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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28635315/age-stereotypes-flexible-goal-adjustment-and-well-being-among-chinese-older-adults
#1
Jinfeng Zhang, Yu Nancy Xiaonan, Jianxin Zhang, Mingjie Zhou
Previous studies have examined the independent roles of positive age stereotypes (PAS) and negative age stereotypes (NAS) in successful aging. This study aimed to examine the joint effect of PAS and NAS on the well-being of Chinese older adults, and to further examine whether this effect was moderated by flexible goal adjustment (FGA). Using a cross-sectional design, 279 Chinese older adults (age range 60‒97 years) completed measures related to age stereotypes, FGA, and well-being. The results showed that PAS interacted with NAS to predict well-being...
June 21, 2017: Psychology, Health & Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28633286/do-treatment-attitudes-and-decisions-of-psychotherapists-in-training-depend-on-a-patient-s-age
#2
Eva-Marie Kessler, Teresa Schneider
Objective: The objective of this study was to analyze how psychotherapists' treatment attitudes and decisions depend on a patient's age. Methods: A sample of psychotherapists-in-training (N = 97) responded to questions concerning a naturalistic case vignette of a female patient with symptoms of depression and anxiety. The patient was described as being either 79 or 47 years old. Results: Results revealed no evidence that psychotherapists-in-training had more negative treatment attitudes towards an older relative to a younger patient...
June 13, 2017: Journals of Gerontology. Series B, Psychological Sciences and Social Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28632770/men-women%C3%A2-who-cares-a-population-based-study-on-sex-differences-and-gender-roles-in-empathy-and-moral-cognition
#3
Sandra Baez, Daniel Flichtentrei, María Prats, Ricardo Mastandueno, Adolfo M García, Marcelo Cetkovich, Agustín Ibáñez
Research on sex differences in empathy has revealed mixed findings. Whereas experimental and neuropsychological measures show no consistent sex effect, self-report data consistently indicates greater empathy in women. However, available results mainly come from separate populations with relatively small samples, which may inflate effect sizes and hinder comparability between both empirical corpora. To elucidate the issue, we conducted two large-scale studies. First, we examined whether sex differences emerge in a large population-based sample (n = 10,802) when empathy is measured with an experimental empathy-for-pain paradigm...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28630338/self-affirmation-facilitates-minority-middle-schoolers-progress-along-college-trajectories
#4
J Parker Goyer, Julio Garcia, Valerie Purdie-Vaughns, Kevin R Binning, Jonathan E Cook, Stephanie L Reeves, Nancy Apfel, Suzanne Taborsky-Barba, David K Sherman, Geoffrey L Cohen
Small but timely experiences can have long-term benefits when their psychological effects interact with institutional processes. In a follow-up of two randomized field experiments, a brief values affirmation intervention designed to buffer minority middle schoolers against the threat of negative stereotypes had long-term benefits on college-relevant outcomes. In study 1, conducted in the Mountain West, the intervention increased Latino Americans' probability of entering a college readiness track rather than a remedial one near the transition to high school 2 y later...
June 19, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28630206/rapid-and-consistent-evolution-of-colistin-resistance-in-xdr-pseudomonas-aeruginosa-during-morbidostat-culture
#5
Bianca Regenbogen, Matthias Willmann, Matthias Steglich, Boyke Bunk, Ulrich Nübel, Silke Peter, Richard A Neher
Colistin is a last resort antibiotic commonly used against multidrug-resistant strains of Pseudomonas aeruginosa To investigate the potential for in-situ evolution of resistance against colistin and to map the molecular targets of colistin resistance, we exposed two P. aeruginosa isolates to colistin using a continuous culture device known as morbidostat. As a result, colistin resistance reproducibly increased 10-fold within ten days, and 100-fold within 20 days, along with highly stereotypic, yet strain specific mutation patterns...
June 19, 2017: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28629224/-it-s-not-my-business-exploring-heteronormativity-in-young-people-s-discourses-about-lesbian-gay-bisexual-transgender-and-queer-issues-and-their-implications-for-youth-health-and-wellbeing
#6
Cara Ky Ng, Rebecca J Haines-Saah, Rodney E Knight, Jean A Shoveller, Joy L Johnson
In Canada, the issue of creating safe and inclusive school environments for lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, and queer students has been in the spotlight. Several researchers and advocates have pointed out the positive effects of lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, and queer-positive policy frameworks on the health and wellbeing of all young people. In this article, we take a critical approach to analyzing narrative findings from qualitative interviews conducted with youth in three communities in British Columbia, Canada: "the North," Vancouver, and Abbotsford...
June 1, 2017: Health (London)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28628841/mitochondrial-dysfunction-in-autism-spectrum-disorder-clinical-features-and-perspectives
#7
REVIEW
Fiona Hollis, Alexandros K Kanellopoulos, Claudia Bagni
Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) is a prototypic pervasive developmental disorder characterized by social interaction, and communication deficits, repetitive, stereotypic patterns of behavior, and impairments in language and development. Clinical studies have identified mitochondrial disturbances at the levels of DNA, activity, complexes, oxidative stress, and metabolites in blood and urine of ASD patients. However, these observations from postmortem brains or peripheral tissues do not provide a direct link between autism and mitochondria...
June 16, 2017: Current Opinion in Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28628235/expanded-phenotypes-and-outcomes-among-256-lgi1-caspr2-igg-positive-patients
#8
Avi Gadoth, Sean J Pittock, Divyanshu Dubey, Andrew McKeon, Jeff W Britton, John E Schmeling, Aurelia Smith, Amy L Kotsenas, Robert E Watson, Daniel H Lachance, Eoin P Flanagan, Vanda A Lennon, Christopher J Klein
OBJECTIVE: To describe an expanded phenotypic spectrum and longitudinal outcome in 256 LGI1-IgG or CASPR2-IgG seropositive patients. METHODS: Patients were identified through service neural autoantibody evaluation. Ninety-five had longitudinal follow-up (7-456 months; median 35). RESULTS: Among 3,910 patients tested, 196 were LGI1-IgG-positive; 51 were CASPR2-IgG-positive and 9 were dual-positive. CSF-testing was less sensitive than serum-testing, detecting only 24/38 LGI1-IgG-positive (63%) and 5/6 CASPR2-IgG-positive (83%)...
June 19, 2017: Annals of Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28627665/n-acetylcysteine-ameliorates-repetitive-stereotypic-behavior-due-to-its-antioxidant-properties-without-activation-of-the-canonical-wnt-pathway-in-a-valproic-acid-induced-rat-model-of-autism
#9
Yinghua Zhang, Weigang Cui, Qianqian Zhai, Tianran Zhang, Xiaojun Wen
N-acetylcysteine (NAC) is widely used as an antioxidant, and previous studies have suggested that it may have potential as an alternative therapeutic strategy for the treatment of patients with autism. However, the exact effects of NAC administration on the development of autism, as well as the molecular mechanisms underlying its actions, have yet to be fully elucidated. The present study aimed to investigate the effects of NAC on the oxidative status of rats in a valproic acid (VPA)‑induced model of autism, and to examine the involvement of the canonical Wnt signaling pathway in the actions of NAC...
June 15, 2017: Molecular Medicine Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28626437/counter-stereotypes-and-feminism-promote-leadership-aspirations-in-highly-identified-women
#10
Carola Leicht, Małgorzata A Gocłowska, Jolien A Van Breen, Soledad de Lemus, Georgina Randsley de Moura
Although women who highly identify with other women are more susceptible to stereotype threat effects, women's identification might associate with greater leadership aspirations contingent on (1) counter-stereotype salience and (2) feminist identification. When gender counter-stereotypes are salient, women's identification should associate with greater leadership aspiration regardless of feminism, while when gender stereotypes are salient, women's identification would predict greater leadership aspirations contingent on a high level of feminist identification...
2017: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28626020/lack-of-effect-of-vitamin-d3-supplementation-in-autism-a-20-week-placebo-controlled-rct
#11
Conor P Kerley, Clare Power, Louise Gallagher, David Coghlan
OBJECTIVES: Data suggest a potential role for vitamin D in autism spectrum disorder (ASD). We wanted to assess the effect of vitamin D3 supplementation compared with placebo in children with ASD. DESIGN: This was a double-blind, randomised, placebo-controlled trial. SETTING: A paediatric outpatient centre at high latitude over the winter season in Dublin, Ireland (53°N). PATIENTS: 42 children with ASD. INTERVENTIONS: 2000 IU vitamin D3 supplementation or placebo daily for 20 weeks...
June 16, 2017: Archives of Disease in Childhood
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28624926/limited-awareness-of-animal-influenza-prevention-and-control-among-dai-lue-smallholder-farmers-in-southwest-china
#12
Xiang Zhao, Gareth Davey
Awareness of animal influenza and its prevention and control is important for ensuring livestock health, production and welfare. In China, a country stereotyped as a major source of emerging zoonotic infectious diseases, research on the public understanding of animal influenza is limited to the Han, the main ethnic group. The present qualitative study in Southwest China investigated awareness of animal influenza among the Dai, an ethnic minority. The participants (15 men and 10 women, ages 18-83) were smallholder farmers of pigs and poultry in rural areas of Jinghong, Xishuangbanna, Yunnan Province...
June 17, 2017: Tropical Animal Health and Production
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28624893/ly294002-a-pi3k-inhibitor-attenuates-tourette-syndrome-in-rats
#13
Long Hongyan, Wang Chunyan, Yang Yue'e
The present study was designed to investigate the effects of LY294002 on Tourette syndrome (TS) in rats. TS model was induced in rats by DOI (the selective 5-HT2A/2C agonist 1- (2, 5- dimethoxy -4 - iodophenyl) -2- aminopropane). Behavior was assessed by stereotypic score and autonomic activity. Inflammatory cytokines such as interleukin-6 (IL-6), interleukin-1β (IL-1β) and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) in serum and striatum were detected. The protein levels of PI3K/Akt/NF-B in striatum were detected by Western Blot...
June 18, 2017: Metabolic Brain Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28624394/reduced-foraging-investment-as-an-adaptation-to-patchy-food-sources-a-phasic-army-ant-simulation
#14
Serafino Teseo, Francesco Delloro
Colonies of several ant species within the subfamily Dorylinae alternate stereotypical discrete phases of foraging and reproduction. Such phasic cycles are thought to be adaptive because they minimize the amount of foraging and the related costs, and at the same time enhance the colony-level ability to rely on patchily distributed food sources. In order to investigate these hypotheses, we use here a simple computational approach to study the population dynamics of two species of virtual ant colonies that differ quantitatively in their foraging investment...
June 14, 2017: Journal of Theoretical Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28623664/mechanosensory-neurons-control-the-timing-of-spinal-microcircuit-selection-during-locomotion
#15
Claire Wyart, Steven Knafo, Kevin Fidelin, Andrew Prendergast, Po-En Brian Tseng, Alexandre Parrin, Charles William Dickey, Urs Lucas Böhm, Sophie Nunes FIgueiredo, Olivier Thouvenin, Hugues Pascal-Moussellard
Despite numerous physiological studies about reflexes in the spinal cord, the contribution of mechanosensory feedback to active locomotion and the nature of underlying spinal circuits remains elusive. Here we investigate how mechanosensory feedback shapes active locomotion in a genetic model organism exhibiting simple locomotion-the zebrafish larva. We show that mechanosensory feedback enhances the recruitment of motor pools during active locomotion. Furthermore, we demonstrate that inputs from mechanosensory neurons increase locomotor speed by prolonging fast swimming at the expense of slow swimming during stereotyped acoustic escape responses...
June 17, 2017: ELife
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28622747/reducing-stigma-in-media-professionals-is-there-room-for-improvement-results-from-a-systematic-review
#16
Alessandra Maiorano, Antonio Lasalvia, Gaia Sampogna, Benedetta Pocai, Mirella Ruggeri, Claire Henderson
OBJECTIVE: The mass media may increase stigma against people with mental health problems by reinforcing common stereotypes. Media professionals thus represent a target group for antistigma interventions. This paper aims to review available literature on antistigma interventions for mass media professionals, seeking to clarify what kind of interventions have been found to be effective in reducing mental health stigma among mass media professionals. METHOD: Six electronic databases (MEDLINE, PsycINFO, Embase, Cochrane Reviews Library and Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, Web of Science, and Applied Social Sciences Index & Abstracts) were systematically searched through March 2017 for studies addressing antistigma interventions on mass media professionals...
January 1, 2017: Canadian Journal of Psychiatry. Revue Canadienne de Psychiatrie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28622594/the-role-of-apitoxin-in-alleviating-propionic-acid-induced-neurobehavioral-impairments-in-rat-pups-the-expression-pattern-of-reelin-gene
#17
Maha H Daghestani, Manar E Selim, Yasmina M Abd-Elhakim, Enas N Said, Noura E Abd El-Hameed, Samah R Khalil, Osama S El-Tawil
The efficacy of apitoxin (bee venom; BV) in ameliorating propionic acid (PPA) -induced neurobehavioral impacts was studied. Sixty rat pups were enrolled in a split litter design to six groups: a control group, a PPA-treated group, a BV-treated group, a BV/PPA protective group, a PPA/BV therapeutic group, and a BV/PPA/BV protective and therapeutic group. Exploratory, social, locomotor, and repetitive/stereotype-like activities were assessed and prosocial, empathy, and acquired behavior were evaluated. Levels of neurotransmitter including serotonin, dopamine, and gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) were determined and a quantitative analysis of Reelin gene expression was performed...
June 13, 2017: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28622573/the-specificity-of-public-stigma-a-comparison-of-suicide-and-depression-related-stigma
#18
Lindsay Sheehan, Rachel Dubke, Patrick W Corrigan
Each year, approximately 1.3 million Americans survive a suicide attempt. While stigma has been reported by suicide attempt survivors, limited research has examined how suicide stigma may differ from the stigma of mental illness. U.S. adults (n = 440) completed an online survey in which they were randomly assigned to one of four vignettes. Vignettes depicted a target individual with either past depression, past suicide attempt, death by suicide, or no information on suicide or mental illness (control). Participants completed a general measure of stigma, a suicide-specific stigma measure, and were surveyed on the recovery potential of individuals with mental illness and suicide attempt...
June 8, 2017: Psychiatry Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28621424/ocular-vessel-patterning-in-zebrafish-is-indirectly-regulated-by-hedgehog-signaling
#19
Omri Weiss, Rivka Kaufman, Eyal Mishani, Adi Inbal
The superficial ocular vasculature of the embryonic zebrafish develops in a highly stereotypic manner and hence provides a convenient model for studying molecular mechanisms that regulate vascular patterning. We have used transgenic zebrafish embryos in which all endothelial cells express enhanced Green Fluorescent Protein and small molecule inhibitors to examine the contribution of two signaling pathways, vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and Hedgehog (Hh) pathways, to the development of the superficial system...
2017: International Journal of Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28621417/cell-fate-decisions-during-neural-crest-ontogeny
#20
Chaya Kalcheim, Deepak Kumar
The neural crest (NC) originates in the central nervous system (CNS) primordium. Born as an epithelium, NC progenitors undergo an epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition that generates cellular movement away from the CNS. Mesenchymal NC progenitors then migrate through stereotypic pathways characteristic of various axial levels until homing to distinct primordia where phenotypic differentiation takes place. Being the source of most of the peripheral nervous system, pigment cells and ectomesenchyme, the embryonic NC is considered to be a multipotent population of precursors...
2017: International Journal of Developmental Biology
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