Read by QxMD icon Read


Stephany M Biello, David R Bonsall, Lynsey A Atkinson, Penny C Molyneux, Mary E Harrington, Gurprit S Lall
Robust physiological circadian rhythms form an integral part of well-being. The aging process has been found to negatively impact systems that drive circadian physiology, typically manifesting as symptoms associated with abnormal/disrupted sleeping patterns. Here, we investigated the age-related decline in light-driven circadian entrainment in male C57BL/6J mice. We compared light-driven resetting of circadian behavioral activity in young (1-2 months) and old (14-18 months) mice and explored alterations in the glutamatergic pathway at the level of the circadian pacemaker, the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN)...
February 20, 2018: Neurobiology of Aging
Jie Liu, Yi Song, Xiaoguang Lu, Tuo Chen, Wenxiu Guo, Zhiwei Fan, Xin Kang, Yu Wang, Yi Wang
Recently, several studies have indicated that the intestinal microbiota can be regulated by the individual attributes, and even the alternation of circadian rhythm. Inspired by this, we speculated that seasonal variation might also have some effect on the intestinal microbiota. A total of 11 Sprague-Dawley male rats, weighing 250-280 g, were divided into summer group (n = 5) and winter group (n = 6). Cages were individually ventilated at 20 ± 2 °C and 45-65% relative humidity with a circadian rhythm of 12/12 h...
March 15, 2018: Current Microbiology
Emmanuelle A D Schindler, Ryan M Wallace, Jordan A Sloshower, Deepak C D'Souza
Recent reports on the effects of psychedelic-assisted therapies for mood disorders and addiction, as well as the effects of psychedelics in the treatment of cluster headache, have demonstrated promising therapeutic results. In addition, the beneficial effects appear to persist well after limited exposure to the drugs, making them particularly appealing as treatments for chronic neuropsychiatric and headache disorders. Understanding the basis of the long-lasting effects, however, will be critical for the continued use and development of this drug class...
2018: Frontiers in Pharmacology
Sarah Edgerley, Conor McKaigney, Devon Boyne, Darrell Ginsberg, Jeffrey Damon Dagnone, Andrew Koch Hall
AIM: Emergency medicine (EM) trainees often work nightshifts. We sought to measure how this circadian disruption affects EM resident performance during simulated resuscitations. METHODS: This retrospective cohort study enrolled EM residents at a single Canadian academic centre over a six-year period. Residents completed twice-annual simulation-based resuscitation-focused objective structured clinical examinations (OSCEs) with assessment in four domains (primary assessment, diagnostic actions, therapeutic actions and communication), and a global assessment score (GAS)...
March 12, 2018: Resuscitation
Carolyn M Bauer, Loreto A Correa, Luis A Ebensperger, L Michael Romero
The Common Degu (Octodon degus) is a small rodent endemic to central Chile. It has become an important model for comparative vertebrate endocrinology because of several uncommon life-history features - it is diurnal, shows a high degree of sociality, practices plural breeding with multiple females sharing natal burrows, practices communal parental care, and can easily be studied in the laboratory and the field. Many studies have exploited these features to make contributions to comparative endocrinology. This review summarizes contributions in four major areas...
March 12, 2018: General and Comparative Endocrinology
Akihiko Taguchi, Yasuharu Ohta, Yukio Tanizawa
Type 2 diabetes mellitus is characterized by the loss of ß-cell function and mass, resulting from interactions between genetic predisposition and various environmental factors1 . One environmental condition identified as a risk factor for type 2 diabetes mellitus is circadian rhythm disruption, which is induced by shift work or sleep disturbance. However, the mechanism whereby circadian disruption leads to impaired glucose metabolism is not well understood. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved...
March 15, 2018: Journal of Diabetes Investigation
Marc N Jarczok, Corina Aguilar-Raab, Julian Koenig, Michael Kaess, Jeremy C Borniger, Randy J Nelson, Martica Hall, Beate Ditzen, Julian F Thayer, Joachim E Fischer
INTRODUCTION: Successful regulation of emotional states is positively associated to mental health, while difficulties in regulating emotions are negatively associated to overall mental health and in particular associated with anxiety or depression symptoms. A key structure associated to socio-emotional regulatory processes is the central autonomic network. Activity in this structure is associated to vagal activity can be indexed noninvasively and simply by measures of peripheral cardiac autonomic modulations such as heart rate variability...
March 15, 2018: Chronobiology International
Chris Brogden, Kelly Marrin, Richard Page, Matt Greig
CONTEXT: Clinical and functional assessments are performed regularly in sporting environments to screen for performance deficits and injury risk. Circadian rhythms have been demonstrated to affect human performance, however the influence of time of day on a battery of multiple ankle injury risk factors has yet to be established within athletic populations. OBJECTIVES: To investigate the influence of circadian variation on a battery of tests, used to screen for ankle aetiological risk factors...
March 15, 2018: Journal of Sport Rehabilitation
Ayako Uchinaka, Yuri Kawashima, Yuki Sano, Shogo Ito, Yusuke Sano, Kai Nagasawa, Natsumi Matsuura, Mamoru Yoneda, Yuichiro Yamada, Toyoaki Murohara, Kohzo Nagata
Melatonin regulates circadian rhythms but also has antioxidative and anti-inflammatory effects that ameliorate metabolic disorders. We investigated the effects of the selective melatonin agonist ramelteon on cardiac and adipose tissue pathology in the DahlS.Z-Leprfa /Leprfa (DS/obese) rat, a model of metabolic syndrome (MetS). Rats were treated with a low (0.3 mg/kg per day) or high (8 mg/kg per day) dose of ramelteon from 9 to 13 weeks of age. Ramelteon treatment at either dose attenuated body weight gain, left ventricular fibrosis, and diastolic dysfunction, as well as cardiac oxidative stress and inflammation, without affecting hypertension or insulin resistance...
March 15, 2018: Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences
David A Kalmbach, Yu Fang, J Todd Arnedt, Amy L Cochran, Patricia J Deldin, Adam I Kaplin, Srijan Sen
BACKGROUND: Although short sleep, shift work, and physical inactivity are endemic to residency, a lack of objective, real-time information has limited our understanding of how these problems impact physician mental health. OBJECTIVE: To understand how the residency experience affects sleep, physical activity, and mood, and to understand the directional relationships among these variables. DESIGN: A prospective longitudinal study. SUBJECTS: Thirty-three first-year residents (interns) provided data from 2 months pre-internship through the first 6 months of internship...
March 14, 2018: Journal of General Internal Medicine
Yiran Ao, Qin Zhao, Kai Yang, Gang Zheng, Xiaoqing Lv, Xiaoli Su
Clock genes are the core of the circadian rhythms in the human body and are important in regulating normal physiological functions. To date, research has indicated that the clock gene, period circadian clock 2 ( PER2 ), is downregulated in numerous types of cancer, and that it is associated with cancer occurrence and progression via the regulation of various downstream cell cycle genes. However, it remains unclear whether the decreased expression of PER2 influences the expression of other clock genes in cancer cells...
April 2018: Oncology Letters
M G Carta, A Preti, H S Akiskal
Human population is increasing in immense cities with millions of inhabitants, in which life is expected to run 24 hours a day for seven days a week (24/7). Noise and light pollution are the most reported consequences, with a profound impact on sleep patterns and circadian biorhythms. Disruption of sleep and biorhythms has severe consequences on many metabolic pathways. Suppression of melatonin incretion at night and the subsequent effect on DNA methylation may increase the risk of prostate and breast cancer...
2018: Clinical Practice and Epidemiology in Mental Health: CP & EMH
Yan-Dong Jiang, Xin Yuan, Wen-Wu Zhou, Yue-Liang Bai, Gui-Yao Wang, Zeng-Rong Zhu
Most living organisms have developed internal circadian clocks to anticipate the daily environmental changes. The circadian clocks are composed of several transcriptional-translational feedback loops, in which cryptochromes (CRYs) serve as critical elements. In insects, some CRYs act as photopigments to control circadian photoentrainment, while the others act as transcriptional regulators. We cloned and characterized two cryptochrome genes, the Drosophila -like ( lscry1 ) and vertebrate-like ( lscry2 ) genes, in a rice pest Laodelphax striatellus ...
2018: Frontiers in Physiology
Jihwan Myung, Christoph Schmal, Sungho Hong, Yoshiaki Tsukizawa, Pia Rose, Yong Zhang, Michael J Holtzman, Erik De Schutter, Hanspeter Herzel, Grigory Bordyugov, Toru Takumi
Mammalian circadian clocks have a hierarchical organization, governed by the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN) in the hypothalamus. The brain itself contains multiple loci that maintain autonomous circadian rhythmicity, but the contribution of the non-SCN clocks to this hierarchy remains unclear. We examine circadian oscillations of clock gene expression in various brain loci and discovered that in mouse, robust, higher amplitude, relatively faster oscillations occur in the choroid plexus (CP) compared to the SCN...
March 14, 2018: Nature Communications
Maxine P Bonham, Gloria K W Leung, Rochelle Davis, Tracey L Sletten, Chiara Murgia, Morag J Young, Nina Eikelis, Elisabeth A Lambert, Catherine E Huggins
INTRODUCTION: Shift work is an independent risk factor for cardiovascular disease (CVD). Shift workers who are awake overnight and sleep during the day are misaligned with their body's endogenous circadian rhythm. Eating at night contributes to this increased risk of CVD by forcing the body to actively break down and process nutrients at night. This pilot study aims to determine whether altering meal timing overnight, in a shift working population, will impact favourably on modifiable risk factors for CVD (postprandial bplasma lipids and glucose concentration)...
March 14, 2018: BMJ Open
Michael Cleary-Gaffney, Andrew N Coogan
Circadian rhythms are recurring patterns in a range of behavioural, physiological and molecular parameters that display periods of near 24 h, and are underpinned by an endogenous biological timekeeping system. Circadian clocks are increasingly recognised as being key for health. Environmental light is the key stimulus that synchronises the internal circadian system with the external time cues. There are emergent health concerns regarding increasing worldwide prevalence of electric lighting, especially man-made light-at-night, and light's impact on the circadian system may be central to these effects...
March 11, 2018: Physiology & Behavior
Jodi R Paul, Hira A Munir, Thomas van Groen, Karen L Gamble
Disruption of circadian rhythms is commonly reported in individuals with Alzheimer's disease (AD). Neurons in the primary circadian pacemaker, the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN), exhibit daily rhythms in spontaneous neuronal activity which are important for maintaining circadian behavioral rhythms. Disruption of SCN neuronal activity has been reported in animal models of other neurodegenerative disorders; however, the effect of AD on SCN neurophysiology remains unknown. In this study we examined circadian behavioral and electrophysiological changes in a mouse model of AD, using male mice from the Tg-SwDI line which expresses human amyloid precursor protein with the familial Swedish (K670N/M671L), Dutch (E693Q), Iowa (D694N) mutations...
March 11, 2018: Neurobiology of Disease
Jan Cosgrave, Katharina Wulff, Philip Gehrman
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The review is designed to give an overview of the latest developments in research exploring the relationship between sleep and psychosis, with particular attention paid to the evidence for a causal relationship between the two. RECENT FINDINGS: The most interesting avenues currently in pursuit are focused upon sleep spindle deficits which may hallmark an endophenotype; explorations of the continuum of psychotic experiences, and experimental manipulations to explore the evidence for bidirectional causality; inflammatory markers, psychosis and sleep disturbances and finally, treatment approaches for sleep in psychosis and the subsequent impact on positive experiences...
March 13, 2018: Current Opinion in Psychiatry
Elena Bellosta Diago, Jesús Pérez-Pérez, Sonia Santos Lasaosa, Alejandro Viloria Alebesque, Saül Martínez-Horta, Jaime Kulisevsky, Javier López Del Val
Cardiovascular events are a major cause of early death in the Huntington's disease (HD) population. Dysautonomia as well as deterioration of circadian rhythms can be detected early in the disease progression and can have profound effects on cardiac health. The aim of the present study was to determine if HD patients and premanifest mutation carriers present a higher risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD) than non-mutation carrying controls METHODS: Prospective, cross-sectional, multicentre study of 38 HD mutation carriers (23 premanifest and 15 early-stage patients) compared to 38 age- and gender-matched healthy controls...
March 14, 2018: European Journal of Neurology: the Official Journal of the European Federation of Neurological Societies
Lucia Negri, Napoleone Ferrara
The mammalian prokineticins family comprises two conserved proteins, EG-VEGF/PROK1 and Bv8/PROK2, and their two highly related G protein-coupled receptors, PKR1 and PKR2. This signaling system has been linked to several important biological functions, including gastrointestinal tract motility, regulation of circadian rhythms, neurogenesis, angiogenesis and cancer progression, hematopoiesis, and nociception. Mutations in PKR2 or Bv8/PROK2 have been associated with Kallmann syndrome, a developmental disorder characterized by defective olfactory bulb neurogenesis, impaired development of gonadotropin-releasing hormone neurons, and infertility...
April 1, 2018: Physiological Reviews
Fetch more papers »
Fetching more papers... Fetching...
Read by QxMD. Sign in or create an account to discover new knowledge that matter to you.
Remove bar
Read by QxMD icon Read

Search Tips

Use Boolean operators: AND/OR

diabetic AND foot
diabetes OR diabetic

Exclude a word using the 'minus' sign

Virchow -triad

Use Parentheses

water AND (cup OR glass)

Add an asterisk (*) at end of a word to include word stems

Neuro* will search for Neurology, Neuroscientist, Neurological, and so on

Use quotes to search for an exact phrase

"primary prevention of cancer"
(heart or cardiac or cardio*) AND arrest -"American Heart Association"