Fengpeng Lin, Hong Chen
Differentiated embryo chondrocyte 1 (DEC1), a member of basic-helix-loop-helix transcription factor Bhlhe40, also called stimulated by retinoic acid 13, STRA13, plays an important role in the regulation of adipogenesis, tumorigenesis, peripheral circadian output, response to hypoxia and development of metabolic syndrome. Previous studies suggested that DEC1 was involved in skeletal muscle development; however, its precise role in myoblast differentiation has not been determined. In the present study, we showed that DEC1 expressed ubiquitously in different bovine tissues and was down-regulated in differentiated bovine satellite cells...
January 19, 2018: Journal of Cellular Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29349282/does-non-standard-work-mean-non-standard-health-exploring-links-between-non-standard-work-schedules-health-behavior-and-well-being
#6
Megan R Winkler, Susan Mason, Melissa N Laska, Mary J Christoph, Dianne Neumark-Sztainer
The last century has seen dramatic shifts in population work circumstances, leading to an increasing normalization of non-standard work schedules (NSWSs), defined as non-daytime, irregular hours. An ever-growing body of evidence links NSWSs to a host of non-communicable chronic conditions; yet, these associations primarily concentrate on the physiologic mechanisms created by circadian disruption and insufficient sleep. While important, not all NSWSs create such chronobiologic disruption, and other aspects of working time and synchronization could be important to the relationships between work schedules and chronic disease...
April 2018: SSM—Population Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29348553/night-eating-model-shows-time-specific-depression-like-behavior-in-the-forced-swimming-test
#7
Atsushi Haraguchi, Miyabi Fukuzawa, Shiho Iwami, Yutaro Nishimura, Hiroaki Motohashi, Yu Tahara, Shigenobu Shibata
The circadian clock system is associated with feeding and mood. Patients with night eating syndrome (NES) delay their eating rhythm and their mood declines during the evening and night, manifesting as time-specific depression. Therefore, we hypothesized that the NES feeding pattern might cause time-specific depression. We established new NES model by restricted feeding with high-fat diet during the inactive period under normal-fat diet ad libitum. The FST (forced swimming test) immobility time in the NES model group was prolonged only after lights-on, corresponding to evening and early night for humans...
January 18, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29348160/up-all-night-bk-channels-circadian-dance-with-different-calcium-sources
#8
Caitlin Sedwick
JGP study explores diurnal changes in calcium sources governing BK activity in the SCN.
January 18, 2018: Journal of General Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29348073/rate-of-switch-from-bipolar-depression-into-mania-after-morning-light-therapy-a-historical-review
#9
REVIEW
Francesco Benedetti
Light therapy (LT) is efficacious for bipolar depression with effect sizes equivalent to those in antidepressant pharmacotherapy trials. Patients with bipolar disorder (BD) show a 15-40% rate of manic switches during antidepressant drug treatment. The rate of manic switches during LT has never been estimated. We searched all the literature studies reporting effects of antidepressant LT in BD. 41 studies described 799 patients with BD treated with antidepressant LT, from among which 7 (0.9%) switched into mania and 11 (1...
January 9, 2018: Psychiatry Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29346572/analysis-of-experience-regulated-transcriptome-and-imprintome-during-critical-periods-of-mouse-visual-system-development-reveals-spatiotemporal-dynamics
#10
Chi-Lin Hsu, Chih-Hsuan Chou, Shih-Chuan Huang, Chia-Yi Lin, Meng-Ying Lin, Chun-Che Tung, Chun-Yen Lin, Ivan Pochou Lai, Yan-Fang Zou, Neil A Youngson, Shau-Ping Lin, Chang-Hao Yang, Shih-Kuo Chen, Susan Shur-Fen Gau, Hsien-Sung Huang
Visual system development is light-experience dependent, which strongly implicates epigenetic mechanisms in light-regulated maturation. Among many epigenetic processes, genomic imprinting is an epigenetic mechanism through which monoallelic gene expression occurs in a parent-of-origin-specific manner. It is unknown if genomic imprinting contributes to visual system development. We profiled the transcriptome and imprintome during critical periods of mouse visual system development under normal- and dark-rearing conditions using B6/CAST F1 hybrid mice...
January 15, 2018: Human Molecular Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29346266/the-relationship-between-autism-spectrum-disorder-and-melatonin-during-fetal-development
#11
REVIEW
Yunho Jin, Jeonghyun Choi, Jinyoung Won, Yonggeun Hong
The aim of this review is to clarify the interrelationship between melatonin and autism spectrum disorder (ASD) during fetal development. ASD refers to a diverse range of neurodevelopmental disorders characterized by social deficits, impaired communication, and stereotyped or repetitive behaviors. Melatonin, which is secreted by the pineal gland, has well-established neuroprotective and circadian entraining effects. During pregnancy, the hormone crosses the placenta into the fetal circulation and transmits photoperiodic information to the fetus allowing the establishment of normal sleep patterns and circadian rhythms that are essential for normal neurodevelopment...
January 18, 2018: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29344005/biological-clocks-their-relevance-to-immune-allergic-diseases
#12
REVIEW
Roberto Paganelli, Claudia Petrarca, Mario Di Gioacchino
The 2017 Nobel Prize for Physiology or Medicine, awarded for the discoveries made in the past 15 years on the genetic and molecular mechanisms regulating many physiological functions, has renewed the attention to the importance of circadian rhythms. These originate from a central pacemaker in the suprachiasmatic nucleus in the brain, photoentrained via direct connection with melanopsin containing, intrinsically light-sensitive retinal ganglion cells, and it projects to periphery, thus creating an inner circadian rhythm...
2018: Clinical and Molecular Allergy: CMA
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29343740/modifiable-lifestyle-behaviors-but-not-a-genetic-risk-score-associate-with-metabolic-syndrome-in-evening-chronotypes
#13
Beatriz Vera, Hassan S Dashti, Purificación Gómez-Abellán, Antonio M Hernández-Martínez, Alberto Esteban, Frank A J L Scheer, Richa Saxena, Marta Garaulet
Evening chronotype associates with health complications possibly via lifestyle factors, while the contribution of genetics is unknown. The aim was to study the relative contributions of genetics, lifestyle, and circadian-related physiological characteristics in metabolic risk of evening chronotype. In order to capture a biological contribution to chronotype, a genetic-risk-score (GRS), comprised of 15 chronotype-related variants, was tested. Moreover, a wide range of behavioral and emotional eating factors was studied within the same population...
January 17, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29343686/human-brain-patterns-underlying-vigilant-attention-impact-of-sleep-debt-circadian-phase-and-attentional-engagement
#14
M Maire, C F Reichert, V Gabel, A U Viola, C Phillips, C Berthomier, S Borgwardt, C Cajochen, C Schmidt
Sleepiness and cognitive function vary over the 24-h day due to circadian and sleep-wake-dependent mechanisms. However, the underlying cerebral hallmarks associated with these variations remain to be fully established. Using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), we investigated brain responses associated with circadian and homeostatic sleep-wake-driven dynamics of subjective sleepiness throughout day and night. Healthy volunteers regularly performed a psychomotor vigilance task (PVT) in the MR-scanner during a 40-h sleep deprivation (high sleep pressure) and a 40-h multiple nap protocol (low sleep pressure)...
January 17, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29343077/delayed-onset-of-sleep-in-adolescents-with-pax6-haploinsufficiency
#15
Alyson E Hanish, Joan C Han
OBJECTIVE: PAX6 haploinsufficiency ( +/-) can occur due to mutations involving only PAX6 in patients with isolated aniridia or as contiguous gene deletions in patients with Wilms tumor, aniridia, genitourinary anomalies, and range of developmental and intellectual disabilities syndrome. Given the role of PAX6 in pineal development and circadian regulation, adolescents with PAX6+/- may experience sleep-wake disturbances. The purpose of this observational study was to explore sleep-related phenotypes in adolescents with PAX6+/-...
January 1, 2018: Biological Research for Nursing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29342874/rodent-models-of-alcoholic-liver-disease-role-of-binge-ethanol-administration
#16
REVIEW
Shubha Ghosh Dastidar, Jeffrey B Warner, Dennis R Warner, Craig J McClain, Irina A Kirpich
Both chronic and acute (binge) alcohol drinking are important health and economic concerns worldwide and prominent risk factors for the development of alcoholic liver disease (ALD). There are no FDA-approved medications to prevent or to treat any stage of ALD. Therefore, discovery of novel therapeutic strategies remains a critical need for patients with ALD. Relevant experimental animal models that simulate human drinking patterns and mimic the spectrum and severity of alcohol-induced liver pathology in humans are critical to our ability to identify new mechanisms and therapeutic targets...
January 13, 2018: Biomolecules
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29341860/risk-management-of-free-radicals-involved-in-air-travel-syndromes-by-antioxidants
#17
Jeum-Nam Kim, Byung-Mu Lee
Frequent air travelers and airplane pilots may develop various types of illnesses. The environmental risk factors associated with air travel syndromes (ATS) or air travel-related adverse health outcomes raised concerns and need to be assessed in the context of risk management and public health. Accordingly, the aim of the present review was to determine ATS, risk factors, and mechanisms underlying ATS using scientific data and information obtained from Medline, Toxline, and regulatory agencies. Additional information was also extracted from websites of organizations, such as the International Air Transport Association (IATA), International Association for Medical Assistance to Travelers (IAMAT), and International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO)...
January 17, 2018: Journal of Toxicology and Environmental Health. Part B, Critical Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29340961/metabolic-syndrome-and-its-components-among-korean-submariners-a-retrospective-cross-sectional-study
#18
Jihun Kang, Yun-Mi Song
PURPOSE: Metabolic syndrome (MetS) is a cluster of inter-related risk factors for cardiovascular disease and diabetes. Although submariners tend to be exposed to unhealthy environmental factors, such as a confined work environment, physical inactivity, and circadian disruption, little is known regarding whether the risks of MetS and its components are associated with submarine service. The present study aimed to evaluate the risks of MetS and its components among submariners. METHODS: A total of 5090 subjects (513 submariners and 4577 non-submariners) were included in the present study...
January 16, 2018: Endocrine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29339832/clock%C3%AE-19-mutation-modifies-the-manner-of-synchrony-among-oscillation-neurons-in-the-suprachiasmatic-nucleus
#19
Mitsugu Sujino, Takeshi Asakawa, Mamoru Nagano, Satoshi Koinuma, Koh-Hei Masumoto, Yasufumi Shigeyoshi
In mammals, the principal circadian oscillator exists in the hypothalamic suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN). In the SCN, CLOCK works as an essential component of molecular circadian oscillation, and ClockΔ19 mutant mice show unique characteristics of circadian rhythms such as extended free running periods, amplitude attenuation, and high-magnitude phase-resetting responses. Here we investigated what modifications occur in the spatiotemporal organization of clock gene expression in the SCN of ClockΔ19 mutants...
January 16, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29339768/the-characterization-of-the-circadian-clock-in-the-olive-fly-bactrocera-oleae-diptera-tephritidae-reveals-a-drosophila-like-organization
#20
Enrico Bertolini, Christa Kistenpfennig, Pamela Menegazzi, Alexander Keller, Martha Koukidou, Charlotte Helfrich-Förster
The olive fruit fly, Bactrocera oleae, is the single most important pest for the majority of olive plantations. Oxitec's self-limiting olive fly technology (OX3097D-Bol) offers an alternative management approach to this insect pest. Because of previously reported asynchrony in the mating time of wild and laboratory strains, we have characterized the olive fly circadian clock applying molecular, evolutionary, anatomical and behavioural approaches. Here we demonstrate that the olive fly clock relies on a Drosophila melanogaster-like organization and that OX3097D-Bol carries a functional clock similar to wild-type strains, confirming its suitability for operational use...
January 16, 2018: Scientific Reports
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