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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29144869/ocular-redness-measured-with-the-keratograph-5m-in-patients-using-anti-glaucoma-eye-drops
#1
Francisco Pérez Bartolomé, Jose María Martínez de la Casa, Pedro Arriola Villalobos, Cristina Fernández Pérez, Vicente Polo, Ruben Sánchez Jean, Julián García Feijoó
PURPOSE: To examine correlations between ocular redness measured with the new topographer Keratograph 5M and the use of topical anti-glaucoma medication. METHODS: A total of 211 eyes of 211 patients with open-angle glaucoma or ocular hypertension on topical medication and 51 eyes of 51 healthy volunteers were recruited over 10 months. Outcome variables were keratograph redness scores (RS): overall, bulbar temporal (BT), bulbar nasal (BN), limbar temporal (LT), and limbar nasal (LN)...
November 16, 2017: Seminars in Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29143150/the-impact-of-sea-ice-conditions-on-breeding-decisions-is-modulated-by-body-condition-in-an-arctic-partial-capital-breeder
#2
Frankie Jean-Gagnon, P Legagneux, G Gilchrist, S Bélanger, O P Love, J Bêty
Determining how environmental conditions interact with individual intrinsic properties is important for unravelling the underlying mechanisms that drive variation in reproductive decisions among migratory species. We investigated the influence of sea ice conditions and body condition at arrival on the breeding propensity, i.e. the decision to reproduce or not within a single breeding season, and timing of laying in migrating common eiders (Somateria mollissima) breeding in the Arctic. Using Radarsat satellite images acquired from 2002 to 2013, we estimated the proportion of open water in the intertidal zone in early summer to track the availability of potential foraging areas for pre-breeding females...
November 15, 2017: Oecologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29135602/ocular-surface-alterations-in-the-context-of-corneal-in-vivo-confocal-microscopic-characteristics-in-patients-with-fibromyalgia
#3
Kadriye Erkan Turan, Sibel Kocabeyoglu, Isin Unal-Cevik, Figen Bezci, Aysen Akinci, Murat Irkec
PURPOSE: To quantify the morphology of corneal basal epithelium and subbasal nerves and to evaluate the ocular surface alterations in patients with fibromyalgia (FM). METHODS: Patients with FM (n = 34) and healthy controls (n = 42) were enrolled. All participants underwent ocular surface tests in the following order: corneal sensitivity, tear film breakup time, lissamine green staining, Schirmer test, and the Ocular Surface Disease Index questionnaire. Basal epithelial cells and subbasal nerves were evaluated using in vivo confocal microscopy (IVCM)...
November 9, 2017: Cornea
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29134193/snowball-earth-climate-dynamics-and-cryogenian-geology-geobiology
#4
Paul F Hoffman, Dorian S Abbot, Yosef Ashkenazy, Douglas I Benn, Jochen J Brocks, Phoebe A Cohen, Grant M Cox, Jessica R Creveling, Yannick Donnadieu, Douglas H Erwin, Ian J Fairchild, David Ferreira, Jason C Goodman, Galen P Halverson, Malte F Jansen, Guillaume Le Hir, Gordon D Love, Francis A Macdonald, Adam C Maloof, Camille A Partin, Gilles Ramstein, Brian E J Rose, Catherine V Rose, Peter M Sadler, Eli Tziperman, Aiko Voigt, Stephen G Warren
Geological evidence indicates that grounded ice sheets reached sea level at all latitudes during two long-lived Cryogenian (58 and ≥5 My) glaciations. Combined uranium-lead and rhenium-osmium dating suggests that the older (Sturtian) glacial onset and both terminations were globally synchronous. Geochemical data imply that CO2 was 10(2) PAL (present atmospheric level) at the younger termination, consistent with a global ice cover. Sturtian glaciation followed breakup of a tropical supercontinent, and its onset coincided with the equatorial emplacement of a large igneous province...
November 2017: Science Advances
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29130886/au-nanowire-junction-breakup-through-surface-atom-diffusion
#5
Simon Vigonski, Ville Jansson, Sergei Vlassov, Boris Polyakov, Ekaterina Baibuz, Sven Oras, Alvo Aabloo, Flyura Djurabekova, Vahur Zadin
Metallic nanowires are known to break into shorter fragments due to the Rayleigh instability mechanism. This process is strongly accelerated at elevated temperatures and can completely hinder the functioning of nanowire-based devices like e.g. transparent conductive and flexible coatings. At the same time, the arranged gold nanodots have important applications in electrochemical sensors. In this paper we perform series of heating experiments of gold nanowires and nanowire junctions. We show that nanowires are especially prone to fragmentation around junctions and crossing points even at comparatively low temperatures...
November 13, 2017: Nanotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29118393/birth-of-an-oceanic-spreading-center-at-a-magma-poor-rift-system
#6
Morgane Gillard, Daniel Sauter, Julie Tugend, Simon Tomasi, Marie-Eva Epin, Gianreto Manatschal
Oceanic crust is continuously created at mid-oceanic ridges and seafloor spreading represents one of the main processes of plate tectonics. However, if oceanic crust architecture, composition and formation at present-day oceanic ridges are largely described, the processes governing the birth of a spreading center remain enigmatic. Understanding the transition between inherited continental and new oceanic domains is a prerequisite to constrain one of the last major unsolved problems of plate tectonics, namely the formation of a stable divergent plate boundary...
November 8, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29118327/creating-nanoscale-emulsions-using-condensation
#7
Ingrid F Guha, Sushant Anand, Kripa K Varanasi
Nanoscale emulsions are essential components in numerous products, ranging from processed foods to novel drug delivery systems. Existing emulsification methods rely either on the breakup of larger droplets or solvent exchange/inversion. Here we report a simple, scalable method of creating nanoscale water-in-oil emulsions by condensing water vapor onto a subcooled oil-surfactant solution. Our technique enables a bottom-up approach to forming small-scale emulsions. Nanoscale water droplets nucleate at the oil/air interface and spontaneously disperse within the oil, due to the spreading dynamics of oil on water...
November 8, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29110465/rayleigh-instability-assisted-satellite-droplets-elimination-in-inkjet-printing
#8
Qiang Yang, Huizeng Li, Mingzhu Li, Yanan Li, Shuoran Chen, Bin Bao, Yanlin Song
Elimination of satellite droplets in inkjet printing has long been desired for high-resolution and precision printing of functional materials and tissues. Generally, the strategy to suppress satellite droplets is to control ink properties, such as viscosity or surface tension, to assist ink filaments in retracting into one drop. However, this strategy brings new restrictions to the ink, such as ink viscosity, surface tension, and concentration. Here, we report an alternative strategy that the satellite droplets are eliminated by enhancing Rayleigh instability of filament at the break point to accelerate pinch-off of the droplet from the nozzle...
November 14, 2017: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29098537/duplex-tear-film-evaporation-analysis
#9
M R Stapf, R J Braun, P E King-Smith
Tear film thinning, hyperosmolarity, and breakup can cause irritation and damage to the human eye, and these form an area of active investigation for dry eye syndrome research. Recent research demonstrates that deficiencies in the lipid layer may cause locally increased evaporation, inducing conditions for breakup. In this paper, we explore the conditions for tear film breakup by considering a model for tear film dynamics with two mobile fluid layers, the aqueous and lipid layers. In addition, we include the effects of osmosis, evaporation as modified by the lipid, and the polar portion of the lipid layer...
November 2, 2017: Bulletin of Mathematical Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29095724/evaluation-of-the-effect-of-moist-chamber-spectacles-in-patients-with-dry-eye-exposed-to-adverse-environment-conditions
#10
Mamoru Ogawa, Murat Dogru, Naoki Toriyama, Takefumi Yamaguchi, Jun Shimazaki, Kazuo Tsubota
PURPOSE: To evaluate the effect of moist chamber spectacle wear on the ocular surface and tear functions in a controlled wind exposure environment. METHODS: Twenty-eight eyes of 14 probable dry eye subjects (4 men, 10 women; mean age: 34.5 years) underwent constant wind exposure for 10 min without spectacle, with conventional spectacle wear, and with moist chamber spectacle wear. Dryness Visual Analog Scale (VAS) scores, tear evaporation, blink rate, tear film breakup testing, and fluorescein staining were performed before and after wind exposure...
October 31, 2017: Eye & Contact Lens
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29094601/droplet-formation-by-rupture-of-vibration-induced-interfacial-fingers
#11
Sze Yi Mak, Youchuang Chao, Shakurur Rahman, Ho Cheung Shum
By imposing vibration to a core-annular flow of an aqueous two-phase system (ATPS) with ultralow interfacial tension, we observe a liquid finger protruding from the interface of an expanding jet. We find that the protruded finger breaks up only when its length-to-width ratio exceeds a threshold value. The breakup follows a constant wavelength-to-width ratio that is consistent with that of breakup under Rayleigh-Plateau instability. The mechanism is applicable to aqueous two-phase systems with a large range of viscosity ratios...
November 2, 2017: Langmuir: the ACS Journal of Surfaces and Colloids
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29092498/studying-the-field-induced-breakup-of-acoustically-levitated-drops
#12
C Warschat, J Riedel
Coulomb fission of charged droplets (The terms drop and droplet are often used synonymous. Throughout this manuscript, to avoid confusion, the terms drop and droplet will be used for liquid spheres with radii in the millimeter range and the micrometer range, respectively. In our experiments, the first correspond to the parent drop while the latter describes the ejected progeny droplets.) is a well-studied natural phenomenon. Controlled droplet fission is already successfully employed in several technological applications...
October 2017: Review of Scientific Instruments
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29067934/prevalence-of-ocular-findings-in-a-sample-of-egyptian-patients-with-psoriasis
#13
Salma Samir Omar, Hany Ahmed Helaly
BACKGROUND: Psoriasis is a common disorder worldwide. The prevalence of psoriasis in Egypt, an African country with a Caucasian population, ranges 0.19-3%. Despite this relatively high prevalence of psoriasis, there are no epidemiologic data regarding the burden of associated eye affection. Determining the magnitude of the problem could help in offering better integrated health services. AIM: The purpose of this study was to evaluate eye involvement in a sample of Egyptian psoriatic patients...
October 23, 2017: Indian Journal of Dermatology, Venereology and Leprology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29054722/the-eyelids-and-tear-film-in-contact-lens-discomfort
#14
Jaya Sowjanya Siddireddy, Ajay Kumar Vijay, Jacqueline Tan, Mark Willcox
PURPOSE: To investigate characteristics of the eyelid margins, meibomian glands and the tear film of contact lens wearers, and to determine whether these characteristics were related to symptoms of contact lens discomfort. METHODS: A cross sectional study was performed on thirty existing daily wear soft contact lens wearers (6 male; 24 female) with median age of 23 years (range 18-41). Eyelid signs and tear film characteristics were evaluated during a single visit and subjects completed the contact lens and dry eye questionnaire (CLDEQ-8) to evaluate ocular discomfort...
October 17, 2017: Contact Lens & Anterior Eye: the Journal of the British Contact Lens Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29048167/toroidal-droplets-growth-rates-dispersion-relations-and-behavior-in-the-thick-torus-limit
#15
Alexandros A Fragkopoulos, Ekapop Pairam, Eric Berger, Alberto Fernandez-Nieves
Toroidal droplets in a viscous liquid are unstable and transform into single or multiple spherical droplets. For thin tori, this can happen via the Rayleigh-Plateau instability causing the breakup of cylindrical jets. In contrast, for thick tori, this can happpen via the shrinking of the "hole". In this work, we use the thin-torus limit to directly measure the growth rate associated with capillary disturbances. In the case of toroidal droplets inside a much more viscous liquid, we even obtain the full dispersion relation, which is in agreement with theoretical results for cylindrical jets...
October 19, 2017: Langmuir: the ACS Journal of Surfaces and Colloids
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29045169/use-of-topical-cannabinomimetic-palmitoylethanolamide-in-ocular-surface-disease-associated-with-antiglaucoma-medications
#16
Antonio Di Zazzo, Gloria Roberti, Alireza Mashaghi, Tulio Batista Abud, Daniela Pavese, Stefano Bonini
PURPOSE: Chronic use of topical hypotensive therapies in glaucoma patients leads to chronic inflammation of the ocular surface, which decreases the success rate of long-term glaucoma management. The aim of this study is to evaluate the effect of topical palmitoylethanolamide (PEA) (Defluxa(©)), a well-known anti-inflammatory and analgesic agent, in suppressing the ocular surface inflammation associated with the use of hypotensive eye drops. METHODS: In a pilot clinical trial, we enrolled 15 glaucomatous patients who received topical PEA (Defluxa) in addition to the current antiglaucoma drugs, while 15 glaucomatous patients did not receive any additional treatment...
November 2017: Journal of Ocular Pharmacology and Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29035923/randomized-trial-of-desktop-humidifier-for-dry-eye-relief-in-computer-users
#17
Michael T M Wang, Evon Chan, Linda Ea, Clifford Kam, Yvonne Lu, Stuti L Misra, Jennifer P Craig
SIGNIFICANCE: Dry eye is a frequently reported problem among computer users. Low relative humidity environments are recognized to exacerbate signs and symptoms of dry eye, yet are common in offices of computer operators. Desktop USB-powered humidifiers are available commercially, but their efficacy for dry eye relief has not been established. PURPOSE: This study aims to evaluate the potential for a desktop USB-powered humidifier to improve tear-film parameters, ocular surface characteristics, and subjective comfort of computer users...
November 2017: Optometry and Vision Science: Official Publication of the American Academy of Optometry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29024366/tethyan-changes-shaped-aquatic-diversification
#18
Zhonge Hou, Shuqiang Li
The Tethys Ocean existed between the continents of Gondwana and Laurasia from the Triassic to the Pliocene. Analyses of multiple biogeographic and phylogenetic histories reveal that the subsequent breakup of the Tethys greatly influenced the distributions of many species. The ancestral Tethyan realm broke into five biogeographic provinces, including the present-day East Pacific, West Atlantic, East Atlantic, Mediterranean Sea, and Indo-West Pacific. Palaeogeographic maps illustrate the Mesozoic Atlantic opening, the Cenozoic closure of the Tethys, the Messinian Salinity Crisis, the mid-Miocene closure of the Central American Seaway, and Quaternary geological changes...
October 12, 2017: Biological Reviews of the Cambridge Philosophical Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28989559/breakup-related-appraisals-and-the-psychological-well-being-of-young-adult-gay-and-bisexual-men
#19
Peter Ceglarek, Lynae Darbes, Rob Stephenson, Jose Bauermeister
Participation in romantic relationships during adolescence and young adulthood provides opportunities to explore one's sexuality, yet may also cause distress once these relationships dissolve. Although researchers have asserted that participation in same-sex relationships may be beneficial for young gay and bisexual men's (YGBM) psychosocial well-being, less is known about YGBM appraisals of breakups after participating in same-sex relationships. We examined the association between self-reported psychological well-being (e...
2017: Journal of Gay & Lesbian Mental Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28983480/cfd-simulations-of-an-air-water-bubble-column-effect-of-luo-coalescence-parameter-and-breakup-kernels
#20
Alizeb Hussain Syed, Micael Boulet, Tommaso Melchiori, Jean-Michel Lavoie
In this work, CFD simulations of an air-water bubbling column were performed and validated with experimental data. The superficial gas velocities used for the experiments were 0.019 and 0.038 m/s and were considered as an homogeneous regime. The former involves simpler physics when compared to a heterogeneous regime where the superficial velocities are higher. In order to simulate the system, a population balance model (PBM) was solved numerically using a discrete method and a closure kernels involving the Luo coalescence model as well as two different breakup models: Luo's and Lehr's...
2017: Frontiers in Chemistry
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