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Respiratory Quotient

Haiying Quan, Wenrui Hao, Lu Li, Ming Sun, Kuan Zhang
The whole-room indirect calorimeter is considered as important equipment for human energy expenditure measurement, but noise reduction in the system remains a challenge. A selective filtering method (SFM) was designed to improve the accuracy of the computation of O2 consumption rate ([Formula: see text]) and CO2 production rate ([Formula: see text]), based on two facts: (1) the rapid changes of [Formula: see text], [Formula: see text] and respiratory quotient (RQ) in human should be accompanied by physical activity; (2) the oxygen consumption and the carbon dioxide production should not be negative because living humans do not generate oxygen, nor consume carbon dioxide...
October 20, 2016: Medical & Biological Engineering & Computing
Mariya Markova, Olga Pivovarova, Silke Hornemann, Stephanie Sucher, Turid Frahnow, Katrin Wegner, Jürgen Machann, Klaus Jürgen Petzke, Johannes Hierholzer, Ralf Lichtinghagen, Christian Herder, Maren Carstensen-Kirberg, Michael Roden, Natalia Rudovich, Susanne Klaus, Ralph Thomann, Rosemarie Schneeweiss, Sascha Rohn, Andreas F H Pfeiffer
BACKGROUND & AIMS: Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is associated with increased risk of hepatic, cardiovascular, and metabolic diseases. High-protein diets, rich in methionine and branched chain amino acids (BCAAs), apparently reduce liver fat but may induce insulin resistance. We investigated the effects of diets high in animal protein vs plant protein, which differ in levels of methionine and BCAA, in subjects with type 2 diabetes and NAFLD. We examined levels of liver fat, lipogenic indices, markers of inflammation, serum levels of fibroblast growth factor 21 (FGF21), and activation of signaling pathways in adipose tissue...
October 17, 2016: Gastroenterology
Justin Darcy, Samuel McFadden, Yimin Fang, Joshua A Huber, Chi Zhang, Liou Y Sun, Andrzej Bartke
Ames dwarf mice (Prop1(df/df)) are long-lived due to a loss of function mutation resulting in deficiency of growth hormone (GH), thyroid-stimulating hormone and prolactin. Along with a marked extension of longevity, Ames dwarf mice have improved energy metabolism as measured by an increase in their oxygen consumption (VO2) and heat production, as well as a decrease in their respiratory quotient (RQ). Along with alterations in energy metabolism, Ames dwarf mice have a lower core body temperature (Tco). Moreover, Ames dwarf mice have functionally altered epididymal white adipose tissue (eWAT) that improves, rather than impairs, their insulin sensitivity due to a shift from pro- to anti-inflammatory cytokine secretion...
October 14, 2016: Endocrinology
Jessica L Bachman, Ronald W Deitrick, Angela R Hillman
The effect of fasting prior to morning exercise on 24-hour energy intake was examined using a randomized, counterbalanced design. Participants (12 active, white males, 20.8 ± 3.0 years old, VO2max: 59.1 ± 5.7 mL/kg/min) fasted (NoBK) or received breakfast (BK) and then ran for 60 minutes at 60%  VO2max. All food was weighed and measured for 24 hours. Measures of blood glucose and hunger were collected at 5 time points. Respiratory quotient (RQ) was measured during exercise. Generalized linear mixed models and paired sample t-tests examined differences between the conditions...
2016: Journal of Nutrition and Metabolism
Ilaria Croci, Nuala M Byrne, Veronique S Chachay, Andrew P Hills, Andrew D Clouston, Trisha M O'Moore-Sullivan, Johannes B Prins, Graeme A Macdonald, Ingrid J Hickman
AIM: To investigate the independent effects of 6-mo of dietary energy restriction or exercise training on whole-body and hepatic fat oxidation of patients with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). METHODS: Participants were randomised into either circuit exercise training (EX; n = 13; 3 h/wk without changes in dietary habits), or dietary energy restriction (ER) without changes in structured physical activity (ER; n = 8). Respiratory quotient (RQ) and whole-body fat oxidation rates (Fatox) were determined by indirect calorimetry under basal, insulin-stimulated and exercise conditions...
September 28, 2016: World Journal of Hepatology
Yumi Takemura, Masaya Sasaki, Kenichi Goto, Azusa Takaoka, Akiko Ohi, Mika Kurihara, Naoko Nakanishi, Yasutaka Nakano, Jun Hanaoka
This study aimed to investigate the energy metabolism of patients with lung cancer and the relationship between energy metabolism and proinflammatory cytokines. Twenty-eight patients with lung cancer and 18 healthy controls were enrolled in this study. The nutritional status upon admission was analyzed using nutritional screening tools and laboratory tests. The resting energy expenditure and respiratory quotient were measured using indirect calorimetry, and the predicted resting energy expenditure was calculated using the Harris-Benedict equation...
September 2016: Journal of Clinical Biochemistry and Nutrition
J Maxwell, C Gwardschaladse, G Lombardo, P Petrone, A Policastro, D Karev, K Prabhakaran, A Betancourt, C P Marini
BACKGROUND: This study evaluated the impact of IC on the optimization of nutritional support and the achievement of +NB in patients with TBI. MATERIALS AND METHODS: 27 patients (GCS ≤ 8), treated with a 5-day multimodality monitoring and goal-directed therapy protocol, received enteral nutrition on day 1 followed by IC on days 3 and 5 and assessment of NB on day 7. In the first cohort (n = 11), no adjustment in kcal was made. In the second cohort (n = 16), nutrition was targeted to an RQ of 0...
September 22, 2016: European Journal of Trauma and Emergency Surgery: Official Publication of the European Trauma Society
John R Feiner, Richard B Weiskopf
OBJECTIVES: PaO2/FIO2 is used commonly for diagnosis of lung injury (acute respiratory distress syndrome and transfusion-related acute lung injury), for assessment of pulmonary disease course and therapy, and in pulmonary transplantation for evaluation of donor lungs and clinical outcome. It was developed for convenience, without formal mathematical and graphic assessment to validate its suitability for these purposes. DESIGN: We examined, mathematically and graphically, the relationship of PaO2/FIO2 to FIO2 at constant normal and several degrees of increased intrapulmonary shunting (QS/QT), assessing the impact of intra- and extrapulmonary factors on the relationship and thus the reliability of PaO2/FIO2...
September 9, 2016: Critical Care Medicine
Tim N Ziegenfuss, Hector L Lopez, Jennifer E Sandrock, A William Kedia, Scott Habowski, Chad Kerksick
Using a prospective, randomized, double-blind, crossover study design, fifteen healthy male (n = 8) and female (n = 7) participants (mean ± standard deviation (SD): 28.3 ± 6.1 yr, 176.3 ± 11.4 cm, 89.8 ± 21.7 kg, 28.5 ± 4.8 kg/m(2)) completed this study. Two testing sessions occurred after an overnight fast and refraining from physical exercise. Prior to and 60, 120, and 180 minutes after single dose ingestion of placebo (PLA) or a Thermogenic Supplement (TS), visual analog scales (VAS), resting metabolic rate (VO2), and venous blood were collected...
September 9, 2016: Journal of Dietary Supplements
Arashdeep Singh, Adel Pezeshki, Rizaldy C Zapata, Nicholas J Yee, Cameron G Knight, Ursula I Tuor, Prasanth K Chelikani
High-fat diets induce obesity and increase risks of diabetes and cardiovascular and renal disorders. Whey- or casein-enriched diets decrease food intake and weight gain; however, their cardiovascular and renal benefits are unclear. We determined whether whey- and casein-enriched diets improve energy balance and are protective against renal damage and morbidity associated with stroke in an obesogenic and hypertensive experimental setting. We also assessed whether the hypophagic effects of these diets were due to reduced diet preference...
August 13, 2016: Journal of Nutritional Biochemistry
Gisele Almeida Batista, Aglécio Luiz de Souza, Daniela Miguel Marin, Marina Sider, Vaneska Carvalho Melhado, Arlete Maria Fernandes, Sarah Monte Alegre
Objective: The aim of this study was to evaluate for 12 months the changes of body weight using Depot Medroxyprogesterone Acetate (DMPA) and if these changes are related to inflammatory markers. Subjects and methods: Twenty women of childbearing age who chose the DMPA, without previous use of this method, BMI < 30 kg/m2, and 17 women using IUD TCu 380A, participated in the study. At the baseline and after one year, changes in weight gain, body composition by the bioimpedance electric method, resting energy expenditure (REE) by the indirect calorimetry method, inflammatory markers and HOMA-IR were assessed...
September 5, 2016: Archives of Endocrinology and Metabolism
Mahshid Aghajanzadeh, Akbar Darouie, Payman Dabirmoghaddam, Abolfazl Salehi, Mehdi Rahgozar
OBJECTIVES: Aerodynamic evaluations can provide useful information about the interaction between the respiratory and the phonation systems. The present study was conducted to investigate the relationship of maximum phonation time (MPT), vital capacity (VC), and phonation quotient (PQ) with perceptual evaluation in different types of dysphonia. The relationship between these parameters and the type of dysphonia was also examined. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The study participants consisted of 300 individuals with different types of dysphonia (104 women and 196 men) and 100 healthy samples (63 women and 37 men)...
August 16, 2016: Journal of Voice: Official Journal of the Voice Foundation
Vanderlei Both, Fabio Rodrigo Thewes, Auri Brackmann, Rogerio de Oliveira Anese, Daniele de Freitas Ferreira, Roger Wagner
The effects of dynamic controlled atmosphere (DCA) storage based on chlorophyll fluorescence (DCA-CF) and respiratory quotient (DCA-RQ) on the quality and volatile profile of 'Royal Gala' apple were evaluated. DCA storage reduces ACC (1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate) oxidase activity, ethylene production and respiration rate of apples stored for 9months at 1.0°C plus 7days at 20°C, resulting in higher flesh firmness, titratable acidity and lesser physiological disorders, and provided a higher proportion of healthy fruit...
January 15, 2017: Food Chemistry
Delphine Sarafian, Yves Schutz, Jean-Pierre Montani, Abdul G Dulloo, Jennifer L Miles-Chan
Low-intensity physical activity is increasingly promoted as an alternative to sedentary behavior. However, much research to date has focused on moderate- to vigorous-intensity physical activity, and in particular dynamic work, with the effect of low-intensity isometric exercise (<4 METs) on substrate utilization yet to be explored. Here we investigate the effects of such exercise on respiratory quotient (RQ) and determine the extent of intra- and inter-individual variability in response. Energy expenditure, RQ, and substrate oxidation were measured by ventilated-hood indirect calorimetry at rest and in response to standardized, intermittent, low-level isometric leg-press exercises at 5 loads (+5, +10, +15, +20, +25 kg) in 26 healthy, young adults...
September 2016: Applied Physiology, Nutrition, and Metabolism, Physiologie Appliquée, Nutrition et Métabolisme
Artem P Gureev, Mikhail Yu Syromyatnikov, Tatyana M Gorbacheva, Anatoly A Starkov, Vasily N Popov
Age-related brain dysfunctions are frequently associated with deregulation of mitochondria functions and increased risk of developing neurodegenerative diseases (ND). Recently, a mitochondria-targeting drug methylene blue has been drawing considerable interest as a potential treatment for ND. We have compared the effect of MB treatment on the behavior, brain mitochondria reactive oxygen species generation, and gene expression in adult and aged mice. Aged mice manifested a decrease in physical endurance, spontaneous locomotor activity, and exploration concomitant with an increase in anxiety-related behavior, as compared to adult mice...
August 8, 2016: Neuroscience Research
Eva-Lena Stenblom, Emil Egecioglu, Caroline Montelius, Deepti Ramachandran, Britta Bonn, Björn Weström, Abdelhak Mansouri, Wolfgang Langhans, Charlotte Erlanson-Albertsson
Thylakoids reduce body weight gain and body fat accumulation in rodents. This study investigated whether an enhanced oxidation of dietary fat-derived fatty acids in the intestine contributes to the thylakoid effects. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were fed a high-fat diet with (n = 8) or without thylakoids (n = 8) for 2 wk. Body weight, food intake, and body fat were measured, and intestinal mucosa was collected and analyzed. Quantitative real-time PCR was used to measure gene expression levels of key enzymes involved in fatty acid transport, fatty acid oxidation, and ketogenesis...
September 1, 2016: American Journal of Physiology. Regulatory, Integrative and Comparative Physiology
Marco Guzman, Anne-Maria Laukkanen, Louisa Traser, Ahmed Geneid, Bernhard Richter, Daniel Muñoz, Matthias Echternach
PURPOSE: This study investigated the influence of tube phonation into water on vocal fold vibration. METHOD: Eight participants were analyzed via high-speed digital imaging while phonating into a silicon tube with the free end submerged into water. Two test sequences were studied: (1) phonation pre, during, and post tube submerged 5 cm into water; and (2) phonation into tube submerged 5 cm, 10 cm, and 18 cm into water. Several glottal area parameters were calculated using phonovibrograms...
August 2, 2016: Logopedics, Phoniatrics, Vocology
Chiaw-Ling Chng, Adoree Yi Ying Lim, Hong Chang Tan, Jean-Paul Kovalik, Kwang Wei Tham, Yong Mong Bee, Weiying Lim, Sanchalika Acharyya, Oi Fah Lai, Mary Foong-Fong Chong, Paul Michael Yen
BACKGROUND: The serum metabolomic profile and its relationship to physiological changes during hyperthyroidism and restoration to euthyroidism are not known. This study aimed to examine the physiological, adipokine, and metabolomic changes that occur when subjects with Graves' disease transition from hyperthyroidism to euthyroidism with medical treatment. METHODS: Chinese women between 21 and 50 years of age and with newly diagnosed Graves' disease attending the endocrine outpatient clinics in a single institution were recruited between July 2012 and September 2014...
October 2016: Thyroid: Official Journal of the American Thyroid Association
Rie Tsutsumi, Nami Kakuta, Takako Kadota, Takuro Oyama, Katsuyoshi Kume, Eisuke Hamaguchi, Noriko Niki, Katsuya Tanaka, Yasuo M Tsutsumi
OBJECTIVE: Enhanced recovery after surgery is increasingly desired nowadays, and preoperative nutrient intake may be beneficial for this purpose. In this study, we investigated whether the intake of preoperative carbohydrate with amino acid (ONS) solution can improve starvation status and lipid catabolism before the induction of anesthesia. METHODS: This randomized, prospective clinical trial included 24 patients who were divided into two groups before surgery under general anesthesia: a control group, comprising patients who fasted after their last meal the day before surgery (permitted to drink only water), and an ONS group, comprising patients who consumed ONS solution 2 h before surgery...
October 2016: Journal of Anesthesia
M Hibi, S Oishi, M Matsushita, T Yoneshiro, T Yamaguchi, C Usui, K Yasunaga, Y Katsuragi, K Kubota, S Tanaka, M Saito
BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: Brown adipose tissue (BAT) is a potential therapeutic target against obesity and diabetes through thermogenesis and substrate disposal with cold exposure. The role of BAT in energy metabolism under thermoneutral conditions, however, remains controversial. We assessed the contribution of BAT to energy expenditure (EE), particularly diet-induced thermogenesis (DIT), and substrate utilization in human adults. METHODS: In this cross-sectional study, BAT activity was evaluated in 21 men using (18)F-fluoro-2-deoxy-D-glucose positron emission tomography combined with computed tomography ((18)F-FDG-PET/CT) after cold exposure (19 °C)...
July 19, 2016: International Journal of Obesity: Journal of the International Association for the Study of Obesity
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