keyword
MENU ▼
Read by QxMD icon Read
search

stereotype

keyword
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28718756/stereotypes-influence-destination-memory-in-normal-aging
#1
Mohamad El Haj
Background/Study Context: A substantial body of literature suggests that stereotypes can play a determining role in making judgments about the source of information. This study investigated this issue for destination memory or remembering to whom information has been previously told. METHODS: Younger adults and older adults told six medical and six mechanical facts to a picture depicting a physician, and also told six different medical and six different mechanical facts to a picture depicting a mechanic...
July 2017: Experimental Aging Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28716588/cathodal-transcranial-direct-current-stimulation-of-the-extrastriate-visual-cortex-modulates-implicit-anti-fat-bias-in-male-but-not-female-participants
#2
Valentina Cazzato, Stergios Makris, Cosimo Urgesi
Explicit negative attitudes towards obese individuals are well documented and seem to modulate the activity of perceptual areas, such as the Extrastriate Body Area (EBA) in the lateral occipito-temporal cortex, which is critical for body-shape perception. Nevertheless, it is still unclear whether EBA serves a role in implicit weight-stereotypical bias, thus reflecting stereotypical trait attribution on the basis of perceptual cues. Here, we used an Implicit Association Test (IAT) to investigate whether applying transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) over bilateral extrastriate visual cortex reduces pre-existing implicit weight stereotypical associations (i...
July 14, 2017: Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28713297/a-multiple-identity-approach-to-gender-identification-with-women-identification-with-feminists-and-their-interaction
#3
Jolien A van Breen, Russell Spears, Toon Kuppens, Soledad de Lemus
Across four studies, we examine multiple identities in the context of gender and propose that women's attitudes toward gender group membership are governed by two largely orthogonal dimensions of gender identity: identification with women and identification with feminists. We argue that identification with women reflects attitudes toward the content society gives to group membership: what does it mean to be a woman in terms of group characteristics, interests and values? Identification with feminists, on the other hand, is a politicized identity dimension reflecting attitudes toward the social position of the group: what does it mean to be a woman in terms of disadvantage, inequality, and relative status? We examine the utility of this multiple identity approach in four studies...
2017: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28713138/the-power-of-the-personal-breaking-down-stereotypes-and-building-human-connections
#4
Gay R Thomas, Betty L Kaiser, Kaitlin Svabek
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
2017: Narrative Inquiry in Bioethics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28712792/seasonal-plasticity-of-song-behavior-relies-on-motor-and-syntactic-variability-induced-by-a-basal-ganglia-forebrain-circuit
#5
Jorge Alliende, Nicolas Giret, Ludivine Pidoux, Catherine Del Negro, Arthur Leblois
The plasticity of nervous systems allows animals to quickly adapt to a changing environment. In particular, seasonal plasticity of brain structure and behavior is often critical to survival or mating in seasonal climates. Songbirds provide striking examples of seasonal changes in neural circuits and vocal behavior and have emerged as a leading model for adult brain plasticity. While seasonal plasticity and the well-characterized process of juvenile song learning may share common neural mechanisms, the extent of their similarity remains unclear...
July 13, 2017: Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28712689/enhancing-medical-curricula-the-role-of-a-1-day-plastic-surgery-course-as-an-educational-adjunct-for-medical-students
#6
Harry V M Spiers, Alexander Zargaran, Aasim Nisar Murtaza, Amal Thomas, Mohammed Adil A Turki, Farida Ali
INTRODUCTION: Plastic surgery is underrepresented in medical school curricula. The St George׳s Surgical Society hosted a 1-day undergraduate course in plastic surgery. Our aim was to introduce students to plastic surgery and teach basic plastic surgical skills. METHODOLOGY: The skills day consisted of lectures from consultants and a core trainee followed by registrar-taught workshops in suturing, tendon repair, and local flap design. Precourse and postcourse questionnaires assessed perceptions of plastic surgery, confidence in performing basic plastic surgical skills, and usefulness of course components...
July 13, 2017: Journal of Surgical Education
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28710060/values-affirmation-intervention-reduces-achievement-gap-between-underrepresented-minority-and-white-students-in-introductory-biology-classes
#7
Hannah Jordt, Sarah L Eddy, Riley Brazil, Ignatius Lau, Chelsea Mann, Sara E Brownell, Katherine King, Scott Freeman
Achievement gaps between underrepresented minority (URM) students and their white peers in college science, technology, engineering, and mathematics classrooms are persistent across many white-majority institutions of higher education. Attempts to reduce this phenomenon of underperformance through increasing classroom structure via active learning have been partially successful. In this study, we address the hypothesis that the achievement gap between white and URM students in an undergraduate biology course has a psychological and emotional component arising from stereotype threat...
2017: CBE Life Sciences Education
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28707717/an-autopsied-case-of-corticobasal-degeneration-presenting-with-frontotemporal-dementia-followed-by-myoclonus
#8
Yasushi Iwasaki, Keiko Mori, Masumi Ito, Maya Mimuro, Mari Yoshida
A Japanese woman developed frontotemporal dementia (FTD)-like symptoms of abnormal behavior, such as stereotyped behavior and disinhibition. The patient developed these symptoms at the age of 59 years, although aphasia symptoms were not apparent at early disease stages. Progressive parkinsonism was dominant on the left side, and conspicuous myoclonus was recognized in the late disease stage. MRI indicated severe, right side-dominant frontotemporal lobe atrophy with white matter degeneration. Brainstem and cerebellar atrophy were also observed...
July 14, 2017: Neuropathology: Official Journal of the Japanese Society of Neuropathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28705536/effects-of-confinement-duration-and-parity-on-stereotypic-behavioral-and-physiological-responses-of-pregnant-sows
#9
Ming-Yue Zhang, Xiang Li, Xiao-Hui Zhang, Hong-Gui Liu, Jian-Hong Li, Jun Bao
The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of space restriction stress on the stereotypic behavioral and physiological responses of different parity sows, and it is necessary to understand such effects due to space restriction to improve the welfare of the sows in confined conditions. We selected fifty pregnant sows (Large White) at primiparity and first to fifth parity in a confined farm with the same body condition and due date (3±1.5days). Behavioral observations and physiological analysis were carried out during spatial confinement throughout pregnancy...
July 11, 2017: Physiology & Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28705259/-just-not-all-ice-users-do-that-investigating-perceptions-and-potential-harms-of-australia-s-ice-destroys-lives-campaign-in-two-studies
#10
Caitlin H Douglass, Elizabeth C Early, Cassandra J C Wright, Anna Palmer, Peter Higgs, Brendan Quinn, Paul M Dietze, Megan S C Lim
BACKGROUND: In 2015, the Australian government launched the media campaign Ice Destroys Lives targeting crystal methamphetamine use. Previous research indicates mass media campaigns may have harmful effects for people engaged in drug use. This study investigated perceptions and harms of Ice Destroys Lives among adults with a history of injecting drugs and young people. METHODS: This analysis includes data from two studies: an online questionnaire with young people and in-depth interviews with adults who use crystal methamphetamine...
July 14, 2017: Harm Reduction Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28705258/fate-bias-during-neural-regeneration-adjusts-dynamically-without-recapitulating-developmental-fate-progression
#11
Jeremy Ng Chi Kei, Peter David Currie, Patricia Regina Jusuf
BACKGROUND: Regeneration of neurons in the central nervous system is poor in humans. In other vertebrates neural regeneration does occur efficiently and involves reactivation of developmental processes. Within the neural retina of zebrafish, Müller glia are the main stem cell source and are capable of generating progenitors to replace lost neurons after injury. However, it remains largely unknown to what extent Müller glia and neuron differentiation mirror development. METHODS: Following neural ablation in the zebrafish retina, dividing cells were tracked using a prolonged labelling technique...
July 13, 2017: Neural Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28704375/the-effect-of-the-promiscuity-stereotype-on-opposition-to-gay-rights
#12
David Pinsof, Martie G Haselton
Opposition to gay rights is prevalent in countries around the world. Recent correlational research suggests that opposition to gay rights may be driven by an interaction between one's own short-term mating orientation (i.e. willingness to engage in casual sex) and representations of gay people as sexually promiscuous. Here, we experimentally manipulated representations of gay men by randomly assigning participants to read one of two versions of a fictitious newspaper article, one of which contained faux scientific evidence confirming the stereotype that gay men are promiscuous, and the other containing faux scientific evidence refuting the stereotype...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28704135/-top-bottom-versatile-narratives-of-sexual-practices-in-gay-relationships-in-the-cape-metropole-south-africa
#13
Neil John Henderson
Sexual practices among gay and other men who have sex with men are evolving in South Africa and heteronormative stereotypes are being contested. This paper draws from a larger qualitative study on how men construct a gay identity and negotiate their relationships within contemporary South African contexts, following constitutional and legal changes, in this respect. A feminist, social constructionist approach was used to collect and analyse data from in-depth interviews with 15 self-identified gay men, aged 20 to 46 years, drawn from a university in the larger Cape Metropole, South Africa...
July 13, 2017: Culture, Health & Sexuality
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28701621/antipsychotic-like-activity-of-scopoletin-and-rutin-against-the-positive-symptoms-of-schizophrenia-in-mouse-models
#14
Vijayapandi Pandy, Kamini Vijeepallam
In an earlier report, we demonstrated an antipsychotic-like activity of a methanolic extract of Morinda citrifolia Linn fruit in mouse models and postulated the contribution of its bioactive principles, scopoletin and rutin. Moreover, the antidopaminergic activities of scopoletin and rutin were reported in isolated vas deferens preparations. In the present study, scopoletin and rutin were assessed for antipsychotic-like activity using apomorphine-induced climbing behavior and methamphetamine-induced stereotypy in mice...
July 12, 2017: Experimental Animals
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28700360/stigma-and-substance-use-disorders-an-international-phenomenon
#15
Lawrence H Yang, Liang Y Wong, Margaux M Grivel, Deborah S Hasin
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: To collect and update published information on the stigma associated with substance abuse in nonclinical samples, which has not been recently reviewed. RECENT FINDINGS: Searching large databases, a total of only 17 articles were published since 1999, with the majority of studies conducted outside the United States. Using major stigma concepts from a sociological framework (stereotyping, devaluation in terms of status loss, discrimination, and negative emotional reactions), the studies reviewed predominantly indicated that the public holds very stigmatized views toward individuals with substance use disorders (SUDs), and that the level of stigma was higher toward individuals with SUDs than toward those with other psychiatric disorders...
July 11, 2017: Current Opinion in Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28692658/temporal-specificity-of-the-initial-adaptive-response-in-motor-adaptation
#16
Wilsaan M Joiner, Gary C Sing, Maurice A Smith
Repeated exposure to a novel physical environment eventually leads to a mature adaptive response whereby feedforward changes in motor output mirror both the amplitude and temporal structure of the environmental perturbations. However, adaptive responses at the earliest stages of learning have been found to be not only smaller, but systematically less specific in their temporal structure compared to later stages of learning. This observation has spawned a lively debate as to whether the temporal structure of the initial adaptive response is, in fact, stereotyped and non-specific...
July 2017: PLoS Computational Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28691551/who-decides-me-or-we-family-involvement-in-medical-decision-making-in-eastern-and-western-countries
#17
Dana L Alden, John Friend, Ping Yein Lee, Yew Kong Lee, Lyndal Trevena, Chirk Jenn Ng, Sorapop Kiatpongsan, Khatijah Lim Abdullah, Miho Tanaka, Supanida Limpongsanurak
BACKGROUND: Research suggests that desired family involvement (FI) in medical decision making may depend on cultural values. Unfortunately, the field lacks cross-cultural studies that test this assumption. As a result, providers may be guided by incomplete information or cultural biases rather than patient preferences. METHODS: Researchers developed 6 culturally relevant disease scenarios varying from low to high medical seriousness. Quota samples of approximately 290 middle-aged urban residents in Australia, China, Malaysia, India, South Korea, Thailand, and the USA completed an online survey that examined desired levels of FI and identified individual difference predictors in each country...
July 1, 2017: Medical Decision Making: An International Journal of the Society for Medical Decision Making
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28689318/destination-memory-the-relationship-between-memory-and-social-cognition
#18
REVIEW
Mohamad El Haj, Ralph Miller
Destination memory refers to the ability to remember to whom one has sent information (e.g., "did I tell my colleague X or Y about the conference?", "did I send that email to my colleague X or Y?"). This review describes empirical studies demonstrating how normal aging and neurological disorders compromise destination memory. Centrally, we propose a comprehensive framework, destination memory framework (DMF), in which destination memory contributes to the uniqueness of a communications episode by creating an association between the content of a communications event and the context of its transmission...
July 8, 2017: Psychological Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28686611/yorkie-is-required-to-restrict-the-injury-responses-in-planarians
#19
Alexander Y T Lin, Bret J Pearson
Regeneration requires the precise integration of cues that initiate proliferation, direct differentiation, and ultimately re-pattern tissues to the proper size and scale. Yet how these processes are integrated with wounding responses remains relatively unknown. The freshwater planarian, Schmidtea mediterranea, is an ideal model to study the stereotyped proliferative and transcriptional responses to injury due to its high capacity for regeneration. Here, we characterize the effector of the Hippo signalling cascade, yorkie, during planarian regeneration and its role in restricting early injury responses...
July 2017: PLoS Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28684308/characterizing-ingestive-behavior-through-licking-microstructure-underlying-neurobiology-and-its-use-in-the-study-of-obesity-in-animal-models
#20
REVIEW
Alexander W Johnson
Ingestive behavior is controlled by multiple distinct peripheral and central physiological mechanisms that ultimately determine whether a particular food should be accepted or avoided. As rodents consume a fluid they display stereotyped rhythmic tongue movements, and by analyzing the temporal distribution of pauses of licking, it is possible through analyses of licking microstructure to uncover dissociable evaluative and motivational variables that contribute to ingestive behavior. The mean number of licks occurring within each burst of licking (burst and cluster size) reflects the palatability of the consumed solution, whereas the frequency of initiating novel bouts of licking behavior (burst and cluster number) is dependent upon the degree of gastrointestinal inhibition that accrues through continued fluid ingestion...
July 3, 2017: International Journal of Developmental Neuroscience
keyword
keyword
30277
1
2
Fetch more papers »
Fetching more papers... Fetching...
Read by QxMD. Sign in or create an account to discover new knowledge that matter to you.
Remove bar
Read by QxMD icon Read
×

Search Tips

Use Boolean operators: AND/OR

diabetic AND foot
diabetes OR diabetic

Exclude a word using the 'minus' sign

Virchow -triad

Use Parentheses

water AND (cup OR glass)

Add an asterisk (*) at end of a word to include word stems

Neuro* will search for Neurology, Neuroscientist, Neurological, and so on

Use quotes to search for an exact phrase

"primary prevention of cancer"
(heart or cardiac or cardio*) AND arrest -"American Heart Association"