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Endocrine disrupters,polycystic ovary syndrome

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27895088/hormonal-alterations-in-pcos-and-its-influence-on-bone-metabolism
#1
Abhaya Krishnan, Sridhar Muthusami
According to the World Health Organization (WHO) polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) occurs in 4-8% of women worldwide. The prevalence of PCOS in Indian adolescents is 12.2% according to ICMR (Indian Council of Medical Research) report. National Institute of Health documented that it affects approximately 5 million women of reproductive age in the United States . Hormonal imbalance is the characteristic of many women with polycystic ovarian syndrome. The impact of various endocrine changes in PCOS women and their relevance to bone remains to be documented...
November 28, 2016: Journal of Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27559705/polycystic-ovary-syndrome-and-environmental-toxins
#2
REVIEW
Aleksandra Zofia Rutkowska, Evanthia Diamanti-Kandarakis
Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is the most common, heterogeneous, and multifactorial endocrine disorder in premenopausal women. The pathophysiology of this endocrinopathy is still unclear; however, the heterogeneity of its features within ethnic races, geographic location, and families suggests that environment and lifestyle are of prime importance. This work is mainly focused on the possible role of the most common and studied environmental toxins for this syndrome in the pathogenesis of PCOS. Plasticizers, such as bisphenol A (BPA) or phthalates, which belong to the categories of endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) and advanced glycation end products (AGEs), affect humans' health in everyday, industrialized life; therefore special attention should be paid to such exposure...
September 15, 2016: Fertility and Sterility
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27514712/altered-steroid-metabolism-and-insulin-signaling-in-pcos-endometria-impact-in-tissue-function
#3
Lorena Oróstica, Carlos Rosas, Francisca Plaza-Parrochia, Isis Astorga, Fernando Gabler, Víctor García, Carmen Romero, Margarita Vega
BACKGROUND: Polycystic Ovary Syndrome (PCOS) is a prevalent endocrine/ metabolic disorder characterized by hyperandrogenemia and in most cases, by hyperinsulinemia in addition to obesity. Besides ovarian dysfunction, endometrial physiology is also disrupted since this tissue is highly dependent on the action of steroids; in case of conception cycles, high percentage of abortion is observed. Because of the endocrine/metabolic alterations, PCOS-women present high probability to develop hyperplasia and endometrial cancer, where an imbalance of cell proliferation/apoptosis processes is detected...
2016: Current Pharmaceutical Design
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27375552/genetic-rodent-models-of-obesity-associated-ovarian-dysfunction-and-subfertility-insights-into-polycystic-ovary-syndrome
#4
REVIEW
Isabel Huang-Doran, Stephen Franks
Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is the most common endocrinopathy affecting women and a leading cause of female infertility worldwide. Defined clinically by the presence of hyperandrogenemia and oligomenorrhoea, PCOS represents a state of hormonal dysregulation, disrupted ovarian follicle dynamics, and subsequent oligo- or anovulation. The syndrome's prevalence is attributed, at least partly, to a well-established association with obesity and insulin resistance (IR). Indeed, the presence of severe PCOS in human genetic obesity and IR syndromes supports a causal role for IR in the pathogenesis of PCOS...
2016: Frontiers in Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27342273/prenatal-exposure-to-endocrine-disruptors-a-developmental-etiology-for-polycystic-ovary-syndrome
#5
Meghan Hewlett, Erika Chow, Ann Aschengrau, Shruthi Mahalingaiah
Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is one of the most common and complex endocrinopathies among reproductive-age women. Polycystic ovary syndrome is characterized by symptomatology of oligomenorrhea and androgen excess, with or without presence of polycystic ovarian morphology. The etiology of PCOS is multifactorial, including genetic and environmental components. It has been previously established that prenatal androgen exposure results in a PCOS phenotype in experimental animal models and epidemiologic human studies...
June 23, 2016: Reproductive Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27129868/resveratrol-protects-the-ovary-against-chromium-toxicity-by-enhancing-endogenous-antioxidant-enzymes-and-inhibiting-metabolic-clearance-of-estradiol
#6
Sakhila K Banu, Jone A Stanley, Kirthiram K Sivakumar, Joe A Arosh, Robert C Burghardt
Resveratrol (RVT), a polyphenolic component in grapes and red wine, has been known for its cytoprotective actions against several diseases. However, beneficial effects of RVT against early exposure to endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) have not been understood. EDCs are linked to several ovarian diseases such as premature ovarian failure, polycystic ovary syndrome, early menopause and infertility in women. Hexavalent chromium (CrVI) is a heavy metal EDC, and widely used in >50 industries. Environmental contamination with CrVI in the US is rapidly increasing, predisposing the human to several illnesses including cancers and still birth...
July 15, 2016: Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26807298/value-of-ultrasonography-in-the-diagnosis-of-polycystic-ovary-syndrome-literature-review
#7
REVIEW
Michał Bachanek, Nebil Abdalla, Krzysztof Cendrowski, Włodzimierz Sawicki
Polycystic ovary syndrome is a multi-factorial disease. Its etiopathogenesis has not been elucidated in detail. It is the most common endocrine disorder in women of child-bearing age. This disease entity is primarily characterized by disrupted ovulation and hyperandrogenism, but the clinical picture can be diversified and symptom intensity can vary. Currently, the sonographic assessment of ovaries is one of the obligatory criteria for the diagnosis of PCOS according to the Rotterdam consensus (2003) and Androgen Excess & PCOS Society (2006)...
December 2015: Journal of Ultrasonography
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26642102/american-association-of-clinical-endocrinologists-american-college-of-endocrinology-and-androgen-excess-and-pcos-society-disease-state-clinical-review-guide-to-the-best-practices-in-the-evaluation-and-treatment-of-polycystic-ovary-syndrome-part-2
#8
REVIEW
Neil F Goodman, Rhoda H Cobin, Walter Futterweit, Jennifer S Glueck, Richard S Legro, Enrico Carmina
Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is recognized as the most common endocrine disorder of reproductive-aged women around the world. This document, produced by the collaboration of the American Association of Clinical Endocrinologists and the Androgen Excess Society aims to highlight the most important clinical issues confronting physicians and their patients with PCOS. It is a summary of current best practices in 2014. Insulin resistance is believed to play an intrinsic role in the pathogenesis of PCOS. The mechanism by which insulin resistance or insulin give rise to oligomenorrhea and hyperandrogenemia, however, is unclear...
December 2015: Endocrine Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26479193/polycystic-ovary-syndrome-in-globalizing-india-an-ecosocial-perspective-on-an-emerging-lifestyle-disease
#9
Gauri Pathak, Mark Nichter
Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is an endocrine disorder linked to type II diabetes and the leading cause of female infertility worldwide. Despite being considered a "lifestyle" disease, PCOS has received scant attention in the social science literature. In India, media accounts citing prominent doctors have expressed concern that the syndrome affects a growing number of urban middle-class Indian women. The general public, doctors, and afflicted women all attribute the condition to stress, lifestyle changes, "Westernization," modernization, and disrupted circadian rhythms...
December 2015: Social Science & Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26455490/the-neuroendocrine-genesis-of-polycystic-ovary-syndrome-a-role-for-arcuate-nucleus-gaba-neurons
#10
REVIEW
Aleisha M Moore, Rebecca E Campbell
Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is a prevalent and distressing endocrine disorder lacking a clearly identified aetiology. Despite its name, PCOS may result from impaired neuronal circuits in the brain that regulate steroid hormone feedback to the hypothalamo-pituitary-gonadal axis. Ovarian function in all mammals is controlled by the gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) neurons, a small group of neurons that reside in the pre-optic area of the hypothalamus. GnRH neurons drive the secretion of the gonadotropins from the pituitary gland that subsequently control ovarian function, including the production of gonadal steroid hormones...
June 2016: Journal of Steroid Biochemistry and Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25832114/steroidogenic-versus-metabolic-programming-of-reproductive-neuroendocrine-ovarian-and-metabolic-dysfunctions
#11
REVIEW
Rodolfo C Cardoso, Muraly Puttabyatappa, Vasantha Padmanabhan
The susceptibility of the reproductive system to early exposure to steroid hormones has become a major concern in our modern societies. Human fetuses are at risk of abnormal programming via exposure to endocrine disrupting chemicals, inadvertent use of contraceptive pills during pregnancy, as well as from excess exposure to steroids due to disease states. Animal models provide an unparalleled resource to understand the developmental origin of diseases. In female sheep, prenatal exposure to testosterone excess results in an array of adult reproductive disorders that recapitulate those seen in women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS), including disrupted neuroendocrine feedback mechanisms, increased pituitary sensitivity to gonadotropin-releasing hormone, luteinizing hormone excess, functional hyperandrogenism, and multifollicular ovarian morphology culminating in early reproductive failure...
2015: Neuroendocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25813067/health-risk-of-exposure-to-bisphenol-a-bpa
#12
Aleksandra Konieczna, Aleksandra Rutkowska, Dominik Rachoń
Bisphenol A (BPA) belongs to chemicals that are produced in large quantities worldwide. It is commonly used as monomer in polycarbonate synthesis, plasticizer in the production of epoxy resins, as well as an additive for the elimination of surfeit of hydrochloric acid during the polyvinyl chloride (PVC) production. BPA is not only used in the production of plastics intended to a direct contact with food, including plastic packaging and kitchenware, but also in inner coatings of cans and jar caps. There are various routes of human exposure to this substance such as oral, by inhalation and transdermal...
2015: Roczniki Państwowego Zakładu Higieny
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25695720/developmental-programming-by-androgen-affects-the-circadian-timing-system-in-female-mice
#13
Amanda L Mereness, Zachary C Murphy, Michael T Sellix
Circadian clocks play essential roles in the timing of events in the mammalian hypothalamo-pituitary-ovarian (HPO) axis. The molecular oscillator driving these rhythms has been localized to tissues of the HPO axis. It has been suggested that synchrony among these oscillators is a feature of normal reproductive function. The impact of fertility disorders on clock function and the role of the clock in the etiology of endocrine pathology remain unknown. Polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS) is a particularly devastating fertility disorder, affecting 5%-10% of women at childbearing age with features including a polycystic ovary, anovulation, and elevated serum androgen...
April 2015: Biology of Reproduction
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25372737/endocrine-disruptors-and-polycystic-ovary-syndrome-a-focus-on-bisphenol-a-and-its-potential-pathophysiological-aspects
#14
REVIEW
Eleni Palioura, Eleni Kandaraki, Evanthia Diamanti-Kandarakis
Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is a heterogeneous disorder of unknown etiology that may arise from a combination of a number of underlying genetic interactions and predispositions with environmental factors. Endocrine disruptors and, in particular, Bisphenol A may represent one of the many underlying causes of the syndrome as they are experimentally linked to metabolic and reproductive derangements resembling PCOS-related disorders. Exposure to endocrine-disrupting chemicals may act as an environmental modifier to worsen symptoms of PCOS in affected females or to contribute to the final phenotype of the syndrome in genetically predisposed individuals...
March 2014: Hormone Molecular Biology and Clinical Investigation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25242113/soy-but-not-bisphenol-a-bpa-induces-hallmarks-of-polycystic-ovary-syndrome-pcos-and-related-metabolic-co-morbidities-in-rats
#15
Heather B Patisaul, Natalie Mabrey, Heather B Adewale, Alana W Sullivan
Polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS) is the most common female endocrine disorder with a prevalence as high as 8-15% depending on ethnicity and the diagnostic criteria employed. The basic pathophysiology and mode of inheritance remain unclear, but environmental factors such as diet, stress and chemical exposures are thought to be contributory. Developmental exposure to endocrine disrupting compounds (EDCs) have been hypothesized to exacerbate risk, in part because PCOS hallmarks and associated metabolic co-morbidities can be reliably induced in animal models by perinatal androgen exposure...
November 2014: Reproductive Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/24980253/the-fundamental-role-of-bone-morphogenetic-protein-15-in-ovarian-function-and-its-involvement-in-female-fertility-disorders
#16
REVIEW
Luca Persani, Raffaella Rossetti, Elisa Di Pasquale, Chiara Cacciatore, Stéphane Fabre
BACKGROUND: A large number of studies have contributed to understanding the general mechanisms driving ovarian folliculogenesis in humans and show a complex endocrine dialog between the central nervous system, the pituitary and the ovary, integrated by various intraovarian paracrine messages. The role of intraovarian paracrine regulation has acquired more relevance in the recent years owing to the discovery of previously unknown factors, such as the oocyte-derived bone morphogenetic protein (BMP)15...
November 2014: Human Reproduction Update
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/24886252/bisphenol-a-and-the-female-reproductive-tract-an-overview-of-recent-laboratory-evidence-and-epidemiological-studies
#17
REVIEW
Donatella Caserta, Noemi Di Segni, Maddalena Mallozzi, Valentina Giovanale, Alberto Mantovani, Roberto Marci, Massimo Moscarini
Bisphenol A (BPA) is a high production volume monomer used for making a wide variety of polycarbonate plastics and resins. A large body of evidence links BPA to endocrine disruption in laboratory animals, and a growing number of epidemiological studies support a link with health disorders in humans. The aim of this review is to summarize the recent experimental studies describing the effects and mechanisms of BPA on the female genital tract and to compare them to the current knowledge regarding the impact of BPA impact on female reproductive health...
2014: Reproductive Biology and Endocrinology: RB&E
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/24830592/effects-of-endocrine-disruptors-in-the-development-of-the-female-reproductive-tract
#18
REVIEW
Elaine Maria Frade Costa, Poli Mara Spritzer, Alexandre Hohl, Tânia A S S Bachega
Environmental agencies have identified a growing number of environmental contaminants that have endocrine disrupting activity, and these can become a major public health problem. It is suggested that endocrine disruptors could account for the higher-than-expected increase in the prevalence of some non-communicable diseases, such as obesity, diabetes, thyroid diseases, and some cancers. Several endocrine Disrupting Chemicals (EDCs), such as pesticides, bisphenol A, phthalates, dioxins, and phytoestrogens, can interact with the female reproductive system and lead to endocrine disruption...
March 2014: Arquivos Brasileiros de Endocrinologia e Metabologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/24715511/polycystic-ovary-syndrome-do-endocrine-disrupting-chemicals-play-a-role
#19
REVIEW
Emily S Barrett, Marissa Sobolewski
Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is a heterogeneous disorder characterized by multiple endocrine disturbances, and its underlying causes, although uncertain, are likely to be both genetic and environmental. Recently, there has been interest in whether endocrine-disrupting chemicals (EDCs) in the environment, particularly Bisphenol A (BPA), may contribute to the disorder. In animal models, exposure to BPA during the perinatal period dramatically disrupts ovarian and reproductive function in females, often at doses similar to typical levels of human exposure...
May 2014: Seminars in Reproductive Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/24410809/metabolic-heterogeneity-of-follicular-amino-acids-in-polycystic-ovary-syndrome-is-affected-by-obesity-and-related-to-pregnancy-outcome
#20
Chun-mei Zhang, Yue Zhao, Rong Li, Yang Yu, Li-ying Yan, Li Li, Na-na Liu, Ping Liu, Jie Qiao
BACKGROUND: Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is a heterogeneous endocrine disorder frequently accompanied by obesity and by insulin resistance, and patients with this syndrome suffer from infertility and poor pregnancy outcome. Disturbances in plasma amino acid (AA) metabolism have been implicated in women with PCOS. However, direct evidence on follicular AA metabolic profiles in PCOS patients and their relationship with pregnancy outcome is sparse. METHODS: We conducted a prospective study in 63 PCOS patients and 48 controls in the Division of Reproductive Center, Peking University Third Hospital...
2014: BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth
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