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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28343109/a-visual-analysis-of-gender-bias-in-contemporary-anatomy-textbooks
#1
Rhiannon Parker, Theresa Larkin, Jon Cockburn
Empirical research has linked gender bias in medical education with negative attitudes and behaviors in healthcare providers. Yet it has been more than 20 years since research has considered the degree to which women and men are equally represented in anatomy textbooks. Furthermore, previous research has not explored beyond quantity of representation to also examine visual gender stereotypes and, in light of theoretical advancements in the area of intersectional research, the relationship between representations of gender and representations of ethnicity, body type, health, and age...
March 18, 2017: Social Science & Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28338829/seeing-is-not-stereotyping-the-functional-independence-of-categorization-and-stereotype-activation
#2
Tiffany A Ito, Silvia Tomelleri
Social categorization has been viewed as necessarily resulting in stereotyping, yet extant research suggests the two processes are differentially sensitive to task manipulations. Here we simultaneously test the degree to which race perception and stereotyping are conditionally automatic. Participants performed a sequential priming task while either explicitly attending to the race of face primes or directing attention away from their semantic nature. We find a dissociation between the perceptual encoding of race and subsequent activation of associated stereotypes, with race perception occurring in both task conditions, but implicit stereotyping occurring only when attention is directed to the race of the face primes...
February 23, 2017: Social Cognitive and Affective Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28338420/exploring-the-facilitators-and-barriers-to-physical-activity-in-older-people-with-sight-loss
#3
Amy E Burton, Louise Clancy, Lisa Cowap
This study aimed to explore facilitators and barriers to physical activity in older people with sight loss. Focus groups were conducted with 13 community dwelling older adults with sight loss ranging from poor to completely blind. Transcripts were analysed using an inductive thematic analysis. Facilitators and barriers are experienced in three ways: psychologically; through opportunity and access; and at a societal and policy level. Campaigns are needed to challenge unhelpful age-related stereotypes at both psychological and societal levels...
March 24, 2017: Journal of Aging and Physical Activity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28337924/making-sense-of-the-public-stigma-of-suicide
#4
Patrick W Corrigan, Lindsay Sheehan, Maya A Al-Khouja
BACKGROUND: Research suggests that stigma is a barrier to care for individuals who have attempted suicide. While extensive work has examined the stigma of mental illness, less research has focused on the public stigma of suicide. Existing measures of suicide stigma have lacked a conceptual foundation or have failed to include the perspectives of suicide stakeholders. AIMS: This research draws on previous qualitative research with suicide stakeholders to create a measure of public suicide stigma...
March 24, 2017: Crisis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28336073/visualization-of-the-genomic-loci-that-are-bound-by-specific-multiprotein-complexes-by-bimolecular-fluorescence-complementation-analysis-on-drosophila-polytene-chromosomes
#5
Huai Deng, Tom K Kerppola
We have developed a procedure that enables visualization of the genomic loci that are bound by complexes formed by a specific combination of chromatin-binding proteins. This procedure is based on imaging bimolecular fluorescence complementation (BiFC) complexes on Drosophila polytene chromosomes. BiFC complexes are formed by the facilitated association of two fluorescent protein fragments that are fused to proteins that interact with, or are in close proximity to, each other. The intensity of BiFC complex fluorescence at individual genomic loci is greatly enhanced by the parallel alignment of hundreds of chromatids within the polytene chromosomes...
2017: Methods in Enzymology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28333586/modulation-of-context-dependent-spatiotemporal-patterns-within-packets-of-spiking-activity
#6
Miho Itoh, Timothée Leleu
Recent experiments have shown that stereotypical spatiotemporal patterns occur during brief packets of spiking activity in the cortex, and it has been suggested that top-down inputs can modulate these patterns according to the context. We propose a simple model that may explain important features of these experimental observations and is analytically tractable. The key mechanism underlying this model is that context-dependent top-down inputs can modulate the effective connection strengths between neurons because of short-term synaptic depression...
March 23, 2017: Neural Computation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28333503/stereotype-threat-as-a-trigger-of-mind-wandering-in-older-adults
#7
Megan L Jordano, Dayna R Touron
Older adults (OAs) report less overall mind-wandering than younger adults (YAs) but more task-related interference (TRI; mind-wandering about the task). The current study examined TRI while manipulating older adults' performance-related concerns. We compared groups for which memory-related stereotype threat (ST) was activated or relieved to a control group. Participants completed an operation span task containing mind-wandering probes. ST-activated OAs reported more TRI than ST-relieved OAs and had worse performance on the operation span task...
March 23, 2017: Psychology and Aging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28332227/general-features-of-inhibition-in-the-inner-retina
#8
Katrin Franke, Tom Baden
Visual processing starts in the retina. Within only two synaptic layers, a large number of parallel information channels emerge, each encoding a highly processed feature like edges or the direction of motion. Much of this functional diversity arises in the inner plexiform layer, where inhibitory amacrine cells modulate the excitatory signal of bipolar and ganglion cells. Studies investigating individual amacrine cell circuits like the starburst or A17 circuit have demonstrated that single types can possess specific morphological and functional adaptations to convey a particular function in one or a small number of inner retinal circuits...
March 23, 2017: Journal of Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28331007/advantages-of-comparative-studies-in-songbirds-to-understand-the-neural-basis-of-sensorimotor-integration
#9
Karagh Murphy, Logan S James, Jon T Sakata, Jonathan F Prather
Sensorimotor integration is the process through which the nervous system creates a link between motor commands and associated sensory feedback. This process allows for the acquisition and refinement of many behaviors, including learned communication behaviors like speech and birdsong. Consequently, it is important to understand fundamental mechanisms of sensorimotor integration, and comparative analyses of this process can provide vital insight. Songbirds offer a powerful comparative model system to study how the nervous system links motor and sensory information for learning and control...
March 22, 2017: Journal of Neurophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28329835/machine-learning-sentiment-analysis-and-tweets-an-examination-of-alzheimer-s-disease-stigma-on-twitter
#10
Nels Oscar, Pamela A Fox, Racheal Croucher, Riana Wernick, Jessica Keune, Karen Hooker
Objectives: Social scientists need practical methods for harnessing large, publicly available datasets that inform the social context of aging. We describe our development of a semi-automated text coding method and use a content analysis of Alzheimer's disease (AD) and dementia portrayal on Twitter to demonstrate its use. The approach improves feasibility of examining large publicly available datasets. Method: Machine learning techniques modeled stigmatization expressed in 31,150 AD-related tweets collected via Twitter's search API based on 9 AD-related keywords...
March 2, 2017: Journals of Gerontology. Series B, Psychological Sciences and Social Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28329207/people-centered-language-recommendations-for-sleep-research-communication
#11
Rebecca Fuoco
The growing embrace of patient-centered outcomes research (PCOR) in sleep medicine is a significant step forward for the field. In engaging and incorporating the unique perspectives of people with sleep disorders, PCOR enhances the relevance of findings and facilitates the uptake of research into practice. While centering research design around what matters most to people with sleep disorders is critical, research communication must be similarly people-centered. One approach is using "people-centered language" in both professional and public communications...
March 6, 2017: Sleep
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28328960/norms-and-stigma-regarding-pregnancy-decisions-during-an-unintended-pregnancy-development-and-predictors-of-scales-among-young-women-in-the-u-s-south
#12
Whitney S Rice, Bulent Turan, Kristi L Stringer, Anna Helova, Kari White, Kate Cockrill, Janet M Turan
BACKGROUND: Norms and stigma regarding pregnancy decisions (parenting, adoption, and abortion) are salient to maternal well-being, particularly for groups disproportionately affected by unintended pregnancy. However, there are few validated measures of individual-level perceptions of norms and stigma around pregnancy decisions. Additionally, little is known about variation in the content of norms regarding pregnancy decisions, and in stigma related to violations of these norms, across socio-demographic groups...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28327250/an-assessment-of-the-mating-motive-explanation-of-the-beauty-premium-in-market-based-settings
#13
Enrichetta Ravina
Labor market and real-life studies were not designed to discriminate between evolutionary and taste-based and stereotype explanations for the beauty premium, have too many confounding effects, and lack crucial information. Smaller-stake and experimental studies provide more compelling evidence in favor of mating motives and suggest the direction of future research for the economists' field studies.
January 2017: Behavioral and Brain Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28327247/the-biasing-effects-of-appearances-go-beyond-physical-attractiveness-and-mating-motives
#14
Christopher Y Olivola, Alexander Todorov
The influence of appearances goes well beyond physical attractiveness and includes the surprisingly powerful impact of "face-ism" - the tendency to stereotype individuals based on their facial features. A growing body of research has revealed that these face-based social attributions bias the outcomes of labor markets and experimental economic games in ways that are hard to explain via evolutionary mating motives.
January 2017: Behavioral and Brain Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28327243/what-does-evolutionary-theory-add-to-stereotype-theory-in-the-explanation-of-attractiveness-bias
#15
Kirby Q Maguire, Timothy P Racine
Maestripieri et al. seem to put forth an argument in which they become vulnerable to some of the same criticisms that they level against stereotype theory As a result, the explanatory utility of their account of attractiveness bias comes into question, and it is unclear whether it offers anything superior to stereotype theory in conceptual soundness.
January 2017: Behavioral and Brain Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28327226/choosing-the-right-level-of-analysis-stereotypes-shape-social-reality-via-collective-action
#16
Ben M Tappin, Ryan T McKay, Dominic Abrams
In his 2012 book Jussim argues that the self-fulfilling prophecy and expectancy effects of descriptive stereotypes are not potent shapers of social reality. However, his conclusion that descriptive stereotypes per se do not shape social reality is premature and overly reductionist. We review evidence that suggests descriptive stereotypes do have a substantial influence on social reality, by virtue of their influence on collective action.
January 2017: Behavioral and Brain Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28327225/accurate-perceptions-do-not-need-complete-information-to-reflect-reality
#17
Shabnam Mousavi, David C Funder
Social reality of a group emerges from interpersonal perceptions and beliefs put to action under a host of environmental conditions. By extending the study of fast-and-frugal heuristics, we view social perceptions as judgment tools and assert that perceptions are ecologically rational to the degree that they adapt to the social reality. We maintain that the veracity of both stereotypes and base rates, as judgment tools, can be determined solely by accuracy research.
January 2017: Behavioral and Brain Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28327224/stereotypes-violate-the-postmodern-construction-of-personal-autonomy
#18
Chris C Martin
Individual autonomy, as constructed in the postmodern era, is violated by stereotypes, which makes stereotype accuracy morally unpalatable. Yet people are clustered and homogenized by social forces, entailing some accuracy in stereotypes. This tension can be ameliorated by unveiling the constructed nature of autonomous selfhood, and explaining why social clustering has occurred and been adaptive.
January 2017: Behavioral and Brain Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28327223/why-would-we-expect-the-mind-to-work-that-way-the-fitness-costs-to-inaccurate-beliefs
#19
Jesse Marczyk
An adaptationist analysis of beliefs yields the prediction that we ought to expect accuracy in the cognitive systems which generate them - stereotypes or otherwise - for the most part. There are, however, some limited situations in which some inaccuracy in beliefs advertised to others might be adaptive.
January 2017: Behavioral and Brain Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28327222/accuracy-bias-self-fulfilling-prophecies-and-scientific-self-correction
#20
Lee Jussim
In my Précis of Social Perception and Social Reality (Jussim 2012, henceforth abbreviated as SPSR), I argued that the social science scholarship on social perception and interpersonal expectancies was characterized by a tripartite pattern: (1) Errors, biases, and self-fulfilling prophecies in person perception were generally weak, fragile, and fleeting; (2) Social perceptions were often quite accurate; and (3) Conclusions appearing throughout the social psychology scientific literature routinely overstated the power and pervasiveness of expectancy effects, and ignored evidence of accuracy...
January 2017: Behavioral and Brain Sciences
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