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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28096651/effects-of-3-diquafosol-sodium-ophthalmic-solution-on-higher-order-aberrations-in-patients-diagnosed-with-dry-eye-after-cataract-surgery
#1
Yasushi Inoue, Shintarou Ochi
PURPOSE: To evaluate the effects of diquafosol sodium ophthalmic solution 3% (DQS) and artificial tears (AT) on higher-order aberrations (HOAs) in patients with dry eye after cataract surgery. DESIGN: This was a post hoc analysis of a previously conducted randomized clinical study. METHODS: Fifty-nine eyes from 42 patients (17 males and 25 females, aged 72.6±8.0 years) with verified or suspected dry eye at 4 weeks after cataract surgery were evaluated...
2017: Clinical Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28089793/eggshell-palaeogenomics-palaeognath-evolutionary-history-revealed-through-ancient-nuclear-and-mitochondrial-dna-from-madagascan-elephant-bird-aepyornis-sp-eggshell
#2
Alicia Grealy, Matthew Phillips, Gifford Miller, M Thomas P Gilbert, Jean-Marie Rouillard, David Lambert, Michael Bunce, James Haile
Palaeognaths, the sister group of all other living birds (neognaths), were once considered to be vicariant relics from the breakup of the Gondwanan supercontinent. However, recent molecular studies instead argue for dispersal of volant ancestors across marine barriers. Resolving this debate hinges upon accurately reconstructing their evolutionary relationships and dating their divergences, which often relies on phylogenetic information from extinct relatives and nuclear genomes. Mitogenomes from the extinct elephant birds of Madagascar have helped inform the palaeognath phylogeny; however, nuclear information has remained unavailable...
January 9, 2017: Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28069777/an-african-origin-of-the-eurylaimides-passeriformes-and-the-successful-diversification-of-the-ground-foraging-pittas-pittidae
#3
Alexandre Pedro Selvatti, Ana Galvão, Anieli Guirro Pereira, Luiz Pedreira Gonzaga, Claudia Augusta de Moraes Russo
The Eurylaimides is one of the few passerine groups with a pantropical distribution. In this study, we generated a multi-calibrated tree with 83% of eurylaimid species diversity based on 30 molecular loci. Particular attention was given to the monotypic Sapayoidae to reconstruct the biogeography of this radiation. We conducted several topological tests including nonoverlapping subsampling of the concatenated alignment and coalescent species tree reconstruction. These tests firmly placed the South American Sapayoidae as the sister group to all other Eurylaimides families (split at ∼28 Ma), with increasing branch support as highly variable sites were removed...
November 14, 2016: Molecular Biology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28062204/impact-of-formulation-properties-and-process-parameters-on-the-dispensing-and-depositioning-of-drug-nanosuspensions-using-micro-valve-technology
#4
Bastian Bonhoeffer, Arno Kwade, Michael Juhnke
Flexible manufacturing processes with continuously adjustable dose strengths are considered particularly innovative and interesting for applications in personalized medicine, continuous manufacturing or early drug development. A piezo-actuated micro-valve has been investigated for the dispensing and depositioning of drug nanosuspensions onto substrates to facilitate the manufacturing of solid oral dosage forms. The investigated micro-valve has been characterized regarding dispensing behavior, mass flow, accuracy and robustness...
January 3, 2017: Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28060144/effect-of-overnight-wear-orthokeratology-lenses-on-corneal-shape-and-tears
#5
Jian Li, Ping Dong, Hu Liu
OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to explore the effects of the overnight wear orthokeratology (OK) lenses on corneal shape and tear film stability. METHODS: Forty patients with myopia aged between 11 and 18 years who wore OK lens continuously for more than 1 year were selected. Refractive error (D), corneal curvature, corneal surface regularity index (SRI), tear breakup time (TBUT), Schirmer I test score, and corneal staining were measured at the following time points: 1 week before wearing the OK lens (T0) and 1 week (T1), 1 month (T2), 3 months (T3), 6 months (T4), and 12 months (T5) after wear...
January 4, 2017: Eye & Contact Lens
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28060066/assessment-of-the-tear-meniscus-by-strip-meniscometry-and-keratograph-in-patients-with-dry-eye-disease-according-to-the-presence-of-meibomian-gland-dysfunction
#6
Kang Won Lee, Jung Yong Kim, Hee Seung Chin, Kyoung Yul Seo, Tae-Im Kim, Ji Won Jung
PURPOSE: We aimed to compare the tear meniscus measurements using strip meniscometry (SM) and Keratograph5M (K5M) between 3 subtypes of dry eye disease patient groups, classified according to the presence of meibomian gland dysfunction (MGD), and normal subjects. METHODS: We enrolled 145 eyes from 145 subjects and measured the tear meniscus using SM and K5M, tear film breakup time, ocular surface staining, and ocular surface disease index; the Schirmer test; and examined lid margins and meibomian glands...
February 2017: Cornea
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28060064/automated-measurement-of-tear-film-dynamics-and-lipid-layer-thickness-for-assessment-of-non-sj%C3%A3-gren-dry-eye-syndrome-with-meibomian-gland-dysfunction
#7
Yong Woo Ji, Jeihoon Lee, Hun Lee, Kyoung Yul Seo, Eung Kweon Kim, Tae-Im Kim
PURPOSE: To investigate automated values from an advanced corneal topographer with a built-in real keratometer, color camera, and ocular surface interferometer for the evaluation of non-Sjögren dry eye syndrome (NSDES) with meibomian gland dysfunction (MGD). METHODS: Sixty-four patients (64 eyes) diagnosed with NSDES with MGD were enrolled. All eyes were evaluated using the Ocular Surface Disease Index (OSDI), fluorescence staining score, tear film breakup time (TBUT), Schirmer test, and MGD grade...
February 2017: Cornea
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28060063/oral-omega-3-fatty-acid-supplementation-for-laser-in-situ-keratomileusis-associated-dry-eye
#8
Parul Goyal, Arun K Jain, Chintan Malhotra
PURPOSE: To determine the effect of oral omega-3 fatty acid (ω3FA) supplementation in laser in situ keratomileusis (LASIK)-associated dry eye. METHODS: In this prospective, open-label study, patients undergoing LASIK were randomized to receive either 1.2 g/d of a triglyceride formulation of oral ω3FA (treatment group) or 400 mg/d vitamin E (control group) for 1 week before and continued for 12 weeks after surgery. Ocular surface disease index, tear breakup time, ocular surface staining, and Schirmer scores were evaluated and compared preoperatively and at 3 months after LASIK...
February 2017: Cornea
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28060060/ocular-surface-disease-parameters-after-collagen-cross-linking-for-keratoconus
#9
José I Recalde, Arantxa Acera, Iñaki Rodríguez-Agirretxe, Miguel A Sánchez-Tena, Juan San-Cristóbal, Juan A Durán
PURPOSE: To analyze the variations in tear quantity and quality after corneal collagen cross-linking (CXL) in patients with keratoconus. METHODS: This is a prospective observational study of 24 eyes with keratoconus that underwent epithelium-off CXL. The variables studied were tear film osmolarity, subjective symptoms (Ocular Surface Disease Index), tear breakup time, Schirmer test (SCH) score, tear clearance, fluorescein staining, and lissamine green staining. Variables were determined preoperatively and 3, 6, and 12 months after CXL...
February 2017: Cornea
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28059765/eocene-lantern-fruits-from-gondwanan-patagonia-and-the-early-origins-of-solanaceae
#10
Peter Wilf, Mónica R Carvalho, María A Gandolfo, N Rubén Cúneo
The nightshade family Solanaceae holds exceptional economic and cultural importance. The early diversification of Solanaceae is thought to have occurred in South America during its separation from Gondwana, but the family's sparse fossil record provides few insights. We report 52.2-million-year-old lantern fruits from terminal-Gondwanan Patagonia, featuring highly inflated, five-lobed calyces, as a newly identified species of the derived, diverse New World genus Physalis (e.g., groundcherries and tomatillos)...
January 6, 2017: Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28052679/identifying-strong-field-effects-in-indirect-photofragmentation-reactions
#11
Chuan-Cun Shu, Kai-Jun Yuan, Daoyi Dong, Ian R Petersen, Andre D Bandrauk
Exploring molecular breakup processes induced by light-matter interactions has both fundamental and practical implications. However, it remains a challenge to elucidate the underlying reaction mechanism in the strong field regime, where the potentials of the reactant are modified dramatically. Here we perform a theoretical analysis combined with a time-dependent wavepacket calculation to show how a strong ultrafast laser field affects the photofragment products. As an example, we examine the photochemical reaction of breaking up the molecule NaI into the neutral atoms Na and I, which due to inherent nonadiabatic couplings are indirectly formed in a stepwise fashion via the reaction intermediate NaI*...
January 5, 2017: Journal of Physical Chemistry Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28030882/ocular-response-to-environmental-variations-in-contact-lens-wearers
#12
Alberto López-de la Rosa, Vicente Martín-Montañez, Alberto López-Miguel, Itziar Fernández, Margarita Calonge, José M González-Méijome, María J González-García
PURPOSE: To assess the influence of different indoor environments simulated in an environmental chamber on soft contact lens (CL) wearers. METHODS: Fifty-four CL wearers were grouped based on their symptoms while wearing their CLs. Subjects were fitted with two different CL types, conventional hydrogel (Omafilcon A) and silicone hydrogel (comfilcon A), and exposed to two controlled indoor environmental conditions, standard [50% relative humidity (RH), 23°C, 930 mb of atmospheric pressure] and adverse (in-flight air cabin environment: 5% RH, localised air flow, 23°C, 750 mb atmospheric pressure), for 90 min in an environmental chamber, making a total of four visits...
January 2017: Ophthalmic & Physiological Optics: the Journal of the British College of Ophthalmic Opticians (Optometrists)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28030610/impact-of-chronic-smoking-on-meibomian-gland-dysfunction
#13
Shen Wang, Hui Zhao, Caihong Huang, Zhengri Li, Wei Li, Xiaobo Zhang, Zuguo Liu
PURPOSE: The aim of this study was to explore the relationship between chronic cigarette smoking and meibomian gland dysfunction (MGD). METHODS: This study enrolled 322 smokers with MGD and 2067 non-smokers with MGD. All enrolled subjects were tested in the following sequence: Ocular Surface Disease Index (OSDI), tear film breakup time (TBUT), corneal fluorescein staining (CFS), Schirmer I test (SIT)and finally slit-lamp microscope examination of lid margin abnormalities, meibomian gland expression as well as meibum...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28025274/mitochondrial-phylogenomics-resolves-the-global-spread-of-higher-termites-ecosystem-engineers-of-the-tropics
#14
Thomas Bourguignon, Nathan Lo, Jan Šobotník, Simon Y W Ho, Naeem Iqbal, Eric Coissac, Maria Lee, Martin M Jendryka, David Sillam-Dussès, Barbora Křížková, Yves Roisin, Theodore A Evans
The higher termites (Termitidae) are keystone species and ecosystem engineers. They have exceptional biomass and play important roles in decomposition of dead plant matter, in soil manipulation, and as the primary food for many animals, especially in the tropics. Higher termites are most diverse in rainforests, with estimated origins in the late Eocene (∼54 Ma), postdating the breakup of Pangaea and Gondwana when most continents became separated. Since termites are poor fliers, their origin and spread across the globe requires alternative explanation...
December 25, 2016: Molecular Biology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28024826/predictors-of-discordance-between-symptoms-and-signs-in-dry-eye-disease
#15
Jelle Vehof, Nicole Sillevis Smitt-Kamminga, Simone A Nibourg, Christopher J Hammond
PURPOSE: To investigate predictors of discordance between symptoms and signs in dry eye disease (DED). DESIGN: Cross-sectional association study. PARTICIPANTS: A total of 648 patients with dry eye from the Groningen LOngitudinal Sicca StudY (GLOSSY), a tertiary dry eye clinic patient cohort from the Netherlands. METHODS: Patient symptoms were assessed using the Ocular Surface Disease Index (OSDI) questionnaire. Dry eye signs were assessed by tear osmolarity, Schirmer test, tear breakup time, corneal and conjunctival staining, and meibomian gland dysfunction, all in both eyes, and a composite dry eye signs severity score was calculated from these 6 tests for each patient...
December 23, 2016: Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28003664/model-of-electrical-activity-in-cardiac-tissue-under-electromagnetic-induction
#16
Fuqiang Wu, Chunni Wang, Ying Xu, Jun Ma
Complex electrical activities in cardiac tissue can set up time-varying electromagnetic field. Magnetic flux is introduced into the Fitzhugh-Nagumo model to describe the effect of electromagnetic induction, and then memristor is used to realize the feedback of magnetic flux on the membrane potential in cardiac tissue. It is found that a spiral wave can be triggered and developed by setting specific initials in the media, that is to say, the media still support the survival of standing spiral waves under electromagnetic induction...
December 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28002049/ab-initio-study-of-the-strain-dependence-of-thermopower-in-electron-doped-srtio3
#17
Adolfo O Fumega, Victor Pardo
In this paper we explore the different mechanisms that affect the thermopower of a band insulating perovskite (in this case, SrTiO3) when subject to strain (both compressive or tensile). We analyze the high temperature, entropy-dominated limit and the lower temperature, energy-transport regime. We observe that the effect of strain in the high-temperature Seebeck coefficient is small at the concentration levels of interest for thermoelectric applications. However, the effective mass changes substantially with strain, which produces an opposite effect to that of the degeneracy breakups brought about by strain...
February 15, 2017: Journal of Physics. Condensed Matter: An Institute of Physics Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27996273/ion-specific-effects-on-the-elongation-dynamics-of-a-nanosized-water-droplet-in-applied-electric-fields
#18
Qianqian Cao, Lujuan Li, Fengli Huang, Chuncheng Zuo
We report an all-atom molecular dynamics study of the structures and dynamics of salty water droplets on a silicon surface under the influence of applied electric field. Our simulation results support ion-specific effects on the elongation dynamics of salty nanodroplets, induced by the field. This feature has not been explored up to now in monovalent salts. Nevertheless, the importance of ion-specific effects is widely confirmed in biological and colloidal systems. In particular, the increase of salt concentration enhances the effect of the nature of ions on the wetting properties of droplets...
December 29, 2016: Langmuir: the ACS Journal of Surfaces and Colloids
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27991513/real-time-measurements-of-spontaneous-breathers-and-rogue-wave-events-in-optical-fibre-modulation-instability
#19
Mikko Närhi, Benjamin Wetzel, Cyril Billet, Shanti Toenger, Thibaut Sylvestre, Jean-Marc Merolla, Roberto Morandotti, Frederic Dias, Goëry Genty, John M Dudley
Modulation instability is a fundamental process of nonlinear science, leading to the unstable breakup of a constant amplitude solution of a physical system. There has been particular interest in studying modulation instability in the cubic nonlinear Schrödinger equation, a generic model for a host of nonlinear systems including superfluids, fibre optics, plasmas and Bose-Einstein condensates. Modulation instability is also a significant area of study in the context of understanding the emergence of high amplitude events that satisfy rogue wave statistical criteria...
December 19, 2016: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27982647/physical-mechanism-of-the-transverse-instability-in-radiation-pressure-ion-acceleration
#20
Y Wan, C-H Pai, C J Zhang, F Li, Y P Wu, J F Hua, W Lu, Y Q Gu, L O Silva, C Joshi, W B Mori
The transverse stability of the target is crucial for obtaining high quality ion beams using the laser radiation pressure acceleration (RPA) mechanism. In this Letter, a theoretical model and supporting two-dimensional (2D) particle-in-cell (PIC) simulations are presented to clarify the physical mechanism of the transverse instability observed in the RPA process. It is shown that the density ripples of the target foil are mainly induced by the coupling between the transverse oscillating electrons and the quasistatic ions, a mechanism similar to the oscillating two stream instability in the inertial confinement fusion research...
December 2, 2016: Physical Review Letters
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