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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29352437/cost-effectiveness-of-treatments-for-chronic-constipation-a-systematic-review
#1
REVIEW
Dolly Han, Nicolas Iragorri, Fiona Clement, Diane Lorenzetti, Eldon Spackman
BACKGROUND: Chronic constipation (CC) has a significant impact on patients' quality of life and imposes an economic burden on individuals and the healthcare system. Treatment options include dietary changes, lifestyle modifications, fibre supplements, stool softeners, and laxatives. OBJECTIVE: We undertook this systematic review to comprehensively evaluate the cost effectiveness of treatments for CC. METHODS: We searched ten common databases to identify economic evaluations published to 13 June 2017...
January 19, 2018: PharmacoEconomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29351493/test-retest-reliability-of-the-unsupported-upper-limb-exercise-test-uulex-and-6-min-peg-board-ring-test-6pbrt-in-healthy-adult-individuals
#2
Vanessa Pereira Lima, Marcelo Velloso, Fabiana Damasceno Almeida, Bianca Carmona, Giane Amorim Ribeiro-Samora, Tania Janaudis-Ferreira
BACKGROUND: The unsupported upper-limb exercise (UULEX) and 6-min peg board ring tests (6PBRTs) have been developed to measure peak unsupported arm exercise capacity and arm endurance, respectively, in individuals with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. These tests are valid and reproducible in this population; however, the reproducibility of healthy adults is currently unknown. OBJECTIVE: To determine the within-day test-retest reliability of the UULEX and 6PBRT in healthy adults...
January 19, 2018: Physiotherapy Theory and Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29351466/telomerase-reverse-transcriptase-protects-against-angiotensin-ii-induced-microvascular-endothelial-dysfunction
#3
Karima Ait-Aissa, Andrew O Kadlec, Joseph Hockenberry, David D Gutterman, Andreas M Beyer
A rise in reactive oxygen species (ROS) may contribute to cardiovascular disease by reducing nitric oxide (NO) levels, leading to loss of NO's vasodilator and anti-inflammatory effects. Although primarily studied in the larger conduit arteries, excess ROS release and a corresponding loss of NO also occurs in the smaller resistance arteries of the microcirculation, but underlying mechanisms and therapeutic targets have not been fully characterized. We examined whether either of the two subunits of telomerase, telomerase reverse transcriptase (TERT) or telomerase RNA component (TERC), affect microvascular ROS production and peak vasodilation at baseline and in response to in vivo administration to angiotensin II (ANG II)...
December 22, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Heart and Circulatory Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29351343/minority-race-and-male-sex-as-risk-factors-for-non-beneficial-gastrostomy-tube-placements-after-stroke
#4
Roland Faigle, Joseph A Carrese, Lisa A Cooper, Victor C Urrutia, Rebecca F Gottesman
BACKGROUND: Percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy (PEG) tubes are widely used for enteral feeding after stroke; however, PEG tubes placed in patients in whom death is imminent are considered non-beneficial. AIM: We sought to determine whether placement of non-beneficial PEG tubes differs by race and sex. DESIGN AND SETTING/PARTICIPANTS: In this retrospective cohort study, inpatient admissions for stroke patients who underwent palliative/withdrawal of care, were discharged to hospice, or died during the hospitalization, were identified from the Nationwide Inpatient Sample between 2007 and 2011...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29350913/environmentally-triggerable-retinoic-acid-inducible-gene-i-agonists-using-synthetic-polymer-overhangs
#5
Christian R Palmer, Max E Jacobson, Olga Fedorova, Anna M Pyle, John T Wilson
Retinoic acid-inducible gene I (RIG-I) is a cytosolic pattern recognition receptor (PRR) that potently activates antiviral innate immunity upon recognition of 5' triphosphorylated double-stranded RNA (pppRNA). Accordingly, RNA ligands of the RIG-I pathway have recently emerged as promising antiviral agents, vaccine adjuvants, and cancer immunotherapeutics. However, RIG-I is expressed constitutively in virtually all cell types, and therefore administration of RIG-I agonists causes risk for systemic inflammation and possible dose-limiting toxicities...
January 19, 2018: Bioconjugate Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29350902/hierarchically-self-assembled-supramolecular-host-guest-delivery-system-for-delivery-of-chemotherapeutics-to-drug-resistant-cancer-tumours
#6
Hongwei Cheng, Xiaoshan Fan, Xiaoyuan Wang, Enyi Ye, Xian Jun Loh, Zibiao Li, Yun-Long Wu
In this report, a new star-like copolymer -CD-g-(PNIPAAm-b-POEGA)x consisting of a -CD core, grafted with temperature-responsive poly(N-isopropylacrylamide) (PNIPAAm) and biocompatible poly(oligo(ethylene glycol) acrylate) (POEGA) in a block copolymer of the arms, was used to deliver chemotherapeutics to drug resistant cancer tumours. The first step of the self-assembly process involves the encapsulation of chemotherapeutics through host-guest inclusion complexation between the -cyclodextrin cavity and the anti-cancer drug...
January 19, 2018: Biomacromolecules
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29350522/chemical-design-of-both-a-glutathione-sensitive-dimeric-drug-guest-and-a-glucose-derived-nanocarrier-host-to-achieve-enhanced-osteosarcoma-lung-metastatic-anticancer-selectivity
#7
Lu Su, Richen Li, Sarosh Khan, Ryan Clanton, Fuwu Zhang, Yen-Nan Lin, Yue Song, Hai Wang, Jingwei Fan, Soleil Hernandez, Andrew S Butters, Gamal Akabani, Ronan MacLoughlin, Justin Smolen, Karen L Wooley
Although nanomedicines have been pursued for nearly 20 years, fundamental chemical strategies that seek to optimize both the drug and drug carrier together in a concerted effort remain uncommon yet may be powerful. In this work, two block polymers and one dimeric prodrug molecule were designed to be coassembled into degradable, functional nanocarriers, where the chemistry of each component was defined to accomplish important tasks. The result is a poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG)-protected redox-responsive dimeric paclitaxel (diPTX)-loaded cationic poly(d-glucose carbonate) micelle (diPTX@CPGC)...
January 19, 2018: Journal of the American Chemical Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29350064/comparison-of-hyaluronic-acid-based-micelles-and-polyethylene-glycol-based-micelles-on-reversal-of-multidrug-resistance-and-enhanced-anticancer-efficacy-in-vitro-and-in-vivo
#8
Jinling Wang, Ying Li, Lifang Wang, Xiaohui Wang, Pengfei Tu
Polyethylene glycol (PEG)-based block copolymer micelles and hyaluronic acid (HA)-based grafted copolymer micelles have been widely investigated in chemotherapy. In this study, to evaluate the differences among HA-based grafted polymer micelles, PEG-based block polymer micelles and the mixed of these two micelles in enhancing antitumor effects and overcoming MDR, two amphiphilic vitamin E succinate (VES) derivatives, HA VES (HA-g-VES) and PEG 2000 VES (TPGS2k), were applied as nanocarriers to prepare HA-VES micelles (HA-PMs), TPGS2k micelles (TPGS2k-PMs) and the mixed micelles (HA/TPGS2k-PMs) for the co-delivery of doxorubicin (DOX) and curcumin (Cur)...
November 2018: Drug Delivery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29349584/-percutaneous-endoscopic-gastrostomy-in-geriatrics-indications-technique-and-complications
#9
Rainer Wirth
The technique of percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy (PEG) was introduced in 1979 as a semi-invasive approach for children with the need for a gastric fistula in order to avoid an operative intervention. The suture pull-through method was rapidly established and is now omnipresent. Because scientific evidence is broadly missing, there is some uncertainty about the indications in geriatric medicine. Guidelines do not recommend the insertion of a PEG in patients with severe dementia and malnutrition. Tube feeding is mainly recommended as a temporary method for patients who cannot take oral nutrition for more than 3 days or for whom the energy intake for more than 10 days presumably covers less than 50% of their needs, assuming that the overall prognosis is reasonable...
January 18, 2018: Zeitschrift Für Gerontologie und Geriatrie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29349548/an-effective-surfactant-assisted-hydrothermal-pretreatment-strategy-for-bioethanol-production-from-chili-post-harvest-residue-by-separate-hydrolysis-and-fermentation
#10
Raveendran Sindhu, Parameswaran Binod, Anil Kuruvilla Mathew, Amith Abraham, Ashok Pandey, Edgard Gnansounou, Galliano Eulogio Castro
Surfactants play major role in the delignification of lignocellulosic biomass. Surfactant-assisted hydrothermal pretreatment was evaluated for chili post-harvest residue. Maximum reducing sugar yield of 0.445 g per g of dry biomass (g/g) was obtained when surfactant PEG 6000 was used. Compositional analysis revealed an efficient removal of lignin and hemicelluloses from the pretreated biomass. Fermentation inhibitors such as furfural, 5-hydroxymethylfurfural and organic acids were absent in the hydrolyzate...
January 18, 2018: Bioprocess and Biosystems Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29349544/interpretation-of-motion-analysis-of-laparoscopic-instruments-based-on-principal-component-analysis-in-box-trainer-settings
#11
Ignacio Oropesa, Fernando Pérez Escamirosa, Juan A Sánchez-Margallo, Silvia Enciso, Borja Rodríguez-Vila, Arturo Minor Martínez, Francisco M Sánchez-Margallo, Enrique J Gómez, Patricia Sánchez-González
BACKGROUND: Motion analysis parameters (MAPs) have been extensively validated for assessment of minimally invasive surgical skills. However, there are discrepancies on how specific MAPs, tasks, and skills match with each other, reflecting that motion analysis cannot be generalized independently of the learning outcomes of a task. Additionally, there is a lack of knowledge on the meaning of motion analysis in terms of surgical skills, making difficult the provision of meaningful, didactic feedback...
January 18, 2018: Surgical Endoscopy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29349543/saving-robots-improves-laparoscopic-performance-transfer-of-skills-from-a-serious-game-to-a-virtual-reality-simulator
#12
Wouter M IJgosse, Harry van Goor, Jan-Maarten Luursema
BACKGROUND: Residents find it hard to commit to structural laparoscopic skills training. Serious gaming has been proposed as a solution on the premise that it is effective and more motivating than traditional simulation. We establish construct validity for the laparoscopic serious game Underground by comparing laparoscopic simulator performance for a control group and an Underground training group. METHODS: A four-session laparoscopic basic skills course is part of the medical master students surgical internship at the Radboud University Medical Centre...
January 18, 2018: Surgical Endoscopy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29348616/fast-and-effective-mitochondrial-delivery-of-%C3%AF-rhodamine-b-polysulfobetaine-peg-copolymers
#13
Nobuyuki Morimoto, Riho Takei, Masaru Wakamura, Yoshifumi Oishi, Masafumi Nakayama, Makoto Suzuki, Masaya Yamamoto, Françoise M Winnik
Mitochondrial targeting and entry, two crucial steps in fighting severe diseases resulting from mitochondria dysfunction, pose important challenges in current nanomedicine. Cell-penetrating peptides or targeting groups, such as Rhodamine-B (Rho), are known to localize in mitochondria, but little is known on how to enhance their effectiveness through structural properties of polymeric carriers. To address this issue, we prepared 8 copolymers of 3-dimethyl(methacryloyloxyethyl)ammonium propane sulfonate and poly(ethyleneglycol) methacrylate, p(DMAPS-ran-PEGMA) (molecular weight, 18...
January 18, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29346731/direct-polymerization-of-the-arsenic-drug-penao-to-obtain-nanoparticles-with-high-thiol-reactivity-and-anti-cancer-efficiency
#14
Janina-Miriam Noy, Hongxu Lu, Philip Hogg, Jia-Lin Yang, Martina H Stenzel
PENAO (4-(N-(S-penicillaminylacetyl)amino) phenylarsonous acid), which is a mitochondria inhibitor that reacts with adenine nucleotide translocator (ANT), is currently being trialed in patients with solid tumors. To increase the stability of the drug, the formation of nanoparticles has been proposed. Herein, the direct synthesis of polymeric micelles based on the anti-cancer drug PENAO is presented. PENAO is readily available for amidation reaction to form PENAO MA (4-(N-(S-penicillaminylacetyl) amino) phenylarsonous acid methacrylamide) which undergoes RAFT (reversible addition fragmentation chin transfer) polymerization with poly(polyethylene glycol methyl ether methacrylate) (PEGMA) as comonomer and poly(methylmethacrylate) (pMMA) as chain transfer agent, resulting in p(MMA)-b-p(PEG-co-PENAO) block copolymers with 3-15 wt...
January 18, 2018: Bioconjugate Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29345503/effectiveness-of-the-biophysical-barriers-to-the-peridural-fibrosis-in-rat-laminectomy-model
#15
Ibrahim Akkurt, Bulent Bakar, Gungor Cagdas Dincel, Fatma Azize Budak Yıldıran, Mustafa Ogden, Egemen Nursoy, Elif Sari
PURPOSE: Peridural fibrosis which could occur after the spinal surgery could adhere neural tissue closely and may cause to neural entrapment symptoms and require surgical reintervention. AIM OF THE STUDY: Present study was designed to reduce occurrence of peridural fibrosis in rat laminectomy model by using biophysical barriers called hyaluronic acid (HAS) dural barrier, activated polyethylene glycol and polyethylene imine (PEG) dural barrier, and platelet-rich plasma (PRP)...
January 18, 2018: Journal of Investigative Surgery: the Official Journal of the Academy of Surgical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29345271/flocculation-on-a-chip-a-novel-screening-approach-to-determine-floc-growth-rates-and-select-flocculating-agents
#16
Anand N P Radhakrishnan, Marco P C Marques, Matthew J Davies, Brian O'Sullivan, Daniel G Bracewell, Nicolas Szita
Flocculation is a key purification step in cell-based processes for the food and pharmaceutical industry where the removal of cells and cellular debris is aided by adding flocculating agents. However, finding the best suited flocculating agent and optimal conditions to achieve rapid and effective flocculation is a non-trivial task. In conventional analytical systems, turbulent mixing creates a dynamic equilibrium between floc growth and breakage, constraining the determination of floc formation rates. Furthermore, these systems typically rely on end-point measurements only...
January 18, 2018: Lab on a Chip
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29345244/in-vitro-physical-and-biological-characterization-of-biodegradable-elastic-polyurethane-containing-ferulic-acid-for-small-caliber-vascular-grafts
#17
Shiva Asadpour, Jafar Ai, Parivash Davoudi, Masoud Ghorbani, Marzieh Jalali, Hossein Ghanbari
Demand for small diameter vascular grafts is growing. Main limitations of these grafts include induced thrombotic events, lack of in-situ endothelialization, intimal hyperplasia and poor mechanical properties which impair the graft patency rate in long term applications. Most of the used antithrombotic modification methods usually conflict with formation of endothelial cell monolayer on the grafts. Here, we synthesized a novel biodegradable elastic poly (ester ether urethane urea) (PEEUU) using poly (ethylene glycol) (PEG) and poly (diethylene glycol adipate) (PDEGA) as soft segments...
January 18, 2018: Biomedical Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29344721/post-mortem-mr-angiography-quantitative-investigation-and-intravascular-retention-of-perfusates-in-ex-situ-porcine-hearts
#18
Bridgette Webb, Thomas Widek, Sylvia Scheicher, Thorsten Schwark, Rudolf Stollberger
As the implementation of minimally invasive imaging techniques in both forensic and pathological practice increases, research in this area focuses on addressing recognised diagnostic weaknesses of current approaches. Assessment of sudden cardiac death (SCD) can be considered one such area in which post-mortem imaging still shows diagnostic weaknesses. We hypothesise that magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) with an angiographic adjunct may improve the visualisation and interpretation of cardiac pathologies in a post-mortem setting...
January 18, 2018: International Journal of Legal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29344305/a-tumor-activatable-theranostic-nanomedicine-platform-for-nir-fluorescence-guided-surgery-and-combinatorial-phototherapy
#19
Xiaoning Li, Canan Schumann, Hassan A Albarqi, Christopher J Lee, Adam W G Alani, Shay Bracha, Milan Milovancev, Olena Taratula, Oleh Taratula
Fluorescence image-guided surgery combined with intraoperative therapeutic modalities has great potential for intraoperative detection of oncologic targets and eradication of unresectable cancer residues. Therefore, we have developed an activatable theranostic nanoplatform that can be used concurrently for two purposes: (1) tumor delineation with real-time near infrared (NIR) fluorescence signal during surgery, and (2) intraoperative targeted treatment to further eliminate unresected disease sites by non-toxic phototherapy...
2018: Theranostics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29344184/therapeutic-effects-of-adenovirus-mediated-cd-and-nis-expression-combined-with-na131i-5-fc-on-human-thyroid-cancer
#20
Meng-Hui Yuan, Long-Xiao Wei, Run-Suo Zhou, Hai-Feng Xu, Jun-Yan Wang, Qian-Rong Bai
Thyroid cancer is the most common type of malignant endocrine tumor diagnosed. Previous studies have indicated that gene therapy is the most promising and effective therapeutic method for thyroid cancer. Therefore, in the present study, Na131I/5-fluorocytosine (5-FC) treatment was combined with cytosine deaminase (CD, encoded by the CDA gene) and sodium iodide symporter (NIS, encoded by the SLC5A5 gene) to act together as a therapeutic tool for thyroid cancer. The present study explored the combined cytotoxic effects of adenovirus-mediated CD and NIS under the control of the progression elevated gene-3 (PEG-3) promoter (Ad-PEG-3-CD-NIS) with Na131I/5-FC against the human thyroid cancer TT cell line in vitro...
December 2017: Oncology Letters
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