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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28813800/the-effects-of-control-signal-noise-on-simultaneous-submovements
#1
Kathleen R Wilson, Kevin B Englehart, Jon W Sensinger
Understanding the stereotypical characteristics of human movement can better inform rehabilitation practices by providing a template of healthy and expected human motor control. Multiplicative noise is inherent in goal-directed movement, such as reaching to grasp an object. Multiplicative noise plays an important role in computational motor control models to help support phenomena such as stereotypical kinematic profiles in time-constrained and unconstrained tasks. Most tasks are not carried out along an isolated degree-of-freedom (DOF), and modelling the contribution of noise can be difficult...
July 2017: IEEE ... International Conference on Rehabilitation Robotics: [proceedings]
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28813454/applying-machine-learning-to-identify-autistic-adults-using-imitation-an-exploratory-study
#2
Baihua Li, Arjun Sharma, James Meng, Senthil Purushwalkam, Emma Gowen
Autism spectrum condition (ASC) is primarily diagnosed by behavioural symptoms including social, sensory and motor aspects. Although stereotyped, repetitive motor movements are considered during diagnosis, quantitative measures that identify kinematic characteristics in the movement patterns of autistic individuals are poorly studied, preventing advances in understanding the aetiology of motor impairment, or whether a wider range of motor characteristics could be used for diagnosis. The aim of this study was to investigate whether data-driven machine learning based methods could be used to address some fundamental problems with regard to identifying discriminative test conditions and kinematic parameters to classify between ASC and neurotypical controls...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28812325/ambiguity-in-a-masculine-world-being-a-brca1-2-mutation-carrier-and-a-man-with-prostate-cancer
#3
C Moynihan, E K Bancroft, A Mitra, A Ardern-Jones, E Castro, E C Page, R A Eeles
BACKGROUND: Increased risk of prostate cancer(PCa) is observed in men with BRCA1/BRCA2 mutations. Sex and gender are key determinants of health and disease although unequal care exists between the sexes. Stereotypical male attitudes are shown to lead to poor health outcomes. METHODS: Men with BRCA1/2 mutations and diagnosed with PCa were identified and invited to participate in a qualitative interview study. Data were analysed using a Framework approach. 'Masculinity theory' was used to report the impact of having both a BRCA1/2 mutation and PCa...
August 15, 2017: Psycho-oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28812265/oxytocin-and-olfaction
#4
Lars-Lennart Oettl, Wolfgang Kelsch
Social signals are identified through processing in sensory systems to trigger appropriate behavioral responses. Social signals are received primarily in most mammals through the olfactory system. Individuals are recognized based on their unique blend of odorants. Such individual recognition is critical to distinguish familiar conspecifics from intruders and to recognize offspring. Social signals can also trigger stereotyped responses like mating behaviors. Specific sensory pathways for individual recognition and eliciting stereotyped responses have been identified both in the early olfactory system and its connected cortices...
August 16, 2017: Current Topics in Behavioral Neurosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28808830/social-workers-perceptions-of-the-association-between-role-playing-games-and-psychopathology
#5
Menachem Ben-Ezra, Eric Lis, Agata Błachnio, Lia Ring, Osnat Lavenda, Michal Mahat-Shamir
Whereas role-playing and table-top role-play games (RPGs) have been proven to have potential as therapeutic tools, playing RPGs is often stereotypically associated with social incompetence and psychiatric disorders. Knowledge regarding the stereotype and its implications is very scarce specifically among mental health practitioners. Therefore the present study aimed to narrow this gap in knowledge by examining the perception of Social Workers that are considered to be the forefront of mental health-care, in regard to the association between playing RPGs and mental health...
August 15, 2017: Psychiatric Quarterly
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28807028/connectivity-not-region-intrinsic-properties-predicts-regional-vulnerability-to-progressive-tau-pathology-in-mouse-models-of-disease
#6
Chris Mezias, Eve LoCastro, Chuying Xia, Ashish Raj
Spatiotemporal tau pathology progression is regarded as highly stereotyped within each type of degenerative condition. For instance, AD has a progression of tau pathology consistently beginning in the entorhinal cortex, the locus coeruleus, and other nearby noradrenergic brainstem nuclei, before spreading to the rest of the limbic system as well as the cingulate and retrosplenial cortices. Proposed explanations for the consistent spatial patterns of tau pathology progression, as well as for why certain regions are selectively vulnerable to exhibiting pathology over the course of disease generally focus on transsynaptic spread proceeding via the brain's anatomic connectivity network in a cell-independent manner or on cell-intrinsic properties that might render some cell populations or regions uniquely vulnerable...
August 14, 2017: Acta Neuropathologica Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28806125/changing-avatars-changing-selves-the-influence-of-social-and-contextual-expectations-on-digital-rendition-of-identity
#7
Stefano Triberti, Ilaria Durosini, Filippo Aschieri, Daniela Villani, Giuseppe Riva
Avatar creation is an interesting topic for both video game and social network studies. Research has shown that the creation of avatars is influenced by individual, contextual, and cultural features. Avatars are used to represent aspects of users' personality, but multiple avatars are used in different virtual contexts, as self-presentation strategies may vary according to the different "audiences" to be met online (say: friends, or strangers). Moreover, avatar creation is also influenced by cultural variables, such as gender, as avatars embody stereotypical aspects of being a woman or a man...
August 2017: Cyberpsychology, Behavior and Social Networking
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28804392/the-impact-of-aging-stereotypes-on-dementia-worry
#8
Joie Molden, Molly Maxfield
Dementia worry, an anxiety-related response to the possibility of developing dementia, represents an important yet underexplored health concern for an aging population. Such a construct is likely impacted by stereotypes concerning aging, including biased associations of aging with inevitable cognitive decline. The present article explores the impact of mixed positive and negative aging stereotype messages on levels of dementia worry. The Fear of Alzheimer's Disease Scale (FADS) was used to measure impact of priming with different proportions of positive and negative aging stereotype words...
March 2017: European Journal of Ageing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28804390/relations-between-views-on-ageing-and-perceived-age-discrimination-a-domain-specific-perspective
#9
Peggy Voss, Julia K Wolff, Klaus Rothermund
This study investigates the relation between age stereotypes and perceived age discrimination. Existing evidence for such a relation is notoriously ambiguous with regard to its direction-age stereotypes can predict (perceived) discrimination, but experiencing discrimination may also change views on ageing-which is why we used a dataset with two waves to disentangle the direction of the associations. Considering research on the multi-dimensionality of views on ageing and perceived age discrimination, we addressed this question from a domain- and age group-specific perspective...
March 2017: European Journal of Ageing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28803873/neural-circuitry-that-evokes-escape-behavior-upon-activation-of-nociceptive-sensory-neurons-in-drosophila-larvae
#10
Jiro Yoshino, Rei K Morikawa, Eri Hasegawa, Kazuo Emoto
Noxious stimuli trigger a stereotyped escape response in animals. In Drosophila larvae, class IV dendrite arborization (C4 da) sensory neurons in the peripheral nervous system are responsible for perception of multiple nociceptive modalities, including noxious heat and harsh mechanical stimulation, through distinct receptors [1-9]. Silencing or ablation of C4 da neurons largely eliminates larval responses to noxious stimuli [10-12], whereas optogenetic activation of C4 da neurons is sufficient to provoke corkscrew-like rolling behavior similar to what is observed when larvae receive noxious stimuli, such as high temperature or harsh mechanical stimulation [10-12]...
August 4, 2017: Current Biology: CB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28803559/rethinking-the-idea-of-late-autism-spectrum-disorder-onset
#11
Elizabeth C Bacon, Eric Courchesne, Cynthia Carter Barnes, Debra Cha, Sunny Pence, Laura Schreibman, Aubyn C Stahmer, Karen Pierce
A common theory of autism spectrum disorder (ASD) symptom onset includes toddlers who do not display symptoms until well after age 2, which are termed late-onset ASD cases. Objectives were to analyze differences in clinical phenotype between toddlers identified as ASD at initial evaluations (early diagnosed) versus those initially considered nonspectrum, then later identified as ASD (late diagnosed). Two hundred seventy-three toddlers recruited from the general population based on a failed developmental screening form or parent or physician concerns were followed longitudinally from 12 months and identified as early- and late-diagnosed cases of ASD, language delayed, or typically developing...
August 14, 2017: Development and Psychopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28803131/do-continuum-beliefs-reduce-schizophrenia-stigma-effects-of-a-laboratory-intervention-on-behavioral-and-self-reported-stigma
#12
Ryan Thibodeau, Lindsay N Shanks, Brian P Smith
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Correlational research shows that belief in a continuum of psychiatric problems predicts decreased public stigma. However, the correlational findings fail to inform the stigma reduction prospects of manipulating continuum beliefs. All extant experimental work has been executed online. This study examined effects of a laboratory-based continuum intervention on behavioral and self-report measures of psychiatric stigma. METHODS: Sixty-nine undergraduates believed that they would meet a man with schizophrenia...
August 5, 2017: Journal of Behavior Therapy and Experimental Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28802938/impulse-control-and-related-disorders-in-parkinson-s-disease
#13
Daniel Weintraub, Daniel O Claassen
Impulse control disorders (ICDs), such as compulsive gambling, buying, sexual, and eating behaviors, are a serious and increasingly recognized complication in Parkinson's disease (PD), occurring in up to 20% of PD patients over the course of their illness. Related behaviors include punding (stereotyped, repetitive, purposeless behaviors), dopamine dysregulation syndrome (DDS) (compulsive medication overuse), and hobbyism (e.g., compulsive internet use, artistic endeavors, and writing). These disorders have a significant impact on quality of life and function, strain interpersonal relationships, and worsen caregiver burden, and are associated with significant psychiatric comorbidity...
2017: International Review of Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28800888/clinical-classification-of-post-anoxic-myoclonic-status
#14
Yara Mikhaeil-Demo, Jay R Gavvala, Irena I Bellinski, Micheal P Macken, Aditi Narechania, Jessica W Templer, Stephen VanHaerents, Stephan U Schuele, Elizabeth E Gerard
INTRODUCTION: Despite decades of research into the prognostic significance of post anoxic myoclonic status (MS), no consistent definition has been used to describe its clinical appearance. We set out to characterize the clinical features of MS and hypothesized that there are distinct clinical subtypes that may have prognostic implications. METHODS: Video EEG reports from 2008 to 2016 were searched to identify adult patients with post anoxic MS defined as persistent myoclonus for >30minutes beginning within 3days of cardiac arrest in a comatose patient...
August 8, 2017: Resuscitation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28799558/intermittent-mydriasis-associated-with-carotid-vascular-occlusion
#15
P D Chamberlain, A Sadaka, S Berry, A G Lee
PurposeTo describe two cases of stereotyped, intermittent, neurologically isolated, unilateral mydriasis in patients with a history of acquired internal carotid artery (ICA) occlusive disease on the ipsilateral side.PatientsTwo patients with intermittent mydriasis.MethodsCase Series.ResultsCase one: A 78-year-old man experienced 10 episodes of intermittent, unilateral, and painless mydriasis in the left eye and had 100% occlusion of the left ICA artery due to atherosclerotic disease. Case two: A 26-year-old woman with history of migraine developed new painless, intermittent episodes of unilateral mydriasis after sustaining chest trauma and was diagnosed with subsequent dissection and 65% occlusion of the ipsilateral ICA...
August 11, 2017: Eye
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28796977/a-novel-de-novo-20q13-11q13-12-microdeletion-in-a-boy-with-neurodevelopmental-disorders-case-report
#16
Joanna Bernaciak, Barbara Wiśniowiecka-Kowalnik, Jennifer Castañeda, Anna Kutkowska-Kaźmierczak, Beata Nowakowska
Copy-number variants (CNVs) are an important cause of human neurodevelopmental disorders. We present the first case of a 424 kb de novo 20q13.11q13.12 microdeletion in a patient with attention deficit disorder, tics and autistic behaviors, such as emotional and behavioral problems, and movement stereotypes. This region includes three genes expressed in the brain: SFRS6, PTPRT and L3MBTL. Our results suggest that loss of the chromosomal region 20q13.11q13.12 is causative for the clinical findings observed in the patient...
2017: Developmental Period Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28796202/the-complete-connectome-of-a-learning-and-memory-centre-in-an-insect-brain
#17
Katharina Eichler, Feng Li, Ashok Litwin-Kumar, Youngser Park, Ingrid Andrade, Casey M Schneider-Mizell, Timo Saumweber, Annina Huser, Claire Eschbach, Bertram Gerber, Richard D Fetter, James W Truman, Carey E Priebe, L F Abbott, Andreas S Thum, Marta Zlatic, Albert Cardona
Associating stimuli with positive or negative reinforcement is essential for survival, but a complete wiring diagram of a higher-order circuit supporting associative memory has not been previously available. Here we reconstruct one such circuit at synaptic resolution, the Drosophila larval mushroom body. We find that most Kenyon cells integrate random combinations of inputs but that a subset receives stereotyped inputs from single projection neurons. This organization maximizes performance of a model output neuron on a stimulus discrimination task...
August 9, 2017: Nature
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28795833/publication-bias-and-stereotype-threat-research-a-reply-to-zigerell
#18
Ann Marie Ryan, Hannah-Hanh D Nguyen
Zigerell (2017) demonstrated that 4 methods of examining publication bias applied to the meta-analysis presented by Nguyen and Ryan (2008) on stereotype threat effects yield highly divergent conclusions. The methods differ in the estimated magnitudes of publication bias and of the stereotype threat effect. Zigerell (2017), Nguyen and Ryan (2008), and the current article all strongly urge researchers to pay attention to moderators of stereotype threat effects, and we provide commentary on the state of this research focus...
August 2017: Journal of Applied Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28795832/potential-publication-bias-in-the-stereotype-threat-literature-comment-on-nguyen-and-ryan-2008
#19
L J Zigerell
Stereotype threat is a widely cited psychological phenomenon with purported important real-world consequences. Reanalysis of data from the Nguyen and Ryan (2008) stereotype threat meta-analysis indicated the presence of small study effects in which the effect size for less precise studies was larger than the effect size for more precise studies. Four methods to adjust the meta-analysis effect size for potential publication bias produced divergent estimates, from essentially no change, to a 50% decrease, to a reduction of the estimated effect size to near zero...
August 2017: Journal of Applied Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28795258/lipopolysaccharide-aggravated-doi-induced-tourette-syndrome-elaboration-for-recurrence-of-tourette-syndrome
#20
Long Hongyan, Si Zhenyang, Wang Chunyan, Pan Qingqing
Tourette syndrome (TS) is a neurological disorder characterized by highest familial recurrence rate among neuropsychiatric diseases with complicated inheritance. Recurrence of Tourette syndrome was frequently observed in clinical. Unexpectedly, the mechanism of recurrence of Tourette syndrome was failure to elucidate. Here, we first shown that lipopolysaccharide(LPS) may played an important role in the recurrence of Tourette syndrome. The TS model in rats was induced by DOI (the selective 5-HT2A/2C agonist 1-(2, 5-dimethoxy-4-iodophenyl) -2- aminopropane)...
August 9, 2017: Metabolic Brain Disease
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