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John J Karnes, Ilan Benjamin
Molecular dynamics simulations are used to study the dissolution of water into an adjacent, immiscible organic liquid phase. Equilibrium thermodynamic and structural properties are calculated during the transfer of water molecule(s) across the interface using umbrella sampling. The net free energy of transfer agrees reasonably well with experimental solubility values. We find that water molecules "prefer" to transfer into the adjacent phase one-at-a-time, without co-transfer of the hydration shell, as in the case of evaporation...
January 21, 2018: Journal of Chemical Physics
P L Krapivsky, W Otieno, N V Brilliantov
We consider a system of clusters made of elementary building blocks, monomers, and evolving via collisions between diffusing monomers and immobile composite clusters. In our model, the cluster-monomer collision can lead to the attachment of the monomer to the cluster (addition process) or to the total breakup of the cluster (shattering process). A phase transition, separating qualitatively different behaviors, occurs when the probability of shattering events exceeds a certain threshold. The novel feature of the phase transition is the dramatic dependence on the initial conditions...
October 2017: Physical Review. E
Shimpei Saito, Yutaka Abe, Kazuya Koyama
A three-dimensional color-fluid lattice Boltzmann model for immiscible two-phase flows is developed in the framework of a three-dimensional 27-velocity (D3Q27) lattice. The collision operator comprises the D3Q27 versions of three suboperators: a multiple-relaxation-time (MRT) collision operator, a generalized Liu-Valocchi-Kang perturbation operator, and a Latva-Kokko-Rothman recoloring operator. A D3Q27 version of an enhanced equilibrium distribution function is also incorporated into this model to improve the Galilean invariance...
July 2017: Physical Review. E
Manash Pratim Borthakur, Gautam Biswas, Dipankar Bandyopadhyay
This paper presents a numerical investigation of the dynamics of pinch-off in liquid drops and jets during injection of a liquid through an orifice into another fluid. The current study is carried out by solving axisymmetric Navier-Stokes equations and the interface is captured using a coupled level-set and volume-of-fluid approach. The delicate interplay of inertia and viscous effects plays a crucial role in deciding the dynamics of the formation as well as breakup of liquid drops and jets. In the dripping regime, the growth and breakup rate of a drop are studied and quantified by corroborating with theoretical predictions...
July 2017: Physical Review. E
Wing Li, Meng C Lin
Purpose: Pain sensitivity has been identified as a factor that affects how individuals answer dry eye questionnaires, but it is unknown how it affects ocular discomfort. This study used the time that individuals could refrain from blinking as an indicator of ocular discomfort and set out to determine whether it was related to pain sensitivity, while adjusting for ocular surface conditions. Methods: Subjects first completed the Pain Sensitivity Questionnaire to quantify pain sensitivity levels...
January 1, 2018: Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science
Jasmine Chuang, Kendrick Co Shih, Tommy C Chan, Kelvin H Wan, Vishal Jhanji, Louis Tong
An impaired ocular surface adversely affects preoperative planning for cataract surgery, including intraocular lens (IOL) calculations, toric IOL axis and magnitude estimates, keratometry, and topography measurements. It also increases surgical difficulty. We performed a review to evaluate the connection between cataract surgery and dry eye and to determine the best management for these patients. Of the 16 papers included in this review, 6 were randomized controlled trials. Cataract surgery was shown to worsen ocular parameters and aggravate dry-eye disease...
December 2017: Journal of Cataract and Refractive Surgery
Xiaonan Xu, Haojun Yuan, Ruyuan Song, Miao Yu, Ho Yin Chung, Youmin Hou, Yuhe Shang, Hongbo Zhou, Shuhuai Yao
Droplet microfluidics, which involves micrometer-sized emulsion droplets on a microfabricated platform, has been demonstrated as a unique system for many biological and chemical applications. Robust and scalable generation of monodisperse droplets at high throughput is of fundamental importance for droplet microfluidics. Classic designs for droplet generation employ shear fluid dynamics to induce the breakup of droplets in a two-phase flow and the droplet size is sensitive to flow rate fluctuations, often resulting in polydispersity...
January 2018: Biomicrofluidics
Aleksey Vishnyakov, Runfang Mao, Ming-Tsung Lee, Alexander V Neimark
We present a coarse-grained model of the acid form of Nafion membrane that explicitly includes proton transport. This model is based on a soft-core bead representation of the polymer implemented into the dissipative particle dynamics (DPD) simulation framework. The proton is introduced as a separate charged bead that forms dissociable Morse bonds with water beads. Morse bond formation and breakup artificially mimics the Grotthuss hopping mechanism of proton transport. The proposed DPD model is parameterized to account for the specifics of the conformations and flexibility of the Nafion backbone and sidechains; it treats electrostatic interactions in the smeared charge approximation...
January 14, 2018: Journal of Chemical Physics
Jerika C Norona, Miri Scharf, Deborah P Welsh, Shmuel Shulman
With a sample of emerging adults (N = 110; 72% female) this brief report utilized self-report measures to examine the role of relationship satisfaction and emotion regulation strategies assessed at age 20 in predicting breakup distress and posttraumatic growth three years later. Results showed that higher relationship satisfaction is associated with less future breakup distress. Emotion regulation explained the ways individuals cope with distress; cognitive appraisal (in contrast to emotional suppression) predicted higher growth after experiencing a breakup...
January 9, 2018: Journal of Adolescence
Lionel Sebbag, Patricia A Pesavento, Sebastian E Carrasco, Christopher M Reilly, David J Maggs
Case summary: A 14-year-old female spayed Abyssinian cat, which about 1 year previously underwent thoracic limb amputation, radiotherapy and chemotherapy for an incompletely excised vaccine-related fibrosarcoma, was presented for evaluation of corneal opacity in the left eye (OS). The ocular surface of both eyes (OU) had a lackluster appearance and there was a stromal corneal ulcer OS. Results of corneal aesthesiometry, Schirmer tear test-1 (STT-1) and tear film breakup time revealed corneal hypoesthesia, and quantitative and qualitative tear film deficiency OU...
January 2018: JFMS Open Reports
Giuseppe Giannaccare, Luca Vigo, Marco Pellegrini, Stefano Sebastiani, Francesco Carones
PURPOSE: To analyze diagnostic performance of an ocular surface workup based on automated noninvasive measurements in the diagnosis of meibomian gland dysfunction (MGD). METHODS: Two hundred ninety-eight eyes of 149 patients with MGD and 54 eyes of 27 control patients were analyzed. Ocular Surface Disease Index (OSDI), noninvasive breakup time (BUT), lipid layer thickness, meibomian gland loss, and tear osmolarity were calculated. The correlations among variables in the MGD group were analyzed...
January 3, 2018: Cornea
Sevil Karaman Erdur, Rukiye Aydin, Ali Balevi, Mustafa Ozsutcu, Mehmet Selim Kocabora
PURPOSE: To evaluate tear osmolarity and tear film parameters in patients with vitiligo. METHODS: A total of 25 eyes of 25 patients with vitiligo with periocular involvement (group 1), 30 eyes of 30 patients with vitiligo without periocular involvement (group 2), and 20 eyes of 20 controls (group 3) were evaluated using the Ocular Surface Disease Index (OSDI) questionnaire, Schirmer I test, tear film breakup time, scoring of ocular surface fluorescein staining using a modified Oxford scale, and tear osmolarity...
January 3, 2018: Cornea
D E M Hoff, R J Charity, K W Brown, C D Pruitt, L G Sobotka, T B Webb, G Potel, B Roeder, A Saastamoinen
We study the sequential breakup of E/A=24.0  MeV ^{7}Li projectiles excited through inelastic interactions with C, Be, and Al target nuclei. For peripheral events that do not excite the target, we find very large spin alignment of the excited ^{7}Li projectiles longitudinal to the beam axis. This spin alignment is independent of the target used, and we propose a simple alignment mechanism that arises from an angular-momentum-excitation-energy mismatch. This mechanism is independent of the potential used for scattering and should be present in many scattering experiments...
December 8, 2017: Physical Review Letters
Guoping Luo, Yan Xin, Dajun Qin, Aihua Yan, Zhiyan Zhou, Zhaoxia Liu
PURPOSE: The purpose of this study is to determine the tear and serum protein levels of interleukin-33 (IL-33) and its correlation with Th cytokines and disease severity in dry eye (DE) syndrome. METHODS: Tear and serum samples were collected from 30 healthy volunteers, 30 DE patients with non-Sjogren's syndrome DE (NSSDE) and 30 DE patients with primary SSDE. The eight most frequent symptoms of DE were scored. All patients underwent corneal and conjunctival staining, tear film breakup time (TBUT), and Schirmer I test...
January 2018: Indian Journal of Ophthalmology
Mio Yamane, Yoko Ogawa, Masaki Fukui, Mizuka Kamoi, Miki Uchino, Yumiko Saijo-Ban, Naoyuki Kozuki, Shin Mukai, Takehiko Mori, Shinichiro Okamoto, Kazuo Tsubota
OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to assess the safety and efficacy of long-term use of 3% diquafosol ophthalmic solution (DQS), an eye drop for mucin production and water secretion, for treating dry eye disease (DED) caused by chronic graft-versus-host disease (cGVHD). METHODS: We retrospectively evaluated the safety and efficacy of DQS in 10 patients with mild to moderate cGVHD-induced DED. The efficacy was assessed by (1) degree of symptoms, (2) Schirmer I test value, (3) tear film breakup time (TFBUT), and (4) fluorescein and rose bengal scores...
December 26, 2017: Eye & Contact Lens
Laura Mecozzi, Oriella Gennari, Sara Coppola, Federico Olivieri, Romina Rega, Biagio Mandracchia, Veronica Vespini, Alessia Bramanti, Pietro Ferraro, Simonetta Grilli
Electro-hydrodynamic jetting is emerging as a successful technique for printing inks with resolutions well beyond those offered by conventional inkjet printers. However, the variety of printable inks is still limited to those with relatively low viscosities (typically < 20 mPa s) due to nozzle clogging problems. Here we show the possibility of printing ordered microdots of high viscous inks such as the poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) by exploiting the spontaneous breakup of a thin fibre generated through nozzle-free pyro-electrospinning (PES)...
December 26, 2017: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
Arya Thampi, Hannah Stern, Alexandre Cheminal, Murad J Y Tayebjee, Anthony J Petty Ii, John E Anthony, Akshay Rao
Singlet fission is the spin allowed conversion of a photo-generated singlet exciton into two triplet excitons in organic semiconductors, which could enable single-junction photovoltaic cells to break the Shockley-Queisser limit. The conversion of singlets to free triplets is mediated by an intermediate correlated triplet pair (TT) state, but an understanding of how the formation and dissociation of these states depend on energetics and morphology is lacking. In this study, we probe the dynamics of TT states in a model endothermic fission system, TIPS-Tc nanoparticles, which show a mixture of crystalline and disordered regions...
December 24, 2017: Journal of the American Chemical Society
Saeideh Heshmati, David A Sbarra, Ashley E Mason
The importance of studying specific and expressed emotions after a stressful life event is well known, yet few studies have moved beyond assessing self-reported emotional responses to a romantic breakup. This study examined associations between computer-recognized facial expressions and self-reported breakup-related distress among recently separated college-aged young adults (N = 135; 37 men) on four visits across 9 weeks. Participants' facial expressions were coded using the Computer Expression Recognition Toolbox while participants spoke about their breakups...
June 2017: Personal Relationships
Jacopo Biasetti, Kaushik Sampath, Angel Cortez, Alaleh Azhir, Assaf A Gilad, Thomas S Kickler, Tobias Obser, Zaverio M Ruggeri, Joseph Katz
Tracking cells and proteins' phenotypic changes in deep suspensions is critical for the direct imaging of blood-related phenomena in in vitro replica of cardiovascular systems and blood-handling devices. This paper introduces fluorescence imaging techniques for space and time resolved detection of platelet activation, von Willebrand factor (VWF) conformational changes, and VWF-platelet interaction in deep suspensions. Labeled VWF, platelets, and VWF-platelet strands are suspended in deep cuvettes, illuminated, and imaged with a high-sensitivity EM-CCD camera, allowing detection using an exposure time of 1 ms...
2017: International Journal of Biomedical Imaging
Bart Oostenrijk, Noelle Walsh, Joakim Laksman, Erik P Månsson, Christian Grunewald, Stacey L Sorensen, Mathieu Gisselbrecht
The charge and proton dynamics in hydrogen-bonded networks are investigated using ammonia as a model system. The fragmentation dynamics of medium-sized clusters (1-2 nm) upon single photon multi-ionization is studied, by analyzing the momenta of small ionic fragments. The observed fragmentation pattern of the doubly- and triply-charged clusters reveals a spatial anisotropy of emission between fragments (back-to-back). Protonated fragments exhibit a distinct kinematic correlation, indicating a delay between ionization and fragmentation (fission)...
December 12, 2017: Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics: PCCP
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