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Respiratory Quotient

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29148626/effects-of-detraining-on-breathing-pattern-and-ventilatory-efficiency-in-young-soccer-players
#1
José R Alvero Cruz, Mauro Ronconi, Jerónimo Garcia Romero, José Naranjo Orellana
BACKGROUND: This study investigated the effects of detraining on breathing pattern. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of a sixweek detraining period on breathing patterns and ventilatory efficiency. METHODS: Fourteen young soccer players were evaluated at the end of a competitive season and after a sixweek detraining period. Assessment of respiratory efficiency was based on VE/VCO2 slope changes below 70% of exercise intensity. All participants underwent twice an incremental graded exercise test up to exhaustion...
November 17, 2017: Journal of Sports Medicine and Physical Fitness
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29116114/co2-production-dissolution-and-pressure-dynamics-during-silage-production-multi-sensor-based-insight-into-parameter-interactions
#2
Menghua Li, Guilin Shan, Haiyang Zhou, Wolfgang Buescher, Christian Maack, Kerstin H Jungbluth, André Lipski, David A Grantz, Youheng Fan, Daokun Ma, Zhongyi Wang, Qiang Cheng, Yurui Sun
Silage is a critical global feedstock, but is prone to aerobic deterioration. The dominant mechanism of O2 transport into silage remains unresolved. Here, multiple sensors tracked O2 and CO2, gas pressure (ΔP) between internal silage and ambient air, pH and silage temperature (Tsi) during the ensilage of maize and ryegrass. We report the first observation that CO2 produced from microbial respiration was partially dissolved in silage water, with evidence of negative or positive ΔP depending on the changing balance between CO2 production and dissolution...
November 7, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29114979/weight-cycling-in-adults-with-severe-obesity-a-longitudinal-study
#3
Marwan El Ghoch, Simona Calugi, Riccardo Dalle Grave
AIM: Although weight cycling is a common phenomenon in treatment-seeking patients with obesity, its consequences on health outcomes have not yet been completely clarified. We therefore aimed to investigate the effect of one cycle of intentional weight loss and regain on energy expenditure, body composition, cardiovascular risk factors and psychosocial variables in patients with severe obesity. METHODS: Clinical and psychosocial variables were measured in 38 adult patients with severe obesity (body mass index (BMI): 43...
November 8, 2017: Nutrition & Dietetics: the Journal of the Dietitians Association of Australia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29070713/long-term-intake-of-a-high-protein-diet-affects-body-phenotype-metabolism-and-plasma-hormones-in-mice
#4
John P Vu, Leon Luong, William F Parsons, Suwan Oh, Daniel Sanford, Arielle Gabalski, John Rb Lighton, Joseph R Pisegna, Patrizia M Germano
Background: High-protein diets (HPDs) recently have been used to obtain body weight and fat mass loss and expand muscle mass. Several studies have documented that HPDs reduce appetite and food intake.Objective: Our goal was to determine the long-term effects of an HPD on body weight, energy intake and expenditure, and metabolic hormones.Methods: Male C57BL/6 mice (8 wk old) were fed either an HPD (60% of energy as protein) or a control diet (CD; 20% of energy as protein) for 12 wk. Body composition and food intakes were determined, and plasma hormone concentrations were measured in mice after being fed and after overnight feed deprivation at several time points...
October 25, 2017: Journal of Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29050421/performance-nutrient-utilization-and-energy-partitioning-in-broiler-chickens-offered-high-canola-meal-diets-supplemented-with-multicomponent-carbohydrase-and-mono-component-protease
#5
M Toghyani, S B Wu, R A Pérez-Maldonado, P A Iji, R A Swick
Two broiler chicken experiments were conducted to investigate the effects of canola meal (CM) replacing soybean meal (SBM) in diets supplemented with carbohydrase and protease on performance and partitioning of energy. First, a 2 × 2 × 2 factorial arrangement of treatments was employed to evaluate: protein meals (CM vs. SBM), carbohydrase (none or 300 mg/kg), protease (none or 200 mg/kg), and their interactions. Each treatment was fed to 6 replicated pens of 16 male broilers (Ross 308) from d 10 to 35. In the second experiment, 32 broiler chicks were used in a 2 × 2 factorial arrangement to investigate CM and carbohydrase effects on energy partitioning...
September 1, 2017: Poultry Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28992016/determining-the-effects-of-early-gestation-in-utero-heat-stress-on-postnatal-fasting-heat-production-and-circulating-biomarkers-associated-with-metabolism-in-growing-pigs
#6
N M Chapel, C J Byrd, D W Lugar, G M Morello, L H Baumgard, J W Ross, T J Safranski, M C Lucy, J S Johnson
The study objective was to characterize effects of early gestation in utero heat stress (IUHS) on postnatal fasting heat production (FHP) and blood biomarkers associated with metabolism in growing pigs. Based on previous observation of increased postnatal core body temperature set point in IUHS pigs, we hypothesized that FHP would be altered during postnatal life because of IUHS. Pregnant first-parity gilts were exposed to thermoneutral (TN; = 4; 17.8 ± 0.1°C) or heat stress (HS; = 4; cyclical 28 to 38°C) conditions from d 30 to 60 of gestation...
September 2017: Journal of Animal Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28990936/olfactory-receptor-544-reduces-adiposity-by-steering-fuel-preference-toward-fats
#7
Chunyan Wu, Su Hyeon Hwang, Yaoyao Jia, Joobong Choi, Yeon-Ji Kim, Dahee Choi, Duleepa Pathiraja, In-Geol Choi, Seung-Hoi Koo, Sung-Joon Lee
Olfactory receptors (ORs) are present in tissues outside the olfactory system; however, the function of these receptors remains relatively unknown. Here, we determined that olfactory receptor 544 (Olfr544) is highly expressed in the liver and adipose tissue of mice and regulates cellular energy metabolism and obesity. Azelaic acid (AzA), an Olfr544 ligand, specifically induced PKA-dependent lipolysis in adipocytes and promoted fatty acid oxidation (FAO) and ketogenesis in liver, thus shifting the fuel preference to fats...
October 9, 2017: Journal of Clinical Investigation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28975572/does-endogenous-glp-1-affect-resting-energy-expenditure-and-fuel-selection-in-overweight-and-obese-adults
#8
E Poggiogalle, L M Donini, C Chiesa, L Pacifico, A Lenzi, S Perna, M Faliva, M Naso, M Rondanelli
PURPOSE: To investigate the association between fasting glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1) levels and resting energy expenditure (REE), and respiratory quotient (RQ) in overweight and obese adults. METHOD: Study participants were enrolled at the Dietetic and Metabolic Unit, University of Pavia, Italy. Inclusion criteria were age ≥ 25 and ≤ 45 years, and body mass index (BMI) ≥ 25 and ≤ 35 kg/m(2). Diabetic subjects were excluded. Body composition was measured by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry...
October 3, 2017: Journal of Endocrinological Investigation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28947262/perfluorooctanoic-acid-exposure-disturbs-glucose-metabolism-in-mouse-liver
#9
Fei Zheng, Nan Sheng, Hongxia Zhang, Shengmin Yan, Jianhai Zhang, Jianshe Wang
Environmental pollutants such as perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) can influence human metabolism processes and are associated with certain metabolic diseases. To investigate the effect of PFOA on liver glucose homeostasis, adult male Balb/c mice were orally administered 1.25mg/kg of PFOA for 28d consecutively. Compared with the control mice, the body weights of the PFOA-treated mice were unchanged following exposure. However, PFOA exposure increased fasting blood glucose levels and decreased glycogen and glucose content in the liver of treated mice, but did not influence blood insulin significantly...
November 15, 2017: Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28924987/influence-of-a-gas-exchange-correction-procedure-on-resting-metabolic-rate-and-respiratory-quotient-in-humans
#10
Jose E Galgani, Mauricio A Castro-Sepulveda
OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to determine the influence of a gas exchange correction protocol on resting metabolic rate (RMR) and respiratory quotient (RQ), assessed by a Vmax Encore 29n metabolic cart (SensorMedics Co., Yorba Linda, California) in overnight fasted and fed humans, and to assess the predictive power of body size for corrected and uncorrected RMR. METHODS: Healthy participants (23 M/29 F; 34 ± 9 years old; 26.3 ± 3.7 kg/m(2) ) ingested two 3-hour-apart glucose loads (75 g)...
September 19, 2017: Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28916721/loss-of-cardiac-carnitine-palmitoyltransferase-2-results-in-rapamycin-resistant-acetylation-independent-hypertrophy
#11
Andrea S Pereyra, Like Y Hasek, Kate L Harris, Alycia G Berman, Frederick W Damen, Craig J Goergen, Jessica M Ellis
Cardiac hypertrophy is closely linked to impaired fatty acid oxidation, but the molecular basis of this link is unclear. Here, we investigated the loss of an obligate enzyme in mitochondrial long-chain fatty acid oxidation, carnitine palmitoyltransferase 2 (CPT2), on muscle and heart structure, function, and molecular signatures in a muscle- and heart-specific CPT2-deficient mouse (Cpt2(M-/-)) model. CPT2 loss in heart and muscle reduced complete oxidation of long-chain fatty acids by 87 and 69%, respectively, without altering body weight, energy expenditure, respiratory quotient, or adiposity...
November 10, 2017: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28914474/determination-of-net-energy-content-of-soybean-oil-fed-to-growing-pigs-using-indirect-calorimetry
#12
Enkai Li, Zhiqian Lv, Hu Liu, Ling Liu, Yakui Li, Zhongchao Li, Fenglai Wang, Defa Li, Shuai Zhang
The objectives of this experiment were: (i) to determine the net energy (NE) of soybean oil (SBO) fed to growing pigs using indirect calorimetry (IC); and (ii) to evaluate the effects of inclusion rate of SBO on heat production, oxidative status and nutrient digestibility in growing pigs. Eighteen growing barrows were allotted to three diets based on completely randomized design with six replicate pigs (period) per diet. Diets included a corn-soybean meal basal diet and two test diets containing 5% or 10% SBO at the expense of corn and soybean meal...
September 15, 2017: Animal Science Journal, Nihon Chikusan Gakkaihō
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28903883/the-natural-history-of-the-patients-with-duchenne-muscular-dystrophy-in-taiwan-a-medical-center-experience
#13
Wen-Chen Liang, Chen-Hua Wang, Po-Ching Chou, Wan-Zi Chen, Yuh-Jyh Jong
BACKGROUND: Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) is the most common hereditary muscular dystrophy and caused by DMD gene mutation. In addition to progressive proximal muscle weakness, respiratory, orthopedic, and gastrointestinal complications are often observed in DMD. The natural history of patients with DMD in Taiwan has not been reported thus far. METHODS: Medical records of 39 patients who received a diagnosis of DMD between 1999 and 2016 at Kaohsiung Medical University Hospital were reviewed...
August 25, 2017: Pediatrics and Neonatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28899812/the-starving-brain-overfed-meets-undernourished-in-the-pathology-of-mild-cognitive-impairment-mci-and-alzheimer-s-disease-ad
#14
REVIEW
Kelly J Gibas
Type II Diabetes affects 400 million people worldwide (IDF, 2013). The pathology is paradoxical: internal starvation activated by overfeeding. Hyperinsulinemic impairments of glucose homeostasis are treated with anti-hyperglycemics exacerbating cell starvation, inducing hypoglycemia and raising respiratory quotient. Reductions in hyperglycemia are achieved at the expense of glucose dependency and metabolic inflexibility (Gibas & Gibas, 2017). The brain is not immune from these cycles of starvation. The bioenergetic model characterizes propagation of late-onset, sporadic Alzheimer's disease as loss of molecular fidelity and compromised energy originating in brain networks with highest metabolic demand...
November 2017: Neurochemistry International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28887630/ncb5or-deficiency-in-the-cerebellum-and-midbrain-leads-to-dehydration-and-alterations-in-thirst-response-fasted-feeding-behavior-and-voluntary-exercise-in-mice
#15
Matthew A Stroh, Michelle K Winter, Kenneth E McCarson, John P Thyfault, Hao Zhu
Cytosolic NADH-cytochrome-b5-oxidoreductase (NCB5OR) is ubiquitously expressed in animal tissues. We have previously reported that global ablation of NCB5OR in mice results in early-onset lean diabetes with decreased serum leptin levels and increased metabolic and feeding activities. The conditional deletion of NCB5OR in the mouse cerebellum and midbrain (conditional knock out, CKO mice) results in local iron dyshomeostasis and altered locomotor activity. It has been established that lesion to or removal of the cerebellum leads to changes in nutrient organization, visceral response, feeding behavior, and body weight...
September 8, 2017: Cerebellum
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28871539/mitochondrial-respiration-and-oxygen-tension
#16
Daniel S Shaw, Karlia Meitha, Michael J Considine, Christine H Foyer
Measurements of respiration and oxygen tension in plant organs allow a precise understanding of mitochondrial capacity and function within the context of cellular oxygen metabolism. Here we describe methods that can be routinely used for the isolation of intact mitochondria, and the determination of respiratory electron transport, together with techniques for in vivo determination of oxygen tension and measurement of respiration by both CO2 production and O2 consumption that enables calculation of the respiratory quotient [CO2]/[O2]...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28871533/multisense-a-multimodal-sensor-tool-enabling-the-high-throughput-analysis-of-respiration
#17
Peter Keil, Gregor Liebsch, Ljudmilla Borisjuk, Hardy Rolletschek
The high-throughput analysis of respiratory activity has become an important component of many biological investigations. Here, a technological platform, denoted the "MultiSense tool," is described. The tool enables the parallel monitoring of respiration in 100 samples over an extended time period, by dynamically tracking the concentrations of oxygen (O2) and/or carbon dioxide (CO2) and/or pH within an airtight vial. Its flexible design supports the quantification of respiration based on either oxygen consumption or carbon dioxide release, thereby allowing for the determination of the physiologically significant respiratory quotient (the ratio between the quantities of CO2 released and the O2 consumed)...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28822338/in-vitro-bioaccessibility-and-health-risk-assessment-of-heavy-metals-in-atmospheric-particulate-matters-from-three-different-functional-areas-of-shanghai-china
#18
Huang Huang, Ying Jiang, Xiaoyun Xu, Xinde Cao
The bioaccessibility and human health risks of heavy metals in PM2.5 and PM10 samples from three functional areas of Shanghai, China including a commercial area (CA), a residential area (RA), and an industrial area (IA), were investigated. Gamble's solution and physiologically based extraction test were employed to simulate human respiratory and digestive system, respectively. Both PM2.5 and PM10 concentration in the three areas exceeded the guideline of WHO, and followed the order of IA>CA≈RA. Zinc and Pb were the most abundant metals with a concentration range of 0...
January 1, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28818484/the-physiology-of-submaximal-exercise-the-steady-state-concept
#19
REVIEW
Guido Ferretti, Nazzareno Fagoni, Anna Taboni, Paolo Bruseghini, Giovanni Vinetti
The steady state concept implies that the oxygen flow is invariant and equal at each level along the respiratory system. The same is the case with the carbon dioxide flow. This condition has several physiological consequences, which are analysed. First, we briefly discuss the mechanical efficiency of exercise and the energy cost of human locomotion, as well as the roles played by aerodynamic work and frictional work. Then we analyse the equations describing the oxygen flow in lungs and in blood, the effects of ventilation and of the ventilation - perfusion inequality, and the interaction between diffusion and perfusion in the lungs...
December 2017: Respiratory Physiology & Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28815952/partial-sleep-deprivation-reduces-the-efficacy-of-orexin-a-to-stimulate-physical-activity-and-energy-expenditure
#20
Danielle P DePorter, Jamie E Coborn, Jennifer A Teske
OBJECTIVE: Sufficient sleep is required for weight maintenance. Sleep deprivation due to noise exposure stimulates weight gain by increasing hyperphagia and reducing energy expenditure (EE). Yet the mechanistic basis underlying the weight gain response is unclear. Orexin-A promotes arousal and negative energy balance, and orexin terminals project to the ventrolateral preoptic area (VLPO), which is involved in sleep-to-wake transitions. To determine whether sleep deprivation reduces orexin function in VLPO and to test the hypothesis that sleep deprivation would attenuate the orexin-A-stimulated increase in arousal, physical activity (PA), and EE...
August 17, 2017: Obesity
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