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Respiratory Quotient

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28815952/partial-sleep-deprivation-reduces-the-efficacy-of-orexin-a-to-stimulate-physical-activity-and-energy-expenditure
#1
Danielle P DePorter, Jamie E Coborn, Jennifer A Teske
OBJECTIVE: Sufficient sleep is required for weight maintenance. Sleep deprivation due to noise exposure stimulates weight gain by increasing hyperphagia and reducing energy expenditure (EE). Yet the mechanistic basis underlying the weight gain response is unclear. Orexin-A promotes arousal and negative energy balance, and orexin terminals project to the ventrolateral preoptic area (VLPO), which is involved in sleep-to-wake transitions. To determine whether sleep deprivation reduces orexin function in VLPO and to test the hypothesis that sleep deprivation would attenuate the orexin-A-stimulated increase in arousal, physical activity (PA), and EE...
August 17, 2017: Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28811653/meal-timing-effects-on-insulin-sensitivity-and-intrahepatic-triglycerides-during-weight-loss
#2
R I Versteeg, M T Ackermans, A J Nederveen, E Fliers, M J Serlie, S E la Fleur
BACKGROUND: Several human and rodent studies suggest that in addition to the amount of energy consumed, timing of food intake contributes to body weight regulation. Consuming most energy in the morning has favorable effects on weight loss and weight maintenance. Whether this also affects glucose metabolism and liver fat independently from weight loss is unknown. OBJECTIVE: We hypothesized that during weight loss, consuming most energy in the morning improves insulin sensitivity and reduces hepatic fat content more than consuming most energy in the evening...
August 16, 2017: International Journal of Obesity: Journal of the International Association for the Study of Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28803134/age-related-changes-of-physiological-performance-and-survivorship-of-bank-voles-selected-for-high-aerobic-capacity
#3
Agata Marta Rudolf, Maciej Jan Dańko, Edyta Teresa Sadowska, Geoffrey Dheyongera, Paweł Koteja
Variation in lifespans is an intriguing phenomenon, but how metabolic rate influence this variation remains unclear. High aerobic capacity can result in health benefits, but also in increased oxidative damage and accelerated ageing. We tested these contradictory predictions using bank voles (Myodes=Clethrionomys glareolus) from lines selected for high swim-induced aerobic metabolism (A), which had about 50% higher maximum metabolic rate and a higher basal and routine metabolic rates, than those from unselected control lines (C)...
August 9, 2017: Experimental Gerontology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28739332/effects-of-voice-therapy-on-muscle-tension-dysphonia-a-systematic-literature-review
#4
REVIEW
Gabriela da Cunha Pereira, Isadora de Oliveira Lemos, Camila Dalbosco Gadenz, Mauriceia Cassol
The present study aimed to carry out a systematic review of the effects of voice therapy on individuals diagnosed with muscle tension dysphonia (MTD) or hyperfunctional dysphonia. This is a systematic literature review on the databases Medline (via PubMed), Cochrane Library, Scopus, and Lilacs using a search strategy related to the theme of the study. The selection included clinical trials that assessed the effects of speech therapy intervention on patients diagnosed with MTD or hyperfunctional dysphonia published over the last 10 years in Portuguese, English, or Spanish...
July 21, 2017: Journal of Voice: Official Journal of the Voice Foundation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28737589/validity-of-a-taekwondo-specific-test-to-measure-vo2peak-and-the-heart-rate-deflection-point
#5
Jader Sant'Ana, Emerson Franchini, Juan Murias, Fernando Diefenthaeler
This study investigated whether the progressive specific taekwondo test (PSTT) is a valid test to measure peak oxygen consumption (VO2PEAK) and the heart rate deflection point (HRDP) in taekwondo athletes. Eighteen male black belt athletes (25.3 ± 4.8 years; 8.2 ± 4.7 years of practice; 171.8 ± 4.7 cm; 76.1 ± 8.2 kg, and 13.1 ± 2.9% body fat) involved in regional and national level competitions performed the PSTT and an incremental treadmill test (IT). The following variables were analyzed: VO2PEAK, respiratory quotient, oxygen consumption at the HRDP (VO2HRDP), peak heart rate (HRPEAK), HRDP, and peak post-test blood lactate concentration...
July 19, 2017: Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28727087/effects-of-zilpaterol-hydrochloride-on-methane-production-total-body-oxygen-consumption-and-blood-metabolites-in-finishing-beef-steers
#6
K E Hales, A P Foote, D W Brake, T M Brown-Brandl, V M Artegoitia, H C Freetly
An indirect calorimetry experiment was conducted to determine the effects of feeding zilpaterol hydrochloride (ZH) for 20 d on total body oxygen consumption, respiratory quotient, methane production, and blood metabolites in finishing beef steers. Sixteen Angus steers (initial BW = 555 ± 12.7 kg) were individually fed at ad libitum intake and used in a completely randomized design. The model included the fixed effects of dietary treatment, day, and treatment × day. Dry matter intake did not differ between the treatments ( = 0...
July 2017: Journal of Animal Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28720583/central-effects-of-insulin-detemir-on-feeding-body-weight-and-metabolism-in-rats
#7
Joseph R Vasselli, F Xavier Pi-Sunyer, Daniel G Wall, Catherine S John, Colin D Chapman, Paul J Currie
Insulin detemir (DET) is a basal insulin analog that, in contrast to other long-acting forms of insulin, has significant weight-gain sparing effects in diabetic patients. We hypothesized that this effect of DET may be due to its enhanced catabolic action in the CNS. We investigated the long-term effects of single third ventricular (3V) microinjections of equimolar doses of DET and regular insulin in normal male rats on feeding, body weight, energy expenditure (EE) and respiratory quotient (RQ). Also in acute testing, we assessed the ability of lower doses of DET to alter feeding, EE and RQ when microinjected directly into the paraventricular nucleus (PVN)...
July 18, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Endocrinology and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28657427/expression-of-metabolic-syndrome-in-women-with-severe-obesity
#8
James L Hopkins, Paul N Hopkins, Eliot A Brinton, Ted D Adams, Lance E Davidson, M Nazeem Nanjee, Steven C Hunt
BACKGROUND: The prevalence of metabolic syndrome (MetS) generally rises with increasing adiposity, but tends to plateau at the highest levels of body mass index (BMI) with some individuals, even with severe obesity, expressing few or no components of MetS. We examined factors associated with the expression of MetS in severely obese women participating in a large observational study. METHODS: Anthropometrics, including Heath equation-adjusted bioimpedance-determined fat-free mass (FFM) and fat mass (FM), lipids and related laboratory measurements, resting energy expenditure (REE), and respiratory quotient (RQ), were studied in 949 women with severe obesity...
June 28, 2017: Metabolic Syndrome and related Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28637949/comparative-analysis-of-allyl-isothiocyanate-aitc-induced-carbohydrate-oxidation-changes-via-trpv1-between-mice-and-chickens
#9
Fuminori Kawabata, Yuko Kawabata, Ruojun Liang, Shotaro Nishimura, Shoji Tabata
Postprandial hyperglycemia is a risk factor for cardiovascular diseases. It has been reported that intragastric administration of allyl isothiocyanate (AITC), which is one of the pungent ingredients of wasabi and horseradish but it is not included in hot chili pepper, increased carbohydrate oxidation and reduced postprandial increase of blood glucose via transient receptor potential vanilloid 1 (TRPV1)in mice. However, the action site of AITC on TRPV1 for increasing carbohydrate oxidation is unclear. Both mammalian and chicken TRPV1 (cTRPV1) are activated by heat and acid, but unlike its mammalian counterpart, cTRPV1 is only faintly activated by capsaicin...
2017: Biomedical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28630295/application-of-metabolic-controls-for-the-maximization-of-lipid-production-in-semicontinuous-fermentation
#10
Jingyang Xu, Nian Liu, Kangjian Qiao, Sebastian Vogg, Gregory Stephanopoulos
Acetic acid can be generated through syngas fermentation, lignocellulosic biomass degradation, and organic waste anaerobic digestion. Microbial conversion of acetate into triacylglycerols for biofuel production has many advantages, including low-cost or even negative-cost feedstock and environmental benefits. The main issue stems from the dilute nature of acetate produced in such systems, which is costly to be processed on an industrial scale. To tackle this problem, we established an efficient bioprocess for converting dilute acetate into lipids, using the oleaginous yeast Yarrowia lipolytica in a semicontinuous system...
July 3, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28628125/enhanced-insulin-sensitivity-in-successful-long-term-weight-loss-maintainers-compared-with-matched-controls-with-no-weight-loss-history
#11
L D Clamp, D J Hume, E V Lambert, J Kroff
BACKGROUND: Weight gain is associated with deterioration in metabolic health, whereas weight loss improves insulin sensitivity. This study assesses the impact of long-term, successfully maintained weight loss and weight-loss relapse on measures of insulin sensitivity and identifies factors that explain variability in insulin sensitivity. METHODS: Women (20-45 years) were recruited into four groups: reduced-overweight/obese (RED, n=15); body mass index (BMI)-matched controls (stable low-weight, n=19), BMI⩽27 kg m(-2); relapsed-overweight/obese subjects (REL, n=11); and BMI-matched controls (obese stable weight, n=11), BMI⩾27 kg m(-2)...
June 19, 2017: Nutrition & Diabetes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28627416/a-combined-application-of-tunable-diode-laser-absorption-spectroscopy-and-isothermal-micro-calorimetry-for-calorespirometric-analysis
#12
David Brueckner, Anna Solokhina, Stephan Krähenbühl, Olivier Braissant
Calorespirometry is the simultaneous analysis of the rate of heat emission (Rq), O2 consumption (RO2) and CO2 production (RCO2) by living systems such as tissues or organism cultures. The analysis provides useful knowledge about thermodynamic parameters relevant for e.g. biotechnology where parameter based yield maximization (fermentation) is relevant. The determination of metabolism related heat emission is easy and normally done by a calorimeter. However, measuring the amount of consumed O2 and produced CO2 can be more challenging, as additional preparation or instrumentation might be needed...
June 13, 2017: Journal of Microbiological Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28626215/genetic-variation-in-the-obesity-gene-fto-is-not-associated-with-decreased-fat-oxidation-the-neo-study
#13
L L Blauw, R Noordam, S Trompet, J F P Berbée, F R Rosendaal, D van Heemst, K W van Dijk, D O Mook-Kanamori, R de Mutsert, P C N Rensen
BACKGROUND: The FTO gene harbours the strongest common genetic variant associated with obesity. Recently, rs1421085-T to -C substitution mapped in FTO was shown to induce a developmental shift of human adipocytes from an energy-combusting beige to an energy-storing white phenotype in vitro. As browning of adipocytes selectively enhances fat oxidation (FatOx), we hypothesized that rs1421085-C in FTO is associated with deceased FatOx compared with carbohydrate oxidation (CarbOx) and an increased respiratory quotient (RQ)...
June 19, 2017: International Journal of Obesity: Journal of the International Association for the Study of Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28608134/venoarterial-pco2-to-arteriovenous-oxygen-content-difference-ratio-is-a-poor-surrogate-for-anaerobic-metabolism-in-hemodilution-an-experimental-study
#14
Arnaldo Dubin, Gonzalo Ferrara, Vanina Siham Kanoore Edul, Enrique Martins, Héctor Saúl Canales, Carlos Canullán, Gastón Murias, Mario Omar Pozo, Elisa Estenssoro
BACKGROUND: The identification of anaerobic metabolism in critically ill patients is a challenging task. Observational studies have suggested that the ratio of venoarterial PCO2 (Pv-aCO2) to arteriovenous oxygen content difference (Ca-vO2) might be a good surrogate for respiratory quotient (RQ). Yet Pv-aCO2/Ca-vO2 might be increased by other factors, regardless of anaerobic metabolism. At present, comparisons between Pv-aCO2/Ca-vO2 and RQ have not been performed. We sought to compare these variables during stepwise hemorrhage and hemodilution...
December 2017: Annals of Intensive Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28587914/the-chaoborus-pump-migrating-phantom-midge-larvae-sustain-hypolimnetic-oxygen-deficiency-and-nutrient-internal-loading-in-lakes
#15
Kam W Tang, Sabine Flury, Hans-Peter Grossart, Daniel F McGinnis
Hypolimnetic oxygen demand in lakes is often assumed to be driven mainly by sediment microbial processes, while the role of Chaoborus larvae, which are prevalent in eutrophic lakes with hypoxic to anoxic bottoms, has been overlooked. We experimentally measured the respiration rates of C. flavicans at different temperatures yielding a Q10 of 1.44-1.71 and a respiratory quotient of 0.84-0.98. Applying the experimental data in a system analytical approach, we showed that migrating Chaoborus larvae can significantly add to the water column and sediment oxygen demand, and contribute to the observed linear relationship between water column respiration and depth...
May 30, 2017: Water Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28554617/dynamic-controlled-atmosphere-dca-interaction-between-dca-methods-and-1-methylcyclopropene-on-fuji-suprema-apple-quality
#16
Anderson Weber, Fabio Rodrigo Thewes, Rogerio de Oliveira Anese, Vanderlei Both, Elizandra Pivotto Pavanello, Auri Brackmann
The objective of the present work was to evaluate the appropriate respiratory quotient (RQ) value to achieve a safe lowest oxygen limit (LOL), during storage of 'Fuji Suprema' apples, in dynamic controlled atmosphere (DCA), treated with or without 1-methylcyclopropene (1-MCP). The apples were stored in DCA-RQ, a new technology for storing fruits, and were compared with the HarvestWatch™, a system based on chlorophyll fluorescence DCA (DCA-CF), and static controlled atmosphere. DCA-RQ1.5 is the most suited for the storage of 'Fuji Suprema' apples...
November 15, 2017: Food Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28543022/sedentary-behaviour-is-a-key-determinant-of-metabolic-inflexibility
#17
Corey A Rynders, Stephane Blanc, Nathan DeJong, Daniel H Bessesen, Audrey Bergouignan
Metabolic flexibility is defined as the ability to adapt substrate oxidation rates in response to changes in fuel availability. The inability to switch between the oxidation of lipid and carbohydrate appears to be an important feature of chronic disorders such as obesity and type 2 diabetes. Laboratory assessment of metabolic flexibility has traditionally involved measurement of the respiratory quotient (RQ) by indirect calorimetry during the fasted to fed transition (e.g. mixed meal challenge) or during a hyperinsulinaemic-euglycaemic clamp...
May 24, 2017: Journal of Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28535860/effects-of-nesting-material-on-energy-homeostasis-in-balb-canncrl-c57bl-6ncrl-and-crl-cd1-icr-mice-housed-at-20-%C3%A2-c
#18
Jay S Johnson, Daniel J Taylor, Angela R Green, Brianna N Gaskill
Discrepancies exist between the preferred temperature range for mice (26 to 32 °C) and current recommendations (20 to 26 °C), which may alter metabolism and negatively affect studies using mice. Previous research indicates that nesting material can alleviate cold stress in mice; therefore, we sought to determine the effects of the amount of nesting material provided (0, 6, or 12 g) on heat energy loss and energy balance in 3 mouse strains housed at currently recommended temperatures during the daytime, a period of presumed inactivity...
May 1, 2017: Journal of the American Association for Laboratory Animal Science: JAALAS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28514721/impact-of-gh-administration-on-athletic-performance-in-healthy-young-adults-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis-of-placebo-controlled-trials
#19
REVIEW
Kasper Hermansen, Mads Bengtsen, Michael Kjær, Peter Vestergaard, Jens Otto Lunde Jørgensen
OBJECTIVE: Illicit use of growth hormone (GH) as a performance-enhancing drug among athletes is prevalent, although the evidence of such effects in healthy, young subjects is sparse. We therefore performed a meta-analysis of published studies on the effect of GH administration on body composition, substrate metabolism, and athletic performance in healthy, young subjects. DESIGN: The English-language based databases PubMed, EMBASE, and Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials were searched, and eligible articles were reviewed in accordance with the PRISMA guidelines...
June 2017: Growth Hormone & IGF Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28506901/new-isoflavonoids-from-the-extract-of-rhynchosia-precatoria-humb-bonpl-ex-willd-dc-and-their-antimycobacterial-activity
#20
Enrique Wenceslao Coronado-Aceves, Giulia Gigliarelli, Adriana Garibay-Escobar, Ramón Enrique Robles Zepeda, Massimo Curini, Jaime López Cervantes, Clara Inés Inés Espitia-Pinzón, Stefano Superchi, Stefania Vergura, Maria Carla Marcotullio
ETHNOPHARMACOLOGY RELEVANCE: The evaluation of the antimycobacterial activity of extracts of medicinal plants used by Mayos against tuberculosis and respiratory problems, allowed the identification of Rhynchosia precatoria (Humb. & Bonpl. ex Willd.) DC (Fabaceae) as the best candidate to find new antimycobacterial compounds. AIM OF THE STUDY: To isolate and characterize the compounds of R. precatoria responsible for the inhibitory and bactericidal activity against Mycobacterium tuberculosis H37Rv and Mycobacterium smegmatis ATCC 700084...
July 12, 2017: Journal of Ethnopharmacology
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