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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28329268/dynamics-of-cough-frequency-in-adults-undergoing-treatment-for-pulmonary-tuberculosis
#1
Alvaro Proaño, Marjory A Bravard, José W Lopez, Gwenyth O Lee, David Bui, Sumona Datta, Germán Comina, Mirko Zimic, Jorge Coronel, Luz Caviedes, José L Cabrera, Antonio Salas, Eduardo Ticona, Nancy M Vu, Daniela E Kirwan, Maria-Cristina I Loader, Jon S Friedland, David A Moore, Carlton A Evans, Brian H Tracey, Robert H Gilman
Background: Cough is the major determinant of tuberculosis transmission. Despite this, there is a paucity of information regarding characteristics of cough frequency throughout the day and in response to tuberculosis therapy. Here we evaluate the circadian cycle of cough; cough frequency risk factors; and the impact of appropriate treatment on cough and bacillary load. Methods: We prospectively evaluated HIV-negative adults (n=64) with a new diagnosis of culture-proven, drug-susceptible pul-monary tuberculosis immediately prior to treatment and repeatedly until treatment day 62...
January 25, 2017: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28329091/association-between-sleep-timing-obesity-diabetes-the-hispanic-community-health-study-study-of-latinos-hchs-sol-cohort-study-sleep-timing-obesity-and-diabetes
#2
Kristen L Knutson, Donghong Wu, Sanjay R Patel, Jose S Loredo, Susan Redline, Jianwen Cai, Linda C Gallo, Yasmin Mossavar-Rahmani, Alberto R Ramos, Yanping Teng, Martha L Daviglus, Phyllis C Zee
Study Objectives: Recent studies implicate inadequate sleep duration and quality in metabolic disease. Fewer studies have examined the timing of sleep, which may be important because of its potential impact on circadian rhythms of metabolic function. We examined the association between sleep timing and metabolic risk among Hispanic/Latino adults. Methods.: Cross-sectional data from community-based study of 13,429 participants aged 18-74 years. People taking diabetes medications were excluded...
January 28, 2017: Sleep
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28328790/comparison-of-the-effects-of-quetiapine-xr-and-lithium-monotherapy-on-actigraphy-measured-circadian-parameters-in-patients-with-bipolar-ii-depression
#3
Jeong Yeon Hwang, Jae-Won Choi, Seung-Gul Kang, Su Hwan Hwang, Seog Ju Kim, Yu Jin Lee
PURPOSE/BACKGROUND: The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of quetiapine XR and lithium on actigraphy-measured circadian parameters in patients with bipolar II depression. METHODS/PROCEDURES: This was an 8-week, open-label, prospective, randomized comparative study. The assessments included the 17-item Hamilton Depression Rating Scale score and actigraphic measures concerning the previous 7 days, collected at each visit (weeks 0 [baseline], 1, 2, 4, 6, and 8); the actigraphic data were analyzed with a cosinor analysis...
March 21, 2017: Journal of Clinical Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28328532/cushing-s-syndrome-in-infancy-due-to-ectopic-acth-secretion-by-a-sacro-coccygeal-teratoma
#4
Marta Rydzewska, Maryna Krawczuk-Rybak, Adrianna Zajkowska, Natalia Jurczuk, Dariusz Polnik, Mieczysław Szalecki, Elżbieta Moszczyńska, Martin O Savage, Artur Bossowski
BACKGROUND: Adenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH)-dependent Cushing's syndrome in infancy is extremely rare. We describe the case of a sacro-coccygeal ectopic ACTH-secreting immature teratoma in an infant who also presented the triad of defects characteristic of Currarino syndrome. CASE PRESENTATION: A girl was born with a large immature teratoma in the sacro-coccygeal region associated with anal atresia. At the age of 7 days, the concentration of α-fetoprotein (AFP) was above the age-specific normal range...
March 22, 2017: Journal of Pediatric Endocrinology & Metabolism: JPEM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28327443/correcting-delayed-circadian-phase-with-bright-light-therapy-predicts-improvement-in-adhd-symptoms-a-pilot-study
#5
Rachel E Fargason, Aaron D Fobian, Lauren M Hablitz, Jodi R Paul, Brittny A White, Karen L Cropsey, Karen L Gamble
Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a common condition with comorbid insomnia reported in >70% of children and adults. These patients demonstrate delays in sleep-wake rhythms, nocturnal rise in melatonin, and early morning rise in cortisol. Given that standard psychopharmacologic treatments for ADHD often do not completely control symptoms in participants with circadian rhythm delay, we sought to test whether bright light therapy (BLT) advances circadian rhythms and further reduces ADHD symptoms over standard treatments...
March 6, 2017: Journal of Psychiatric Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28326910/circadian-rhythms-in-plasma-brain-derived-neurotrophic-factor-differ-in-men-and-women
#6
Sean W Cain, Anne-Marie Chang, Irma Vlasac, Archana Tare, Clare Anderson, Charles A Czeisler, Richa Saxena
The measurement of circulating levels of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) has been proposed to be a marker of disease and an indicator of recovery. Thus, knowing the temporal pattern and influence of potential circadian rhythms is important. Although several studies have measured BDNF at different times of day, no studies have done so while controlling for potential masking influences such as sleep and activity. Further, no previous study has examined circadian rhythms within individuals. We examined circadian rhythms in plasma BDNF while minimizing masking from behavioral and environmental factors using a 30-h constant routine (CR) protocol...
February 2017: Journal of Biological Rhythms
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28326909/resynchronization-dynamics-reveal-that-the-ventral-entrains-the-dorsal-suprachiasmatic-nucleus
#7
Stephanie R Taylor, Thomas J Wang, Daniel Granados-Fuentes, Erik D Herzog
Although the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN) has long been considered the master circadian clock in mammals, the topology of the connections that synchronize daily rhythms among SCN cells is not well understood. We combined experimental and computational methods to infer the directed interactions that mediate circadian synchrony between regions of the SCN. We analyzed PERIOD2 (PER2) expression from SCN slices during and after treatment with tetrodotoxin, allowing us to map connections as cells resynchronized their daily cycling following blockade and restoration of cell-cell communication...
February 2017: Journal of Biological Rhythms
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28326116/comparison-of-wearable-activity-tracker-with-actigraphy-for-sleep-evaluation-and-circadian-rest-activity-rhythm-measurement-in-healthy-young-adults
#8
Hyun-Ah Lee, Heon-Jeong Lee, Joung-Ho Moon, Taek Lee, Min-Gwan Kim, Hoh In, Chul-Hyun Cho, Leen Kim
OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the applicability of data obtained from a wearable activity tracker (Fitbit Charge HR) to medical research. This was performed by comparing the wearable activity tracker (Fitbit Charge HR) with actigraphy (Actiwatch 2) for sleep evaluation and circadian rest-activity rhythm measurement. METHODS: Sixteen healthy young adults (female participants, 62.5%; mean age, 22.8 years) wore the Fitbit Charge HR and the Actiwatch 2 on the same wrist; a sleep log was recorded over a 14-day period...
March 2017: Psychiatry Investigation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28325926/night-and-day-variations-of-sleep-in-patients-with-disorders-of-consciousness
#9
Malgorzata Wislowska, Renata Del Giudice, Julia Lechinger, Tomasz Wielek, Dominik P J Heib, Alain Pitiot, Gerald Pichler, Gabriele Michitsch, Johann Donis, Manuel Schabus
Brain injuries substantially change the entire landscape of oscillatory dynamics and render detection of typical sleep patterns difficult. Yet, sleep is characterized not only by specific EEG waveforms, but also by its circadian organization. In the present study we investigated whether brain dynamics of patients with disorders of consciousness systematically change between day and night. We recorded ~24 h EEG at the bedside of 18 patients diagnosed to be vigilant but unaware (Unresponsive Wakefulness Syndrome) and 17 patients revealing signs of fluctuating consciousness (Minimally Conscious State)...
March 21, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28325816/papers-of-note-in-science355-6330
#10
Annalisa M VanHook
This week's articles include several reviews on targeting signaling pathways to treat cancer, as well as research articles that highlight proteins that drive circadian clocks; how bacteriophages affect the virulence of pathogenic bacteria; a mobile transcription factor in plants; a secreted nucleoside that affects metabolism; and the effects of protein aggregation in aging yeast cells.
March 21, 2017: Science Signaling
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28325554/inscuteable-maintains-type-i-neuroblast-lineage-identity-via-numb-notch-signaling-in-the-drosophila-larval-brain
#11
Huanping An, Wanzhong Ge, Yongmei Xi, Xiaohang Yang
In the Drosophila larval brain, type I and type II neuroblasts (NBs) undergo a series of asymmetric divisions which give rise to distinct progeny lineages. The intermediate neural progenitors (INPs) exist only in type II NB lineages. In this study, we reveal a novel function of Inscuteable (Insc) that acts to maintain type I NB lineage identity. In insc type I NB clones of mosaic analyses with a repressible cell marker (MARCM), the formation of extra Deadpan (Dpn)(+) NB-like and GMC-like cells is observed. The lack of Insc leads to the defective localization and segregation of Numb during asymmetric cell division...
March 6, 2017: Journal of Genetics and Genomics, Yi Chuan Xue Bao
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28322269/a-ras-gtpase-associated-protein-is-involved-in-the-phototropic-and-circadian-photobiology-responses-in-fungi
#12
Silvia Polaino, José M Villalobos-Escobedo, Viplendra P S Shakya, Alejandro Miralles-Durán, Suman Chaudhary, Catalina Sanz, Mahdi Shahriari, Eva M Luque, Arturo P Eslava, Luis M Corrochano, Alfredo Herrera-Estrella, Alexander Idnurm
Light is an environmental signal perceived by most eukaryotic organisms and that can have major impacts on their growth and development. The MadC protein in the fungus Phycomyces blakesleeanus (Mucoromycotina) has been postulated to form part of the photosensory input for phototropism of the fruiting body sporangiophores, but the madC gene has remained unidentified since the 1960s when madC mutants were first isolated. In this study the madC gene was identified by positional cloning. All madC mutant strains contain loss-of-function point mutations within a gene predicted to encode a GTPase activating protein (GAP) for Ras...
March 21, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28322186/effect-of-isoflurane-anesthesia-on-circadian-metabolism-and-physiology-in-rats
#13
Melissa A Wren-Dail Robert T Dauchy David E Blask Steven M Hill Tara G Ooms Lynell M Dupepe And Rudolf P Bohm
Isoflurane anesthesia alters the blood levels of several neuroendocrine hormones associated with normal metabolism andphysiology and increases stress, but the effect of brief CO2 anesthesia on these parameters is unknown. In this study, we examined the effects of isoflurane (4%) compared with brief CO2 (70% CO2, 30% air) anesthesia on circadian rhythms of plasma measures of physiology and metabolism. Adult male Sprague-Dawley rats (Crl:SD; n = 6 per group) were maintained on a 12:12-h light:dark(300 lx; lights on, 0600) photoperiod...
March 20, 2017: Comparative Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28322083/diurnal-variation-of-the-melanin-concentrating-hormone-level-in-the-hypothalamus
#14
Balázs Gerics, Ferenc Szalay, Péter Sótonyi, Veronika Jancsik
Melanin-concentrating hormone (MCH), the neuropeptide produced mainly in the hypothalamus, plays an operative role in regulating food intake and the sleep/wake cycle. Considering that these physiological functions pursue diurnal variations, we checked whether the total hypothalamic MCH level depends on the time of the day. The aggregated MCH peptide content of the whole MCH neuron population was significantly higher at the end of the sleeping period (lights on), than at the end of the active period (lights off)...
March 2017: Acta Biologica Hungarica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28321642/circadian-rhythm-dysregulation-in-bipolar-spectrum-disorders
#15
REVIEW
Lauren B Alloy, Tommy H Ng, Madison K Titone, Elaine M Boland
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: We review recent evidence for circadian rhythm dysregulation in bipolar spectrum disorders (BSDs). We examine evidence for endogenous abnormalities in the biological clock and disruptions in the external entrainment of circadian rhythms in BSDs. We also address whether circadian dysregulation provides vulnerability to onset of BSD and evidence for a new integration of reward and circadian dysregulation in BSD. RECENT FINDINGS: Relative circadian phase delay (e...
April 2017: Current Psychiatry Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28321433/transcription-factor-oscillations-in-neural-stem-cells-implications-for-accurate-control-of-gene-expression
#16
REVIEW
Pascal Bielefeld, Marijn Schouten, Paul J Lucassen, Carlos P Fitzsimons
Naturally occurring oscillations in glucocorticoids induce a cyclic activation of the glucocorticoid receptor (GR), a well-characterized ligand-activated transcription factor. These cycles of GR activation/deactivation result in rapid GR exchange at genomic response elements and GR recycling through the chaperone machinery, ultimately generating pulses of GR-mediated transcriptional activity of target genes. In a recent article we have discussed the implications of circadian and high-frequency (ultradian) glucocorticoid oscillations for the dynamic control of gene expression in hippocampal neural stem/progenitor cells (NSPCs) (Fitzsimons et al...
2017: Neurogenesis (Austin, Tex.)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28321051/chronotoxicity-of-bromobenzene-induced-hepatic-injury-in-mice
#17
Hiroki Yoshioka, Tsunemasa Nonogaki, Nobuyuki Fukuishi, Yasuro Shinohara, Gi-Wook Hwang, Katsumi Ohtani, Nobuhiko Miura
The aim of the present study is to investigate whether or not bromobenzene (BB) toxicity varies with circadian periodicity. Seven-week-old male ICR mice were injected with 900 mg/kg (5.73 mmol/kg) BB intraperitoneally at 4 different time points of a day (zeitgeber time [ZT]: ZT0, ZT6, ZT12, and ZT18). Mortality was then monitored for 7 days after injection. Interestingly, mice were sensitive to BB acute toxicity at ZT6 while tolerant at ZT18. Moreover, in mice that were given a non-lethal dose of BB (540 mg (3...
2017: Journal of Toxicological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28320839/sleep-deprivation-and-caffeine-treatment-potentiate-photic-resetting-of-the-master-circadian-clock-in-a-diurnal-rodent
#18
Pawan Kumar Jha, Hanan Bouâouda, Sylviane Gourmelen, Stephanie Dumont, Fanny Fuchs, Yannick Goumon, Patrice Bourgin, Andries Kalsbeek, Etienne Challet
Circadian rhythms in nocturnal and diurnal mammals are primarily synchronized to local time by the light-dark cycle. However, non-photic factors, such as behavioural arousal and metabolic cues, can also phase-shift the master clock in the suprachiasmatic nuclei (SCN) and/or reduce the synchronizing effects of light in nocturnal rodents. In diurnal rodents, the role of arousal or insufficient sleep in these functions is still poorly understood. In the present study, diurnal Sudanian grass rats, Arvicanthis ansorgei, were aroused at night by sleep deprivation (gentle handling) or caffeine treatment that both prevented sleep...
March 20, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28324740/evolution-fruit-fly-clocks-on-the-edge
#19
Charalambos P Kyriacou
Fruit flies evolved in tropical regions under stable light-dark cycles. However, their photosensitive circadian clock had to adapt to extreme seasonal photoperiods during their colonisation of temperate regions. This was achieved by changing the neuronal expression of two key clock-related components.
March 20, 2017: Current Biology: CB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28324596/blood-pressure-and-metabolic-changes-after-3-month-cpap-therapy-in-a-very-elderly-obese-with-severe-obstructive-sleep-apnea-a-case-report-and-review-of-the-literature
#20
Francesco Spannella, Federico Giulietti, Chiara Di Pentima, Francesca Elena Lombardi, Elisabetta Borioni, Riccardo Sarzani
Age is one of the main risk factor for the presence of obstructive sleep apnea (OSA). This syndrome is associated with hypertension, cardiovascular disease, cognitive impairment and metabolic abnormalities, such as type 2 diabetes. Continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) represents the gold standard therapy, but its benefit is still to be determined in very elderly. We report the blood pressure and metabolic changes in a very elderly obese with severe OSA after 3-month CPAP therapy. We have evaluated a very elderly obese male affected by severe symptomatic OSA, poor controlled nocturnal hypertension and insulin resistance...
March 21, 2017: High Blood Pressure & Cardiovascular Prevention: the Official Journal of the Italian Society of Hypertension
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