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Ryan J Gallacher, Derek Keir, Nicholas Harmon, Graham Stuart, Sylvie Leroy, James O S Hammond, J-Michael Kendall, Atalay Ayele, Berhe Goitom, Ghebrebrhan Ogubazghi, Abdulhakim Ahmed
Melting of the mantle during continental breakup leads to magmatic intrusion and volcanism, yet our understanding of the location and dominant mechanisms of melt generation in rifting environments is impeded by a paucity of direct observations of mantle melting. It is unclear when during the rifting process the segmented nature of magma supply typical of seafloor spreading initiates. Here, we use Rayleigh-wave tomography to construct a high-resolution absolute three-dimensional shear-wave velocity model of the upper 250 km beneath the Afar triple junction, imaging the mantle response during progressive continental breakup...
October 18, 2016: Nature Communications
Richard A Gray, Pras Pathmanathan
Elucidating the underlying mechanisms of fatal cardiac arrhythmias requires a tight integration of electrophysiological experiments, models, and theory. Existing models of transmembrane action potential (AP) are complex (resulting in over parameterization) and varied (leading to dissimilar predictions). Thus, simpler models are needed to elucidate the "minimal physiological requirements" to reproduce significant observable phenomena using as few parameters as possible. Moreover, models have been derived from experimental studies from a variety of species under a range of environmental conditions (for example, all existing rabbit AP models incorporate a formulation of the rapid sodium current, INa, based on 30 year old data from chick embryo cell aggregates)...
October 2016: PLoS Computational Biology
Kang Won Lee, Jung Yong Kim, Hee Seung Chin, Kyoung Yul Seo, Tae-Im Kim, Ji Won Jung
PURPOSE: We aimed to compare the tear meniscus measurements using strip meniscometry (SM) and Keratograph5M (K5M) between 3 subtypes of dry eye disease patient groups, classified according to the presence of meibomian gland dysfunction (MGD), and normal subjects. METHODS: We enrolled 145 eyes from 145 subjects and measured the tear meniscus using SM and K5M, tear film breakup time, ocular surface staining, and ocular surface disease index; the Schirmer test; and examined lid margins and meibomian glands...
October 5, 2016: Cornea
Seim Timung, Joydip Chaudhuri, Manash Pratim Borthakur, Tapas Kumar Mandal, Gautam Biswas, Dipankar Bandyopadhyay
We report a facile and non-invasive way to disintegrate a microdroplet into a string of further miniaturized ones under the influence of an external electrohydrodynamic field inside a microchannel. The deformation and breakup of the droplet was engendered by the Maxwell's stress originating from the accumulation of induced and free charges at the oil-water interface. While at smaller field intensities, e.g. less than 1 MV/m, the droplet deformed into a plug, at relatively higher field intensities, e.g. ∼1...
October 17, 2016: Electrophoresis
Indrajith D Nissanka, Poojitha D Yapa
The ability to calculate the oil droplet size distribution (DSD) and its dynamic behavior in the water column is important in oil spill modeling. Breaking waves disperse oil from a surface slick into the water column as droplets of varying sizes. Oil droplets undergo further breakup and coalescence in the water column due to the turbulence. Available models simulate oil DSD based on empirical/equilibrium equations. However, the oil DSD evolution due to subsequent droplet breakup and coalescence in the water column can be best represented by a dynamic population model...
October 10, 2016: Marine Pollution Bulletin
David Bouttes, Emmanuelle Gouillart, Damien Vandembroucq
The crucial role of hydrodynamic pinch-off instabilities is evidenced in the coarsening stage of viscous liquids. The phase separation of a barium borosilicate glass melt is studied by in situ synchrotron tomography at high temperature. The high viscosity contrast between the less viscous phase and the more viscous phase induces a topological symmetry breaking: capillary breakups occur preferentially in the less viscous phase. As a result, contrasting morphologies are obtained in the two phases. This symmetry breaking is illustrated on three different glass compositions, corresponding to different volume fractions of the two phases...
September 30, 2016: Physical Review Letters
Lewis Mehl-Madrona
INTRODUCTION: Suicide is disproportionately common among Aboriginal people in Canada. METHODS: Life stories were collected from 54 Aboriginal suicide attempters in northern Saskatchewan. Constant comparison techniques and modified grounded theory identified common themes expressed. RESULTS: Three common plots/themes preceded suicide attempts: 1) relationship breakup, usually sudden, unanticipated, involving a third person; 2) being publicly humiliated by another person(s), accompanied by high levels of shame; and 3) high levels of unremitting, chronic life stress (including poverty) with relative isolation...
November 2016: Canadian Journal of Psychiatry. Revue Canadienne de Psychiatrie
Wolfgang Wiedemair, Zeljko Tukovic, Hrvoje Jasak, Dimos Poulikakos, Vartan Kurtcuoglu
Encapsulated microbubbles (MBs) serve as endovascular agents in a wide range of medical ultrasound applications. The oscillatory response of these agents to ultrasonic excitation is determined by MB size, gas content, viscoelastic shell properties and geometrical constraints. The viscoelastic parameters of the MB capsule vary during an oscillation cycle and change irreversibly upon shell rupture. The latter results in marked stress changes on the endothelium of capillary blood vessels due to altered MB dynamics...
October 12, 2016: Biomechanics and Modeling in Mechanobiology
Ankur Gupta, Vivek Narsimhan, T Alan Hatton, Patrick S Doyle
The evolution of droplet size during nanoemulsion formation is critical for the ra- tional design of nanoemulsions in areas such as drug delivery and materials synthesis. In this article, we discuss the relative importance of various time scales involved in nanoemulsion formation and propose a population balance model for droplet breakup that takes into account the droplet's internal viscosity. The proposed model gives a qualitative agreement with average droplet size and polydispersity data for nanoemul- sions prepared by high pressure homogenization and ultrasonication...
October 11, 2016: Langmuir: the ACS Journal of Surfaces and Colloids
Maxime Barbier, Thierry Wirth
With the advent of next-generation sequencing technology, the genotyping of clinical Mycobacterium tuberculosis strains went through a major breakup that dramatically improved the field of molecular epidemiology but also revolutionized our deep understanding of the M. tuberculosis complex evolutionary history. The intricate paths of the pathogen and its human host are reflected by a common geographical origin in Africa and strong biogeographical associations that largely reflect the past migration waves out of Africa...
August 2016: Microbiology Spectrum
Kazuo Tsubota, Norihiko Yokoi, Jun Shimazaki, Hitoshi Watanabe, Murat Dogru, Masakazu Yamada, Shigeru Kinoshita, Hyo-Myung Kim, Hung-Won Tchah, Joon Young Hyon, Kyung-Chul Yoon, Kyoung Yul Seo, Xuguang Sun, Wei Chen, Lingyi Liang, Li Mingwu, Zuguo Liu
For the last 20 years, a great amount of evidence has accumulated through epidemiological studies that most of the dry eye disease encountered in daily life, especially in video display terminal (VDT) workers, involves short tear film breakup time (TFBUT) type dry eye, a category characterized by severe symptoms but minimal clinical signs. An unstable tear film also affects the visual function, possibly due to the increase of higher order aberrations. Based on the change in the understanding of the types, symptoms, and signs of dry eye disease, the Asia Dry Eye Society agreed to the following definition of dry eye: "Dry eye is a multifactorial disease characterized by unstable tear film causing a variety of symptoms and/or visual impairment, potentially accompanied by ocular surface damage...
October 7, 2016: Ocular Surface
Zhong Pan, Lin Zhao, Michel C Boufadel, Thomas King, Brian Robinson, Robyn Conmy, Kenneth Lee
The effects of mixing time and energy on Alaska Northern Slope (ANS) and diluted bitumen Cold Lake Blend (CLB) were investigated using EPA baffled flask test. Dispersion effectiveness and droplet size distribution were measured after 5-120 min. A modeling method to predict the mean droplet size was introduced for the first time to tentatively elucidate the droplet size breakup mechanism. The ANS dispersion effectiveness greatly increased with dispersant and mixing energy. However, little CLB dispersion was noted at small energy input (ε = 0...
January 2017: Chemosphere
Anat Galor, Roy C Levitt, Katherine T McManus, Jerry P Kalangara, Benjamin E Seiden, Jasmine J Park, Derek B Covington, Constantine D Sarantopoulos, Elizabeth R Felix
Importance: Somatosensory dysfunction likely underlies dry eye (DE) symptoms in many individuals yet remains an understudied component of the disease. Its presence has important diagnostic and therapeutic implications. Objective: To assess the integrity of nociceptive system processes in persons with DE and ocular pain using quantitative sensory testing (QST) techniques applied at a site remote from the eye. Design, Setting, and Participants: A cross-sectional study conducted at Miami Veterans Affairs Hospital included 118 individuals with a wide variety of DE symptoms and signs...
September 29, 2016: JAMA Ophthalmology
Anji Wei, Qihua Le, Jiaxu Hong, Wentao Wang, Fei Wang, Jianjiang Xu
PURPOSE: To evaluate the applicability of the fourth-generation OCULUS keratograph in measuring lower tear meniscus height. METHODS: Seventy cases (140 eyes) with dry eye disease and 37 controls (74 eyes) were enrolled. Tear breakup time (TBUT), Schirmer test I, and corneal fluorescein staining were examined. The images of lower tear meniscus were obtained by OCULUS keratograph. The tear meniscus height was measured and its correlation with traditional tear film diagnostic tests were analyzed...
September 23, 2016: Optometry and Vision Science: Official Publication of the American Academy of Optometry
Sang Yeop Lee, Hun Lee, Hyoung Won Bae, Tae-Im Kim, Chan Yun Kim
PURPOSE: To investigate the effects of topical anti-glaucoma medications on tear lipid layer thickness (LLT) and the ocular surface. METHODS: This retrospective study examined ocular surface disease (OSD) subjects who had (n = 34) and who did not have (n = 51) open-angle glaucoma (OAG). OSD was evaluated with lipid layer thickness (using LipiView interferometer), tear breakup time (TBUT), total corneal and conjunctival staining (Oxford grading scale), and Ocular Surface Disease Index (OSDI)...
October 2016: Optometry and Vision Science: Official Publication of the American Academy of Optometry
Rodrigo de Oliveira Marques, Sidney Seckler Ferreira Filho
The main objective of this study was to propose an improvement to the flocculation kinetics model presented by Argaman and Kaufman (1970), by including a new term that accounts for the irreversible floc breakup process. Both models (Argaman and Kaufman's original model, and the proposed model) were fitted to the experimental results obtained with flocculation kinetics assays of low turbidity raw water containing Microcystis aeruginosa cells. Aluminum sulfate and ferric chloride were used as coagulants, and three distinct average velocity gradient (G) values were applied in the flocculation stage (20, 40 e 60 s(-1))...
September 26, 2016: Environmental Technology
B Adeva, L Afanasyev, Y Allkofer, C Amsler, A Anania, S Aogaki, A Benelli, V Brekhovskikh, T Cechak, M Chiba, P Chliapnikov, P Doskarova, D Drijard, A Dudarev, D Dumitriu, D Fluerasu, A Gorin, O Gorchakov, K Gritsay, C Guaraldo, M Gugiu, M Hansroul, Z Hons, S Horikawa, Y Iwashita, V Karpukhin, J Kluson, M Kobayashi, V Kruglov, L Kruglova, A Kulikov, E Kulish, A Kuptsov, A Lamberto, A Lanaro, R Lednicky, C Mariñas, J Martincik, L Nemenov, M Nikitin, K Okada, V Olchevskii, M Pentia, A Penzo, M Plo, P Prusa, G Rappazzo, A Romero Vidal, A Ryazantsev, V Rykalin, J Saborido, J Schacher, A Sidorov, J Smolik, F Takeutchi, L Tauscher, T Trojek, S Trusov, T Urban, T Vrba, V Yazkov, Y Yoshimura, M Zhabitsky, P Zrelov
The observation of hydrogenlike πK atoms, consisting of π^{-}K^{+} or π^{+}K^{-} mesons, is presented. The atoms are produced by 24  GeV/c protons from the CERN PS accelerator, interacting with platinum or nickel foil targets. The breakup (ionization) of πK atoms in the same targets yields characteristic πK pairs, called "atomic pairs," with small relative momenta Q in the pair center-of-mass system. The upgraded DIRAC experiment observed 349±62 such atomic πK pairs, corresponding to a signal of 5...
September 9, 2016: Physical Review Letters
Masahiko Yamaguchi, Yuri Sakane, Tomoyuki Kamao, Xiaodong Zheng, Tomoko Goto, Atsushi Shiraishi, Yuichi Ohashi
Recently, the number of dry eye cases has dramatically increased. Thus, it is important that easy screening, exact diagnoses, and suitable treatments be available. We developed 3 original and noninvasive assessments for this disorder. First, a DR-1 dry eye monitor was used to determine the tear meniscus height quantitatively by capturing a tear meniscus digital image that was analyzed by Meniscus Processor software. The DR-1 meniscus height value significantly correlated with the fluorescein meniscus height (r = 0...
November 2016: Cornea
Chika Shigeyasu, Masakazu Yamada, Yoko Akune
Tear fluids are a mixture of secretions derived from lacrimal glands, accessory lacrimal glands, conjunctiva, and meibomian glands. Compositional changes to tears occur in the normal state and during ocular surface disease, such as dry eye conditions. We have investigated compositional changes to tears after topical application of ophthalmic solutions, with regard to tear-specific proteins (secretory immunoglobulin A, lactoferrin, lipocalin-1, and lysozyme) and ocular surface mucin in normal and dry eye conditions using high-performance liquid chromatography...
November 2016: Cornea
H Wang, F Gao, Y-Z Pan
OBJECTIVE: To observe the treatment outcomes of a crescent-shaped conjunctiva resection combined with conjunctiva sclera fixation for severe conjunctivochalasis. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Eleven (22 eyes) patients with severe conjunctivochalasis were enrolled in this study. They consented to undergo crescent-shaped conjunctiva resection and conjunctiva sclera fixation, to evaluate their symptoms and inspect the lacrimal fluid system. This included the breakup time of the tear film, height and integrity of the lacrimal river, bulbus oculi fluorescein staining pre-operation and 6 m-post-operation...
January 2016: European Review for Medical and Pharmacological Sciences
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