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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29161270/tracking-urban-human-activity-from-mobile-phone-calling-patterns
#1
Daniel Monsivais, Asim Ghosh, Kunal Bhattacharya, Robin I M Dunbar, Kimmo Kaski
Timings of human activities are marked by circadian clocks which in turn are entrained to different environmental signals. In an urban environment the presence of artificial lighting and various social cues tend to disrupt the natural entrainment with the sunlight. However, it is not completely understood to what extent this is the case. Here we exploit the large-scale data analysis techniques to study the mobile phone calling activity of people in large cities to infer the dynamics of urban daily rhythms. From the calling patterns of about 1,000,000 users spread over different cities but lying inside the same time-zone, we show that the onset and termination of the calling activity synchronizes with the east-west progression of the sun...
November 2017: PLoS Computational Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29161185/medications-for-sleep-schedule-adjustments-in-athletes
#2
Matthew B Baird, Irfan M Asif
CONTEXT: Sleep schedule adjustments are common requirements of modern-day athletes. Many nonpharmacologic and pharmacologic strategies exist to facilitate circadian rhythm shifts to maximize alertness and performance during competition. This review summarizes the evidence for commonly used pharmacologic agents and presents recommendations for the sports medicine provider. EVIDENCE ACQUISITION: MEDLINE searches were performed using the following keywords: sleep aids, circadian rhythm adjustment, athletes and sleep, caffeine and sports, melatonin and athletes, and sleep aids and sports...
November 1, 2017: Sports Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29160083/mechanisms-and-applications-of-redox-sensitive-gfp-based-h2o2-probes
#3
Leticia Prates Roma, Marcel Deponte, Jan Riemer, Bruce Morgan
SIGNIFICANCE: Genetically encoded H2O2 sensors, based upon fusions between thiol peroxidases and redox-sensitive green fluorescent protein 2 (roGFP2) have dramatically broadened the available 'toolbox' for monitoring cellular H2O2 changes. Recent advances: Recently developed peroxiredoxin-based probes such as roGFP2-Tsa2∆CR offer considerably improved H2O2-sensitivity compared to previously available genetically encoded sensors and now permit dynamic, real-time, monitoring of changes in endogenous H2O2 levels...
November 21, 2017: Antioxidants & Redox Signaling
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29158334/global-transcriptome-sequencing-reveals-molecular-profiles-of-summer-diapause-induction-stage-of-onion-maggot-delia-antiqua-diptera-anthomyiidae
#4
Shuang Ren, You-Jin Hao, Bin Chen, You-Ping Yin
The onion maggot, Delia antiqua, is a worldwide subterranean pest and can enter diapause during summer and winter seasons. The molecular regulation of the ontogenesis transition remains largely unknown. Here we used high-throughput RNA-Seq to identify candidate genes and processes linked to summer diapause induction by comparing the transcriptome differences between the most sensitive larval developmental stage of summer-diapause (SD) and non-diapause (ND). Nine pair-wise comparisons were performed and significantly differentially regulated transcripts were identified...
November 20, 2017: G3: Genes—Genomes—Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29158147/joint-analysis-of-cognitive-and-circadian-variation-in-schizophrenia-and-bipolar-i-disorder
#5
Pramod Thomas, Fanyin He, Sati Mazumdar, Joel Wood, Triptish Bhatia, Ruben C Gur, Raquel E Gur, Daniel Buysse, Vishwajit L Nimgaonkar, Smita N Deshpande
BACKGROUND: Impairment in cognitive variables and alterations in circadian function have been documented among patients with schizophrenia (SZ) and bipolar I disorder (BP1), but it is not known whether joint analysis of these variables can define clinically relevant sub-groups in either disorder. OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the pattern and relationship of cognitive and circadian function in SZ and BP1 patients with respect to diagnosis and indices of clinical severity...
November 7, 2017: Asian Journal of Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29157641/a-process-oriented-model-linking-adolescents-sleep-hygiene-and-psychological-functioning-the-moderating-role-of-school-start-times
#6
Jack S Peltz, Ronald D Rogge, Heidi Connolly, Thomas G O'Connor
OBJECTIVE: To examine a mediational model linking sleep hygiene to better mental health in adolescents via the mechanism of improved sleep quality, and to test the moderating role of school start times (SST) (before 8:30 AM vs. 8:30 AM or later) on that mediation model. DESIGN: Cross-sectional. SETTING: Online survey for high school students across the United States. PARTICIPANTS: A total of 197 adolescents aged 14-17 years old (Mage = 15...
December 2017: Sleep Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29157012/shift-work-and-sleep-disorder-comorbidity-tend-to-go-hand-in-hand
#7
Gerard A Kerkhof
Taking into consideration that shift work has a wide-ranging impact on circadian and sleep functioning, it seems likely that shift work increases the risk of a general sleep disturbance, spread out over a multitude of comorbid sleep disorders. The aim of the present study is to analyze and present the sleep disorder data of 250 shift workers and 971 permanent day workers, taken from a nationally representative sample. Additional data concerning duration, timing, and quality of sleep, daytime functioning and social/family variables were added to the analyses...
November 20, 2017: Chronobiology International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29157006/chronotype-description-in-search-of-a-solid-subjective-amplitude-scale
#8
Halszka Oginska, Justyna Mojsa-Kaja, Olivier Mairesse
The term "subjective circadian amplitude" refers to the range or the distinctness of diurnal variations of arousal, that is, the awareness (or lack thereof) of difference between hyper- and hypo-activation phases, the ability to volitionally modulate one's own psychophysiological state, the strength of morning-evening preferences and flexibility of the rhythm or perceived stability of the circadian phase. The complexity of this construct is the source of difficulties in research and measurement. The psychometric features of distinctness subscales of the Chronotype Questionnaire and the Caen Chronotype Questionnaire are not satisfactory...
November 20, 2017: Chronobiology International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29157002/effects-of-circadian-clock-protein-per1b-on-zebrafish-visual-functions
#9
Ke Nie, Kun Wang, Deng-Feng Huang, Yu-Bin Huang, Wu Yin, Da-Long Ren, Han Wang, Bing Hu
The circadian clock is an endogenous and entrainable time-keeping mechanism with a period of approximately 24 h, operated by transcription/translation feedback loops composed of circadian clock genes and their proteins. The visual system displays robust circadian changes. Relatively little, however, is known about the mechanisms underlying visual circadian rhythmicity. Zebrafish period1b (per1b), as a canonical circadian clock gene, is involved in circadian regulation. Here, we observed that zebrafish per1b mutants exhibit visual defects including reduced behavioral contrast sensitivity and significant retinal dopaminergic deficiency...
November 20, 2017: Chronobiology International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29155866/correction-multiscale-adaptive-analysis-of-circadian-rhythms-and-intradaily-variability-application-to-actigraphy-time-series-in-acute-insomnia-subjects
#10
(no author information available yet)
[This corrects the article DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0181762.].
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29155851/pac1-and-vpac2-receptors-in-light-regulated-behavior-and-physiology-studies-in-single-and-double-mutant-mice
#11
Jens Hannibal, Birgitte Georg, Jan Fahrenkrug
The two sister peptides, pituitary adenylate cyclase activating polypeptide (PACAP) and vasoactive intestinal polypeptide (VIP) and their receptors, the PAC1 -and the VPAC2 receptors, are involved in regulation of the circadian timing system. PACAP as a neurotransmitter in the retinohypothalamic tract (RHT) and VIP as a neurotransmitter, involved in synchronization of SCN neurons. Behavior and physiology in VPAC2 deficient mice are strongly regulated by light most likely as a result of masking. Consequently, we used VPAC2 and PAC1/VPAC2 double mutant mice in comparison with PAC1 receptor deficient mice to further elucidate the role of PACAP in the light mediated regulation of behavior and physiology of the circadian system...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29155709/a-computational-method-to-quantify-fly-circadian-activity
#12
Andrey Lazopulo, Sheyum Syed
In most animals and plants, circadian clocks orchestrate behavioral and molecular processes and synchronize them to the daily light-dark cycle. Fundamental mechanisms that underlie this temporal control are widely studied using the fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster as a model organism. In flies, the clock is typically studied by analyzing multiday locomotor recording. Such a recording shows a complex bimodal pattern with two peaks of activity: a morning peak that happens around dawn, and an evening peak that happens around dusk...
October 28, 2017: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29155247/cells-have-sex-chromosomes-and-circadian-clocks-implications-for-organismal-level-functions
#13
Rae Silver
A great number of stakeholders have a keen interest in issues surrounding sex differences. These participants in the discourse often use the same evidence to draw opposite conclusions, with implications for individuals and society as a whole. One part of the maelstrom and associated emotionality derives from confounds between the concepts of "sex" vs. "gender", even among professionals. Here, the oft-repeated point is made that evidence for gender differences can't be derived from the animal research, once the generally accepted conception of gender as a process unique to humans, is acknowledged...
November 15, 2017: Physiology & Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29154930/suicide-attempts-in-children-and-adolescents-the-place-of-clock-genes-and-early-rhythm-dysfunction
#14
Bertrand Olliac, Lisa Ouss, Annaëlle Charrier
Suicide remains one of the leading causes of death among young people, and suicidal ideation and behavior are relatively common in healthy and clinical populations. Suicide risk in childhood and adolescence is often approached from the perspective of nosographic categories to which predictive variables for suicidal acts are often linked. The cascading effects resulting from altered clock genes in a pediatric population could participate in biological rhythm abnormalities and the emergence of suicide attempts through impaired regulation of circadian rhythms and emotional states with neurodevelopmental effects...
November 14, 2017: Journal of Physiology, Paris
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29154494/interplay-between-environmentally-modulated-feedback-loops-hypoxia-and-circadian-rhythms-two-sides-of-the-same-coin
#15
Reinhard Depping, Henrik Oster
Sensing of environmental parameters is critically important for cells of metazoan organisms. Members of the superfamily of bHLH-PAS transcription factors, involved in oxygen sensing and circadian rhythm generation, are important players in such molecular pathways. The interplay between both networks includes a so far unknown factor, connecting PER2 (circadian clocks) to hypoxia sensing (HIF-1 α) to result in a more adapted state of homeostasis at the right time.
November 2017: FEBS Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29154390/circadian-profiling-reveals-higher-histamine-plasma-levels-and-lower-diamine-oxidase-serum-activities-in-24-of-patients-with-suspected-histamine-intolerance-compared-to-food-allergy-and-controls
#16
Theresa C Pinzer, Esther Tietz, Elisabeth Waldmann, Monic Schink, Markus F Neurath, Yurdagül Zopf
BACKGROUND: Histamine intolerance is thought to trigger manifold clinical symptoms after ingesting histamine-rich food due to reduced activity of diamine oxidase (DAO). No study has hitherto systematically assessed daily fluctuations of histamine levels and DAO activities in symptomatic patients. The aim of the study was to investigate the presence of histamine intolerance, to therefore establish day profiles of histamine levels and DAO activities, and to compare the results between patients with suspected histamine intolerance, food allergy and healthy controls...
November 20, 2017: Allergy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29152229/ticking-time-bombs-connections-between-circadian-clocks-and-cancer
#17
REVIEW
Katja A Lamia
Connections between mammalian circadian and cell division cycles have been postulated since the early 20th century, and epidemiological and genetic studies have linked disruption of circadian clock function to increased risk of several types of cancer. In the past decade, it has become clear that circadian clock components influence cell growth and transformation in a cell-autonomous manner. Furthermore, several molecular mechanistic connections have been described in which clock proteins participate in sensing DNA damage, modulating DNA repair, and influencing the ubiquitination and degradation of key players in oncogenesis (c-MYC) and tumor suppression (p53)...
2017: F1000Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29152136/postnatal-calpain-inhibition-elicits-cerebellar-cell-death-and-motor-dysfunction
#18
Junyao Li, Sanjuan Yang, Guoqi Zhu
Calpain-1 deletion elicits neurodevelopmental disorders, such as ataxia. However, the function of calpain in postnatal neurodevelopment and its mechanisms remain unknown. In this study, we revealed that postnatal intraperitoneal injection of various calpain inhibitors attenuated cerebellar cytosolic calpain activity. Moreover, postnatal application of calpeptin (2 mg/kg) apparently reduced spectrin breakdown, promoted suprachiasmatic nucleus circadian oscillatory protein (SCOP) accumulation in cerebellar tissue...
October 20, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29151193/disturbances-of-diurnal-phase-markers-behavior-and-clock-genes-in-a-rat-model-of-depression-modulatory-effects-of-agomelatine-treatment
#19
K Højgaard, S L Christiansen, E V Bouzinova, O Wiborg
Major depressive disorder (MDD) is a growing problem worldwide. Though, the etiology remains unresolved, circadian rhythm disturbances are frequently observed in MDD and thus is speculated to play a key role herein. The present study focuses on circadian rhythm disturbances in the chronic mild stress (CMS) animal model of depression and examined whether the atypical antidepressant, agomelatine, which is mediating its action via melatonergic and serotonergic receptors, is capable of resynchronizing the perturbed rhythm...
November 19, 2017: Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29151070/circadian-rhythms-of-melatonin-and-cortisol-in-manifest-huntington-s-disease-and-in-acute-cortical-ischemic-stroke
#20
A Adamczak-Ratajczak, J Kupsz, M Owecki, D Zielonka, A Sowinska, Z Checinska-Maciejewska, H Krauss, S Michalak, M Gibas-Dorna
Recent studies indicate disruptions to the circadian system in brain injury and neurodegeneration. The results, however, are often not consistent and limited by measurement of only one circadian marker and by infrequent sampling rates. In this study, we examined diurnal rhythmicity in different stages of Huntington (HD) disease and in patients with acute moderate ischemic stroke (AIS) outside the retinohypothalamic pathway by evaluating serum concentrations of melatonin and cortisol at twelve timepoints. All study participants were subjected to the same study protocol of 12-hour light/dark cycle and controlled room conditions...
August 2017: Journal of Physiology and Pharmacology: An Official Journal of the Polish Physiological Society
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