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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27890489/spinal-muscular-atrophy-types-i-and-ii-what-are-the-differences-in%C3%A2-body-composition-and-resting-energy-expenditure
#1
Simona Bertoli, Ramona De Amicis, Chiara Mastella, Giulia Pieri, Ester Giaquinto, Alberto Battezzati, Alessandro Leone, Giovanni Baranello
BACKGROUND & AIMS: Different neuromuscular functional domains in types I and II Spinal Muscular Atrophy (SMAI and SMAII) could lead to differences in body composition (BC) and resting energy expenditure (REE). Their identification could provide the key to defining appropriate strategies in clinical dietary management, but data comparing SMAI and SMAII in terms of BC and REE are not yet available. We measured total and regional fat (FM), lean (LBM), mineral (BMC) masses, body water (total, intra- and extra-cellular, TBW, ICW, ECW) and REE in a sample of SMAI and II children, matched for age and sex, and also adjusting for body size to compare these features of the two SMA phenotypes...
November 16, 2016: Clinical Nutrition: Official Journal of the European Society of Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27883924/physiological-effects-of-epigallocatechin-3-gallate-egcg-on-energy-expenditure-for-prospective-fat-oxidation-in-humans-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#2
REVIEW
Mahendra P Kapoor, Masaaki Sugita, Yoshitaka Fukuzawa, Tsutomu Okubo
Green tea catechins (GTCs) are known to improve fat oxidation (FOX) during fasted, rested and exercise conditions wherein epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG) is thought to be the most pharmacologically active and has been studied extensively. From the available data of randomized controlled trials (RCTs) on EGCG, we carried out a systematic review and meta-analysis to elucidate whether EGCG consumption indeed increase energy expenditure (EE) and promote FOX. A systematic review of the literature was conducted using electronic databases (PubMed, Embase, Cochrane Library, CINAHL, JICST, JSTPLUS, and JMEDPLUS and others) and eight RCTs were included...
November 2, 2016: Journal of Nutritional Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27870595/human-energy-expenditure-and-postural-coordination-on-the-mechanical-horse
#3
Héloïse Baillet, Régis Thouvarecq, Eric Vérin, Claire Tourny, Nicolas Benguigui, John Komar, David Leroy
The authors investigated and compared the energy expenditure and postural coordination of two groups of healthy subjects on a mechanical horse at 4 increasing oscillation frequencies. Energy expenditure was assessed from the oxygen consumption, respiratory quotient, and heart rate values, and postural coordination was characterized by relative phase computations between subjects (elbow, head, trunk) and horse. The results showed that the postural coordination of the riders was better adapted (i.e., maintenance of in-phase and antiphase) than that of the nonriders, but the energy expenditure remains the same...
November 21, 2016: Journal of Motor Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27869525/oxidative-priority-meal-frequency-and-the-energy-economy-of-food-and-activity-implications-for-longevity-obesity-and-cardiometabolic-disease
#4
Raymond J Cronise, David A Sinclair, Andrew A Bremer
In most modern societies, the relationship that many individuals have with food has fundamentally changed from previous generations. People have shifted away from viewing food as primarily sustenance, and rather now seek out foods based on pure palatability or specific nutrition. However, it is far from clear what optimal nutrition is for the general population or specific individuals. We previously described the Food Triangle as a way to organize food based on an increasing energy density paradigm, and now expand on this model to predict the impact of oxidative priority and both nutrient and fiber density in relation to caloric load...
November 21, 2016: Metabolic Syndrome and related Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27861720/pre-pregnancy-body-mass-index-influences-lipid-oxidation-rate-during-pregnancy
#5
Fernando Bugatto, Rocío Quintero-Prado, José M Vilar-Sánchez, Germán Perdomo, Rafael Torrejón, José L Bartha
INTRODUCTION: The influence of maternal body mass index (BMI) on respiratory quotient during pregnancy is not clear. We aim to evaluate longitudinal changes in energy expenditure, respiratory quotient and substrate oxidation rates in normal and overweight women with uncomplicated pregnancies. We hypothesized that the threshold period in switching from a predominantly carbohydrate to a predominantly lipid metabolism may be different in normal and overweight women. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Forty healthy pregnant women were recruited for a prospective cohort study...
November 15, 2016: Acta Obstetricia et Gynecologica Scandinavica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27848941/indirect-calorimetry-an-indispensable-tool-to-understand-and-predict-obesity
#6
REVIEW
Y Y Lam, E Ravussin
Obesity is a physiological condition of chronic positive energy balance. While the regulation of energy metabolism varies widely among individuals, identifying those who are metabolically prone to weight gain and intervening accordingly is a key challenge for reversing the course of the obesity epidemic. Indirect calorimetry is the most commonly used method to measure energy expenditure in the research setting. By measuring oxygen consumption and carbon dioxide production, indirect calorimetry provides minute-by-minute energy expenditure data that makes it the most valuable tool to distinguish the various components of energy expenditure, that is, sleeping and resting metabolic rate, thermic effect of food and the energy cost of activity...
November 16, 2016: European Journal of Clinical Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27829952/effect-of-l-carnitine-in-patients-with-liver-cirrhosis-on-energy-metabolism-using-indirect-calorimetry-a-pilot-study
#7
Yoshiyuki Sakai, Hiroki Nishikawa, Hirayuki Enomoto, Kazunori Yoh, Yoshinori Iwata, Kunihiro Hasegawa, Chikage Nakano, Kyohei Kishino, Yoshihiro Shimono, Ryo Takata, Takashi Nishimura, Nobuhiro Aizawa, Naoto Ikeda, Tomoyuki Takashima, Akio Ishii, Hiroko Iijima, Shuhei Nishiguchi
BACKGROUND: L-carnitine supplementation has been suggested to show several favorable effects on patients with liver cirrhosis (LC). However, there have been no reports regarding the effect of L-carnitine on energy metabolism in patients with LC using indirect calorimetry which is a well-established method for assessing the degree of liver malnutrition. We examined the effect of L-carnitine in patients with LC on energy metabolism using indirect calorimetry. METHODS: A total of 13 LC patients who are scheduled to be treated with L-carnitine (1,800 mg/day) were analyzed in this study...
December 2016: Journal of Clinical Medicine Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27800513/preconditioning-with-ethyl-3-4-dihydroxybenzoate-augments-aerobic-respiration-in-rat-skeletal-muscle
#8
Charu Nimker, Deependra Pratap Singh, Deepika Saraswat, Anju Bansal
Muscle respiratory capacity decides the amount of exertion one's skeletal muscle can undergo, and endurance exercise is believed to increase it. There are also certain preconditioning methods by which muscle respiratory and exercise performance can be enhanced. In this study, preconditioning with ethyl 3,4-dihydroxybenzoate (EDHB), a prolyl hydroxylase domain enzyme inhibitor, has been investigated to determine its effect on aerobic metabolism and bioenergetics in skeletal muscle, thus facilitating boost in physical performance in a rat model...
2016: Hypoxia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27800008/metabolic-gene-expression-profile-in-circulating-mononuclear-cells-reflects-obesity-associated-metabolic-inflexibility
#9
Sonia Baig, Ehsan Parvaresh Rizi, Muhammad Shabeer, Vanna Chhay, Shao Feng Mok, Tze Ping Loh, Faidon Magkos, Antonio Vidal-Puig, E Shyong Tai, Chin Meng Khoo, Sue-Anne Toh
BACKGROUND: Obesity is associated with an impaired ability to switch from fatty acid to glucose oxidation during the fasted to fed transition, particularly in skeletal muscle. However, whether such metabolic inflexibility is reflected at the gene transcription level in circulatory mononuclear cells (MNC) is not known. METHODS: The whole-body respiratory quotient (RQ) and transcriptional regulation of genes involved in carbohydrate and lipid metabolism in MNC were measured during fasting and in response (up to 6 h) to high-carbohydrate and high-fat meals in nine lean insulin-sensitive and nine obese insulin-resistant men...
2016: Nutrition & Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27790049/hypermetabolic-conversion-of-plant-oil-into-water-endothermic-biochemical-process-stimulated-by-juvenile-hormone-in-the-european-firebug-pyrrhocoris-apterus-l
#10
Karel Sláma, Jan Lukáš
The physiological and biochemical mechanisms that enable insects to feed on dry food to secure enough water for larval growth were investigated. The study was carried out with a plethora of physiological methods, ranging from the simple volumetric determination of O2 consumption and water intake to more advanced methods such as scanning microrespirography and thermovision imaging of insect's body temperature. The experiments were done on the European firebug, Pyrrhocoris apterus, which feeds exclusively on dry linden seeds...
2016: International Journal of Insect Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27766518/algorithm-to-improve-accuracy-of-energy-expended-in-a-room-calorimeter
#11
Haiying Quan, Wenrui Hao, Lu Li, Ming Sun, Kuan Zhang
The whole-room indirect calorimeter is considered as important equipment for human energy expenditure measurement, but noise reduction in the system remains a challenge. A selective filtering method (SFM) was designed to improve the accuracy of the computation of O2 consumption rate ([Formula: see text]) and CO2 production rate ([Formula: see text]), based on two facts: (1) the rapid changes of [Formula: see text], [Formula: see text] and respiratory quotient (RQ) in human should be accompanied by physical activity; (2) the oxygen consumption and the carbon dioxide production should not be negative because living humans do not generate oxygen, nor consume carbon dioxide...
October 20, 2016: Medical & Biological Engineering & Computing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27765690/isocaloric-diets-high-in-animal-or-plant-protein-reduce-liver-fat-and-inflammation-in-individuals-with-type-2-diabetes
#12
Mariya Markova, Olga Pivovarova, Silke Hornemann, Stephanie Sucher, Turid Frahnow, Katrin Wegner, Jürgen Machann, Klaus Jürgen Petzke, Johannes Hierholzer, Ralf Lichtinghagen, Christian Herder, Maren Carstensen-Kirberg, Michael Roden, Natalia Rudovich, Susanne Klaus, Ralph Thomann, Rosemarie Schneeweiss, Sascha Rohn, Andreas F H Pfeiffer
BACKGROUND & AIMS: Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is associated with increased risk of hepatic, cardiovascular, and metabolic diseases. High-protein diets, rich in methionine and branched chain amino acids (BCAAs), apparently reduce liver fat but may induce insulin resistance. We investigated the effects of diets high in animal protein vs plant protein, which differ in levels of methionine and BCAA, in subjects with type 2 diabetes and NAFLD. We examined levels of liver fat, lipogenic indices, markers of inflammation, serum levels of fibroblast growth factor 21 (FGF21), and activation of signaling pathways in adipose tissue...
October 17, 2016: Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27740871/brown-adipose-tissue-function-is-enhanced-in-long-lived-male-ames-dwarf-mice
#13
Justin Darcy, Samuel McFadden, Yimin Fang, Joshua A Huber, Chi Zhang, Liou Y Sun, Andrzej Bartke
Ames dwarf mice (Prop1(df/df)) are long-lived due to a loss of function mutation, resulting in deficiency of GH, TSH, and prolactin. Along with a marked extension of longevity, Ames dwarf mice have improved energy metabolism as measured by an increase in their oxygen consumption and heat production, as well as a decrease in their respiratory quotient. Along with alterations in energy metabolism, Ames dwarf mice have a lower core body temperature. Moreover, Ames dwarf mice have functionally altered epididymal white adipose tissue (WAT) that improves, rather than impairs, their insulin sensitivity due to a shift from pro- to anti-inflammatory cytokine secretion...
December 2016: Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27738523/exercising-in-the-fasted-state-reduced-24-hour-energy-intake-in-active-male-adults
#14
Jessica L Bachman, Ronald W Deitrick, Angela R Hillman
The effect of fasting prior to morning exercise on 24-hour energy intake was examined using a randomized, counterbalanced design. Participants (12 active, white males, 20.8 ± 3.0 years old, VO2max: 59.1 ± 5.7 mL/kg/min) fasted (NoBK) or received breakfast (BK) and then ran for 60 minutes at 60%  VO2max. All food was weighed and measured for 24 hours. Measures of blood glucose and hunger were collected at 5 time points. Respiratory quotient (RQ) was measured during exercise. Generalized linear mixed models and paired sample t-tests examined differences between the conditions...
2016: Journal of Nutrition and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27721919/independent-effects-of-diet-and-exercise-training-on-fat-oxidation-in-non-alcoholic-fatty-liver-disease
#15
Ilaria Croci, Nuala M Byrne, Veronique S Chachay, Andrew P Hills, Andrew D Clouston, Trisha M O'Moore-Sullivan, Johannes B Prins, Graeme A Macdonald, Ingrid J Hickman
AIM: To investigate the independent effects of 6-mo of dietary energy restriction or exercise training on whole-body and hepatic fat oxidation of patients with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). METHODS: Participants were randomised into either circuit exercise training (EX; n = 13; 3 h/wk without changes in dietary habits), or dietary energy restriction (ER) without changes in structured physical activity (ER; n = 8). Respiratory quotient (RQ) and whole-body fat oxidation rates (Fatox) were determined by indirect calorimetry under basal, insulin-stimulated and exercise conditions...
September 28, 2016: World Journal of Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27698539/energy-metabolism-and-nutritional-status-in-hospitalized-patients-with-lung-cancer
#16
Yumi Takemura, Masaya Sasaki, Kenichi Goto, Azusa Takaoka, Akiko Ohi, Mika Kurihara, Naoko Nakanishi, Yasutaka Nakano, Jun Hanaoka
This study aimed to investigate the energy metabolism of patients with lung cancer and the relationship between energy metabolism and proinflammatory cytokines. Twenty-eight patients with lung cancer and 18 healthy controls were enrolled in this study. The nutritional status upon admission was analyzed using nutritional screening tools and laboratory tests. The resting energy expenditure and respiratory quotient were measured using indirect calorimetry, and the predicted resting energy expenditure was calculated using the Harris-Benedict equation...
September 2016: Journal of Clinical Biochemistry and Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27658944/the-impact-of-measurement-of-respiratory-quotient-by-indirect-calorimetry-on-the-achievement-of-nitrogen-balance-in-patients-with-severe-traumatic-brain-injury
#17
J Maxwell, C Gwardschaladse, G Lombardo, P Petrone, A Policastro, D Karev, K Prabhakaran, A Betancourt, C P Marini
BACKGROUND: This study evaluated the impact of IC on the optimization of nutritional support and the achievement of +NB in patients with TBI. MATERIALS AND METHODS: 27 patients (GCS ≤ 8), treated with a 5-day multimodality monitoring and goal-directed therapy protocol, received enteral nutrition on day 1 followed by IC on days 3 and 5 and assessment of NB on day 7. In the first cohort (n = 11), no adjustment in kcal was made. In the second cohort (n = 16), nutrition was targeted to an RQ of 0...
September 22, 2016: European Journal of Trauma and Emergency Surgery: Official Publication of the European Trauma Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27618274/evaluating-pulmonary-function-an-assessment-of-pao2-fio2
#18
John R Feiner, Richard B Weiskopf
OBJECTIVES: PaO2/FIO2 is used commonly for diagnosis of lung injury (acute respiratory distress syndrome and transfusion-related acute lung injury), for assessment of pulmonary disease course and therapy, and in pulmonary transplantation for evaluation of donor lungs and clinical outcome. It was developed for convenience, without formal mathematical and graphic assessment to validate its suitability for these purposes. DESIGN: We examined, mathematically and graphically, the relationship of PaO2/FIO2 to FIO2 at constant normal and several degrees of increased intrapulmonary shunting (QS/QT), assessing the impact of intra- and extrapulmonary factors on the relationship and thus the reliability of PaO2/FIO2...
September 9, 2016: Critical Care Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27611657/effect-of-a-multi-nutrient-over-the-counter-supplement-on-changes-in-metabolic-rate-and-markers-of-lipolysis
#19
Tim N Ziegenfuss, Hector L Lopez, Jennifer E Sandrock, A William Kedia, Scott Habowski, Chad Kerksick
Using a prospective, randomized, double-blind, crossover study design, fifteen healthy male (n = 8) and female (n = 7) participants (mean ± standard deviation (SD): 28.3 ± 6.1 yr, 176.3 ± 11.4 cm, 89.8 ± 21.7 kg, 28.5 ± 4.8 kg/m(2)) completed this study. Two testing sessions occurred after an overnight fast and refraining from physical exercise. Prior to and 60, 120, and 180 minutes after single dose ingestion of placebo (PLA) or a Thermogenic Supplement (TS), visual analog scales (VAS), resting metabolic rate (VO2), and venous blood were collected...
September 9, 2016: Journal of Dietary Supplements
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27611102/diets-enriched-in-whey-or-casein-improve-energy-balance-and-prevent-morbidity-and-renal-damage-in-salt-loaded-and-high-fat-fed-spontaneously-hypertensive-stroke-prone-rats
#20
Arashdeep Singh, Adel Pezeshki, Rizaldy C Zapata, Nicholas J Yee, Cameron G Knight, Ursula I Tuor, Prasanth K Chelikani
High-fat diets induce obesity and increase risks of diabetes and cardiovascular and renal disorders. Whey- or casein-enriched diets decrease food intake and weight gain; however, their cardiovascular and renal benefits are unclear. We determined whether whey- and casein-enriched diets improve energy balance and are protective against renal damage and morbidity associated with stroke in an obesogenic and hypertensive experimental setting. We also assessed whether the hypophagic effects of these diets were due to reduced diet preference...
August 13, 2016: Journal of Nutritional Biochemistry
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