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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28633117/breakup-characteristics-of-aqueous-droplet-with-surfactant-in-oil-under-direct-current-electric-field
#1
Xiaoming Luo, Haipeng Yan, Xin Huang, Donghai Yang, Jing Wang, Limin He
The breakup process of aqueous droplet with surfactant suspended in oil under direct current (DC) electric field is investigated in this paper. The characteristics of the breakup process, stretching, necking and breakup, are discussed quantitatively with the electric capillary number Ca and the dimensionless surfactant concentration C(∗) which is the ratio of surfactant concentration to the critical micelle concentration. The results show that the presence of surfactant reduces the steady deformation of droplet and significantly decelerates the stretching process, resulting from the redistribution of surfactant molecules within the oil/water interface...
June 13, 2017: Journal of Colloid and Interface Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28628504/morphology-and-function-of-meibomian-glands-and-other-tear-film-parameters-in-junior-high-school-students
#2
Takanori Mizoguchi, Reiko Arita, Shima Fukuoka, Naoyuki Morishige
PURPOSE: We measured tear film parameters, including the morphology and function of meibomian glands, in junior high school students at 15 years of age. METHODS: A total of 111 eyes of 111 students (56 males and 55 females) were enrolled in the study. The ocular symptom score (0-14), after-school study time, lipid layer thickness (LLT) of the tear film, partial blink rate, lid margin abnormalities (0-4), tear film breakup time, corneal and conjunctival epithelial damage (fluorescein staining score, 0-9), meiboscore as determined by noncontact meibography (0-6), Schirmer test value, and meibum grade (0-3) were determined...
June 14, 2017: Cornea
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28628179/nucleated-dewetting-in-supported-ultra-thin-liquid-films-with-hydrodynamic-slip
#3
Matthias Lessel, Joshua D McGraw, Oliver Bäumchen, Karin Jacobs
This study reveals the influence of the surface energy and solid/liquid boundary condition on the breakup mechanism of dewetting ultra-thin polymer films. Using silane self-assembled monolayers, SiO2 substrates are rendered hydrophobic and provide a strong slip rather than a no-slip solid/liquid boundary condition. On undergoing these changes, the thin-film breakup morphology changes dramatically - from a spinodal mechanism to a breakup which is governed by nucleation and growth. The experiments reveal a dependence of the hole density on film thickness and temperature...
June 19, 2017: Soft Matter
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28618593/wetting-and-dewetting-processes-in-the-axial-retraction-of-liquid-filaments
#4
Pablo D Ravazzoli, Ingrith Cuellar, Alejandro G González, Javier A Diez
We study the hydrodynamic mechanisms involved in the motion of the contact line formed at the end region of a liquid filament laying on a planar and horizontal substrate. Since the flow develops under partially wetting conditions, the tip of the filament recedes and forms a bulged region (head) that subsequently develops a neck region behind it. Later the neck breaks up leading to a separated drop, while the rest of the filament restarts the sequence. One main feature of this flow is that the whole dynamics and final drop shapes are strongly influenced by the hysteresis of the contact angle typical in most of the liquid-substrate systems...
May 2017: Physical Review. E
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28618467/effect-of-axial-electric-field-on-the-rayleigh-instability-at-small-length-scales
#5
Darshak K Bhuptani, Sarith P Sathian
The effect of an electric field along the longitudinal axis of a nanoscale liquid thread is studied to understand the mechanism of breakup. The Rayleigh instability (commonly known as the Plateau-Rayleigh instability) of a nanosized liquid water thread is investigated by using molecular dynamics simulations. The breakup mechanism of the liquid nanothread is studied by analyzing the temporal evolution of the thread radius. The influence of the temperature of the liquid nanothread and the electric-field strength on the stability and breakup is the major focus of the study...
May 2017: Physical Review. E
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28617732/the-effects-of-latanoprost-with-benzalkonium-chloride-versus-travoprost-with-sofzia-on-the-ocular-surface
#6
Kamran Rahmatnejad, Christopher J Rapuano, Parul Ichhpujani, Sheryl S Wizov, Marlene R Moster, Lisa A Hark, L Jay Katz
PURPOSE: To assess ocular surface changes in participants using latanoprost with benzalkonium chloride (Xalatan) and travoprost with SofZia (Travatan Z). METHODS: In this prospective, open-label, nonrandomized cohort study, participants were classified into two groups: group 1 (n=28) naive to glaucoma therapy, group 2 (n=27) on previous Xalatan monotherapy in both eyes. Both groups started (or continued) Xalatan in the right eye and Travatan Z in the left eye. Baseline, 1-, and 2-month measurements of tear breakup time (TBUT), corneal staining score, conjunctival staining score, conjunctival hyperemia score, tear production, and intraocular pressure were obtained...
June 14, 2017: Eye & Contact Lens
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28615923/changes-in-meibomian-gland-morphology-and-ocular-higher-order-aberrations-in-eyes-with-chalazion
#7
Shima Fukuoka, Reiko Arita, Rika Shirakawa, Naoyuki Morishige
PURPOSE: To examine the changes in meibomian gland morphology and ocular higher-order aberrations (HOAs) in eyes with chalazion and its excision. METHODS: Seven male patients with previous history of chalazion excision and seven control male subjects were enrolled. Changes in meibomian gland morphology (meiboscores, gland dropout, and shortening) were evaluated by using meibography equipped in a wavefront analyzer KR-1W and in a slit-lamp device BG-4M. Ocular HOAs were measured sequentially with KR-1W...
2017: Clinical Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28615769/gender-life-events-and-depression-an-exploratory-study
#8
Subahani Shaik, Ravi Philip Rajkumar, Vikas Menon, Siddharth Sarkar
CONTEXT: Literature is inconsistent about the role of gender in mediating the relationship between life events and depression. AIM: Our objective was to explore gender differences in patterns and frequencies of stressful life events before onset of a depressive episode. SETTING AND DESIGN: Cross-sectional study at a tertiary care center. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: One hundred patients fulfilling Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders fourth edition criteria for current major depression (50 males and 50 females) were recruited for the study...
May 2017: Indian Journal of Psychological Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28595408/probing-the-remarkable-thermal-kinetics-of-visual-rhodopsin-with-e181q-and-s186a-mutants
#9
Ying Guo, Heidi P Hendrickson, Pablo E Videla, Ya-Na Chen, Junming Ho, Sivakumar Sekharan, Victor S Batista, John C Tully, Elsa C Y Yan
We recently reported a very unusual temperature dependence of the rate of thermal reaction of wild type bovine rhodopsin: the Arrhenius plot exhibits a sharp "elbow" at 47 °C and, in the upper temperature range, an unexpectedly large activation energy (114 ± 8 kcal/mol) and an enormous prefactor (10(72±5) s(-1)). In this report, we present new measurements and a theoretical model that establish convincingly that this behavior results from a collective, entropy-driven breakup of the rigid hydrogen bonding networks (HBNs) that hinder the reaction at lower temperatures...
June 7, 2017: Journal of Chemical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28593054/meibomian-gland-dysfunction-in-type-2-diabetic-patients
#10
Xiaolei Lin, Binbin Xu, Yuxi Zheng, Terry G Coursey, Yinying Zhao, Junhua Li, Yana Fu, Xuewen Chen, Yun-E Zhao
PURPOSE: To investigate meibomian gland and tear film function in patients with type 2 diabetes. METHODS: This prospective study compared changes in meibomian gland and tear film function in type 2 diabetic patients with nondiabetic patients. Meibomian gland function was evaluated by measuring lipid layer thickness (LLT), grading of meibomian gland loss, lid margin abnormalities, and expression of meibum. Tear film function was assessed by measuring tear breakup time (TBUT), the Schirmer I test, noninvasive breakup time (NIBUT), tear meniscus height (TMH), and corneal fluorescein staining...
2017: Journal of Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28592257/clinical-safety-and-efficacy-of-vitamin-d3-analog-ointment-for-treatment-of-obstructive-meibomian-gland-dysfunction
#11
Reiko Arita, Motoko Kawashima, Masataka Ito, Kazuo Tsubota
BACKGROUND: Hyperkeratinization is a major cause of obstructive meibomian gland dysfunction (oMGD) and results in degenerative gland dilation and atrophy without inflammation. Ointment containing 1,25-dihydroxy-22-oxavitamin D3 (maxacalcitol), a noncalcemic analog of the active form of vitamin D3, is applied for the treatment of hyperkeratotic cutaneous conditions such as psoriasis and ichtyosis because it suppresses the proliferation and promotes the differentiation of keratinocytes through interaction with the vitamin D receptor...
June 7, 2017: BMC Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28589716/microfluidic-generation-of-high-viscosity-droplets-by-surface-controlled-breakup-of-segment-flow
#12
Haosheng Chen, Jia Man, Zhongnan Li, Jiang Li
Fluids containing high concentration polymers, sols, nanoparticles, etc., usually have high viscosities, and high-viscosity fluids are difficult to be encapsulated into uniform droplets. Here we report a surface-controlled breakup method to generate droplets directly from various aqueous and nonaqueous fluids with viscosities of 1.0 to 11.9 Pa s and a dispersed-to-continuous viscosity ratio up to 1000, whereas the volume fraction of droplets up to 50% can be achieved. It provides a straightforward method to encapsulate high viscosity fluids, in a well-controlled manner in the rapid developing droplet-based applications, including materials synthesis, drug delivery, cell assay, bioengineering, etc...
June 13, 2017: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28588246/phylogenetic-evidence-that-both-ancient-vicariance-and-dispersal-have-contributed-to-the-biogeographic-patterns-of-anchialine-cave-shrimps
#13
José A Jurado-Rivera, Joan Pons, Fernando Alvarez, Alejandro Botello, William F Humphreys, Timothy J Page, Thomas M Iliffe, Endre Willassen, Kenneth Meland, Carlos Juan, Damià Jaume
Cave shrimps from the genera Typhlatya, Stygiocaris and Typhlopatsa (Atyidae) are restricted to specialised coastal subterranean habitats or nearby freshwaters and have a highly disconnected distribution (Eastern Pacific, Caribbean, Atlantic, Mediterranean, Madagascar, Australia). The combination of a wide distribution and a limited dispersal potential suggests a large-scale process has generated this geographic pattern. Tectonic plates that fragment ancestral ranges (vicariance) has often been assumed to cause this process, with the biota as passive passengers on continental blocks...
June 6, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28587370/a-novel-noninvasive-ocular-surface-analyzer-for-the-assessment-of-dry-eye-with-meibomian-gland-dysfunction
#14
Yuanyuan Qi, Chen Zhang, Shaozhen Zhao, Yue Huang, Ruibo Yang
Meibomian gland dysfunction (MGD) is a major cause of dry eye, and the purpose of the present study was to evaluate the differences between dry eye patients with MGD and controls using a novel noninvasive ocular surface analyzer. A total of 33 dry eye patients with MGD and 31 controls were enrolled in the present study. Testing included administration of the Ocular Surface Disease Index (OSDI), followed by Keratogragh 5M (Oculus, Wetzlar, Germany), measurements of the noninvasive tear film break-up times (NITBUTs), the first tear film break-up point and the morphology of meibomian gland...
June 2017: Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28579744/randomized-comparison-of-in-vivo-performance-of-two-point-of-care-tear-film-osmometers
#15
Jerry Nolfi, Barbara Caffery
PURPOSE: To compare the in vivo precision of two commercially available point-of-care osmometers among normal subjects with no dry eye disease. METHODS: Twenty healthy adults with healthy ocular surfaces were evaluated by licensed eye care practitioners. All subjects had low Ocular Surface Disease Index score (<5), normal tear breakup time (>10 seconds), and no evidence of corneal fluorescein staining. Five consecutive measurements of tear osmolarity were measured on each eye using each of the two osmometers: the TearLab Osmolarity System (TearLab) and the I-Med i-Pen (i-Pen), for a total of 200 measurements per device...
2017: Clinical Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28579061/classification-of-fluorescein-breakup-patterns-a-novel-method-of-differential-diagnosis-for-dry-eye
#16
Norihiko Yokoi, Georgi As Georgiev, Hiroaki Kato, Aoi Komuro, Yukiko Sonomura, Chie Sotozono, Kazuo Tsubota, Shigeru Kinoshita
PURPOSE: To investigate the relationship between fluorescein breakup patterns (FBUPs) and clinical manifestations in dry-eye cases. DESIGN: Cross-sectional study. METHODS: In 106 eyes of 106 subjects (19 males, 87 females; mean age: 64.2 years), FBUPs were categorized into 1 of the following 5 break (B) types: area (AB, n=19); spot (SB, n=22); line (LB, n=24); dimple (DB, n=19); random (RB, n=22 eyes), and dry-eye-related symptoms using the visual analog scale (VAS, 100mm=maximum), tear meniscus radius (TMR, mm), tear-film lipid-layer interference grade (IG) (grades 1-5; 1=best) and spread grade (SG) (grades 1-4; 1=best), tear-film non-invasive breakup time (NIBUT, seconds), FBU time (FBUT, seconds), corneal-epithelial damage (CED) score (15 points=maximum), ocular-surface epithelial damage (OSED) score (9 points=maximum), and the Schirmer 1 test (ST1, mm) were examined and compared between each FBUP...
June 1, 2017: American Journal of Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28567496/manifestation-of-meibomian-gland-dysfunction-in-patients-with-sj%C3%A3-gren-s-syndrome-non-sj%C3%A3-gren-s-dry-eye-and-non-dry-eye-controls
#17
Yeon Soo Kang, Hyo Seok Lee, Ying Li, Won Choi, Kyung Chul Yoon
PURPOSE: To evaluate the manifestation of meibomian gland dysfunction in patients with Sjögren's syndrome (SS), non-Sjögren's syndrome dry eye (non-SS) patients, and non-dry eye controls. METHODS: We recruited 31 participants with SS dry eye, 30 participants with non-SS dry eye, and 35 healthy controls without dry eye symptoms. Noninvasive tear breakup time (NITBUT) and meibomian gland dropout score (meiboscore) were measured using the Oculus Keratograph 5 M...
May 31, 2017: International Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28558722/phylogenomic-analyses-of-crassiclitellata-support-major-northern-and-southern-hemisphere-clades-and-a-pangaean-origin-for-earthworms
#18
Frank E Anderson, Bronwyn W Williams, Kevin M Horn, Christer Erséus, Kenneth M Halanych, Scott R Santos, Samuel W James
BACKGROUND: Earthworms (Crassiclitellata) are a diverse group of annelids of substantial ecological and economic importance. Earthworms are primarily terrestrial infaunal animals, and as such are probably rather poor natural dispersers. Therefore, the near global distribution of earthworms reflects an old and likely complex evolutionary history. Despite a long-standing interest in Crassiclitellata, relationships among and within major clades remain unresolved. METHODS: In this study, we evaluate crassiclitellate phylogenetic relationships using 38 new transcriptomes in combination with publicly available transcriptome data...
May 30, 2017: BMC Evolutionary Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28557532/an-experimental-model-to-study-the-impact-of-lipid-oxidation-on-contact-lens-deposition-in-vitro
#19
Burkhardt S Schuett, Thomas J Millar
PURPOSE: This study was to establish a controlled in vitro test system to study the effect of lipid oxidation on lipid deposition on contact lenses. METHODS: Fatty acids with varying degree of unsaturation were oxidized using the Fenton reaction. The degree of lipid oxidation and the lipid moieties formed during the oxidation were identified and estimated by various lipid staining techniques following separation with thin-layer chromatography, and by measuring thiobarbituric acid reactive substances or peroxides in solution...
May 30, 2017: Current Eye Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28542084/effects-of-diquafosol-ophthalmic-solution-on-quality-of-life-in-dry-eye-assessed-using-the-dry-eye-related-quality-of-life-score-questionnaire-effectiveness-in-patients-while-reading-and-using-visual-display-terminals
#20
Tsugiaki Utsunomiya, Atsushi Kawahara, Kazuomi Hanada, Akitoshi Yoshida
PURPOSE: Diquafosol ophthalmic solution improves objective findings in the ocular surface and subjective symptoms in patients with dry eye. The Dry Eye-Related Quality-of-Life Score (DEQS) questionnaire was developed to assess dry eye symptoms and their effects on quality of life. However, because little research using the DEQS has been reported, we evaluated the effects of diquafosol ophthalmic solution on ocular surface findings and quality of life using the DEQS in patients with dry eye...
May 23, 2017: Cornea
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