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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27909559/identification-of-dietary-patterns-in-urban-population-of-argentina-study-on-diet-obesity-relation-in-population-based-prevalence-study
#1
Sonia Alejandra Pou, María Del Pilar Díaz, Ana Gabriela De La Quintana, Carla Antonella Forte, Laura Rosana Aballay
BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: In Argentina, obesity prevalence rose from 14.6% in 2005 to 20.8% in 2013. Although the number of studies on noncommunicable diseases and dietary patterns as a unique dietary exposure measure has increased, information on this topic remains scarce in developing countries. This is the first population-based study investigating the association between diet and obesity using a dietary pattern approach in Argentina. We aimed (a) to identify current dietary patterns of the population of Córdoba city, (b) to investigate its association with obesity prevalence, and (c) to identify and describe dietary patterns from the subgroup of people with obesity...
December 2016: Nutrition Research and Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27898674/aberrations-in-the-iron-regulatory-gene-signature-are-associated-with-decreased-survival-in-diffuse-infiltrating-gliomas
#2
Cody Weston, Joe Klobusicky, Jennifer Weston, James Connor, Steven A Toms, Nicholas F Marko
Iron is a tightly regulated micronutrient with no physiologic means of elimination and is necessary for cell division in normal tissue. Recent evidence suggests that dysregulation of iron regulatory proteins may play a role in cancer pathophysiology. We use public data from The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) to study the association between survival and expression levels of 61 genes coding for iron regulatory proteins in patients with World Health Organization Grade II-III gliomas. Using a feature selection algorithm we identified a novel, optimized subset of eight iron regulatory genes (STEAP3, HFE, TMPRSS6, SFXN1, TFRC, UROS, SLC11A2, and STEAP4) whose differential expression defines two phenotypic groups with median survival differences of 52...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27895486/factors-associated-with-vitamin-d-status-of-low-income-hospitalized-psychiatric-patients-results-of-a-retrospective-study
#3
Alessandra N Bazzano, Lisa Littrell, Stephen Lambert, Cody Roi
BACKGROUND: Recent evidence has indicated a potential role of vitamin D3 in a range of neuropsychiatric outcomes, as well as on cognitive function, but conflicting data have left that role uncertain. Understanding potential associations of vitamin D status with psychiatric illness will allow clinicians to better assess therapeutic options. Few studies have examined vitamin D status among a racially diverse group of psychiatric patients who have been hospitalized, and none has done so in the southern US where socioeconomic inequality is high...
2016: Neuropsychiatric Disease and Treatment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27890631/evasion-of-host-immune-defenses-by-human-papillomavirus
#4
REVIEW
Joseph A Westrich, Cody J Warren, Dohun Pyeon
A majority of human papillomavirus (HPV) infections are asymptomatic and self-resolving in the absence of medical interventions. Various innate and adaptive immune responses, as well as physical barriers, have been implicated in controlling early HPV infections. However, if HPV overcomes these host immune defenses and establishes persistence in basal keratinocytes, it becomes very difficult for the host to eliminate the infection. The HPV oncoproteins E5, E6, and E7 are important in regulating host immune responses...
November 24, 2016: Virus Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27890156/physiological-and-perceptual-effects-of-a-cooling-garment-during-simulated-industrial-work-in-the-heat
#5
Cory L Butts, Cody R Smith, Matthew S Ganio, Brendon P McDermott
OBJECTIVE: Evaluate physiological and perceptual responses using a phase change cooling (PCC) garment during simulated work in the heat. METHODS: Twenty males wearing compression undergarments, coverall suit, gloves, and hard-hat, completed two randomly assigned trials (with PCC inserts or control, CON) of simulated industrial tasks in the heat (34.2 ± 0.05 °C, 54.7 ± 0.3%RH). Trials consisted of two 20 min work bouts, a maximum performance bout, and 10 min of recovery...
March 2017: Applied Ergonomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27890103/the-genetic-structure-of-native-americans-in-north-america-based-on-the-globalfiler%C3%A2-strs
#6
Kelly L McCulloh, Jillian Ng, Robert F Oldt, Jessica A Weise, Joy Viray, Bruce Budowle, David Glenn Smith, Sreetharan Kanthaswamy
Current forensic STR databases, such as CODIS, lack population genetic data on Native American populations. Information from a geographically diverse array of tribes is necessary to provide improved statistical estimates of the strength of associations with DNA evidence. The Globalfiler® STR markers were used to characterize the genetic structure of ten tribal populations from seven geographic regions in North America, including those not presently represented in forensic databases. Samples from the Arctic region, Baja California, California/Great Basin, the Southeast, Mexico, the Midwest, and the Southwest were analyzed for allele frequencies, observed and expected heterozygosities, and F-statistics...
November 2016: Legal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27889504/responses-of-the-sea-anemone-exaiptasia-pallida-to-ocean-acidification-conditions-and-zinc-or-nickel-exposure
#7
Christina G Duckworth, Codie R Picariello, Rachel K Thomason, Krina S Patel, Gretchen K Bielmyer-Fraser
Ocean acidification, caused by increasing atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2), is a growing concern in marine environments. Land-based sources of pollution, such as metals, have also been a noted problem; however, little research has addressed the combined exposure of both pollutants to coral reef organisms. In this study we examined tissue metal accumulation and physiological effects (activity of anti-oxidant enzymes, catalase and glutathione reductase) in the sea anemone, Exaiptasia pallida after exposure to increased CO2, as well as zinc (Zn) or nickel (Ni)...
November 17, 2016: Aquatic Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27885653/comparing-standard-and-selective-degradation-dna-extraction-methods-results-from-a-field-experiment-with-sexual-assault-kits
#8
Rebecca Campbell, Steven J Pierce, Dhruv B Sharma, Jessica Shaw, Hannah Feeney, Jeffrey Nye, Kristin Schelling, Giannina Fehler-Cabral
: A growing number of U.S. cities have large numbers of untested sexual assault kits (SAKs) in police property facilities. Testing older kits and maintaining current case work will be challenging for forensic laboratories, creating a need for more efficient testing methods. METHODS: We evaluated selective degradation methods for DNA extraction using actual case work from a sample of previously unsubmitted SAKs in Detroit, Michigan. We randomly assigned 350 kits to either standard or selective degradation testing methods and then compared DNA testing rates and CODIS entry rates between the two groups...
November 25, 2016: Journal of Forensic Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27884954/impact-of-external-pneumatic-compression-target-inflation-pressure-on-transcriptome-wide-rna-expression-in-skeletal-muscle
#9
Jeffrey S Martin, Wesley C Kephart, Cody T Haun, Anna E McCloskey, Joshua J Shake, Christopher B Mobley, Michael D Goodlett, Andreas Kavazis, David D Pascoe, Lee Zhang, Michael D Roberts
Next-generation RNA sequencing was employed to determine the acute and subchronic impact of peristaltic pulse external pneumatic compression (PEPC) of different target inflation pressures on global gene expression in human vastus lateralis skeletal muscle biopsy samples. Eighteen (N = 18) male participants were randomly assigned to one of the three groups: (1) sham (n = 6), 2) EPC at 30-40 mmHg (LP-EPC; n = 6), and 3) EPC at 70-80 mmHg (MP-EPC; n = 6). One hour treatment with sham/EPC occurred for seven consecutive days...
November 2016: Physiological Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27883255/genome-wide-association-of-functional-traits-linked-with-campylobacter-jejuni-survival-from-farm-to-fork
#10
Koji Yahara, Guillaume Méric, Aidan J Taylor, Stefan P W de Vries, Susan Murray, Ben Pascoe, Leonardos Mageiros, Alicia Torralbo, Ana Vidal, Anne Ridley, Sho Komukai, Helen Wimalarathna, Alison J Cody, Frances M Colles, Noel McCarthy, David Harris, James E Bray, Keith A Jolley, Martin C J Maiden, Stephen D Bentley, Julian Parkhill, Christopher D Bayliss, Andrew Grant, Duncan Maskell, Xavier Didelot, David J Kelly, Samuel K Sheppard
Campylobacter jejuni is a major cause of bacterial gastroenteritis worldwide, primarily associated with the consumption of contaminated poultry. C. jejuni lineages vary in host range and prevalence in human infection, suggesting differences in survival throughout the poultry processing chain. From 7,343 MLST-characterised isolates, we sequenced 600 C. jejuni and C. coli isolates from various stages of poultry processing and clinical cases. A genome-wide association study (GWAS) in C. jejuni ST-21 and ST-45 complexes identified genetic elements over-represented in clinical isolates that increased in frequency throughout the poultry processing chain...
November 24, 2016: Environmental Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27880869/the-impact-of-metagenomic-interplay-on-the-mosquito-redox-homeostasis
#11
REVIEW
Cody J Champion, Jiannong Xu
Mosquitoes are exposed to oxidative challenges throughout their life cycle. The primary challenge comes from a blood meal. The blood digestion turns the midgut into an oxidative environment, which imposes pressure not only on mosquito fecundity and other physiological traits but also on the microbiota in the midgut. During evolution, mosquitoes have developed numerous oxidative defense mechanisms to maintain redox homeostasis in the midgut. In addition to antioxidants, SOD, catalase, and glutathione system, sufficient supply of the reducing agent, NADPH, is vital for a successful defense against oxidative stress...
November 20, 2016: Free Radical Biology & Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27878079/microbial-community-responses-to-soil-tillage-and-crop-rotation-in-a-corn-soybean-agroecosystem
#12
Chris R Smith, Peter L Blair, Charlie Boyd, Brianne Cody, Alexander Hazel, Ashley Hedrick, Hitesh Kathuria, Parul Khurana, Brent Kramer, Kristin Muterspaw, Charles Peck, Emily Sells, Jessica Skinner, Cara Tegeler, Zoe Wolfe
The acreage planted in corn and soybean crops is vast, and these crops contribute substantially to the world economy. The agricultural practices employed for farming these crops have major effects on ecosystem health at a worldwide scale. The microbial communities living in agricultural soils significantly contribute to nutrient uptake and cycling and can have both positive and negative impacts on the crops growing with them. In this study, we examined the impact of the crop planted and soil tillage on nutrient levels, microbial communities, and the biochemical pathways present in the soil...
November 2016: Ecology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27875832/remediating-hiv-associated-neurocognitive-disorders-via-cognitive-training-a-perspective-on-neurocognitive-aging
#13
David E Vance, Shameka L Cody, Linda Moneyham
Over 50% of adults with HIV exhibit some form of HIV-associated neurocognitive disorder, ranging from mild asymptomatic neurocognitive impairment to HIV-associated dementia. As adults age with HIV and become susceptible to cardiovascular and metabolic comorbidities, the prevalence and severity of such neurocognitive disorders are likely to increase. With compromised renal and hepatic functioning often accompanying HIV, pharmaceutical interventions to address such neurocognitive disorders may not be the best strategy and are not without risks...
2017: Interdisciplinary Topics in Gerontology and Geriatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27874299/cooling-effectiveness-of-a-modified-cold-water-immersion-method-after-exercise-induced-hyperthermia
#14
Katherine E Luhring, Cory L Butts, Cody R Smith, Jeffrey A Bonacci, Ramon C Ylanan, Matthew S Ganio, Brendon P McDermott
CONTEXT:  Recommended treatment for exertional heat stroke includes whole-body cold-water immersion (CWI). However, remote locations or monetary or spatial restrictions can challenge the feasibility of CWI. Thus, the development of a modified, portable CWI method would allow for optimal treatment of exertional heat stroke in the presence of these challenges. OBJECTIVE:  To determine the cooling rate of modified CWI (tarp-assisted cooling with oscillation [TACO]) after exertional hyperthermia...
November 22, 2016: Journal of Athletic Training
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27873067/effectiveness-of-baseline-corticosterone-as-a-monitoring-tool-for-fitness-a-meta-analysis-in-seabirds
#15
Graham H Sorenson, Cody J Dey, Christine L Madliger, Oliver P Love
Many ecosystems have experienced anthropogenically induced changes in biodiversity, yet predicting these patterns has been difficult. Recently, individual behavioural and physiological measures have been proposed as more rapid links between environmental variation and fitness compared to demographics. Glucocorticoid hormones have received much attention given that they mediate energetic demands, metabolism, and foraging behaviour. However, it is currently unclear whether glucocorticoids can reliably predict environmental and fitness-related traits and whether they may be useful in specific groups of taxa...
November 22, 2016: Oecologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27869600/reemergence-of-st-louis-encephalitis-virus-california-2015
#16
Gregory S White, Kelly Symmes, Pu Sun, Ying Fang, Sandra Garcia, Cody Steiner, Kirk Smith, William K Reisen, Lark L Coffey
St. Louis encephalitis virus infection was detected in summer 2015 in southern California after an 11-year absence, concomitant with an Arizona outbreak. Sequence comparisons showed close identity of California and Arizona isolates with 2005 Argentine isolates, suggesting introduction from South America and underscoring the value of continued arbovirus surveillance.
December 2016: Emerging Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27864889/goal-directed-treatment-for-osteoporosis-a-progress-report-from-the-asbmr-nof-working-group-on-goal-directed-treatment-for-osteoporosis
#17
REVIEW
Steven R Cummings, Felicia Cosman, Michael E Lewiecki, John T Schousboe, Douglas Bauer, Dennis Black, Thomas Brown, Angela M Cheung, Kathleen Cody, Cyrus Cooper, Adolfo Diez-Perez, Richard Eastell, Peyman Hadji, Takayuki Hosoi, Suzanne Jan De Beur, Risa Kagan, Douglas P Kiel, Ian Reid, Daniel H Solomon, Susan Randall
The American Society for Bone and Mineral Research and the United States National Osteoporosis Foundation (NOF) formed a working group to develop principles of goal-directed treatment and identify gaps that need to be filled to implement this approach. With goal-directed treatment, a treatment goal would first be established choice of treatment determined by the probability of achieving that goal. Goals of treatment would be freedom from fracture, a T-score > -2.5, which is above the NOF threshold for initiating treatment, or achievement of an estimated risk level below the threshold for initiating treatment...
November 19, 2016: Journal of Bone and Mineral Research: the Official Journal of the American Society for Bone and Mineral Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27863194/pomalidomide-for-symptomatic-kaposi-s-sarcoma-in-people-with-and-without-hiv-infection-a-phase-i-ii-study
#18
Mark N Polizzotto, Thomas S Uldrick, Kathleen M Wyvill, Karen Aleman, Cody J Peer, Margaret Bevans, Irini Sereti, Frank Maldarelli, Denise Whitby, Vickie Marshall, Priscila H Goncalves, Vikram Khetani, William D Figg, Seth M Steinberg, Jerome B Zeldis, Robert Yarchoan
Purpose Kaposi's sarcoma (KS) is a multicentric tumor caused by Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus. Unmet needs include therapies that are oral, anthracycline sparing, and deliverable in resource-limited settings. We evaluated pomalidomide, an oral immune modulatory agent, in patients with symptomatic KS. Methods The primary objectives were to assess tolerability, pharmacokinetics, and activity. Initial dosage level was 5 mg once per day for 21 days per 28-day cycle, with a de-escalated level of 3 mg if not tolerable, and aspirin 81 mg once per day thromboprophylaxis...
December 2016: Journal of Clinical Oncology: Official Journal of the American Society of Clinical Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27861326/long-term-follow-up-of-25-cases-of-biopsy-proven-radiation-necrosis-or-post-radiation-treatment-effect-treated-with-magnetic-resonance-guided-laser-interstitial-thermal-therapy
#19
Cody J Smith, Charlotte S Myers, Kristina M Chapple, Kris A Smith
BACKGROUND: Magnetic resonance-guided laser-induced thermal therapy (MRgLITT) is a minimally invasive surgical treatment for progressive neoplasms and post-radiation treatment effect (PRTE). OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the radiographic response and efficacy of MRgLITT for biopsy-confirmed PRTE and the quality-of-life outcomes of patients following MRgLITT. METHODS: We conducted a single-center retrospective study of radiographic responses and clinical outcomes of 25 patients with previously treated primary or secondary brain neoplasms (World Health Organization grades 4 [n = 8], 3 [n = 5], 2 [n = 5]) and metastatic brain tumors (n = 7)...
December 2016: Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27856796/oral-ultra-long-lasting-drug-delivery-application-toward-malaria-elimination-goals
#20
Andrew M Bellinger, Mousa Jafari, Tyler M Grant, Shiyi Zhang, Hannah C Slater, Edward A Wenger, Stacy Mo, Young-Ah Lucy Lee, Hormoz Mazdiyasni, Lawrence Kogan, Ross Barman, Cody Cleveland, Lucas Booth, Taylor Bensel, Daniel Minahan, Haley M Hurowitz, Tammy Tai, Johanna Daily, Boris Nikolic, Lowell Wood, Philip A Eckhoff, Robert Langer, Giovanni Traverso
Efforts at elimination of scourges, such as malaria, are limited by the logistic challenges of reaching large rural populations and ensuring patient adherence to adequate pharmacologic treatment. We have developed an oral, ultra-long-acting capsule that dissolves in the stomach and deploys a star-shaped dosage form that releases drug while assuming a geometry that prevents passage through the pylorus yet allows passage of food, enabling prolonged gastric residence. This gastric-resident, drug delivery dosage form releases small-molecule drugs for days to weeks and potentially longer...
November 16, 2016: Science Translational Medicine
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