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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29346266/the-relationship-between-autism-spectrum-disorder-and-melatonin-during-fetal-development
#1
REVIEW
Yunho Jin, Jeonghyun Choi, Jinyoung Won, Yonggeun Hong
The aim of this review is to clarify the interrelationship between melatonin and autism spectrum disorder (ASD) during fetal development. ASD refers to a diverse range of neurodevelopmental disorders characterized by social deficits, impaired communication, and stereotyped or repetitive behaviors. Melatonin, which is secreted by the pineal gland, has well-established neuroprotective and circadian entraining effects. During pregnancy, the hormone crosses the placenta into the fetal circulation and transmits photoperiodic information to the fetus allowing the establishment of normal sleep patterns and circadian rhythms that are essential for normal neurodevelopment...
January 18, 2018: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29341347/employing-the-arts-for-knowledge-production-and-translation-visualizing-new-possibilities-for-women-speaking-up-about-safety-concerns-in-maternity
#2
Nicola Mackintosh, Jane Sandall, Claire Collison, Wendy Carter, James Harris
OBJECTIVES: This project used animated film to translate research findings into accessible health information aimed at enabling women to speak up and secure professional help for serious safety concerns during pregnancy and after birth. We tested as proof of concept our use of the arts both as product (knowledge production) and process (enabling involvement). BACKGROUND: Emergencies during pregnancy and birth, while unusual, can develop rapidly and unexpectedly, with catastrophic consequences...
January 17, 2018: Health Expectations: An International Journal of Public Participation in Health Care and Health Policy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29339219/caffeine-supplemented-diet-modulates-oxidative-stress-markers-and-improves-locomotor-behavior-in-the-lobster-cockroach-nauphoeta-cinerea
#3
Cícera Simoni da Silva, Rita de Cássia Gonçalves de Lima, Olusola Olalekan Elekofehinti, Yetunde Ogunbolude, Antonia Eliene Duarte, João Batista Teixeira Rocha, Irwin Rose Alencar de Menezes, Luiz Marivando Barros, Appolinaire Tsopmo, Kiven Erique Lukong, Jean Paul Kamdem
The effects of caffeine supplementation is well documented in conventional animal models, however the effects in the lobster cockroaches Nauphoeta cinerea have not been reported. Thus, we aimed to investigate the locomotor behavior and biochemical endpoints in the head of the nymphs of N. cinerea following 60 days exposure to food supplemented with 0, 0.5, 1.0, 2.5, 5.0 and 10.0 mg of caffeine/g of diet. The analysis of the locomotor behavior using the video-tracking software, Any-maze, for 12 min revealed that caffeine supplementation caused significant behavioral improvement...
January 12, 2018: Chemico-biological Interactions
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29338329/making-a-university-community-more-dementia-friendly-through-participation-in-an-intergenerational-choir
#4
Phyllis Braudy Harris, Cynthia Anne Caporella
A dementia friendly community is one that is informed about dementia, respectful and inclusive of people with dementia and their families, provides support, promotes empowerment, and fosters quality of life. This study presents data from four cohorts of undergraduate college students and people with dementia and their family members, using an intergenerational choir as the process through which to begin to create a dementia friendly community. This was accomplished by breaking down the stereotypes and misunderstandings that young adults have about people with dementia, thus allowing their commonalities and the strengths of the people living with dementia to become more visible...
January 1, 2018: Dementia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29336026/youth-s-conceptions-of-adolescence-predict-longitudinal-changes-in-prefrontal-cortex-activation-and-risk-taking-during-adolescence
#5
Yang Qu, Eva M Pomerantz, Ethan McCormick, Eva H Telzer
The development of cognitive control during adolescence is paralleled by changes in the function of the lateral prefrontal cortex (PFC). Using a three-wave longitudinal neuroimaging design (N = 22, Mage  = 13.08 years at Wave 1), this study examined if youth's stereotypes about teens modulate changes in their neural activation during cognitive control. Participants holding stereotypes of teens as irresponsible in the family context (i.e., ignoring family obligations) in middle school showed increases in bilateral ventrolateral PFC activation during cognitive control over the transition to high school, which was associated with increases in risk taking...
January 15, 2018: Child Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29335423/evaluation-of-the-effects-of-space-allowance-on-measures-of-animal-welfare-in-laboratory-mice
#6
Jeremy D Bailoo, Eimear Murphy, Justin A Varholick, Janja Novak, Rupert Palme, Hanno Würbel
We studied how space allowance affects measures of animal welfare in mice by systematically varying group size and cage type across three levels each in both males and females of two strains of mice (C57BL/6ByJ and BALB/cByJ; n = 216 cages, a total of 1152 mice). This allowed us to disentangle the effects of total floor area, group size, stocking density, and individual space allocation on a broad range of measures of welfare, including growth (food and water intake, body mass); stress physiology (glucocorticoid metabolites in faecal boli); emotionality (open field behaviour); brain function (recurrent perseveration in a two-choice guessing task); and home-cage behaviour (activity, stereotypic behaviour)...
January 15, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29333602/children-s-perceptions-of-economic-groups-in-a-context-of-limited-access-to-opportunities
#7
Laura Elenbaas, Melanie Killen
Children (N = 267, ages 8-14 years, M = 11.61 years, middle to upper-middle income) made predictions regarding groups of same-aged peers from high-wealth and low-wealth backgrounds. The context involved granting access to a special opportunity. From middle childhood to early adolescence children increasingly expected both high- and low-wealth groups to want access to opportunities for their own group. However, children viewed high-wealth groups as motivated in part by selfishness and low-wealth groups as concerned in part with broader economic inequality...
January 15, 2018: Child Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29332008/leg-stereotypy-syndrome-phenomenology-and-prevalence
#8
Mitesh Lotia, Michele K York, Adriana M Strutt, Joseph Jankovic
OBJECTIVES: To describe the phenomenology and prevalence of leg stereotypy syndrome (LSS), characterised chiefly by repetitive, rhythmical, stereotypic leg movement, especially when sitting. METHODS: We sought to characterise LSS in two groups of subjects: (1) general population (GP) group, defined as individuals accompanying patients during their visits to Baylor College of Medicine Parkinson's Disease Center and Movement Disorders Clinic who are not genetically related to the patients; and (2) movement disorders (MD) group, composed of consecutive patients with diagnoses of restless legs syndrome, Parkinson's disease, Tourette syndrome and tardive dyskinesia...
January 13, 2018: Journal of Neurology, Neurosurgery, and Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29331878/how-shared-reality-is-created-in-interpersonal-communication
#9
REVIEW
Gerald Echterhoff, Bjarne Schmalbach
Communication is a key arena and means for shared-reality creation. Most studies explicitly devoted to shared reality have focused on the opening part of a conversation, that is, a speaker's initial message to an audience. The aspect of communication examined by this research is the evaluative adaptation (tuning) of the messages to the audience's attitude or judgment. The speaker's shared-reality creation is typically assessed by the extent to which the speaker's evaluative representation of the topic matches the audience-tuned view expressed in the message...
December 29, 2017: Current Opinion in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29330055/tissue-geometry-may-govern-lung-branching-mode-selection
#10
Uduak Z George, Sharon R Lubkin
Lung branching morphogenesis proceeds in three stereotyped modes (domain, planar, and orthogonal branching). Much is known about the molecular players, including growth factors such as fibroblast growth factor 10 but it is unknown how these signals could actuate the different branching patterns. With the aim of identifying mechanisms that may determine the different branching modes, we developed a computational model of the epithelial lung bud and its surrounding mesenchyme. We studied transport of morphogens and localization of morphogen flux at lobe surfaces and lobe edges...
January 9, 2018: Journal of Theoretical Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29329513/the-behavioural-phenotype-of-potocki-lupski-syndrome-a-cross-syndrome-comparison
#11
Stacey Bissell, Lucy Wilde, Caroline Richards, Jo Moss, Chris Oliver
BACKGROUND: Potocki-Lupski syndrome (PTLS) and Smith-Magenis syndrome (SMS) are related genomic disorders, as duplication 17p11.2 (associated with PTLS) is the reciprocal recombination product of the SMS microdeletion. While SMS has a relatively well-delineated behavioural phenotype, the behavioural profile in PTLS is less well defined, despite purported associations with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and the suggestion that some behaviours may be diametric to those seen in SMS. METHODS: Caregivers of individuals with PTLS (N = 34; M age = 12...
January 10, 2018: Journal of Neurodevelopmental Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29329046/social-distance-toward-people-with-schizophrenia-is-associated-with-favorable-understanding-and-negative-stereotype
#12
Shinsuke Koike, Sosei Yamaguchi, Yasutaka Ojio, Shuntaro Ando
Previous studies have suggested the consequence of mental health-related public stigma: the problem of knowledge may develop into problem of attitude and behaviour. However, this has not been directly explored in a longitudinal study. As the secondary analysis from our previous randomized controlled trial (RCT) for 219 participants who completed the survey at the 12-month follow-up, we aimed to investigate whether the knowledge and attitude components of stigma toward people with schizophrenia affect each other...
January 2, 2018: Psychiatry Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29325621/genetics-of-autism-spectrum-disorder
#13
Gokul Ramaswami, Daniel H Geschwind
Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is a prevalent neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by impaired social interaction and stereotyped behaviors. ASD has a strong and complex genetic component, with multiple familial inheritance patterns and an estimate of up to 1000 genes potentially implicated. Over the past decade, genomic technologies have enabled rapid progress in the identification of risk genes for ASD. In this chapter, we review the delineation of ASD disease genes starting from traditional genetic studies such as linkage and association, and then focusing on more recent studies utilizing genomic technologies, such as high-throughput genotyping and exome sequencing...
2018: Handbook of Clinical Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29324224/good-bug-bad-bug-breaking-through-microbial-stereotypes
#14
Mihai Cirstea, Nina Radisavljevic, B Brett Finlay
Our expanding knowledge of microbial mechanisms is challenging the notion of "good" versus "bad" microbes and encouraging a better understanding of their roles in various contexts before their widespread therapeutic and clinical application. The intestinal microbe Akkermansia muciniphila, a promising probiotic with an emerging cautionary tale, best highlights this challenge.
January 10, 2018: Cell Host & Microbe
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29322350/monogenic-disorders-that-mimic-the-phenotype-of-rett-syndrome
#15
Siddharth Srivastava, Sonal Desai, Julie Cohen, Constance Smith-Hicks, Kristin Barañano, Ali Fatemi, SakkuBai Naidu
Rett syndrome (RTT) is caused by mutations in methyl-CpG-binding protein 2 (MECP2), but defects in a handful of other genes (e.g., CDKL5, FOXG1, MEF2C) can lead to presentations that resemble, but do not completely mirror, classical RTT. In this study, we attempted to identify other monogenic disorders that share features with RTT. We performed a retrospective chart review on n = 319 patients who had undergone clinical whole exome sequencing (WES) for further etiological evaluation of neurodevelopmental diagnoses that remained unexplained despite extensive prior workup...
January 10, 2018: Neurogenetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29321919/addressing-the-recruitment-shortfall-in-surgery-how-do-we-inspire-the-next-generation
#16
Jonathan Bartlett
•Application rates to surgery by medical students have declined in recent years.•More hands-on experience, information and mentorship is needed in medical schools.•Within surgery, gendered stereotyping of roles and environments must be challenged.•Reform of the current systems of outcome reporting is necessary.
January 2018: Annals of Medicine and Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29320948/the-profiles-of-soluble-adhesion-molecules-in-the-great-obstetrical-syndromes
#17
Nikolina Docheva, Roberto Romero, Piya Chaemsaithong, Adi L Tarca, Gaurav Bhatti, Percy Pacora, Bogdan Panaitescu, Noppadol Chaiyasit, Tinnakorn Chaiworapongsa, Eli Maymon, Sonia S Hassan, Offer Erez
OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to determine the profiles of maternal plasma soluble adhesion molecules in patients with preeclampsia, small-for-gestational-age (SGA) fetuses, acute pyelonephritis, preterm labor with intact membranes (PTL), preterm prelabor rupture of the membranes (preterm PROM), and fetal death. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A cross-sectional study was conducted to determine maternal plasma concentrations of sE-selectin, sL-selectin, and sP-selectin as well as sICAM-1, sVCAM-1, and sPECAM-1 in patients with 1) an uncomplicated pregnancy (control, n = 100); 2) preeclampsia (n = 94); 3) SGA fetuses (in women without preeclampsia/hypertension, n = 45); 4) acute pyelonephritis (n = 25); 5) PTL (n = 53); 6) preterm PROM (n = 24); and 7) fetal death (n = 34)...
January 10, 2018: Journal of Maternal-fetal & Neonatal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29320334/body-weight-and-bullying-victimization-among-us-adolescents
#18
Claudia Wang, Yin Li, Kaigang Li, Dong-Chul Seo
OBJECTIVE: We examined the association between body weight status at all levels (including underweight, normal weight, overweight, and obesity) and bullying victimization among US ado- lescents using a nationally representative data. METHODS: We used logistic regression to exam- ine the association between bullying victimization and body weight status by sex with the data from the 2013 Youth Risk Behavior Survey (YRBS) (N = 11,825), controlling for demographics, selected behavioral confounders, and complex survey design...
January 1, 2018: American Journal of Health Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29317466/the-relationship-between-form-and-function-throughout-the-history-of-excitation-contraction-coupling
#19
REVIEW
Clara Franzini-Armstrong
The concept of excitation-contraction coupling is almost as old as Journal of General Physiology It was understood as early as the 1940s that a series of stereotyped events is responsible for the rapid contraction response of muscle fibers to an initial electrical event at the surface. These early developments, now lost in what seems to be the far past for most young investigators, have provided an endless source of experimental approaches. In this Milestone in Physiology, I describe in detail the experiments and concepts that introduced and established the field of excitation-contraction coupling in skeletal muscle...
January 9, 2018: Journal of General Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29315790/a-work-for-food-enrichment-program-increases-exploration-and-decreases-stereotypies-in-four-species-of-bears
#20
Jason D Wagman, Kristen E Lukas, Patricia M Dennis, Mark A Willis, Joe Carroscia, Curt Gindlesperger, Mandi W Schook
Zoo-housed bears are prone to exhibiting stereotypic behaviors, generally considered indicators of negative welfare. We explored the effects of a variable-time feeding enrichment schedule on behavioral indicators of welfare in four bear species at Cleveland Metroparks Zoo. We distributed the diets of eight bears in one of five enrichment items, for two consecutive days each, and monitored behavior throughout the day. In Experiment 1, we compared variable-time to fixed-time presentation of enrichment over two, 10-day periods...
January 7, 2018: Zoo Biology
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