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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28208460/self-confined-particle-pairs-in-complex-plasmas
#1
I I Lisina, E A Lisin, O S Vaulina, O F Petrov
The liquid-crystal type of phase transition in complex plasmas has been observed repeatedly. However, more studies need to be done on the liquid-vapor transition in complex plasmas. In this paper, the phenomenon of coupling (condensation) of particles into self-confined particle pairs in an anisotropic plasma medium with ion flow is considered analytically and numerically using the Langevin molecular dynamics method. We obtain the stability conditions of the pair (bound) state depending on the interaction parameters and particle kinetic energy...
January 2017: Physical Review. E
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28194044/influence-of-mixing-conditions-on-the-rheological-properties-and-structure-of-capillary-suspensions
#2
Frank Bossler, Lydia Weyrauch, Robert Schmidt, Erin Koos
The rheological properties of a suspension can be dramatically altered by adding a small amount of a secondary fluid that is immiscible with the bulk liquid. These capillary suspensions exist either in the pendular state where the secondary fluid preferentially wets the particles or the capillary state where the bulk fluid is preferentially wetting. The yield stress, as well as storage and loss moduli, depends on the size and distribution of secondary phase droplets created during sample preparation. Enhanced droplet breakup leads to stronger sample structures...
April 5, 2017: Colloids and Surfaces. A, Physicochemical and Engineering Aspects
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28168119/demographic-ecological-and-physiological-responses-of-ringed-seals-to-an-abrupt-decline-in-sea-ice-availability
#3
Steven H Ferguson, Brent G Young, David J Yurkowski, Randi Anderson, Cornelia Willing, Ole Nielsen
To assess whether demographic declines of Arctic species at the southern limit of their range will be gradual or punctuated, we compared large-scale environmental patterns including sea ice dynamics to ringed seal (Pusa hispida) reproduction, body condition, recruitment, and stress in Hudson Bay from 2003 to 2013. Aerial surveys suggested a gradual decline in seal density from 1995 to 2013, with the lowest density occurring in 2013. Body condition decreased and stress (cortisol) increased over time in relation to longer open water periods...
2017: PeerJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28158042/high-speed-two-dimensional-synchrotron-white-beam-x-ray-radiography-of-spray-breakup-and-atomization
#4
Benjamin R Halls, Christopher D Radke, Benjamin J Reuter, Alan L Kastengren, James R Gord, Terrence R Meyer
High-speed, two-dimensional synchrotron x-ray radiography and phase-contrast imaging are demonstrated in propulsion sprays. Measurements are performed at the 7-BM beamline at the Advanced Photon Source user facility at Argonne National Laboratory using a recently developed broadband x-ray white beam. This novel enhancement allows for high speed, high fidelity x-ray imaging for the community at large. Quantitative path-integrated liquid distributions and spatio-temporal dynamics of the sprays were imaged with a LuAG:Ce scintillator optically coupled to a high-speed CMOS camera...
January 23, 2017: Optics Express
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28146241/meibomian-gland-physiology-in-pre-and-postmenopausal-women
#5
Tomo Suzuki, Yasuaki Minami, Aoi Komuro, Norihiko Yokoi, Shigeru Kinoshita
Purpose: The purpose of this study was to assess the change of meibomian gland physiology during the menstrual cycle and compare its physiology among pre- and postmenopausal women and men. Methods: This study involved 18 healthy subjects: 6 premenopausal women with a regular 28- to 30-day menstrual cycle, 6 postmenopausal women, and 6 men who were age-matched to the premenopausal women. All subjects measured basal body temperature every day at home and were seen once weekly for 5 weeks, and the menstrual state of the premenopausal subjects was masked until after the investigation...
February 1, 2017: Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28134283/a-robust-highly-stretchable-supramolecular-polymer-conductive-hydrogel-with-self-healability-and-thermo-processability
#6
Qian Wu, Junjie Wei, Bing Xu, Xinhua Liu, Hongbo Wang, Wei Wang, Qigang Wang, Wenguang Liu
Dual amide hydrogen bond crosslinked and strengthened high strength supramolecular polymer conductive hydrogels were fabricated by simply in situ doping poly (N-acryloyl glycinamide-co-2-acrylamide-2-methylpropanesulfonic) (PNAGA-PAMPS) hydrogels with PEDOT/PSS. The nonswellable conductive hydrogels in PBS demonstrated high mechanical performances-0.22-0.58 MPa tensile strength, 1.02-7.62 MPa compressive strength, and 817-1709% breaking strain. The doping of PEDOT/PSS could significantly improve the specific conductivities of the hydrogels...
January 30, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28128625/influence-of-the-surface-viscosity-on-the-breakup-of-a-surfactant-laden-drop
#7
A Ponce-Torres, J M Montanero, M A Herrada, E J Vega, J M Vega
We examine both theoretically and experimentally the breakup of a pendant drop loaded with an insoluble surfactant. The experiments show that a significant amount of surfactant is trapped in the resulting satellite droplet. This result contradicts previous theoretical predictions, where the effects of surface tension variation were limited to solutocapillarity and Marangoni stresses. We solve numerically the hydrodynamic equations, including not only those effects but also those of surface shear and dilatational viscosities...
January 13, 2017: Physical Review Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28127604/crystallization-behavior-of-crystalline-crystalline-polymer-blends-under-confinement-in-electrospun-nanofibers-of-polystyrene-poly-ethylene-oxide-poly-%C3%AE%C2%B5-caprolactone-ternary-mixtures
#8
Pratick Samanta, Rajiv Srivastava, Bhanu Nandan, Hsin-Lung Chen
We have studied the crystallization behavior of crystalline/crystalline blends of poly(ethylene oxide) (PEO) and poly(ε-caprolactone) (PCL) in electrospun nanofibers fabricated from ternary blends of polystyrene (PS), PEO, and PCL, where PS was present as the majority component. It was demonstrated previously that PEO in PS/PEO binary blend nanofibers with a low PEO weight fraction (≦0.2) crystallized predominantly through homogenous nucleation due to the small PEO domain size which excluded the presence of heterogeneities (Soft Matter, 2016, 12, 5110)...
January 27, 2017: Soft Matter
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28120919/using-electric-current-to-surpass-the-microstructure-breakup-limit
#9
Rongshan Qin
The elongated droplets and grains can break up into smaller ones. This process is driven by the interfacial free energy minimization, which gives rise to a breakup limit. We demonstrated in this work that the breakup limit can be overpassed drastically by using electric current to interfere. Electric current free energy is dependent on the microstructure configuration. The breakup causes the electric current free energy to reduce in some cases. This compensates the increment of interfacial free energy during breaking up and enables the processing to achieve finer microstructure...
January 25, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28118031/qualitative-analysis-of-interactions-on-an-online-discussion-forum-for-young-people-with-experience-of-romantic-relationship-breakup
#10
Aidan McKiernan, Patrick Ryan, Eimear McMahon, Ellen Butler
The aim of the current study was to use qualitative analysis to examine the ways in which young people with experience of romantic relationship breakup interact with each other on an Internet-mediated discussion forum and to ascertain the function of the interactions. Participants were 31 registered forum users and 10 forum moderators. Findings were based on content analysis of 238 messages posted across 28 distinct discussion threads over 12 consecutive months. Nine different types of interaction were identified...
February 2017: Cyberpsychology, Behavior and Social Networking
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28117834/refined-ordovician-timescale-reveals-no-link-between-asteroid-breakup-and-biodiversification
#11
A Lindskog, M M Costa, C M Ø Rasmussen, J N Connelly, M E Eriksson
The catastrophic disruption of the L chondrite parent body in the asteroid belt c. 470 Ma initiated a prolonged meteorite bombardment of Earth that started in the Ordovician and continues today. Abundant L chondrite meteorites in Middle Ordovician strata have been interpreted to be the consequence of the asteroid breakup event. Here we report a zircon U-Pb date of 467.50±0.28 Ma from a distinct bed within the meteorite-bearing interval of southern Sweden that, combined with published cosmic-ray exposure ages of co-occurring meteoritic material, provides a precise age for the L chondrite breakup at 468...
January 24, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28096651/effects-of-3-diquafosol-sodium-ophthalmic-solution-on-higher-order-aberrations-in-patients-diagnosed-with-dry-eye-after-cataract-surgery
#12
Yasushi Inoue, Shintarou Ochi
PURPOSE: To evaluate the effects of diquafosol sodium ophthalmic solution 3% (DQS) and artificial tears (AT) on higher-order aberrations (HOAs) in patients with dry eye after cataract surgery. DESIGN: This was a post hoc analysis of a previously conducted randomized clinical study. METHODS: Fifty-nine eyes from 42 patients (17 males and 25 females, aged 72.6±8.0 years) with verified or suspected dry eye at 4 weeks after cataract surgery were evaluated...
2017: Clinical Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28089793/eggshell-palaeogenomics-palaeognath-evolutionary-history-revealed-through-ancient-nuclear-and-mitochondrial-dna-from-madagascan-elephant-bird-aepyornis-sp-eggshell
#13
Alicia Grealy, Matthew Phillips, Gifford Miller, M Thomas P Gilbert, Jean-Marie Rouillard, David Lambert, Michael Bunce, James Haile
Palaeognaths, the sister group of all other living birds (neognaths), were once considered to be vicariant relics from the breakup of the Gondwanan supercontinent. However, recent molecular studies instead argue for dispersal of volant ancestors across marine barriers. Resolving this debate hinges upon accurately reconstructing their evolutionary relationships and dating their divergences, which often relies on phylogenetic information from extinct relatives and nuclear genomes. Mitogenomes from the extinct elephant birds of Madagascar have helped inform the palaeognath phylogeny; however, nuclear information has remained unavailable...
January 9, 2017: Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28069777/an-african-origin-of-the-eurylaimides-passeriformes-and-the-successful-diversification-of-the-ground-foraging-pittas-pittidae
#14
Alexandre Pedro Selvatti, Ana Galvão, Anieli Guirro Pereira, Luiz Pedreira Gonzaga, Claudia Augusta de Moraes Russo
The Eurylaimides is one of the few passerine groups with a pantropical distribution. In this study, we generated a multi-calibrated tree with 83% of eurylaimid species diversity based on 30 molecular loci. Particular attention was given to the monotypic Sapayoidae to reconstruct the biogeography of this radiation. We conducted several topological tests including nonoverlapping subsampling of the concatenated alignment and coalescent species tree reconstruction. These tests firmly placed the South American Sapayoidae as the sister group to all other Eurylaimides families (split at ∼28 Ma), with increasing branch support as highly variable sites were removed...
November 14, 2016: Molecular Biology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28062204/impact-of-formulation-properties-and-process-parameters-on-the-dispensing-and-depositioning-of-drug-nanosuspensions-using-micro-valve-technology
#15
Bastian Bonhoeffer, Arno Kwade, Michael Juhnke
Flexible manufacturing processes with continuously adjustable dose strengths are considered particularly innovative and interesting for applications in personalized medicine, continuous manufacturing or early drug development. A piezo-actuated micro-valve has been investigated for the dispensing and depositioning of drug nanosuspensions onto substrates to facilitate the manufacturing of solid oral dosage forms. The investigated micro-valve has been characterized regarding dispensing behavior, mass flow, accuracy and robustness...
January 3, 2017: Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28060144/effect-of-overnight-wear-orthokeratology-lenses-on-corneal-shape-and-tears
#16
Jian Li, Ping Dong, Hu Liu
OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to explore the effects of the overnight wear orthokeratology (OK) lenses on corneal shape and tear film stability. METHODS: Forty patients with myopia aged between 11 and 18 years who wore OK lens continuously for more than 1 year were selected. Refractive error (D), corneal curvature, corneal surface regularity index (SRI), tear breakup time (TBUT), Schirmer I test score, and corneal staining were measured at the following time points: 1 week before wearing the OK lens (T0) and 1 week (T1), 1 month (T2), 3 months (T3), 6 months (T4), and 12 months (T5) after wear...
January 4, 2017: Eye & Contact Lens
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28060066/assessment-of-the-tear-meniscus-by-strip-meniscometry-and-keratograph-in-patients-with-dry-eye-disease-according-to-the-presence-of-meibomian-gland-dysfunction
#17
Kang Won Lee, Jung Yong Kim, Hee Seung Chin, Kyoung Yul Seo, Tae-Im Kim, Ji Won Jung
PURPOSE: We aimed to compare the tear meniscus measurements using strip meniscometry (SM) and Keratograph5M (K5M) between 3 subtypes of dry eye disease patient groups, classified according to the presence of meibomian gland dysfunction (MGD), and normal subjects. METHODS: We enrolled 145 eyes from 145 subjects and measured the tear meniscus using SM and K5M, tear film breakup time, ocular surface staining, and ocular surface disease index; the Schirmer test; and examined lid margins and meibomian glands...
February 2017: Cornea
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28060064/automated-measurement-of-tear-film-dynamics-and-lipid-layer-thickness-for-assessment-of-non-sj%C3%A3-gren-dry-eye-syndrome-with-meibomian-gland-dysfunction
#18
Yong Woo Ji, Jeihoon Lee, Hun Lee, Kyoung Yul Seo, Eung Kweon Kim, Tae-Im Kim
PURPOSE: To investigate automated values from an advanced corneal topographer with a built-in real keratometer, color camera, and ocular surface interferometer for the evaluation of non-Sjögren dry eye syndrome (NSDES) with meibomian gland dysfunction (MGD). METHODS: Sixty-four patients (64 eyes) diagnosed with NSDES with MGD were enrolled. All eyes were evaluated using the Ocular Surface Disease Index (OSDI), fluorescence staining score, tear film breakup time (TBUT), Schirmer test, and MGD grade...
February 2017: Cornea
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28060063/oral-omega-3-fatty-acid-supplementation-for-laser-in-situ-keratomileusis-associated-dry-eye
#19
Parul Goyal, Arun K Jain, Chintan Malhotra
PURPOSE: To determine the effect of oral omega-3 fatty acid (ω3FA) supplementation in laser in situ keratomileusis (LASIK)-associated dry eye. METHODS: In this prospective, open-label study, patients undergoing LASIK were randomized to receive either 1.2 g/d of a triglyceride formulation of oral ω3FA (treatment group) or 400 mg/d vitamin E (control group) for 1 week before and continued for 12 weeks after surgery. Ocular surface disease index, tear breakup time, ocular surface staining, and Schirmer scores were evaluated and compared preoperatively and at 3 months after LASIK...
February 2017: Cornea
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28060060/ocular-surface-disease-parameters-after-collagen-cross-linking-for-keratoconus
#20
José I Recalde, Arantxa Acera, Iñaki Rodríguez-Agirretxe, Miguel A Sánchez-Tena, Juan San-Cristóbal, Juan A Durán
PURPOSE: To analyze the variations in tear quantity and quality after corneal collagen cross-linking (CXL) in patients with keratoconus. METHODS: This is a prospective observational study of 24 eyes with keratoconus that underwent epithelium-off CXL. The variables studied were tear film osmolarity, subjective symptoms (Ocular Surface Disease Index), tear breakup time, Schirmer test (SCH) score, tear clearance, fluorescein staining, and lissamine green staining. Variables were determined preoperatively and 3, 6, and 12 months after CXL...
February 2017: Cornea
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