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Utuq Ablikim, Cédric Bomme, Evgeny Savelyev, Hui Xiong, Rajesh Kushawaha, Rebecca Boll, Kasra Amini, Timur Osipov, David Kilcoyne, Artem Rudenko, Nora Berrah, Daniel Rolles
The fragmentation dynamics of 2,6- and 3,5-difluoroiodobenzene after iodine 4d inner-shell photoionization with soft X-rays are studied using coincident electron and ion momentum imaging. By analyzing the momentum correlation between iodine and fluorine cations in three-fold ion coincidence events, we can distinguish the two isomers experimentally. Classical Coulomb explosion simulations are in overall agreement with the experimentally determined fragment ion kinetic energies and momentum correlations and point toward different fragmentation mechanisms and time scales...
May 19, 2017: Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics: PCCP
Haishui Huang, Yin Yu, Yong Hu, Xiaoming He, O Berk Usta, Martin L Yarmush
Hydrogel microcapsules provide miniaturized and biocompatible niches for three-dimensional (3D) in vitro cell culture. They can be easily generated by droplet-based microfluidics with tunable size, morphology, and biochemical properties. Therefore, microfluidic generation and manipulation of cell-laden microcapsules can be used for 3D cell culture to mimic the in vivo environment towards applications in tissue engineering and high throughput drug screening. In this review of recent advances mainly since 2010, we will first introduce general characteristics of droplet-based microfluidic devices for cell encapsulation with an emphasis on the fluid dynamics of droplet breakup and internal mixing as they directly influence microcapsule's size and structure...
May 16, 2017: Lab on a Chip
Andrew Zaffos, Seth Finnegan, Shanan E Peters
Valentine and Moores [Valentine JW, Moores EM (1970) Nature 228:657-659] hypothesized that plate tectonics regulates global biodiversity by changing the geographic arrangement of continental crust, but the data required to fully test the hypothesis were not available. Here, we use a global database of marine animal fossil occurrences and a paleogeographic reconstruction model to test the hypothesis that temporal patterns of continental fragmentation have impacted global Phanerozoic biodiversity. We find a positive correlation between global marine invertebrate genus richness and an independently derived quantitative index describing the fragmentation of continental crust during supercontinental coalescence-breakup cycles...
May 15, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Metinee Phantu, Malee Sutthiopad, Jiraporn Luengviriya, Stefan C Müller, Chaiya Luengviriya
We present an investigation on the breakup of free and pinned spiral waves under an applied electrical current in the Belousov-Zhabotinsky reaction. Spiral fronts propagating towards the negative electrode are decelerated. A breakup of the spiral waves occurs when some segments of the fronts are stopped by a sufficiently strong electrical current. In the absence of obstacles (i.e., free spiral waves), the critical value of the electrical current for the wave breakup increases with the excitability of the medium...
April 2017: Physical Review. E
Andrew J Gilbert, Felix K Oppong, Robert S Farr
We study the rheology of suspensions of ice crystals at moderate to high volume fractions in a sucrose solution in which they are partially soluble, a model system for a wide class of crystal mushes or slurries. Under step changes in shear rate, the viscosity changes to a relaxed value over several minutes, in a manner well fitted by a single exponential. The behavior of the relaxed viscosity is power-law shear thinning with shear rate, with an exponent of -1.76±0.25, so that shear stress falls with increasing shear rate...
April 2017: Physical Review. E
Anieli G Pereira, Juliana Sterli, Filipe R R Moreira, Carlos G Schrago
Despite their complex evolutionary history and the rich fossil record, the higher level phylogeny and historical biogeography of living turtles have not been investigated in a comprehensive and statistical framework. To tackle these issues, we assembled a large molecular dataset, maximizing both taxonomic and gene sampling. As different models provide alternative biogeographical scenarios, we have explicitly tested such hypotheses in order to reconstruct a robust biogeographical history of Testudines. We scanned publicly available databases for nucleotide sequences and composed a dataset comprising 13 loci for 294 living species of Testudines, which accounts for all living genera and 85% of their extant species diversity...
May 10, 2017: Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution
Francisco Pérez-Bartolomé, Jose M Martínez-de-la-Casa, Pedro Arriola-Villalobos, Cristina Fernández-Pérez, Vicente Polo, Julián García-Feijoó
PURPOSE: To examine the relationship between ocular surface disease (OSD) and topical antiglaucoma therapy. METHODS: A total of 211 eyes of 211 patients with open-angle glaucoma or ocular hypertension on topical medication were recruited over 10 months. Controls were 51 eyes of 51 healthy age- and sex-matched volunteers. In each patient, we recorded the intraocular pressure-lowering eyedrops used, the number of medications used, and daily and cumulative preservative concentrations (PC)...
May 10, 2017: European Journal of Ophthalmology
Steven J Dell, Ronald N Gaster, Sheila C Barbarino, Derek N Cunningham
PURPOSE: The aim of this study was to estimate the efficacy of intense pulsed light (IPL), followed by meibomian gland expression (MGX), for reducing the number and severity of signs and symptoms of dry eye disease (DED) secondary to meibomian gland dysfunction (MGD). PATIENTS AND METHODS: In a prospective study conducted in two sites, 40 subjects (80 eyes) with moderate to severe MGD were enrolled. Major inclusion criteria consisted of at least two of the following measures being compatible with DED in both eyes: tear breakup time (TBUT), meibomian gland score (MGS), corneal fluorescein staining (CFS), Standard Patient Evaluation of Eye Dryness (SPEED) questionnaire, and tear film osmolarity (TFO)...
2017: Clinical Ophthalmology
Yu Troitskaya, A Kandaurov, O Ermakova, D Kozlov, D Sergeev, S Zilitinkevich
Showing the record strengths and growth-rates, recent hurricanes have highlighted needs for improving forecasts of tropical cyclone intensities most sensitive to models of the air-sea interaction. Especially challenging is the nature of sea-spray supposed to strongly affecting the momentum- and energy- air-sea fluxes at strong winds. Even the spray-generation mechanisms in extreme winds remained undetermined. Basing on high-speed video here we identify it as the bag-breakup mode of fragmentation of liquid in gaseous flows known in a different context...
May 9, 2017: Scientific Reports
Yi-Fang Meng, Jiong Lu, Qian Xing, Jian-Jun Tao, Pan Xiao
BACKGROUND To determine the association between serum 25(OH)D and dry eye syndrome (DES) incidence. This study was also designed to determine whether serum 25(OH)D levels were associated with ocular parameter of DES patients. MATERIAL AND METHODS This is a case-control study with 70 DES cases and 70 healthy controls. Clinical data included body mass index (BMI, kg/m²), smoking history, diabetes, and blood pressure. Serum 25(OH)D was chosen as the main parameter and reflected the level of vitamin D. The DES parameters included ocular surface disease index (OSDI) scales, tear film breakup time (TBUT) and Schirmer test I...
May 10, 2017: Medical Science Monitor: International Medical Journal of Experimental and Clinical Research
Alex L K Ng, Bonnie N K Choy, Tommy C Y Chan, Ian Y H Wong, Jimmy S M Lai, Mo Yin Mok
PURPOSE: To compare tear osmolarity (TO) and other dry eye parameters in rheumatoid arthritis (RA) patients with or without secondary Sjogren syndrome (sSS). METHODS: Consecutive patients with RA were divided into a sSS group and no-sSS group using conventional diagnostic criteria by rheumatologists using symptomatology, Schirmer test score, and anti-Ro or anti-La autoantibody status. The TO, Ocular Surface Disease Index, dry eye disease (DED) parameters [such as tear breakup time (TBUT) and corneal staining score] and the systemic inflammatory markers [erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR) and C-reactive protein (CRP)] were compared...
May 8, 2017: Cornea
Stephen Metraux, Meagan Cusack, Thomas H Byrne, Nora Hunt-Johnson, Gala True
Despite the scale of veteran homelessness and government-community initiatives to end homelessness among veterans, few studies have featured individual veteran accounts of experiencing homelessness. Here we track veterans' trajectories from military service to homelessness through qualitative, semistructured interviews with 17 post-9/11-era veterans. Our objective was to examine how veterans become homeless-including the role of military and postmilitary experiences-and how they negotiate and attempt to resolve episodes of homelessness...
May 2017: Psychological Services
Diandian Diana Chen, Richard A Gray, Ilija Uzelac, Conner Herndon, Flavio H Fenton
It is widely believed that one major life-threatening transition to chaotic fibrillation occurs via spiral-wave breakup that is preceded by spatiotemporal dispersion of refractoriness due to alternations in the duration of the cardiac action potential (AP). However, recent clinical and experimental evidence suggests that other characteristics of the AP may contribute to, and perhaps drive, this dangerous dynamical instability. To identify the relative roles of AP characteristics, we performed experiments in rabbit hearts under conditions to minimize AP duration dynamics which unmasked pronounced AP amplitude alternans just before the onset of fibrillation...
April 21, 2017: Physical Review Letters
Alice T Epitropoulos, Krysta Goslin, Raman Bedi, Caroline A Blackie
PURPOSE: To measure the effects from a single vectored thermal pulsation treatment of the meibomian glands on dry eye signs and symptoms in patients who tested positively versus negatively for novel Sjögren's syndrome (SS) biomarkers. METHODS: The retrospective study included the deidentified data of 102 eyes of 59 patients with dry eye and meibomian gland dysfunction (MGD), who were also tested for novel biomarkers for SS and underwent a single 12-minute LipiFlow thermal pulsation procedure...
2017: Clinical Ophthalmology
Changxue Xu, Zhengyi Zhang, Jianzhong Fu, Yong Huang
The ligament pinch-off process of viscoelastic fluids during jetting is a key step in various biotechnology and dropwise three-dimensional printing applications. Various pinch-off locations have been investigated as a function of material properties and operating conditions during the drop-on-demand (DOD) inkjet printing of viscoelastic alginate solutions. Four breakup types are identified on the basis of the location of the first pinch-off position: front pinching is mainly governed by a balance of inertial and capillary effects, exit pinching is affected by the external actuation-induced hydrodynamic instability and mainly governed by a balance of elastic and capillary effects, middle pinching usually occurs any place along a uniform thin ligament under dominant viscous and elastic effects, and hybrid pinching happens when front pinching and exit pinching occur simultaneously as a special case...
May 8, 2017: Langmuir: the ACS Journal of Surfaces and Colloids
Nicholas J Ose, Paul R Ohmann
Randomness or noise in the motion of herding animals is more important than commonly assumed. We show through simulations that noise promotes the compactness of a herd by facilitating the breakup of small clusters in favor of a more compact whole, reducing the mean median distances to center (MMDC) for the herd. Adding noise to movement models can also decrease risk from predators emerging locally by reducing Domains of Danger (DODs); we specifically show that adding noise to the Voronoi (V) movement model gives favorable DOD results comparable to that of the Local Crowded Horizon (LCH) model...
April 27, 2017: Journal of Theoretical Biology
V Pesudo, M J G Borge, A M Moro, J A Lay, E Nácher, J Gómez-Camacho, O Tengblad, L Acosta, M Alcorta, M A G Alvarez, C Andreoiu, P C Bender, R Braid, M Cubero, A Di Pietro, J P Fernández-García, P Figuera, M Fisichella, B R Fulton, A B Garnsworthy, G Hackman, U Hager, O S Kirsebom, K Kuhn, M Lattuada, G Marquínez-Durán, I Martel, D Miller, M Moukaddam, P D O'Malley, A Perea, M M Rajabali, A M Sánchez-Benítez, F Sarazin, V Scuderi, C E Svensson, C Unsworth, Z M Wang
Angular distributions of the elastic, inelastic, and breakup cross sections of the halo nucleus ^{11}Be on ^{197}Au were measured at energies below (E_{lab}=31.9  MeV) and around (39.6 MeV) the Coulomb barrier. These three channels were unambiguously separated for the first time for reactions of ^{11}Be on a high-Z target at low energies. The experiment was performed at TRIUMF (Vancouver, Canada). The differential cross sections were compared with three different calculations: semiclassical, inert-core continuum-coupled-channels and continuum-coupled-channels ones with including core deformation...
April 14, 2017: Physical Review Letters
Xiaoyan Ding, M Haertelt, S Schlauderer, M S Schuurman, A Yu Naumov, D M Villeneuve, A R W McKellar, P B Corkum, A Staudte
We triply ionize the van der Waals bound carbon monoxide dimer with intense ultrashort pulses and study the breakup channel (CO)_{2}^{3+}→C^{+}+O^{+}+CO^{+}. The fragments are recorded in a cold target recoil ion momentum spectrometer. We observe a fast CO^{2+} dissociation channel in the dimer, which does not exist for the monomer. We found that a nearby charge breaks the symmetry of a X^{3}Π state of CO^{2+} and induces an avoided crossing that allows a fast dissociation. Calculation on the full dimer complex shows the coupling of different charge states, as predicted from excimer theory, gives rise to electronic state components not present in the monomer, thereby enabling fast dissociation with higher kinetic energy release...
April 14, 2017: Physical Review Letters
Agnete S Dissing, Nadya Dich, Anne-Marie Nybo Andersen, Rikke Lund, Naja H Rod
Parental break-up is wide spread, and the effects of parental break-up on children's well-being are known. The evidence regarding child age at break-up and subsequent family arrangements is inconclusive. Aim: to estimate the effects of parental break-up on stress in pre-adolescent children with a specific focus on age at break-up and post-breakup family arrangements. We used data from the Danish National Birth Cohort. Participants included 44 509 children followed from birth to age 11. Stress was self-reported by children at age 11, when the children also reported on parental break-up and post break-up family arrangements...
April 25, 2017: European Journal of Public Health
Ceren Yüce, Norbert Willenbacher
A comprehensive rheological characterization of highly concentrated suspensions or pastes is mandatory for a targeted product development meeting the manifold requirements during processing and application of such complex fluids. In this investigation, measuring protocols for a conclusive assessment of different process relevant rheological parameters have been evaluated. This includes the determination of yield stress, viscosity, wall slip velocity, structural recovery after large deformation and elongation at break as well as tensile force during filament stretching...
April 10, 2017: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
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