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Schizophrenia nootropics

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28884730/-pharmacological-effects-and-clinical-application-of-pantogam-and-pantogam-active
#1
T A Voronina, S A Litvinova
Clinical studies and experience in the use of pantogam (hopanthenic acid) and pantogam active (rac-gopantenic/D-, L-gopantenic acid) showed their efficacy and safety in patients with various pathologies. Pantogam has a unique spectrum of pharmacological effects (nootropic, anticonvulsant, mild activating) in the absence of addiction, hyperstimulation or withdrawal syndrome. Pantogam active, having also an additional anxiolytic effect, is characterized by bimodal activity, improves not only cognitive functions, but also emotional state in patients in psychiatric, neurological and cardiological practice with such diseases and conditions as anxiety/anxiety-depressive disorders, chronic brain ischemia, ischemic heart disease, chronic heart failure, arterial hypertension, epilepsy, craniocerebral trauma, schizophrenia as well as cognitive impairment in the structure of neurological and psychogenic deficiencies...
2017: Zhurnal Nevrologii i Psikhiatrii Imeni S.S. Korsakova
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28374238/antioxidant-effects-of-rice-bran-oil-mitigate-repeated-haloperidol-induced-tardive-dyskinesia-in-male-rats
#2
Noreen Samad, Darakhshan Jabeen Haleem
Tardive dyskinesia (TD) is associated with the use of antipsychotic drugs such as D2 antagonist haloperidol (HP). The chronic use of HP is involved in the causation of free radicals and/or oxidative stress. In view of the nootropic, anti-anxiety, anti-inflammatory-like effects of rice bran oil (RBO) in a variety of investigations, we assessed the protective properties of RBO on HP-induced TD and neurochemical alteration. Rats treated with HP orally at a dose of 0.2 mg/kg/day for a period of 5 weeks developed VCMs which increased progressively as the treatment continued for 5 weeks...
August 2017: Metabolic Brain Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26415954/the-continuous-performance-test-rcpt-for-mice-a-novel-operant-touchscreen-test-of-attentional-function
#3
Chi Hun Kim, Martha Hvoslef-Eide, Simon R O Nilsson, Mark R Johnson, Bronwen R Herbert, Trevor W Robbins, Lisa M Saksida, Timothy J Bussey, Adam C Mar
RATIONALE: Continuous performance tests (CPTs) are widely used to assess attentional processes in a variety of disorders including Alzheimer's disease and schizophrenia. Common human CPTs require discrimination of sequentially presented, visually patterned 'target' and 'non-target' stimuli at a single location. OBJECTIVES: The aims of this study were to evaluate the performance of three popular mouse strains on a novel rodent touchscreen test (rCPT) designed to be analogous to common human CPT variants and to investigate the effects of donepezil, a cholinesterase inhibitor and putative cognitive enhancer...
November 2015: Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/23936991/cognitive-enhancement-effects-of-bacopa-monnieri-brahmi-on-novel-object-recognition-and-nmda-receptor-immunodensity-in-the-prefrontal-cortex-and-hippocampus-of-sub-chronic-phencyclidine-rat-model-of-schizophrenia
#4
Pritsana Piyabhan, Thanitsara Wetchateng, Seewaboon Sireeratawong
BACKGROUND: Cognitive impairment is a common characteristic in schizophrenia that cannot be attenuated by antipsychotics. Brahmi, popularly known as a cognitive enhancer might be a new frontier of cognitive deficit treatment in schizophrenia. OBJECTIVE: To study effects of Brahmi on attenuation at cognitive deficit and cerebral glutamate/N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor density in sub-chronic phencyclidine (PCP) rat model of schizophrenia. MATERIAL AND METHOD: Rats were administered PCP or vehicle...
February 2013: Journal of the Medical Association of Thailand, Chotmaihet Thangphaet
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/23800465/different-effects-of-the-nmda-receptor-antagonists-ketamine-mk-801-and-memantine-on-postsynaptic-density-transcripts-and-their-topography-role-of-homer-signaling-and-implications-for-novel-antipsychotic-and-pro-cognitive-targets-in-psychosis
#5
Andrea de Bartolomeis, Chiara Sarappa, Elisabetta F Buonaguro, Federica Marmo, Anna Eramo, Carmine Tomasetti, Felice Iasevoli
Administration of NMDA receptor antagonists, such as ketamine and MK-801, may induce psychotic-like behaviors in preclinical models of schizophrenia. Ketamine has also been observed to exacerbate psychotic symptoms in schizophrenia patients. However, memantine, a non-competitive NMDA receptor antagonist approved for Alzheimer's disease and proposed for antipsychotic augmentation, may challenge this view. To date, the molecular mechanisms by which these NMDA receptor antagonists cause different neurochemical, behavioral, and clinical effects are still a matter of debate...
October 1, 2013: Progress in Neuro-psychopharmacology & Biological Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/23450283/prevention-of-schizophrenia-an-impossible-dream
#6
EDITORIAL
Judith L Rapoport
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 2013: American Journal of Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/23395862/early-developmental-elevations-of-brain-kynurenic-acid-impair-cognitive-flexibility-in-adults-reversal-with-galantamine
#7
K S Alexander, A Pocivavsek, H-Q Wu, M L Pershing, R Schwarcz, J P Bruno
Levels of kynurenic acid (KYNA), an endogenous α7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (α7nAChR) antagonist, are elevated in the brain of patients with schizophrenia (SZ) and might contribute to the pathophysiology and cognitive deficits seen in the disorder. As developmental vulnerabilities contribute to the etiology of SZ, we determined, in rats, the effects of perinatal increases in KYNA on brain chemistry and cognitive flexibility. KYNA's bioprecursor l-kynurenine (100mg/day) was fed to dams from gestational day 15 to postnatal day 21 (PD21)...
May 15, 2013: Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/23318559/perinatal-choline-effects-on-neonatal-pathophysiology-related-to-later-schizophrenia-risk
#8
RANDOMIZED CONTROLLED TRIAL
Randal G Ross, Sharon K Hunter, Lizbeth McCarthy, Julie Beuler, Amanda K Hutchison, Brandie D Wagner, Sherry Leonard, Karen E Stevens, Robert Freedman
OBJECTIVE: Deficient cerebral inhibition is a pathophysiological brain deficit related to poor sensory gating and attention in schizophrenia and other disorders. Cerebral inhibition develops perinatally, influenced by genetic and in utero factors. Amniotic choline activates fetal α7-nicotinic acetylcholine receptors and facilitates development of cerebral inhibition. Increasing this activation may protect infants from future illness by promoting normal brain development. The authors investigated the effects of perinatal choline supplementation on the development of cerebral inhibition in human infants...
March 2013: American Journal of Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/23303043/a-randomized-exploratory-trial-of-an-%C3%AE-7-nicotinic-receptor-agonist-tc-5619-for-cognitive-enhancement-in-schizophrenia
#9
RANDOMIZED CONTROLLED TRIAL
Jeffrey A Lieberman, Geoffrey Dunbar, Anthony C Segreti, Ragy R Girgis, Frances Seoane, Jessica S Beaver, Naihua Duan, David A Hosford
This exploratory trial was conducted to test the effects of an alpha7 nicotinic receptor partial agonist, TC-5619, on cognitive dysfunction and negative symptoms in subjects with schizophrenia. In the United States and India, 185 outpatients (18-60 years; male 69%; 46% tobacco users) with schizophrenia treated with quetiapine or risperidone monotherapy were randomized to 12 weeks of placebo (n=91) or TC-5619 (n=94; orally once daily 1 mg day 1 to week 4, 5 mg week 4 to 8, and 25 mg week 8 to 12). The primary efficacy outcome measure was the Groton Maze Learning Task (GMLT; executive function) of the CogState Schizophrenia Battery (CSB)...
May 2013: Neuropsychopharmacology: Official Publication of the American College of Neuropsychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/23186990/cognitive-enhancers-nootropics-part-3-drugs-interacting-with-targets-other-than-receptors-or-enzymes-disease-modifying-drugs
#10
REVIEW
Wolfgang Froestl, Andrea Pfeifer, Andreas Muhs
Cognitive enhancers (nootropics) are drugs to treat cognition deficits in patients suffering from Alzheimer's disease, schizophrenia, stroke, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, or aging. Cognition refers to a capacity for information processing, applying knowledge, and changing preferences. It involves memory, attention, executive functions, perception, language, and psychomotor functions. The term nootropics was coined in 1972 when memory enhancing properties of piracetam were observed in clinical trials...
2013: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease: JAD
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/23092292/novel-m-1-allosteric-ligands-a-patent-review
#11
REVIEW
Scott D Kuduk, Douglas C Beshore
INTRODUCTION: There is substantial evidence from preclinical and early proof-of-concept studies suggesting that selective modulation of the M(1) muscarinic receptor is efficacious in cognitive models of Alzheimer's disease (AD) and antipsychotic models of schizophrenia. For example, a number of nonselective M(1) muscarinic agonists have previously shown positive effects on cognitive function in AD patients, but were limited due to cholinergic adverse events thought to be mediated by pan activation of the M(2) to M(5) subtypes...
December 2012: Expert Opinion on Therapeutic Patents
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/23042218/cognitive-enhancers-nootropics-part-2-drugs-interacting-with-enzymes
#12
REVIEW
Wolfgang Froestl, Andreas Muhs, Andrea Pfeifer
Cognitive enhancers (nootropics) are drugs to treat cognition deficits in patients suffering from Alzheimer's disease, schizophrenia, stroke, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, or aging. Cognition refers to a capacity for information processing, applying knowledge, and changing preferences. It involves memory, attention, executive functions, perception, language, and psychomotor functions. The term nootropics was coined in 1972 when memory enhancing properties of piracetam were observed in clinical trials...
2013: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease: JAD
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/22929873/cognitive-enhancement-in-schizophrenia-pharmacological-and-cognitive-remediation-approaches
#13
REVIEW
Philip D Harvey, Christopher R Bowie
This article discusses the measurement of cognition in schizophrenia, its role as a determinant of disability, and treatment efforts to date, including pharmacological and behavioral interventions as well as effective treatments that lead to improved outcomes. The measurement of functioning when patients with schizophrenia receive treatment in the office is addressed. The review focuses on new developments in the creation and adoption of a consensus method for the assessment of cognitive functioning in treatment studies, on the increased appreciation for assessment of functional skills in the prediction of everyday outcomes, and on developments in the basic neuroscience of cognition...
September 2012: Psychiatric Clinics of North America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/22886028/cognitive-enhancers-nootropics-part-1-drugs-interacting-with-receptors
#14
REVIEW
Wolfgang Froestl, Andreas Muhs, Andrea Pfeifer
Cognitive enhancers (nootropics) are drugs to treat cognition deficits in patients suffering from Alzheimer's disease, schizophrenia, stroke, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, or aging. Cognition refers to a capacity for information processing, applying knowledge, and changing preferences. It involves memory, attention, executive functions, perception, language, and psychomotor functions. The term nootropics was coined in 1972 when memory enhancing properties of piracetam were observed in clinical trials...
2012: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease: JAD
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/22884720/in-vitro-characterisation-of-the-novel-positive-allosteric-modulators-of-the-mglu%C3%A2-receptor-lsn2463359-and-lsn2814617-and-their-effects-on-sleep-architecture-and-operant-responding-in-the-rat
#15
Gary Gilmour, Lisa M Broad, Keith A Wafford, Thomas Britton, Ellen M Colvin, Adam Fivush, Francois Gastambide, Brian Getman, Beverly A Heinz, Andrew P McCarthy, Lourdes Prieto, Elaine Shanks, Janice W Smith, Lorena Taboada, Dale M Edgar, Mark D Tricklebank
The demonstrated functional interaction of metabotropic glutamate 5 (mGlu₅) receptors with N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA) receptors has prompted speculation that their activation may offer a potential treatment for aspects of schizophrenia. Development of selective mGlu₅ agonists has been difficult, but several different positive allosteric modulator (PAM) molecules have now been identified. This study describes two novel mGlu₅ PAMs, LSN2463359 (N-(1-methylethyl)-5-(pyridin-4-ylethynyl)pyridine-2-carboxamide) and LSN2814617 [(7S)-3-tert-butyl-7-[3-(4-fluorophenyl)-1,2,4-oxadiazol-5-yl]-5,6,7,8-tetrahydro[1,2,4]triazolo[4,3-A]pyridine], which are useful tools for this field of research...
January 2013: Neuropharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/22884612/the-mglu%C3%A2-positive-allosteric-modulator-lsn2463359-differentially-modulates-motor-instrumental-and-cognitive-effects-of-nmda-receptor-antagonists-in-the-rat
#16
COMPARATIVE STUDY
Francois Gastambide, Gary Gilmour, Trevor W Robbins, Mark D Tricklebank
Metabotropic glutamate 5 (mGlu₅) receptors are known to functionally interact with N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA) receptors at both neuronal and behavioural levels, in a manner that may be of relevance to the treatment of schizophrenia. We have previously described a novel mGlu₅ positive allosteric modulator (PAM), LSN2463359 and provided evidence of its ability to attenuate aspects of the behavioural response to administration of the competitive NMDA receptor antagonist, SDZ 220,581. In addition, LSN2463359 was found to selectively attenuate reversal learning deficits observed in the neurodevelopmental MAM E17 model but not in the acute phencyclidine (PCP) model...
January 2013: Neuropharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/22824189/egis-11150-a-candidate-antipsychotic-compound-with-procognitive-efficacy-in-rodents
#17
István Gacsályi, Katalin Nagy, Katalin Pallagi, György Lévay, László G Hársing, Krisztina Móricz, Szabolcs Kertész, Péter Varga, József Haller, Gábor Gigler, Gábor Szénási, József Barkóczy, Judit Bíró, Michael Spedding, Ferenc A Antoni
Classical antipsychotics, e.g. haloperidol, chlorpromazine, are potent at controlling the positive symptoms of schizophrenia but frequently elicit extrapyramidal motor side-effects. The introduction of atypical antipsychotics such as risperidone, olanzapine and clozapine has obviated this problem, but none of the current drugs seem to improve the cognitive deficits accompanying schizophrenia. Thus there is an unmet need for agents that not only suppress the psychotic symptoms but also ameliorate the impairment of cognition...
January 2013: Neuropharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/22820555/modafinil-effects-on-cognition-and-emotion-in-schizophrenia-and-its-neurochemical-modulation-in-the-brain
#18
REVIEW
Linda Scoriels, Peter B Jones, Barbara J Sahakian
Modafinil is a central nervous system wake promoting agent used for the treatment of excessive daytime sleeping. Its vigilance promoting properties and low abuse potential has intrigued the scientific community and has led to use it as a cognitive enhancer, before its neural functions were understood. Here, we review the effects of modafinil in human cognition and emotion and its specific actions on symptoms in patients with schizophrenia and whether these are consistently effective throughout the literature...
January 2013: Neuropharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/22820554/effects-of-modafinil-on-non-verbal-cognition-task-enjoyment-and-creative-thinking-in-healthy-volunteers
#19
RANDOMIZED CONTROLLED TRIAL
U Müller, J B Rowe, T Rittman, C Lewis, T W Robbins, B J Sahakian
BACKGROUND: Modafinil, a putative cognitive enhancing drug, has previously been shown to improve performance of healthy volunteers as well as patients with attention deficit disorder and schizophrenia, mainly in tests of executive functions. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of modafinil on non-verbal cognitive functions in healthy volunteers, with a particular focus on variations of cognitive load, measures of motivational factors and the effects on creative problem-solving...
January 2013: Neuropharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/22809709/serotonergic-involvement-in-the-amelioration-of-behavioral-abnormalities-in-dopamine-transporter-knockout-mice-by-nicotine
#20
Osamu Uchiumi, Yoshiyuki Kasahara, Asami Fukui, F Scott Hall, George R Uhl, Ichiro Sora
Dopamine transporter knockout (DAT KO) mice exhibit elevated extracellular dopamine levels in brain regions that include the striatum and the nucleus accumbens, but not the prefrontal cortex. DAT KO mice model some aspects of psychiatric disorders, including schizophrenia. Smoking is more common in patients with schizophrenia, suggesting that nicotine might ameliorate aspects of the behavioral abnormalities and/or treatment side effects seen in these individuals. We report nicotine-induced normalization of effects on locomotion and prepulse inhibition of acoustic startle (PPI) in DAT KO mice that require intact serotonin 5-HT1A systems...
January 2013: Neuropharmacology
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