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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28641103/staring-at-the-clock-face-in-drosophila
#1
Ezio Rosato, Charalambos P Kyriacou
Liang et al. (2017) demonstrate how neuropeptides from two groups of clock cells appear to be responsible for the fly's circadian neurons becoming active at different times of day. By delaying the activity of their clock cell targets, they give rise to morning and evening behavior.
June 21, 2017: Neuron
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28637029/blue-enriched-morning-light-as-a-countermeasure-to-light-at-the-wrong-time-effects-on-cognition-sleepiness-sleep-and-circadian-phase
#2
Mirjam Münch, Claudia Nowozin, Johannes Regente, Frederik Bes, Jan De Zeeuw, Sven Hädel, Amely Wahnschaffe, Dieter Kunz
Light during the day and darkness at night are crucial factors for proper entrainment of the human circadian system to the solar 24-h day. However, modern life and work styles have led to much more time spent indoors, often with lower daytime and higher evening/nighttime light intensity from electrical lighting than outdoors. Whether this has long-term consequences for human health is being currently investigated. We tested if bright blue-enriched morning light over several days could counteract the detrimental effects of inadequate daytime and evening lighting...
June 22, 2017: Neuropsychobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28636933/drosophila-neuropeptide-f-signaling-independently-regulates-feeding-and-sleep-wake-behavior
#3
Brian Y Chung, Jennifer Ro, Sabine A Hutter, Kylie M Miller, Lakshmi S Guduguntla, Shu Kondo, Scott D Pletcher
Proper regulation of sleep-wake behavior and feeding is essential for organismal health and survival. While previous studies have isolated discrete neural loci and substrates important for either sleep or feeding, how the brain is organized to coordinate both processes with respect to one another remains poorly understood. Here, we provide evidence that the Drosophila Neuropeptide F (NPF) network forms a critical component of both adult sleep and feeding regulation. Activation of NPF signaling in the brain promotes wakefulness and adult feeding, likely through its cognate receptor NPFR...
June 20, 2017: Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28636777/biological-effects-related-to-geomagnetic-activity-and-possible-mechanisms
#4
REVIEW
Viacheslav V Krylov, Margaret Larkin
This review presents contemporary data on the biological effects of geomagnetic activity. Correlations between geomagnetic indices and biological parameters and experimental studies that used simulated geomagnetic storms to detect possible responses of organisms to these events in nature are discussed. Possible mechanisms by which geomagnetic activity influences organisms are also considered. Special attention is paid to the idea that geomagnetic activity is perceived by organisms as a disruption of diurnal geomagnetic variation...
June 21, 2017: Bioelectromagnetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28636610/chronotypes-in-the-us-influence-of-age-and-sex
#5
Dorothee Fischer, David A Lombardi, Helen Marucci-Wellman, Till Roenneberg
An individual's chronotype reflects how the circadian system embeds itself into the 24-h day with rhythms in physiology, cognition and behavior occurring accordingly earlier or later. In view of an increasing number of people working at unusual times and linked health and safety risks, the wide range in human chronotypes may provide opportunities to allow people to work (and sleep) at times that are in synch with their circadian physiology. We aimed at estimating the distribution of chronotypes in the US population by age and sex...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28634443/the-narrow-abdomen-ion-channel-complex-is-highly-stable-and-persists-from-development-into-adult-stages-to-promote-behavioral-rhythmicity
#6
Devon L Moose, Stephanie J Haase, Benjamin T Aldrich, Bridget C Lear
The sodium leak channel NARROW ABDOMEN (NA)/ NALCN is an important component of circadian pacemaker neuronal output. In Drosophila, rhythmic expression of the NA channel regulator Nlf-1 in a subset of adult pacemaker neurons has been proposed to contribute to circadian regulation of channel localization or activity. Here we have restricted expression of Drosophila NA channel subunits or the Nlf-1 regulator to either development or adulthood using the temperature-inducible tubulin-GAL80(ts) system. Surprisingly, we find that developmental expression of endogenous channel subunits and Nlf-1 is sufficient to promote robust rhythmic behavior in adults...
2017: Frontiers in Cellular Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28634329/long-days-enhance-recognition-memory-and-increase-insulin-like-growth-factor-2-in-the-hippocampus
#7
Adriano Dellapolla, Ian Kloehn, Harshida Pancholi, Ben Callif, David Wertz, Kayla E Rohr, Matthew M Hurley, Kimberly M Baker, Samer Hattar, Marieke R Gilmartin, Jennifer A Evans
Light improves cognitive function in humans; however, the neurobiological mechanisms underlying positive effects of light remain unclear. One obstacle is that most rodent models have employed lighting conditions that cause cognitive deficits rather than improvements. Here we have developed a mouse model where light improves cognitive function, which provides insight into mechanisms underlying positive effects of light. To increase light exposure without eliminating daily rhythms, we exposed mice to either a standard photoperiod or a long day photoperiod...
June 20, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28633442/continuous-glucose-monitoring-in-female-nod-mice-reveals-daily-rhythms-and-a-negative-correlation-with-body-temperature
#8
Ron Korstanje, Jennifer L Ryan, Holly S Savage, Bonnie L Lyons, Kevin G Kane, Stacey J Sukoff Rizzo
Previous studies with continuous glucose monitoring in mice have been limited to several days or weeks, with the mouse's physical attachment to the equipment impacting behavior and measurements. In the current study we measured blood glucose and body temperature at 10-second intervals for 12 weeks in a cohort of NOD/ShiLtJ female mice using wireless telemetry. This allowed us, for the first time, to obtain a high-resolution profile of the circadian rhythm of these two parameters and the onset of hyperglycemic development in real time...
June 19, 2017: Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28632709/circadian-regulation-switching-periods
#9
Grant Miura
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
June 20, 2017: Nature Chemical Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28632163/melatonin-as-a-novel-interventional-candidate-for-fragile-x-syndrome-with-autism-spectrum-disorder-in-humans
#10
REVIEW
Jinyoung Won, Yunho Jin, Jeonghyun Choi, Sookyoung Park, Tae Ho Lee, Sang-Rae Lee, Kyu-Tae Chang, Yonggeun Hong
Fragile X syndrome (FXS) is the most common monogenic form of autism spectrum disorder (ASD). FXS with ASD results from the loss of fragile X mental retardation (fmr) gene products, including fragile X mental retardation protein (FMRP), which triggers a variety of physiological and behavioral abnormalities. This disorder is also correlated with clock components underlying behavioral circadian rhythms and, thus, a mutation of the fmr gene can result in disturbed sleep patterns and altered circadian rhythms. As a result, FXS with ASD individuals may experience dysregulation of melatonin synthesis and alterations in melatonin-dependent signaling pathways that can impair vigilance, learning, and memory abilities, and may be linked to autistic behaviors such as abnormal anxiety responses...
June 20, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28630482/circadian-and-circatidal-clocks-control-the-mechanism-of-semilunar-foraging-behaviour
#11
James F Cheeseman, Rachel M Fewster, Michael M Walker
How animals precisely time behaviour over the lunar cycle is a decades-old mystery. Experiments on diverse species show this behaviour to be endogenous and under clock control but the mechanism has remained elusive. We present new experimental and analytical techniques to test the hypotheses for the semilunar clock and show that the rhythm of foraging behaviour in the intertidal isopod, Scyphax ornatus, can be precisely shifted by manipulating the lengths of the light/dark and tidal cycles. Using light T-cycles (Tcd) the resultant semilunar beat period undergoes shifts from 14...
June 19, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28630425/reconstructing-cell-cycle-pseudo-time-series-via-single-cell-transcriptome-data
#12
Zehua Liu, Huazhe Lou, Kaikun Xie, Hao Wang, Ning Chen, Oscar M Aparicio, Michael Q Zhang, Rui Jiang, Ting Chen
Single-cell mRNA sequencing, which permits whole transcriptional profiling of individual cells, has been widely applied to study growth and development of tissues and tumors. Resolving cell cycle for such groups of cells is significant, but may not be adequately achieved by commonly used approaches. Here we develop a traveling salesman problem and hidden Markov model-based computational method named reCAT, to recover cell cycle along time for unsynchronized single-cell transcriptome data. We independently test reCAT for accuracy and reliability using several data sets...
June 19, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28630378/randomised-controlled-trial-of-the-efficacy-of-a-blue-enriched-light-intervention-to-improve-alertness-and-performance-in-night-shift-workers
#13
Tracey L Sletten, Suzanne Ftouni, Christian L Nicholas, Michelle Magee, Ronald R Grunstein, Sally Ferguson, David J Kennaway, Darren O'Brien, Steven W Lockley, Shantha M W Rajaratnam
OBJECTIVES: Night workers often experience high levels of sleepiness due to misalignment of the sleep-wake cycle from the circadian pacemaker, in addition to acute and chronic sleep loss. Exposure to light, in particular short wavelength light, can improve alertness and neurobehavioural performance. This randomised controlled trial examined the efficacy of blue-enriched polychromatic light to improve alertness and neurobehavioural performance in night workers. DESIGN: Participants were 71 night shift workers (42 males; 32...
June 19, 2017: Occupational and Environmental Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28630025/the-clock-is-ticking-ageing-of-the-circadian-system-from-physiology-to-cell-cycle
#14
REVIEW
Eva Terzibasi-Tozzini, Antonio Martinez-Nicolas, Alejandro Lucas-Sánchez
The circadian system is the responsible to organise the internal temporal order in relation to the environment of every process of the organisms producing the circadian rhythms. These rhythms have a fixed phase relationship among them and with the environment in order to optimise the available energy and resources. From a cellular level, circadian rhythms are controlled by genetic positive and negative auto-regulated transcriptional and translational feedback loops, which generate 24hour rhythms in mRNA and protein levels of the clock components...
June 16, 2017: Seminars in Cell & Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28629592/measurement-and-clinical-utility-of-%C3%AE-ctx-in-serum-and-plasma
#15
Stephen A P Chubb, Samuel D Vasikaran
Biochemical markers of bone turnover (BTM) are released during bone remodeling and can be measured in blood or urine as noninvasive surrogate markers for the bone remodeling rate. The C-terminal cross-linked telopeptide of type I collagen (βCTX) is released during bone resorption and is specific to bone tissue. Assays have been developed to measure βCTX in blood and in urine; most current use of βCTX measurement for research and in clinical practice is performed on a blood sample. Method-specific differences for serum and plasma βCTX have led to initiatives to standardize or harmonize βCTX commercial assays...
2017: Advances in Clinical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28628530/effects-of-salt-loading-and-potassium-supplement-on-the-circadian-blood-pressure-profile-in-salt-sensitive-chinese-patients
#16
Tong-Shuai Guo, Yi Dai, Ke-Yu Ren, Jian-Jun Mu, Jie Ren, Dan Wang, Yang Wang, Chao Chu, Yan Li, Zu-Yi Yuan
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Salt-sensitive (SS) patients more frequently showed a nondipper blood pressure pattern and were associated with more serious target organ damage than non-SS patients. We aimed to investigate whether potassium supplement can improve the blunted nocturnal blood pressure fall in SS patients exposed to a high-salt diet. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Approximately 49 normotensive and mildly hypertensive Chinese patients received a study protocol of a 3 days of baseline examination, 7 days of a low-salt diet (3 g NaCl/day), 7 days of a high-salt diet (18 g NaCl/day), and 7 days of a high-salt diet with a potassium supplement (18 g NaCl and 4...
June 16, 2017: Blood Pressure Monitoring
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28627309/measuring-light-at-night-and-melatonin-levels-in-shift-workers-a-review-of-the-literature
#17
Claudia M Hunter, Mariana G Figueiro
Shift work, especially that involving rotating and night shifts, is associated with an increased risk of diseases, including cancer. Attempts to explain the association between shift work and cancer in particular have focused on the processes of melatonin production and suppression. One hypothesis postulates that exposure to light at night (LAN) suppresses melatonin, whose production is known to slow the development of cancerous cells, while another proposes that circadian disruption associated with shift work, and not just LAN, increases health risks...
July 2017: Biological Research for Nursing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28626420/restless-legs-syndrome-from-pathophysiology-to-clinical-diagnosis-and-management
#18
REVIEW
Shiyi Guo, Jinsha Huang, Haiyang Jiang, Chao Han, Jie Li, Xiaoyun Xu, Guoxin Zhang, Zhicheng Lin, Nian Xiong, Tao Wang
Restless legs syndrome (RLS), a common neurological sensorimotor disorder in western countries, has gained more and more attention in Asian countries. The prevalence of RLS is higher in older people and females. RLS is most commonly related to iron deficiency, pregnancy and uremia. The RLS symptoms show a significant circadian rhythm and a close relationship to periodic limb movements (PLMs) in clinical observations, while the pathophysiological pathways are still unknown. The diagnostic criteria have been revised in 2012 to improve the validity of RLS diagnosis...
2017: Frontiers in Aging Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28626157/protein-restriction-does-not-affect-body-temperature-pattern-in-female-mice
#19
Goro A Kato, Hiroki Shichijo, Toshihiro Takahashi, Akio Shinohara, Tetsuo Morita, Chihiro Koshimoto
Daily torpor is a physiological adaptation in mammals and birds characterized by a controlled reduction of metabolic rate and body temperature during the resting phase of circadian rhythms. In laboratory mice, daily torpor is induced by dietary caloric restriction. However, it is not known which nutrients are related to daily torpor expression. To determine whether dietary protein is a key factor in inducing daily torpor in mice, we fed mice a protein-restricted (PR) diet that included only one-quarter of the amount of protein but the same caloric level as a control (C) diet...
June 13, 2017: Experimental Animals
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28625682/are-circadian-rhythms-new-pathways-to-understand-autism-spectrum-disorder
#20
M-M Geoffray, A Nicolas, M Speranza, N Georgieff
Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) is a frequent neurodevelopmental disorder. ASD is probably the result of intricate interactions between genes and environment altering progressively the development of brain structures and functions. Circadian rhythms are a complex intrinsic timing system composed of almost as many clocks as there are body cells. They regulate a variety of physiological and behavioral processes such as the sleep- wake rhythm. ASD is often associated with sleep disorders and low levels of melatonin...
June 15, 2017: Journal of Physiology, Paris
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