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Hydroxyurea

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28079819/efficacy-and-toxicity-of-different-concurrent-chemoradiotherapy-regimens-in-the-treatment-of-advanced-cervical-cancer-a-network-meta-analysis
#1
Zhan-Zhao Fu, Kun Li, Yong Peng, Yue Zheng, Li-Yan Cao, Yun-Jie Zhang, Yong-Mei Sun
OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to compare the efficacy and toxicity of different concurrent chemoradiotherapy (CCRT) regimens in the treatment of advanced cervical cancer (CC) by adopting a network meta-analysis. METHODS: We searched PubMed and Cochrane Library from the inception of these databases to September 2016, and all cohort studies (CSs) related to different CCRT regimens in the treatment of CC were included. A network analysis was adopted to compare the combination of direct and indirect evidence, to analyze the odds ratio (OR), and to draw a surface under the cumulative ranking curve of the efficacy and toxicity of different CCRT regimens for CC...
January 2017: Medicine (Baltimore)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28078488/hydroxyurea-treatment-effect-on-children-with-sickle-cell-disease-and-obstructive-sleep-apnea
#2
Anthony J Grady, Jane S Hankins, Brent Haberman, Robert Schoumacher, Rose Mary Stocks
BACKGROUND: While hydroxyurea is the mainstay of treatment for many of the comorbidities associated with sickle cell disease, its effect on obstructive sleep apnea has not been fully investigated. The purpose of this project is to help characterize the effects of hydroxyurea on obstructive sleep apnea in children with sickle cell disease and determine its therapeutic role in the condition. METHODS: Chart review was conducted on two pediatric patients with sickle cell disease who experienced resolution of obstructive sleep apnea following hydroxyurea administration...
January 11, 2017: Sleep & Breathing, Schlaf & Atmung
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28069740/checkpoint-independent-regulation-of-origin-firing-by-mrc1-through-interaction-with-hsk1-kinase
#3
Seiji Matsumoto, Yutaka Kanoh, Michie Shimmoto, Motoshi Hayano, Kyosuke Ueda, Rino Fukatsu, Naoko Kakusho, Hisao Masai
Mrc1 is a conserved checkpoint mediator protein that transduces replication-stress signal to downstream effector kinase. Loss of mrc1 checkpoint activity results in aberrant activation of late/dormant origins in the presence of hydroxyurea. Mrc1 was also suggested to regulate orders of early-origin firing in a checkpoint-independent manner, but its mechanism was unknown. Here we identify HBS (Hsk1 Bypass Segment) on Mrc1. ΔHBS does not suppress late/dormant origin firing in the presence of hydroxyurea but causes precocious and enhanced activation of weak early-firing origins during normal S-phase progression, and bypasses the requirement of Hsk1 for growth...
January 9, 2017: Molecular and Cellular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28061537/excellent-and-durable-response-to-radiotherapy-in-a-rare-case-of-spinal-cord-compression-due-to-extra-medullary-hematopoiesis-in-%C3%AE-thalassemia-intermedia-case-report-and-clinicoradiological-correlation
#4
Prahlad H Yathiraj, Anshul Singh, Sudha Vidyasagar, Muralidhar Varma, Vidyasagar Mamidipudi
Spinal cord compression (SCC) is an unusual sequale of extra-medullary hematopoiesis (EMH). We report a patient diagnosed with β-thalassemia intermedia at the age of 7 years presenting as a 24-year-old with symptoms suggestive of paraparesis. MR imaging revealed long masses of EMH opposite T5-T11 and L5-S2 vertebrae with cord compression at T6 vertebrae. Patient was treated with external beam radiotherapy (EBRT) to a low dose of 20 Gy in 10 fractions over 2 weeks. The patient had symptomatic relief of paraparesis by the 5th fraction and nearly regained full power in bilateral lower limbs by EBRT conclusion...
December 9, 2016: Annals of Palliative Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28053695/study-on-hydroxyurea-response-in-hemoglobinopathies-patients-using-genetic-markers-and-liquid-erythroid-cultures
#5
Serena Sclafani, Alice Pecoraro, Veronica Agrigento, Antonio Troia, Rosario Di Maggio, Massimiliano Sacco, Aurelio Maggio, Elena D'Alcamo, Rosalba Di Marzo
Increased expression of fetal hemoglobin (HbF) may ameliorate the clinical course of hemoglobinopathies. Hydroxyurea (HU) is the only inducer approved for the treatment of these diseases able to stimulate HbF production but patients' response is highly variable indicating the utility of the identification of pharmacogenomic biomarkers in order to predict pharmacological treatment efficacy. To date few studies to evaluate the role of genetic determinants in HU response have been conducted showing contradictory results...
November 2, 2016: Hematology Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28049774/synchronization-and-arrest-of-the-budding-yeast-cell-cycle-using-chemical-and-genetic-methods
#6
Adam P Rosebrock
The cell cycle of budding yeast can be arrested at specific positions by different genetic and chemical methods. These arrests enable study of cell cycle phase-specific phenotypes that would be missed during examination of asynchronous cultures. Some methods for arrest are reversible, with kinetics that enable release of cells back into a synchronous cycling state. Benefits of chemical and genetic methods include scalability across a large range of culture sizes from a few milliliters to many liters, ease of execution, the absence of specific equipment requirements, and synchronization and release of the entire culture...
January 3, 2017: Cold Spring Harbor Protocols
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28045896/a-signature-of-genomic-instability-resulting-from-deficient-replication-licensing
#7
Steven C Pruitt, Maochun Qin, Jianmin Wang, Dimiter Kunnev, Amy Freeland
Insufficient licensing of DNA replication origins has been shown to result in genome instability, stem cell deficiency, and cancers. However, it is unclear whether the DNA damage resulting from deficient replication licensing occurs generally or if specific sites are preferentially affected. To map locations of ongoing DNA damage in vivo, the DNAs present in red blood cell micronuclei were sequenced. Many micronuclei are the product of DNA breaks that leave acentromeric remnants that failed to segregate during mitosis and should reflect the locations of breaks...
January 3, 2017: PLoS Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28043127/potential-of-three-ethnomedicinal-plants-as-antisickling-agents
#8
Ismaila O Nurain, Clement O Bewaji, Jarrett S Johnson, Robertson D Davenport, Yang Zhang
Sickle cell disease (SCD) is a genetic blood disorder that affects the shape and transportation of red blood cells (RBCs) in blood vessels, leading to various clinical complications. Many drugs that are available for treating the disease are insufficiently effective, toxic, or too expensive. Therefore, there is a pressing need for safe, effective, and inexpensive therapeutic agents from indigenous plants used in ethnomedicines. The potential of aqueous extracts of Cajanus cajan leaf and seed, Zanthoxylum zanthoxyloides leaf, and Carica papaya leaf in sickle cell disease management was investigated in vitro using freshly prepared 2% sodium metabisulfite for sickling induction...
January 3, 2017: Molecular Pharmaceutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28042876/the-chk1-inhibitor-mk-8776-increases-the-radiosensitivity-of-human-triple-negative-breast-cancer-by-inhibiting-autophagy
#9
Zhi-Rui Zhou, Zhao-Zhi Yang, Shao-Jia Wang, Li Zhang, Ju-Rui Luo, Yan Feng, Xiao-Li Yu, Xing-Xing Chen, Xiao-Mao Guo
MK-8776 is a recently described inhibitor that is highly selective for checkpoint kinase 1 (Chk1), which can weaken the DNA repair capacity in cancer cells to achieve chemo-sensitization. A number of studies show that MK-8776 enhances the cytotoxicity of hydroxyurea and gemcitabine without increasing normal tissue toxicities. Thus far, there is no evidence that MK-8776 can be used as a radiotherapy sensitization agent. In this study, we investigated the effects of MK-8776 on the radiosensitivity of 3 human triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) cell lines MDA-MB-231, BT-549 and CAL-51...
January 2, 2017: Acta Pharmacologica Sinica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28035747/secondary-benefit-of-maintaining-normal-transcranial-doppler-velocities-when-using-hydroxyurea-for-prevention-of-severe-sickle-cell-anemia
#10
Djamila Labib Ghafuri, Shruti Chaturvedi, Mark Rodeghier, Sarah-Jo Stimpson, Brandi McClain, Jeannie Byrd, Michael R DeBaun
In a retrospective cohort study, we tested the hypothesis that when prescribing hydroxyurea (HU) to children with sickle cell anemia (SCA) to prevent vaso-occlusive events, there will be a secondary benefit of maintaining low transcranial Doppler (TCD) velocity, measured by imaging technique (TCDi). HU was prescribed for 90.9% (110 of 120) of children with SCA ≥5 years of age and followed for a median of 4.4 years, with 70% (n = 77) receiving at least one TCDi evaluation after starting HU. No child prescribed HU had a conditional or abnormal TCDi measurement...
December 30, 2016: Pediatric Blood & Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28030852/drug-induced-premature-senescence-model-in-human-dental-follicle-stem-cells
#11
Yuanfen Zhai, Rongbin Wei, Junjun Liu, Huihui Wang, Wenping Cai, Mengmeng Zhao, Yongguang Hu, Shuwei Wang, Tianshu Yang, Xiaodong Liu, Jianhua Yang, Shangfeng Liu
Aging is identified by a progressive decline of physiological integrity leading to age-related degenerative diseases, but its causes is unclear. Human dental pulp stem cells (hDPSCs) has a remarkable rejuvenated capacity that relies on its resident stem cells. However, because of the lack of proper senescence models, exploration of the underlying molecular mechanisms has been hindered. Here, we established a cellular model utilizing a hydroxyurea (HU) treatment protocol and effectively induced Human dental pulp stem cells to undergo cellular senescence...
December 21, 2016: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28026839/mj%C3%A3-ltsekvestrering-hos-barn-med-sicklecellanemi-akut-livshotande-komplikation-snabb-behandling-%C3%A3-r-avg%C3%A3-rande
#12
Fredrik Larsson, Anders Åhlin, Mats Marshall Heyman, Jonas Abrahamsson
Acute splenic sequestration in children with sickle cell disease - an overview Acute splenic sequestration (ASS) is a life-threatening complication of sickle cell disease (SCD). The condition is important to recognize due to the fact that it can occur with previously unknown disease. ASS is one of the most common causes of death in children with SCD and is the result of blood suddenly getting congested in the spleen, resulting in splenomegaly, acute anemia, and hypovolemic shock. Timely and appropriate treatment is essential in preventing death...
December 20, 2016: Läkartidningen
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27998000/severe-excessive-daytime-sleepiness-induced-by-hydroxyurea
#13
Bruno RevoL, Marie Joyeux-Faure, Marie-Victoire Albahary, Remy Gressin, Michel Mallaret, Jean-Louis Pepin, Sandrine H Launois
Excessive daytime sleepiness (EDS) has been reported with many drugs, either as an extension of a hypnotic effect (e.g., central nervous system depressants) or as an idiosyncratic response of the patient. Here, we report unexpected and severe subjective and objective EDS induced by hydroxyurea therapy, with a favorable outcome after withdrawal. Clinical history, sleep log, polysomnography and multiple sleep latency tests confirming the absence of other EDS causes are presented. This article is protected by copyright...
December 20, 2016: Fundamental & Clinical Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27991718/polycythemia-vera-and-essential-thrombocythemia-2017-update-on-diagnosis-risk-stratification-and-management
#14
Ayalew Tefferi, Tiziano Barbui
DISEASE OVERVIEW: Polycythemia Vera (PV) and essential thrombocythemia (ET) are myeloproliferative neoplasms respectively characterized by erythrocytosis and thrombocytosis; other disease features include leukocytosis, splenomegaly, thrombosis, bleeding, microcirculatory symptoms, pruritus, and risk of leukemic or fibrotic transformation. DIAGNOSIS: PV is defined by a JAK2 mutation, whose absence, combined with normal or increased serum erythropoietin level, makes the diagnosis unlikely...
January 2017: American Journal of Hematology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27982320/allogenic-bone-narrow-transplantation-in-sickle-cell-diseases
#15
Belinda Pinto Simões, Fabiano Pieroni, Thalita Costa, George Navarro Barros, Guilherme Darrigo, Carlos Settani Grecco, Juliana Elias Bernardes, Daniela Moraes, Ana Beatriz Lima Stracieri, Renato Cunha, Maria Carolina Rodrigues
Sickle-cell diseases are the most common inherited hemoglobinopathies worldwide. Improvement in survival has been seen in the last decades with the introduction of careful screening and prevention of complications and the introduction of hydroxyurea. Stem-cell transplantation is currently the only curative option for these patients and has been indicated for patients with neurological events, repeated vaso-occlusive crisis, any organ damage or presence of red blood cell antibodies. Related bone-marrow or cord-blood transplant has shown an overall survival of more than 90% with a disease-free survival of 90% in 1,000 patients transplanted in the last decades...
October 2016: Revista da Associação Médica Brasileira
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27981643/ugt1a1-ta-n-genotype-is-not-the-major-risk-factor-of-cholelithiasis-in-sickle-cell-disease-children
#16
Philippe Joly, Céline Renoux, Philippe Lacan, Yves Bertrand, Giovanna Cannas, Nathalie Garnier, Daniella Cuzzubbo, Kamila Kebaïli, Cécile Renard, Alexandra Gauthier, Vincent Pialoux, Cyril Martin, Marc Romana, Philippe Connes
Because of the increased hemolytic rate, a significant proportion of patients with sickle cell disease (SCD) are prone to develop cholelithiasis. The present study investigated the role of several genetic factors (UGT1A1 promoter (TA)n repeat polymorphism, alpha-globin status), hematological parameters, clinical severity and hydroxyurea (HU) therapy on the occurrence of cholelithiasis in SCD METHODS: One hundred and fifty eight children (2-18 years old) and regularly followed at the university hospital of Lyon (France) were included...
December 16, 2016: European Journal of Haematology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27979871/thornburg-cd-files-ba-luo-z-et-al-impact-of-hydroxyurea-on-clinical-events-in-the-baby-hug-trial-blood-2012-120-22-4304-4310
#17
(no author information available yet)
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 15, 2016: Blood
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27974460/metnase-mediates-loading-of-exonuclease-1-onto-single-strand-overhang-dna-for-end-resection-at-stalled-replication-forks
#18
Hyun-Suk Kim, Elizabeth A Williamson, Jac A Nickoloff, Robert A Hromas, Suk-Hee Lee
Stalling at DNA replication forks generates stretches of single-stranded (ss) DNA on both strands that are exposed to nucleolytic degradation, potentially compromising genome stability. One enzyme crucial for DNA replication fork repair and restart of stalled forks in human is Metnase (also known as SETMAR), a chimeric fusion protein consisting of a SET histone methylase and transposase nuclease domain. We previously showed that Metnase possesses a unique fork cleavage activity necessary for its function in replication restart and that its SET domain is essential for recovery from hydroxyurea-induced DNA damage...
December 14, 2016: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27959701/crizanlizumab-for-the-prevention-of-pain-crises-in-sickle-cell-disease
#19
Kenneth I Ataga, Abdullah Kutlar, Julie Kanter, Darla Liles, Rodolfo Cancado, João Friedrisch, Troy H Guthrie, Jennifer Knight-Madden, Ofelia A Alvarez, Victor R Gordeuk, Sandra Gualandro, Marina P Colella, Wally R Smith, Scott A Rollins, Jonathan W Stocker, Russell P Rother
Background The up-regulation of P-selectin in endothelial cells and platelets contributes to the cell-cell interactions that are involved in the pathogenesis of vaso-occlusion and sickle cell-related pain crises. The safety and efficacy of crizanlizumab, an antibody against the adhesion molecule P-selectin, were evaluated in patients with sickle cell disease. Methods In this double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled, phase 2 trial, we assigned patients to receive low-dose crizanlizumab (2.5 mg per kilogram of body weight), high-dose crizanlizumab (5...
December 3, 2016: New England Journal of Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27957350/laser-photobiomodulation-for-a-complex-patient-with-severe-hydroxyurea-induced-oral-ulcerations
#20
Marco Cabras, Adriana Cafaro, Alessio Gambino, Roberto Broccoletti, Ercole Romagnoli, Davide Marina, Paolo G Arduino
Patients affected by polycythemia vera (PV), a myeloproliferative neoplasm characterized by an elevated red blood cell mass, are at high risk of vascular and thrombotic complications. Conventional therapeutic options aim at reducing vascular and thrombotic risk; low-dose aspirin and phlebotomy are first-line recommendations, for patients at low risk of thrombotic events, whereas cytoreductive therapy, usually hydroxyurea (HU) or interferon alpha, is recommended for high-risk patients. In the present study, we report the case of a patient with persistent oral ulcerations, possibly related to long-lasting HU treatment, firstly treated with topic and systemic corticosteroids and then more effectively with the addition of low-level laser therapy...
2016: Case Reports in Dentistry
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