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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29166655/how-well-do-you-know-your-mutation-complex-effects-of-genetic-background-on-expressivity-complementation-and-ordering-of-allelic-effects
#1
Christopher H Chandler, Sudarshan Chari, Alycia Kowalski, Lin Choi, David Tack, Michael DeNieu, William Pitchers, Anne Sonnenschein, Leslie Marvin, Kristen Hummel, Christian Marier, Andrew Victory, Cody Porter, Anna Mammel, Julie Holms, Gayatri Sivaratnam, Ian Dworkin
For a given gene, different mutations influence organismal phenotypes to varying degrees. However, the expressivity of these variants not only depends on the DNA lesion associated with the mutation, but also on factors including the genetic background and rearing environment. The degree to which these factors influence related alleles, genes, or pathways similarly, and whether similar developmental mechanisms underlie variation in the expressivity of a single allele across conditions and among alleles is poorly understood...
November 22, 2017: PLoS Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29165458/the-effect-of-structural-modifications-on-the-thermal-stability-melting-points-and-ion-interactions-for-a-series-of-tetraaryl-phosphonium-based-mesothermal-ionic-liquids
#2
Cody A Cassity, Benjamin Siu, Mohammad Soltani, Jimmy L McGeehee, Katie J Strickland, Matt Vo, E Alan Salter, Alexandra C Stenson, Andrzej Wierzbicki, Kevin N West, Brooks D Rabideau, James H Davis
A family of mesothermal ionic liquids comprised of tetraarylphosphonium cations and the bis(trifluoromethanesulfonyl)amidate anion are shown to be materials of exceptional thermal stability, enduring (without decomposition) heating in air at 300 °C for three months. It is further established that three specific structural elements - phenoxy, phenacyl, and phenyl sulfonyl - can be present in the cation structures without compromising their thermal stability, and that their incorporation has specific impacts on the melting points of the salts...
November 22, 2017: Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics: PCCP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29161580/artificial-intelligence-and-deep-learning-radiology-s-next-frontier
#3
REVIEW
Ray Cody Mayo, Jessica Leung
Tracing the use of computers in the radiology department from administrative functions through image acquisition, storage, and reporting, to early attempts at improved diagnosis, we begin to imagine possible new frontiers for their use in exam interpretation. Given their initially slow but ultimately substantial progress in the noninterpretive areas, we are left desiring and even expecting more in the interpretation realm. New technological advances may provide the next wave of progress and radiologists should be early adopters...
November 18, 2017: Clinical Imaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29153862/tumor-necrosis-factor-alpha-in-sleep-regulation
#4
REVIEW
Matthew D Rockstrom, Liangyu Chen, Ping Taishi, Joseph T Nguyen, Cody M Gibbons, Sigrid C Veasey, James M Krueger
This review details tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF) biology and its role in sleep, and describes how TNF medications influence sleep/wake activity. Substantial evidence from healthy young animals indicates acute enhancement or inhibition of endogenous brain TNF respectively promotes and inhibits sleep. In contrast, the role of TNF in sleep in most human studies involves pathological conditions associated with chronic elevations of systemic TNF and disrupted sleep. Normalization of TNF levels in such patients improves sleep...
November 16, 2017: Sleep Medicine Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29152885/addressing-weight-stigma-and-opening-doors-for-a-patient-centered-approach-to-childhood-obesity
#5
Theodore K Kyle, Fatima Cody Stanford, Joseph F Nadglowski
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 20, 2017: Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29147517/ketones-as-directing-groups-in-photocatalytic-sp-3-c-h-fluorination
#6
Desta Doro Bume, Cody Ross Pitts, Fereshte Ghorbani, Stefan Andrew Harry, Joseph N Capilato, Maxime A Siegler, Thomas Lectka
The ubiquitous ketone carbonyl group generally deactivates substrates toward radical-based fluorinations, especially sites closest to it. Herein, ketones are used instead to direct aliphatic fluorination using Selectfluor, catalytic benzil, and visible light. Selective β- and γ-fluorination are demonstrated on rigid mono-, di-, tri-, and tetracyclic (steroidal) substrates employing both cyclic and exocyclic aliphatic ketones as directing groups.
October 1, 2017: Chemical Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29146842/genome-sequences-of-19-novel-erwinia-amylovora-bacteriophages
#7
Ian N D Esplin, Jordan A Berg, Ruchira Sharma, Robert C Allen, Daniel K Arens, Cody R Ashcroft, Shannon R Bairett, Nolan J Beatty, Madeline Bickmore, Travis J Bloomfield, T Scott Brady, Rachel N Bybee, John L Carter, Minsey C Choi, Steven Duncan, Christopher P Fajardo, Brayden B Foy, David A Fuhriman, Paul D Gibby, Savannah E Grossarth, Kala Harbaugh, Natalie Harris, Jared A Hilton, Emily Hurst, Jonathan R Hyde, Kayleigh Ingersoll, Caitlin M Jacobson, Brady D James, Todd M Jarvis, Daniella Jaen-Anieves, Garrett L Jensen, Bradley K Knabe, Jared L Kruger, Bryan D Merrill, Jenny A Pape, Ashley M Payne Anderson, David E Payne, Malia D Peck, Samuel V Pollock, Micah J Putnam, Ethan K Ransom, Devin B Ririe, David M Robinson, Spencer L Rogers, Kerri A Russell, Jonathan E Schoenhals, Christopher A Shurtleff, Austin R Simister, Hunter G Smith, Michael B Stephenson, Lyndsay A Staley, Jason M Stettler, Mallorie L Stratton, Olivia B Tateoka, P J Tatlow, Alexander S Taylor, Suzanne E Thompson, Michelle H Townsend, Trever L Thurgood, Brittian K Usher, Kiara V Whitley, Andrew T Ward, Megan E H Ward, Charles J Webb, Trevor M Wienclaw, Taryn L Williamson, Michael J Wells, Cole K Wright, Donald P Breakwell, Sandra Hope, Julianne H Grose
Erwinia amylovora is the causal agent of fire blight, a devastating disease affecting some plants of the Rosaceae family. We isolated bacteriophages from samples collected from infected apple and pear trees along the Wasatch Front in Utah. We announce 19 high-quality complete genome sequences of E. amylovora bacteriophages.
November 16, 2017: Genome Announcements
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29141539/comparative-selectively-targeted-anti-neoplastic-cytotoxicity-of-three-immunopharmaceuticals-with-covalently-bound-fludarabine-gemcitabine-and-dexamethasone-moieties-synthesized-utilizing-organic-chemistry-reactions-in-a-multi-phase-regimen
#8
Cody P Coyne, Lakshmi Narayanan
Background - Unintentional passive diffusion of conventional small molecular weight pharmaceuticals across intact membranes of normal healthy cells in tissues and organ systems induces sequelae that limit therapeutic dosage and duration of administration. Selective "targeted" delivery of pharmaceuticals is a molecular strategy that can potentially provide heightened margins-of-safety with greater potency and improved efficacy. Materials-and-Methods - Monophosphate analogs of fludarabine, gemcitabine, and dexamethasone were combined with a carbodiimide reagent in the presence of imidazole to produce reactive intermediates that were subsequently covalently bound to monoclonal anti-IGF-1R or anti-EGFR IgG-immunoglobulin...
November 14, 2017: Current Pharmaceutical Design
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29141407/partial-solar-radiation-exclusion-with-color-shade-nets-reduce-the-degradation-of-organic-acids-and-flavonoids-of-grape-berry-vitis-vinifera-l
#9
Johan Martínez-Lüscher, Christopher Cody Lee Chen, Luca Brillante, Sahap Kaan Kurtural
The incidence of solar radiation on red-skinned grapes can promote the synthesis of flavonoid desirable for wine production, elevated temperature may impair their accumulation. We performed a shade cloth trial covering the fruit zone (from pepper-corn size to maturity) with four polyethylene 1-meter curtains with different optical properties (20% shading factor Pearl colored and 40% shading factor Aluminet, Blue and Black colored) and a Control with no cover. Cluster temperature was 3.7°C lower on the Southwest side in Black-40% clusters during the warmest part of the day compared to Control...
November 15, 2017: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29141116/fluorine-in-a-c-f-bond-as-the-key-to-cage-formation
#10
Maxwell Gargiulo Holl, Cody Ross Pitts, Thomas Lectka
Cage molecules have long been employed to trap reactive or fleeting species, as their rigid nature allows them to enforce situations that otherwise would not persist. In this minireview, we discuss our use of rigid cage structures to investigate the close noncovalent interactions of fluorine with other functional groups and determine how mutual proximity affects both physical properties and reactivity. Unusual covalent interactions of fluorine are also explored: the cage can close to form the first solution-phase C-F-C fluoronium ion...
November 15, 2017: Angewandte Chemie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29138168/d%C3%A3-prescription-des-antihyperglyc%C3%A3-miants-chez-les-personnes-%C3%A3-g%C3%A3-es-guide-de-pratique-clinique-fond%C3%A3-sur-les-donn%C3%A3-es-probantes
#11
Barbara Farrell, Cody Black, Wade Thompson, Lisa McCarthy, Carlos Rojas-Fernandez, Heather Lochnan, Salima Shamji, Ross Upshur, Manon Bouchard, Vivian Welch
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 2017: Canadian Family Physician Médecin de Famille Canadien
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29138153/deprescribing-antihyperglycemic-agents-in-older-persons-evidence-based-clinical-practice-guideline
#12
Barbara Farrell, Cody Black, Wade Thompson, Lisa McCarthy, Carlos Rojas-Fernandez, Heather Lochnan, Salima Shamji, Ross Upshur, Manon Bouchard, Vivian Welch
OBJECTIVE: To develop an evidence-based guideline to help clinicians make decisions about when and how to safely taper, stop, or switch antihyperglycemic agents in older adults. METHODS: We focused on the highest level of evidence available and sought input from primary care professionals in guideline development, review, and endorsement processes. Seven clinicians (2 family physicians, 3 pharmacists, 1 nurse practitioner, and 1 endocrinologist) and a methodologist comprised the overall team; members disclosed conflicts of interest...
November 2017: Canadian Family Physician Médecin de Famille Canadien
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29135673/myocardial-cobalt-levels-are-elevated-in-the-setting-of-total-hip-arthroplasty
#13
Cody C Wyles, T Carson Wright, Melanie C Bois, Md Shahrier Amin, Ahmed Fayyaz, Sarah M Jenkins, Saranya P Wyles, Patrick L Day, David L Murray, Robert T Trousdale, Nandan S Anavekar, William D Edwards, Joseph J Maleszewski
BACKGROUND: Arthroplasty implants commonly contain elemental metal that may undergo wear-related release. Recently, cases of hip implant-associated myocardial injury have been reported. However, we are not aware of any previous study that has systematically measured myocardial metal levels or examined the relationship with total hip arthroplasty (THA). METHODS: Archives of our institution were queried for autopsies of individuals who had undergone THA between 1990 and 2013...
November 15, 2017: Journal of Bone and Joint Surgery. American Volume
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29133454/protoenzymes-the-case-of-hyperbranched-polyesters
#14
Irena Mamajanov, George D Cody
Enzymes are biopolymeric complexes that catalyse biochemical reactions and shape metabolic pathways. Enzymes usually work with small molecule cofactors that actively participate in reaction mechanisms and complex, usually globular, polymeric structures capable of specific substrate binding, encapsulation and orientation. Moreover, the globular structures of enzymes possess cavities with modulated microenvironments, facilitating the progression of reaction(s). The globular structure is ensured by long folded protein or RNA strands...
December 28, 2017: Philosophical Transactions. Series A, Mathematical, Physical, and Engineering Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29133439/re-conceptualizing-the-origins-of-life
#15
Sara I Walker, N Packard, G D Cody
Over the last several hundred years of scientific progress, we have arrived at a deep understanding of the non-living world. We have not yet achieved an analogous, deep understanding of the living world. The origins of life is our best chance at discovering scientific laws governing life, because it marks the point of departure from the predictable physical and chemical world to the novel, history-dependent living world. This theme issue aims to explore ways to build a deeper understanding of the nature of biology, by modelling the origins of life on a sufficiently abstract level, starting from prebiotic conditions on Earth and possibly on other planets and bridging quantitative frameworks approaching universal aspects of life...
December 28, 2017: Philosophical Transactions. Series A, Mathematical, Physical, and Engineering Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29132294/artificial-selection-for-odor-guided-behavior-in-drosophila-reveals-changes-in-food-consumption
#16
Elizabeth B Brown, Cody Patterson, Rayanne Pancoast, Stephanie M Rollmann
BACKGROUND: The olfactory system enables organisms to detect chemical cues in the environment and can signal the availability of food or the presence of a predator. Appropriate behavioral responses to these chemical cues are therefore important for organismal survival and can influence traits such as organismal life span and food consumption. However, understanding the genetic mechanisms underlying odor-guided behavior, correlated responses in other traits, and how these constrain or promote their evolution, remain an important challenge...
November 13, 2017: BMC Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29129639/determinants-of-histone-h3k4-methylation-patterns
#17
Luis M Soares, P Cody He, Yujin Chun, Hyunsuk Suh, TaeSoo Kim, Stephen Buratowski
Various factors differentially recognize trimethylated histone H3 lysine 4 (H3K4me3) near promoters, H3K4me2 just downstream, and promoter-distal H3K4me1 to modulate gene expression. This methylation "gradient" is thought to result from preferential binding of the H3K4 methyltransferase Set1/complex associated with Set1 (COMPASS) to promoter-proximal RNA polymerase II. However, other studies have suggested that location-specific cues allosterically activate Set1. Chromatin immunoprecipitation sequencing (ChIP-seq) experiments show that H3K4 methylation patterns on active genes are not universal or fixed and change in response to both transcription elongation rate and frequency as well as reduced COMPASS activity...
November 16, 2017: Molecular Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29124236/implementation-recruitment-and-baseline-characteristics-a-randomized-trial-of-combined-treatments-for-smoking-cessation-and-weight-control
#18
Terry Bush, Jennifer Lovejoy, Harold Javitz, Stacey Mahuna, Alula Jimenez Torres, Ken Wassum, Brooke Magnusson, Cody Benedict, Bonnie Spring
Background: Two-thirds of treatment-seeking smokers are obese or overweight. Most smokers are concerned about gaining weight after quitting. The average smoker experiences modest post-quit weight gain which discourages many smokers from quitting. Although evidence suggests that combined interventions to help smokers quit smoking and prevent weight gain can be helpful, studies have not been replicated in real world settings. Methods: This paper describes recruitment and participant characteristics of the Best Quit Study, a 3-arm randomized controlled trial testing tobacco cessation treatment alone or combined with simultaneous or sequential weight management...
September 2017: Contemporary Clinical Trials Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29123215/observer-s-anxiety-facilitates-magnocellular-processing-of-clear-facial-threat-cues-but-impairs-parvocellular-processing-of-ambiguous-facial-threat-cues
#19
Hee Yeon Im, Reginald B Adams, Jasmine Boshyan, Noreen Ward, Cody A Cushing, Kestutis Kveraga
Facial expression and eye gaze provide a shared signal about threats. While a fear expression with averted gaze clearly points to the source of threat, direct-gaze fear renders the source of threat ambiguous. Separable routes have been proposed to mediate these processes, with preferential attunement of the magnocellular (M) pathway to clear threat, and of the parvocellular (P) pathway to threat ambiguity. Here we investigated how observers' trait anxiety modulates M- and P-pathway processing of clear and ambiguous threat cues...
November 9, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29114831/factors-associated-with-increases-in-us-health-care-spending-1996-2013
#20
Joseph L Dieleman, Ellen Squires, Anthony L Bui, Madeline Campbell, Abigail Chapin, Hannah Hamavid, Cody Horst, Zhiyin Li, Taylor Matyasz, Alex Reynolds, Nafis Sadat, Matthew T Schneider, Christopher J L Murray
Importance: Health care spending in the United States increased substantially from 1995 to 2015 and comprised 17.8% of the economy in 2015. Understanding the relationship between known factors and spending increases over time could inform policy efforts to contain future spending growth. Objective: To quantify changes in spending associated with 5 fundamental factors related to health care spending in the United States: population size, population age structure, disease prevalence or incidence, service utilization, and service price and intensity...
November 7, 2017: JAMA: the Journal of the American Medical Association
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