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Respiratory Quotient

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28285649/pioglitazone-induced-improvements-in-insulin-sensitivity-occur-without-concomitant-changes-in-muscle-mitochondrial-function
#1
Sudip Bajpeyi, Magdalena Pasarica, Kevin E Conley, Bradley R Newcomer, Sharon A Jubrias, Cecilia Gamboa, Kori Murray, Olga Sereda, Lauren M Sparks, Steven R Smith
AIMS: Pioglitazone (Pio) is known to improve insulin sensitivity in skeletal muscle. However, the role of Pio in skeletal muscle lipid metabolism and skeletal muscle oxidative capacity is not clear. The aim of this study was to determine the effects of chronic Pio treatment on skeletal muscle mitochondrial activity in individuals with type 2 diabetes (T2D). MATERIALS AND METHODS: Twenty-four participants with T2D (13M/11F 53.38±2.1years; BMI 36.47±1.1kg/m(2)) were randomized to either a placebo (CON, n=8) or a pioglitazone (PIO, n=16) group...
April 2017: Metabolism: Clinical and Experimental
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28262678/eight-weeks-of-overfeeding-alters-substrate-partitioning-without-affecting-metabolic-flexibility-in-men
#2
C M Peterson, B Zhang, D L Johannsen, E Ravussin
BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVE: Impairments in metabolic flexibility and substrate handling are associated with metabolic syndrome. However, it is unknown whether metabolic inflexibility causes insulin resistance. We therefore measured metabolic flexibility and substrate handling before and after 8 weeks of overfeeding in initially healthy adults, as a model of the early stages of insulin resistance. SUBJECTS/METHODS: Twenty-nine healthy men (27±5 years old; BMI 25.5±2...
March 6, 2017: International Journal of Obesity: Journal of the International Association for the Study of Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28245949/atmospheric-size-resolved-trace-elements-in-a-city-affected-by-non-ferrous-metal-smelting-indications-of-respiratory-deposition-and-health-risk
#3
Yan Lyu, Kai Zhang, Fahe Chai, Tiantao Cheng, Qing Yang, Zilong Zheng, Xiang Li
This study examines size-resolved heavy metal data for particles sampled near an urban site affected by non-ferrous metal smelting in China with a focus on how particle sizes impact regional respiratory deposition behavior. Particles with aerodynamic diameters between 0.43 and 9 μm were collected during winter haze episodes from December 2011 to January 2012. The results showed that concentrations of individual trace elements ranged from ∼10(-2)-∼10(4) ng/m(3). Mass size distributions exhibit that Cu, Zn, As, Se, Ag, Cd, TI, and Pb have unimodal peak in fine particles range (<2...
February 25, 2017: Environmental Pollution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28245284/metabolically-distinct-weight-loss-by-10-12-cla-and-caloric-restriction-highlight-the-importance-of-subcutaneous-white-adipose-tissue-for-glucose-homeostasis-in-mice
#4
Laura J den Hartigh, Shari Wang, Leela Goodspeed, Tomasz Wietecha, Barbara Houston, Mohamed Omer, Kayoko Ogimoto, Savitha Subramanian, G A Nagana Gowda, Kevin D O'Brien, Karl J Kaiyala, Gregory J Morton, Alan Chait
BACKGROUND: Widely used as a weight loss supplement, trans-10,cis-12 conjugated linoleic acid (10,12 CLA) promotes fat loss in obese mice and humans, but has also been associated with insulin resistance. OBJECTIVE: We therefore sought to directly compare weight loss by 10,12 CLA versus caloric restriction (CR, 15-25%), an acceptable healthy method of weight loss, to determine how 10,12 CLA-mediated weight loss fails to improve glucose metabolism. METHODS: Obese mice with characteristics of human metabolic syndrome were either supplemented with 10,12 CLA or subjected to CR to promote weight loss...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28239355/modification-of-flight-and-locomotion-performances-respiratory-metabolism-and-transcriptome-expression-in-the-lady-beetle-harmonia-axyridis-through-sublethal-pesticide-exposure
#5
Da Xiao, Xiaoling Tan, Wenjuan Wang, Fan Zhang, Nicolas Desneux, Su Wang
Biological control is usually used in combination with chemical control for practical agricultural applications. Thus, the influence of insecticides on the natural predators used for biological control should be investigated for integrated pest management. The ladybird Harmonia axyridis is an effective predator on aphids and coccids. Beta-cypermethrin is a broad-spectrum insecticide used worldwide for controlling insect pests. H. axyridis is becoming increasingly threatened by this insecticide. Here, we investigated the effect of a sublethal dose of beta-cypermethrin on flight, locomotion, respiration, and detoxification system of H...
2017: Frontiers in Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28179805/a-new-whole-room-indirect-calorimeter-for-measurement-of-the-energetics-of-exercise
#6
Russell Rising, Kathryn Whyte, Jeanine Albu, Xavier Pi-Sunyer
The purpose of this study was to compare the accuracy of exercise energy expenditure (EXEE) measurements from a metabolic cart (HG_MC) to that obtained with a new exercise whole room indirect calorimeter (EX_WRIC). First, the HG_MC and the EX_WRIC were subjected to 10, 30-min ethanol (99.8% purity) and propane (99.5% purity) combustion validations, respectively, for EE, ventilation rates (liters) of oxygen (VO2), carbon dioxide (VCO2), and the respiratory quotient (RQ; VCO2/VO2). Then, 15 healthy adults (13 men and 2 women) cycled at 65% age predicted heart rate max for random determination of their EXEE, VO2, VCO2 and RQ after a 12-hr fast with both the HG-MC and EX_WRIC...
December 2016: Journal of Exercise Physiology Online
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28169958/cardiorespiratory-function-does-not-improve-two-years-after-posterior-surgical-correction-of-adolescent-idiopathic-scoliosis
#7
Alejandro Lorente, Carlos Barrios, Jesús Burgos, Eduardo Hevia, Luis Fernández-Pineda, Rafael Lorente, Bárbara Rosa, Cristina Pérez-Encinas
STUDY DESIGN: A prospective evaluation of cardiorespiratory function following spinal fusion in adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS). OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the cardiopulmonary function during exercise in patients with severe AIS, before and two years after undergoing a posterior spinal fusion. SUMMARY OF BACKGROUND DATA: After surgical correction of scoliosis, a greater cardiorespiratory adaptation to exercise would be expected from correction of the rib cage associated with the spine deformity...
February 6, 2017: Spine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28158227/beneficial-effects-of-metformin-on-energy-metabolism-and-visceral-fat-volume-through-a-possible-mechanism-of-fatty-acid-oxidation-in-human-subjects-and-rats
#8
Ichiro Tokubuchi, Yuji Tajiri, Shimpei Iwata, Kento Hara, Nobuhiko Wada, Toshihiko Hashinaga, Hitomi Nakayama, Hiroharu Mifune, Kentaro Yamada
OBJECTIVE: Metformin is known to have a beneficial effect on body weight and body composition, although the precise mechanism has not been elucidated yet. The aim of this study is to investigate the effects of metformin on energy metabolism and anthropometric factors in both human subjects and rats. METHODS: In human studies, metformin (1500mg/day) was administered to 23 healthy subjects and 18 patients with type 2 diabetes for 2 weeks. Metabolic parameters and energy metabolism were measured during a meal tolerance test in the morning before and after the treatment of metformin...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28141730/-footprints-in-the-bathroom-the-role-of-spirituality-in-patient-diagnosis
#9
Veronica Meneses, Douglas Vanderbilt, Linda Barnes, Marilyn Augustyn
Lucy is a 12-year-old Latina whose mother brought her to the pediatric clinic for help with her anxiety symptoms, "hearing voices," and episodes of "spacing out." Lucy did not cry at birth secondary to vocal cord paralysis and still has the tracheostomy performed at a few days of life. In addition to her neonatal intensive care unit stay, she has been hospitalized for pneumonia. Her mother says she is "sickly" and has a weak immune system due to her asthma symptoms. Lucy also experiences somatic complaints related to gastroesophageal reflux and constipation...
February 2017: Journal of Developmental and Behavioral Pediatrics: JDBP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28107817/can-calculation-of-energy-expenditure-based-on-co2-measurements-replace-indirect-calorimetry
#10
Taku Oshima, Séverine Graf, Claudia-Paula Heidegger, Laurence Genton, Jérôme Pugin, Claude Pichard
BACKGROUND: Methods to calculate energy expenditure (EE) based on CO2 measurements (EEVCO2) have been proposed as a surrogate to indirect calorimetry. This study aimed at evaluating whether EEVCO2 could be considered as an alternative to EE measured by indirect calorimetry. METHODS: Indirect calorimetry measurements conducted for clinical purposes on 278 mechanically ventilated ICU patients were retrospectively analyzed. EEVCO2 was calculated by a converted Weir's equation using CO2 consumption (VCO2) measured by indirect calorimetry and assumed respiratory quotients (RQ): 0...
January 21, 2017: Critical Care: the Official Journal of the Critical Care Forum
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28104916/trpv1-activation-counters-diet-induced-obesity-through-sirtuin-1-activation-and-prdm-16-deacetylation-in-brown-adipose-tissue
#11
P Baskaran, V Krishnan, K Fettel, P Gao, Z Zhu, J Ren, B Thyagarajan
BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVE: An imbalance between energy intake and expenditure leads to obesity. Increasing metabolism and thermogenesis in brown adipose tissue (BAT) can help in overcoming obesity. Here, we investigated the effect of activation of transient receptor potential vanilloid subfamily 1 (TRPV1) in the upregulation of thermogenic proteins in BAT to counter diet-induced obesity. SUBJECTS/METHODS: We investigated the effect of dietary supplementation of capsaicin (CAP) (TRPV1 agonist) on the expression of metabolically important thermogenic proteins in BAT of wild-type and TRPV1(-/-) mice that received either a normal chow or high-fat (±CAP; TRPV1 activator) diet by immunoblotting...
February 14, 2017: International Journal of Obesity: Journal of the International Association for the Study of Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28099336/prognostic-significance-of-nonprotein-respiratory-quotient-in-patients-with-liver-cirrhosis
#12
Hiroki Nishikawa, Hirayuki Enomoto, Yoshinori Iwata, Kyohei Kishino, Yoshihiro Shimono, Kunihiro Hasegawa, Chikage Nakano, Ryo Takata, Akio Ishii, Takashi Nishimura, Kazunori Yoh, Nobuhiro Aizawa, Yoshiyuki Sakai, Naoto Ikeda, Tomoyuki Takashima, Hiroko Iijima, Shuhei Nishiguchi
The aim of this study was to examine the effect of nonprotein respiratory quotient (npRQ), as assessed using indirect calorimetry, on clinical outcomes in patients with liver cirrhosis (LC). A total of 244 LC patients were evaluated in this study. For the univariate analysis, for each continuous variable, the optimal cutoff value that maximized the sum of sensitivity and specificity was selected using receiver operating curve (ROC) analysis for survival. There were 137 men and 107 women with the median (range) age of 67 (25-90) years...
January 2017: Medicine (Baltimore)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28056094/energy-cost-of-standing-in-a-multi-ethnic-cohort-are-energy-savers-a-minority-or-the-majority
#13
Cathríona R Monnard, Jennifer L Miles-Chan
BACKGROUND: The disease risks associated with sedentary behavior are now firmly established, and consequently there is much interest in methods of increasing low-intensity physical activity. In this context, it is a widely held belief that altering posture allocation can modify energy expenditure (EE) to impact upon body weight regulation and health. However, we recently showed the existence of two distinct phenotypes pertaining to the energy cost of standing-with the majority of a Caucasian cohort showing no sustained increase in EE during standing relative to sitting...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28041563/effect-of-dynamic-controlled-atmosphere-monitored-by-respiratory-quotient-and-1-methylcyclopropene-on-the-metabolism-and-quality-of-galaxy-apple-harvested-at-three-maturity-stages
#14
Fabio Rodrigo Thewes, Auri Brackmann, Rogerio de Oliveira Anese, Vagner Ludwig, Erani Eliseu Schultz, Luana Ferreira Dos Santos, Lucas Mallmann Wendt
The objective of this study was to evaluate the interaction between controlled atmosphere (CA), CA+1-methylcyclopropene (1-MCP) and dynamic controlled atmosphere monitored by respiratory quotient (DCA-RQ) with three fruit maturity stages at harvest (early harvest date, optimal harvest date and late harvest date) on 'Galaxy' apple metabolism and quality after harvest and 9months storage plus 7days of shelf life at 20°C. Fruit stored under dynamic controlled atmosphere monitored by respiratory quotient 1.3 (DCA-RQ 1...
May 1, 2017: Food Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28030441/does-permissive-hypoxaemia-during-extracorporeal-membrane-oxygenation-cause-long-term-neurological-impairment-a-study-in-patients-with-h1n1-induced-severe-respiratory-failure
#15
Bernhard Holzgraefe, Christin Andersson, Håkan Kalzén, Viktor von Bahr, Mikael Mosskin, Elna-Marie Larsson, Kenneth Palmér, Björn Frenckner, Anders Larsson
BACKGROUND: The Extracorporeal Life Support Organisation accepts permissive hypoxaemia in adult patients during extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO). The neurological long-term outcome of this approach has not yet been studied. OBJECTIVES: We investigated the prevalence of brain lesions and cognitive dysfunction in survivors from the Influenza A/H1N1 2009 pandemic treated with permissive hypoxaemia during ECMO for severe acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS)...
February 2017: European Journal of Anaesthesiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28001433/capsaicin-and-capsiate-could-be-appropriate-agents-for-treatment-of-obesity-a-meta-analysis-of-human-studies
#16
Csaba Zsiborás, Róbert Mátics, Péter Hegyi, Márta Balaskó, Erika Pétervári, Imre Szabó, Patrícia Sarlós, Alexandra Mikó, Judit Tenk, Ildikó Rostás, Dániel Pécsi, András Garami, Zoltán Rumbus, Orsolya Huszár, Margit Solymár
Consumption of capsaicin or its non-pungent analogues, capsinoids has been reported to affect energy expenditure and fat oxidation, although available data are still controversial. The aim of the present study was to conduct a meta-analysis regarding the effects of these substances on energy expenditure and respiratory quotient, with special emphasis on the role of body mass index (BMI) of the participants. Medical databases were systematically searched for papers. Of the 627 trials identified, 9 provided results suitable to be included in analysis...
December 21, 2016: Critical Reviews in Food Science and Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27941661/phosphorus-supplementation-recovers-the-blunted-diet-induced-thermogenesis-of-overweight-and-obese-adults-a-pilot-study
#17
Maya S Bassil, Omar A Obeid
Diet-induced thermogenesis (DIT) is believed to be largely related to ATP production, which is dependent on phosphorus (P) availability. We aimed to test the effect of P addition on DIT of lean and overweight/obese healthy subjects. DIT was measured with or without P in 10 lean and 13 overweight/obese adults in a double-blind randomized cross-over pilot study with one week washout period. After 10 h overnight fast, resting metabolic rate, respiratory quotient, and substrate utilization were measured at fasting and every 30 min for 3 h after subjects drank a standardized glucose solution, with P (500 mg) or placebo pills...
December 9, 2016: Nutrients
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27890489/spinal-muscular-atrophy-types-i-and-ii-what-are-the-differences-in%C3%A2-body-composition-and-resting-energy-expenditure
#18
Simona Bertoli, Ramona De Amicis, Chiara Mastella, Giulia Pieri, Ester Giaquinto, Alberto Battezzati, Alessandro Leone, Giovanni Baranello
BACKGROUND & AIMS: Different neuromuscular functional domains in types I and II Spinal Muscular Atrophy (SMAI and SMAII) could lead to differences in body composition (BC) and resting energy expenditure (REE). Their identification could provide the key to defining appropriate strategies in clinical dietary management, but data comparing SMAI and SMAII in terms of BC and REE are not yet available. We measured total and regional fat (FM), lean (LBM), mineral (BMC) masses, body water (total, intra- and extra-cellular, TBW, ICW, ECW) and REE in a sample of SMAI and II children, matched for age and sex, and also adjusting for body size to compare these features of the two SMA phenotypes...
November 16, 2016: Clinical Nutrition: Official Journal of the European Society of Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27883924/physiological-effects-of-epigallocatechin-3-gallate-egcg-on-energy-expenditure-for-prospective-fat-oxidation-in-humans-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#19
REVIEW
Mahendra P Kapoor, Masaaki Sugita, Yoshitaka Fukuzawa, Tsutomu Okubo
Green tea catechins (GTCs) are known to improve fat oxidation (FOX) during fasted, rested and exercise conditions wherein epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG) is thought to be the most pharmacologically active and has been studied extensively. From the available data of randomized controlled trials (RCTs) on EGCG, we carried out a systematic review and meta-analysis to elucidate whether EGCG consumption indeed increase energy expenditure (EE) and promote FOX. A systematic review of the literature was conducted using electronic databases (PubMed, Embase, Cochrane Library, CINAHL, JICST, JSTPLUS, and JMEDPLUS and others) and eight RCTs were included...
November 2, 2016: Journal of Nutritional Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27870595/human-energy-expenditure-and-postural-coordination-on-the-mechanical-horse
#20
Héloïse Baillet, Régis Thouvarecq, Eric Vérin, Claire Tourny, Nicolas Benguigui, John Komar, David Leroy
The authors investigated and compared the energy expenditure and postural coordination of two groups of healthy subjects on a mechanical horse at 4 increasing oscillation frequencies. Energy expenditure was assessed from the oxygen consumption, respiratory quotient, and heart rate values, and postural coordination was characterized by relative phase computations between subjects (elbow, head, trunk) and horse. The results showed that the postural coordination of the riders was better adapted (i.e., maintenance of in-phase and antiphase) than that of the nonriders, but the energy expenditure remains the same...
November 21, 2016: Journal of Motor Behavior
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