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Respiratory Quotient

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29339267/effects-of-exotic-plantation-forests-on-soil-edaphon-and-organic-matter-fractions
#1
Gang Xu, Yao Liu, Zhijian Long, Shanglian Hu, Yuanbin Zhang, Hao Jiang
There is uncertainty and limited knowledge regarding soil microbial properties and organic matter fractions of natural secondary forest accompanying chemical environmental changes of replacement by pure alien plantation forests in a hilly area of southwest of Sichuan province China. The aim of this study was to evaluate the impact of natural secondary forest (NSF) to pure Cryptomeria fortunei forest (CFF) and Cunninghamia lanceolata forest (CLF) on soil organic fractions and microbial communities. The results showed that the soil total phospholipid fatty acids (PLFAs), total bacteria and fungi, microbial carbon pool, organic recalcitrant carbon (C) and (N) fractions, soil microbial quotient and labile and recalcitrant C use efficiencies in each pure plantation were significantly decreased, but their microbial N pool, labile C and N pools, soil carbon dioxide efflux, soil respiratory quotient and recalcitrant N use efficiency were increased...
January 13, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29334345/arm-crank-ergometry-improves-cardiovascular-disease-risk-factors-and-community-mobility-independent-of-body-composition-in-high-motor-complete-spinal-cord-injury
#2
James J Bresnahan, Gary J Farkas, Jody L Clasey, James W Yates, David R Gater
OBJECTIVE: Evaluate the effect of aerobic exercise using arm crank ergometry (ACE) in high motor complete (ISNCSCI A/B) spinal cord injury (SCI) as primarily related to cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors and functional mobility and secondarily to body composition and metabolic profiles. DESIGN: Longitudinal interventional study at an academic medical center. METHODS: Ten previously untrained participants (M8/F2, Age 36.7 y ± 10.1, BMI 24...
January 15, 2018: Journal of Spinal Cord Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29326420/fasting-and-glucose-induced-thermogenesis-in-response-to-three-ambient-temperatures-a-randomized-crossover-trial-in-the-metabolic-syndrome
#3
K Pathak, R J Woodman, A P James, M J Soares
BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: Cold exposure increases thermogenesis and could improve insulin sensitivity. We hypothesized a blunted response in the metabolic syndrome (MetS). SUBJECTS/METHODS: Twenty older adults 59 ± 10.4 years (with MetS, MetS+, n = 9; without MetS, MetS-, n = 11) completed a randomized crossover design of 3.5 h exposures to 20, 25 and 27 °C on three visits. After an hour's rest at the desired temperature, resting metabolic rate (RMR), respiratory quotient (RQ), forearm to fingertip gradients (FFG), and in the ear temperature (IET) were measured over 30 min...
January 11, 2018: European Journal of Clinical Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29325849/coagonist-of-glp-1-and-glucagon-decreases-liver-inflammation-and-atherosclerosis-in-dyslipidemic-condition
#4
Vishal Patel, Amit Joharapurkar, Samadhan Kshirsagar, Brijesh Sutariya, Maulik Patel, Dhreerendra Pandey, Hiren Patel, Ramchandra Ranvir, Shekhar Kadam, Dipam Patel, Rajesh Bahekar, Mukul Jain
Dyslipidemia enhances progression of atherosclerosis. Coagonist of GLP-1 and glucagon are under clinical investigation for the treatment of obesity and diabetes. Earlier, we have observed that coagonist reduced circulating and hepatic lipids, independent of its anorexic effects. Here, we investigated the role of coagonist of GLP-1 and glucagon receptors in complications of diet-induced dyslipidemia in hamsters and humanized double transgenic mice. Hamsters fed on high fat high cholesterol diet were treated for 8 weeks with coagonist of GLP-1 and glucagon receptors (75 and 150 μg/kg)...
January 8, 2018: Chemico-biological Interactions
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29317401/acute-and-chronic-increases-of-circulating-fstl1-normalize-energy-substrate-metabolism-in-pacing-induced-heart-failure
#5
Mitsuru Seki, Jeffery C Powers, Sonomi Maruyama, Maria A Zuriaga, Chia-Ling Wu, Clara Kurishima, Lydia Kim, Jesse Johnson, Anthony Poidomani, Tao Wang, Eric Muñoz, Sudarsan Rajan, Joon Y Park, Kenneth Walsh, Fabio A Recchia
BACKGROUND: FSTL1 (follistatin-like protein 1) is an emerging cardiokine/myokine that is upregulated in heart failure (HF) and is found to be cardioprotective in animal models of cardiac injury. We tested the hypothesis that circulating FSTL1 can affect cardiac function and metabolism under baseline physiological conditions and in HF. METHODS AND RESULTS: FSTL1 was acutely (10 minutes) or chronically (2 weeks) infused to attain clinically relevant blood levels in conscious dogs with cardiac tachypacing-induced HF...
January 2018: Circulation. Heart Failure
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29316143/basal-insulin-peglispro-increases-lipid-oxidation-metabolic-flexibility-thermogenesis-and-ketone-bodies-compared-to-insulin-glargine-in-subjects-with-type-1-diabetes-mellitus
#6
Niels K Porksen, Helle Linnebjerg, Eric Chen Quin Lam, Parag Garhyan, Alok Pachori, Richard E Pratley, Steven R Smith
AIMS: When treated with basal insulin peglispro (BIL), patients with type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) exhibit weight loss and lower prandial insulin requirements versus insulin glargine (GL), while total insulin requirements remain similar. One possible explanation is enhanced lipid oxidation and improved ability to switch between glucose and lipid metabolism with BIL. This study compared the effects of BIL and GL on glucose and lipid metabolism in subjects with T1DM. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Fifteen subjects with T1DM were enrolled into this open-label, randomised, crossover study, and received once-daily stable, individualised, subcutaneous doses of BIL and GL for 4 weeks each...
January 8, 2018: Diabetes, Obesity & Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29305947/deviations-in-energy-sensing-predict-long-term-weight-change-in-overweight-native-americans
#7
Alessio Basolo, Susanne B Votruba, Sascha Heinitz, Jonathan Krakoff, Paolo Piaggi
BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: Energy expenditure (EE), as reflective of body energy demand, has been proposed to be the key driver of food intake, possibly influencing weight change in humans. Variation in this energy-sensing link (overeating relative to weight-maintaining energy requirements) may lead to weight gain over time. SUBJECTS/METHODS: Sixty-one overweight otherwise healthy Native Americans (age: 34.0±7.9years, body fat: 39.7±9.5%, 36 males) were admitted to our clinical research unit for measurements of body composition by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry, and 24-h EE and respiratory quotient (RQ) in a whole-room indirect calorimeter during energy balance and weight stability...
January 3, 2018: Metabolism: Clinical and Experimental
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29301689/2-deoxy-d-glucose-not-mercaptoacetate-induces-a-reversible-reduction-of-body-temperature-in-male-desert-hamsters-phodopus-roborovskii
#8
Qing-Sheng Chi, Xiu-Juan Li, De-Hua Wang
The initiation of torpor is supposed to be related to the availability of metabolic fuels. Studies on metabolic fuel inhibition of glucose by using 2-deoxy-D-glucose (2DG) or fatty acid by mercaptoacetate (MA) in heterothermic mammals produced mixed outcomes. To examine the roles of availability of glucose and fatty acid in the initiation of torpor in desert hamsters (Phodopus roborovskii), we intraperitoneally administrated 2DG and MA to summer-acclimated male hamsters while body temperature (Tb), metabolic rate (MR) and respiratory quotient (RQ) were simultaneously recorded to monitor their thermoregulatory response...
January 2018: Journal of Thermal Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29301183/north-korean-children-nutrition-and-growth
#9
REVIEW
Soo-Kyung Lee
North Korea suffered from severe famine in the mid-1990s; this impacted many areas, including people's transnational movement, child growth, and mortality. This review carefully examined nutritional status trends of children in North Korea using published reports from national nutrition assessment surveys. Nutritional adaptation of North Korean child refugees living in South Korea was also studied with their growth and food consumption, using published researches. The nutritional status of children in North Korea has recovered to a "low" level acute malnutrition status and a "medium" level chronic malnutrition status...
December 2017: Annals of Pediatric Endocrinology & Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29300902/peripheral-endocannabinoids-associated-with-energy-expenditure-in-native-americans-of-southwestern-heritage
#10
Sascha Heinitz, Alessio Basolo, Paolo Piaggi, Daniele Piomelli, Reiner Jumpertz von Schwartzenberg, Jonathan Krakoff
Context: The endocannabinoids anandamide (AEA) and 2-arachidonoylglycerol (2-AG), and the related acylethanolamide oleoylethanolamide (OEA) have been implicated in energy expenditure (EE)-regulation and metabolic diseases. Muscle (fat-free mass, FFM) and fat (fat mass, FM) are metabolically active compartments and main determinants of EE. Objective: To assess whether human muscle, adipose, and plasma endocannabinoids correlate with EE. Design: Muscle, adipose, and plasma AEA, 2-AG, and OEA concentrations were measured via liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry...
December 28, 2017: Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29222882/relative-validity-of-an-indirect-calorimetry-device-for-measuring-resting-energy-expenditure-and-respiratory-quotient
#11
Xi Wang, Yuan Wang, Zenghui Ding, Guangbei Cao, Fusong Hu, Yining Sun, Zuchang Ma, Duoqi Zhou, Benyue Su
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Resting energy expenditure (REE) and respiratory quotient (RQ) are important for optimal nutritional care. The purpose of this study was to assess the accuracy and repeatability of an indirect calorimetry device (IIM-IC-100) in the measurement of REE and RQ in healthy Chinese adults. METHODS AND STUDY DESIGN: A total of 38 healthy adults (19 male and 19 female) aged 18-52 years (25±6 years) were enrolled in this study. REE and RQ were measured by IIM-IC-100 and by VO2000, alternately and in duplicate...
2018: Asia Pacific Journal of Clinical Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29220530/impaired-lipolysis-diminished-fat-oxidation-and-metabolic-inflexibility-in-obese-girls-with-polycystic-ovary-syndrome
#12
Joon Young Kim, Hala Tfayli, Sara F Michaliszyn, Silva Arslanian
CONTEXT: Metabolic flexibility reflects the ability to switch from lipid to carbohydrate oxidation during insulin stimulation manifested in increased respiratory quotient (RQ). Despite insulin resistance in glucose metabolism in PCOS women and adolescents, little is known about adipose tissue metabolism and metabolic flexibility. OBJECTIVE: To investigate whole-body lipolysis, substrate oxidation and metabolic flexibility in obese PCOS vs. non-PCOS girls. PATIENTS/DESIGN: Twenty-one obese (BMI 32...
December 6, 2017: Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29217869/leaf-and-root-c-to-n-ratios-are-poor-predictors-of-soil-microbial-biomass-c-and-respiration-across-32-tree-species
#13
Olga Ferlian, Christian Wirth, Nico Eisenhauer
Soil microorganisms are the main primary decomposers of plant material and drive biogeochemical processes like carbon and nitrogen cycles. Hence, knowledge of their nutritional demands and limitations for activity and growth is of particular importance. However, potential effects of the stoichiometry of soil and plant species on soil microbial activity and carbon use efficiency are poorly understood. Soil properties and plant traits are assumed to drive microbial carbon and community structure. We investigated the associations between C and N concentrations of leaf, root, and soil as well as their ratios and soil microbial biomass C and activity (microbial basal respiration and specific respiratory quotient) across 32 young native angiosperm tree species at two locations in Central Germany...
November 2017: Pedobiologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29180485/validation-of-whole-room-indirect-calorimeters-refinement-of-current-methodologies
#14
Russell Rising, Thomas Foerster, Avigdor D Arad, Jeanine Albu, Xavier Pi-Sunyer
Whole room indirect calorimeter (WRIC) validation techniques consist of propane combustion (PC) or infusion of mixed carbon dioxide (CO2) and nitrogen (N2) by a precision blender (PB). To determine the best method, PC of 6, 10, 22-h and PB infusions of 6, 10, and 14-h, were conducted. The 14-h infusion consisted of two metabolic settings. Energy expenditure (EE; kJ), ventilation (V; liters/min) of oxygen (VO2), VCO2, and respiratory quotient (VCO2/VO2) obtained from the WRIC were extrapolated to the respective test durations and compared to similarly calculated values...
November 2017: Physiological Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29177598/systemic-metabolism-and-energy-consumption-after-microsurgical-clipping-and-endovascular-coiling-for-aneurysmal-subarachnoid-hemorrhage
#15
Hiroya Shimauchi-Ohtaki, Masahiko Tosaka, Toshiyuki Ohtani, Keiya Iijima, Nobuo Sasaguchi, Hideyuki Kurihara, Yuhei Yoshimoto
BACKGROUND: The postoperative metabolic states of subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) patients were investigated using indirect calorimetry (IDC) and various nutritional evaluations to establish any difference in perioperative metabolic and nutritional states between microsurgical and endovascular treatment. METHODS: This study included 30 acute aneurysmal SAH patients with ruptured intracranial aneurysms treated by surgical clipping (n = 16) or coil embolization (n = 14) at a single institute...
November 24, 2017: Acta Neurochirurgica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29150901/expression-of-the-clock-gene-rev-erb%C3%AE-in-the-brain-controls-the-circadian-organization-of-food-intake-and-locomotor-activity-but-not-daily-variations-of-energy-metabolism
#16
Satish Sen, Stéphanie Dumont, Dominique Sage-Ciocca, Sophie Reibel, Paul de Goede, Andries Kalsbeek, Etienne Challet
The nuclear receptor REV-ERBα is part of the molecular clock mechanism and thought to be involved in a variety of biological processes within metabolically active peripheral tissues as well. To investigate whether Rev-erbα (also known as Nr1d1) in the brain plays a role in the daily variations of energy metabolism, feeding behaviour and the sleep-wake cycle, we studied mice with global (GKO) or brain (BKO) deletion of Rev-erbα. Mice were studied both in a light-dark cycle and constant darkness, and 24-h variations of Respiratory quotient (RQ) and energy expenditure, as well as the temporal patterns of rest-activity and feeding behavior were recorded...
November 18, 2017: Journal of Neuroendocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29148626/effects-of-detraining-on-breathing-pattern-and-ventilatory-efficiency-in-young-soccer-players
#17
José R Alvero Cruz, Mauro Ronconi, Jerónimo Garcia Romero, José Naranjo Orellana
BACKGROUND: This study investigated the effects of detraining on breathing pattern. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of a sixweek detraining period on breathing patterns and ventilatory efficiency. METHODS: Fourteen young soccer players were evaluated at the end of a competitive season and after a sixweek detraining period. Assessment of respiratory efficiency was based on VE/VCO2 slope changes below 70% of exercise intensity. All participants underwent twice an incremental graded exercise test up to exhaustion...
November 17, 2017: Journal of Sports Medicine and Physical Fitness
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29116114/co2-production-dissolution-and-pressure-dynamics-during-silage-production-multi-sensor-based-insight-into-parameter-interactions
#18
Menghua Li, Guilin Shan, Haiyang Zhou, Wolfgang Buescher, Christian Maack, Kerstin H Jungbluth, André Lipski, David A Grantz, Youheng Fan, Daokun Ma, Zhongyi Wang, Qiang Cheng, Yurui Sun
Silage is a critical global feedstock, but is prone to aerobic deterioration. The dominant mechanism of O2 transport into silage remains unresolved. Here, multiple sensors tracked O2 and CO2, gas pressure (ΔP) between internal silage and ambient air, pH and silage temperature (Tsi) during the ensilage of maize and ryegrass. We report the first observation that CO2 produced from microbial respiration was partially dissolved in silage water, with evidence of negative or positive ΔP depending on the changing balance between CO2 production and dissolution...
November 7, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29114979/weight-cycling-in-adults-with-severe-obesity-a-longitudinal-study
#19
Marwan El Ghoch, Simona Calugi, Riccardo Dalle Grave
AIM: Although weight cycling is a common phenomenon in treatment-seeking patients with obesity, its consequences on health outcomes have not yet been completely clarified. We therefore aimed to investigate the effect of one cycle of intentional weight loss and regain on energy expenditure, body composition, cardiovascular risk factors and psychosocial variables in patients with severe obesity. METHODS: Clinical and psychosocial variables were measured in 38 adult patients with severe obesity (body mass index (BMI): 43...
November 8, 2017: Nutrition & Dietetics: the Journal of the Dietitians Association of Australia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29070713/long-term-intake-of-a-high-protein-diet-affects-body-phenotype-metabolism-and-plasma-hormones-in-mice
#20
John P Vu, Leon Luong, William F Parsons, Suwan Oh, Daniel Sanford, Arielle Gabalski, John Rb Lighton, Joseph R Pisegna, Patrizia M Germano
Background: High-protein diets (HPDs) recently have been used to obtain body weight and fat mass loss and expand muscle mass. Several studies have documented that HPDs reduce appetite and food intake.Objective: Our goal was to determine the long-term effects of an HPD on body weight, energy intake and expenditure, and metabolic hormones.Methods: Male C57BL/6 mice (8 wk old) were fed either an HPD (60% of energy as protein) or a control diet (CD; 20% of energy as protein) for 12 wk. Body composition and food intakes were determined, and plasma hormone concentrations were measured in mice after being fed and after overnight feed deprivation at several time points...
December 2017: Journal of Nutrition
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