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Respiratory Quotient

Timothy J Fulton, Hunter L Paris, Abigail S L Stickford, Allison H Gruber, Timothy D Mickleborough, Robert F Chapman
To determine if acute exposure to simulated moderate altitude alters locomotor-respiratory coupling (LRC) patterns in runners, 13 trained male distance runners performed a running economy and maximal oxygen uptake (V̇O2max ) test in normoxia (NORM) and hypoxia (HYP) (FIO2 = 15.8%; ~ 2400m / 8000ft) on separate days. Running economy (RE), the degree of LRC, stride frequency-to-breathing frequency quotients (SF/fb ), ratings of perceived exertion (RPE), and dyspnea (DYS) were assessed at three common submaximal speeds and V̇O2max ...
March 8, 2018: Journal of Applied Physiology
Anna Patkova, Vera Joskova, Eduard Havel, Simona Najpaverova, Daniela Uramova, Miroslav Kovarik, Zdenek Zadak, Miloslav Hronek
OBJECTIVE: The association between energy metabolism and prognosis in polytrauma patients has not yet been defined. The aim of this study was to describe energy metabolism and analyze the prognostic value of respiratory quotient (RQ) and nonprotein respiratory quotient (npRQ) in fasting polytrauma patients (fPP) and polytrauma patients with nutritional support (nsPP). METHODS: Twenty-two polytrauma patients (before and after parenteral nutrition administration) and 22 healthy controls (after overnight fasting) were examined on day 4 (median) after admission to the intensive care unit...
November 7, 2017: Nutrition
Megan C Nelson, Madeline P Casanova, Chantal A Vella
PURPOSE: To investigate differences in energy expenditure (EE), heart rate (HR), productivity, fatigue, and pain while performing desk work while sitting (SIT), standing (STAND), and standing on a balance board (BOARD). METHODS: Thirty healthy adults (60% female; age 39.7 ± 11.8 y; BMI 26.7 ± 5.0 kg·m) employed in sedentary-based jobs volunteered for this randomized crossover trial. Participants performed typing work in three different positions: SIT, STAND, and BOARD; each condition lasting 30 min...
March 1, 2018: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise
Nikki C Bush, Holly E S Resuehr, Laura Lee Goree, Julie L Locher, Molly S Bray, Taraneh Soleymani, Barbara A Gower
Background: The ability to oxidize fat is associated with a lower risk of chronic metabolic disease. Preclinical data in mice showed that a high-fat "breakfast" increased 24-h fat oxidation relative to a high-carbohydrate breakfast. Objectives: The objectives of this study were to determine whether the timing of macronutrient intake in humans affects daily fuel utilization and to examine associations between fuel utilization and metabolic indexes. Methods: Participants were 29 healthy sedentary men and women (aged 55-75 y) with a body mass index (kg/m2) between 25 and 35...
February 1, 2018: Journal of Nutrition
A de la Torre, B Barbas, P Sanz, I Navarro, B Artíñano, M A Martínez
Urban ambient air samples, including gas-phase (PUF), total suspended particulates (TSP), PM10 , PM2.5 and PM1 airborne particle fractions were collected to evaluate gas-particle partitioning and size particle distribution of traditional and novel halogenated flame retardants. Simultaneously, passive air samplers (PAS) were deployed in the same location. Analytes included 33 polybrominated diphenyl ether (PBDE), 2,2',4,4',5,5'-hexabromobiphenyl (BB-153), hexabromobenzene (HBB), pentabromoethylbenzene (PBEB), 1,2-bis(2,4,6-tribromophenoxy)ethane (BTBPE), decabromodiphenyl ethane (DBDPE), dechloranes (Dec 602, 603, 604, 605 or Dechorane plus (DP)) and chlordane plus (CP)...
February 21, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
Chariklia K Deli, Athanasios Poulios, Kalliopi Georgakouli, Konstantinos Papanikolaou, Alexandros Papoutsis, Maria Selemekou, Vaios T Karathanos, Dimitris Draganidis, Athanasios Tsiokanos, Yiannis Koutedakis, Ioannis G Fatouros, Athanasios Z Jamurtas
The present study investigated the effect of Corinthian currant pre-exercise supplementation on metabolism, performance and blood redox status during, and after prolonged exercise. Eleven healthy participants (21-45y) performed a 90-min constant-intensity (60-70% VO2max ) submaximal-trial, plus a time-trial (TT) to exhaustion (95% VO2max ) after consuming an isocaloric (1.5g CHO/kg BM) amount of randomly assigned Corinthian currant or glucose-drink, or water (control). Blood was drawn at baseline, pre-exercise, 30min, 60min, 90min of submaximal-trial, post-TT, and 1h post-TT...
February 22, 2018: Journal of Sports Sciences
Shoko Wada, Hisami Yamanaka-Okumura, Takafumi Katayama, Yuji Morine, Satoru Imura, Mitsuo Shimada
BACKGROUND & AIMS: We reported decreased nonprotein respiratory quotient (npRQ) after liver resection in patients with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC); however, whether liver resection volume affects energy metabolism in these patients is unclear. We aimed to examine the relationship between liver resection and energy metabolism indices. METHODS: NpRQ was measured in 53 patients with HCC and seven with at the pre- and postoperative days. Patients were classified into four groups: Minor-lowICG group (n = 17): minor (subsegment or less) resection and low indocyanine green retention rate at 15 min (ICGR15) (<15%); Minor-highICG group (n = 18): minor resection and high ICGR15 (≥15%) and Major-lowICG group (n = 18): major (lobe) resection and low ICGR15 (<15%)...
February 2018: Clinical Nutrition ESPEN
J Mesquida, P Saludes, A Pérez-Madrigal, L Proença, E Cortes, L Enseñat, C Espinal, G Gruartmoner
Central venous-to-arterial carbon dioxide difference (Pcva CO2 ), and its correction by the arterial-to-venous oxygen content difference (Pcva CO2 /Cav O2 ) have been proposed as additional tools to evaluate tissue hypoxia. Since the relationship between pressure and content of CO2 (CCO2 ) might be affected by several factors, some authors advocate for the use of Ccva CO2 /Cav O2 . The aim of the present study was to explore the factors that might intervene in the difference between Pcva CO2 /Cav O2 and Ccva CO2 /Cav O2 , and to analyze their association with mortality...
February 17, 2018: Journal of Clinical Monitoring and Computing
Xuewen Wang, Joshua R Sparks, Kimberly P Bowyer, Shawn D Youngstedt
Study Objectives: To examine the effects of moderate sleep restriction on body weight, body composition, and metabolic variables in individuals undergoing caloric restriction. Methods: Overweight or obese adults were randomized to an 8-week caloric restriction (CR) regimen alone (n=15) or combined with sleep restriction (CR+SR) (n=21). All participants were instructed to restrict daily calorie intake to 95% of their measured resting metabolic rate. Participants in the CR+SR group were also instructed to reduce time in bed on 5 nights and to sleep ad libitum on the other 2 nights each week...
February 9, 2018: Sleep
Angelica E Patterson, Rachel Arkebauer, Crystal Quallo, Mary A Heskel, Ximeng Li, Natalie Boelman, Kevin L Griffin
The forests of the northeastern US are globally, one of the fastest growing terrestrial carbon sinks due to historical declines in large-scale agriculture, timber harvesting and fire disturbance. However, shifting range distributions of tree species with warming air temperatures are altering forest community composition and carbon dynamics. Here, we focus on respiration, a physiological process that is strongly temperature and species dependent. We specifically examined the response of respiration (R; CO2 release) to temperature in 10 broadleaved and six conifer species, as well as the respiratory quotient (RQ; ratio of CO2 released to O2 consumed) of nine broadleaved species that co-occur in the Hudson Highlands Region of New York, USA...
February 7, 2018: Tree Physiology
A M Api, D Belsito, D Botelho, D Browne, M Bruze, G A Burton, J Buschmann, M L Dagli, M Date, W Dekant, C Deodhar, M Francis, A D Fryer, K Joshi, S L A Cava, A Lapczynski, D C Liebler, D O'Brien, R Parakhia, A Patel, T M Penning, G Ritacco, J Romine, D Salvito, T W Schultz, I G Sipes, Y Thakkar, E H Theophilus, A K Tiethof, Y Tokura, S Tsang, J Wahler
The use of this material under current conditions is supported by existing information. The material (dihydro-.β.-terpinyl acetate) was evaluated for genotoxicity, repeated dose toxicity, reproductive toxicity, local respiratory toxicity, phototoxicity/photoallergenicity, skin sensitization, as well as environmental safety. Data from the read across analog menthyl acetate (1α,2β,5α) (CAS # 89-48-5) show that dihydro-.β.- terpinyl acetate is not genotoxic nor does it have skin sensitization potential. The repeated dose, reproductive and local respiratory toxicity endpoints were completed using the TTC (Threshold of Toxicological Concern) for a Cramer Class I material (0...
February 2, 2018: Food and Chemical Toxicology
Viktor von Bahr, Håkan Kalzén, Jan Hultman, Björn Frenckner, Christin Andersson, Mikael Mosskin, Staffan Eksborg, Bernhard Holzgraefe
OBJECTIVES: To investigate the presence of cognitive dysfunction and brain lesions in long-term survivors after treatment with extracorporeal membrane oxygenation for severe respiratory failure, and to see whether patients with prolonged hypoxemia were at increased risk. DESIGN: A single-center retrospective cohort study. SETTING: Tertiary referral center for extracorporeal membrane oxygenation in Sweden. PATIENTS: Long-term survivors treated between 1995 and July 2009...
January 30, 2018: Critical Care Medicine
Jia Yao, Xiaoshuang Zhou, Ming Kong, Lu Li, Xin Hua, Yaping Zhao, Shuqing Yu, Yu Chen, Zhongping Duan
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Respiratory quotient (RQ) is a good marker of substrate oxidation. Low RQ is fre-quently found in patients with liver cirrhosis and is associated with poor outcome. The purpose of this study was to demonstrate the effects of eating frequency on RQ in patients with cirrhosis. METHODS AND STUDY DESIGN: We performed a randomized controlled trial to assess the effects of eating frequency on RQ in patients with cirrhosis. Seventy patients and 30 healthy controls were enrolled, and patients were further randomized to receive either normal eating frequency (NEF) meals at 08:00, 12:00 and 18:00 h, or high eating frequency (HEF) meals at 08:00, 10:00, 12:00, 15:00, 18:00 and 20:00 h...
2018: Asia Pacific Journal of Clinical Nutrition
Kazuki Kubo, Hajime Monzen, Mikoto Tamura, Makoto Hirata, Kentaro Ishii, Wataru Okada, Ryuta Nakahara, Shun Kishimoto, Ryu Kawamorita, Yasumasa Nishimura
It is important to improve the magnitude of dose variation that is caused by the interplay effect. The aim of this study was to investigate the impact of the number of breaths (NBs) to the dose variation for VMAT-SBRT to lung cancer. Data on respiratory motion and multileaf collimator (MLC) sequence were collected from the cases of 30 patients who underwent radiotherapy with VMAT-SBRT for lung cancer. The NBs in the total irradiation time with VMAT and the maximum craniocaudal amplitude of the target were calculated...
January 25, 2018: Journal of Applied Clinical Medical Physics
Vishal Patel, Amit Joharapurkar, Samadhan Kshirsagar, Brijesh Sutariya, Maulik Patel, Hiren Patel, Dheerendra Pandey, Dipam Patel, Ramchandra Ranvir, Shekhar Kadam, Rajesh Bahekar, Mukul Jain
Background-Obesity, diabetes and dyslipidemic are the key pathogenic stimulus that enhances progression of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). Coagonist of glucagon like-peptide-1 (GLP-1) receptor (GLP-1R) and glucagon receptor (GCGR) are being evaluated for obesity and diabetes. GLP-1 analogues have shown to reverse diabetes and obesity. Glucagon treatment reduces lipids after acute and chronic treatment. Objective-In this study, we have investigated the effect of coagonist on prevention of NAFLD induced by long-term feeding of high fat diet (HFD)...
January 18, 2018: Cardiovascular & Hematological Agents in Medicinal Chemistry
Gang Xu, Yao Liu, Zhijian Long, Shanglian Hu, Yuanbin Zhang, Hao Jiang
There is uncertainty and limited knowledge regarding soil microbial properties and organic matter fractions of natural secondary forest accompanying chemical environmental changes of replacement by pure alien plantation forests in a hilly area of southwest of Sichuan province China. The aim of this study was to evaluate the impact of natural secondary forest (NSF) to pure Cryptomeria fortunei forest (CFF) and Cunninghamia lanceolata forest (CLF) on soil organic fractions and microbial communities. The results showed that the soil total phospholipid fatty acids (PLFAs), total bacteria and fungi, microbial carbon pool, organic recalcitrant carbon (C) and (N) fractions, soil microbial quotient and labile and recalcitrant C use efficiencies in each pure plantation were significantly decreased, but their microbial N pool, labile C and N pools, soil carbon dioxide efflux, soil respiratory quotient and recalcitrant N use efficiency were increased...
January 13, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
James J Bresnahan, Gary J Farkas, Jody L Clasey, James W Yates, David R Gater
OBJECTIVE: Evaluate the effect of aerobic exercise using arm crank ergometry (ACE) in high motor complete (ISNCSCI A/B) spinal cord injury (SCI) as primarily related to cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors and functional mobility and secondarily to body composition and metabolic profiles. DESIGN: Longitudinal interventional study at an academic medical center. METHODS: Ten previously untrained participants (M8/F2, Age 36.7 y ± 10.1, BMI 24...
January 15, 2018: Journal of Spinal Cord Medicine
K Pathak, R J Woodman, A P James, M J Soares
BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: Cold exposure increases thermogenesis and could improve insulin sensitivity. We hypothesized a blunted response in the metabolic syndrome (MetS). SUBJECTS/METHODS: Twenty older adults 59 ± 10.4 years (with MetS, MetS+, n = 9; without MetS, MetS-, n = 11) completed a randomized crossover design of 3.5 h exposures to 20, 25 and 27 °C on three visits. After an hour's rest at the desired temperature, resting metabolic rate (RMR), respiratory quotient (RQ), forearm to fingertip gradients (FFG), and in the ear temperature (IET) were measured over 30 min...
January 11, 2018: European Journal of Clinical Nutrition
Vishal Patel, Amit Joharapurkar, Samadhan Kshirsagar, Brijesh Sutariya, Maulik Patel, Dhreerendra Pandey, Hiren Patel, Ramchandra Ranvir, Shekhar Kadam, Dipam Patel, Rajesh Bahekar, Mukul Jain
Dyslipidemia enhances progression of atherosclerosis. Coagonist of GLP-1 and glucagon are under clinical investigation for the treatment of obesity and diabetes. Earlier, we have observed that coagonist reduced circulating and hepatic lipids, independent of its anorexic effects. Here, we investigated the role of coagonist of GLP-1 and glucagon receptors in complications of diet-induced dyslipidemia in hamsters and humanized double transgenic mice. Hamsters fed on high fat high cholesterol diet were treated for 8 weeks with coagonist of GLP-1 and glucagon receptors (75 and 150 μg/kg)...
January 8, 2018: Chemico-biological Interactions
Mitsuru Seki, Jeffery C Powers, Sonomi Maruyama, Maria A Zuriaga, Chia-Ling Wu, Clara Kurishima, Lydia Kim, Jesse Johnson, Anthony Poidomani, Tao Wang, Eric Muñoz, Sudarsan Rajan, Joon Y Park, Kenneth Walsh, Fabio A Recchia
BACKGROUND: FSTL1 (follistatin-like protein 1) is an emerging cardiokine/myokine that is upregulated in heart failure (HF) and is found to be cardioprotective in animal models of cardiac injury. We tested the hypothesis that circulating FSTL1 can affect cardiac function and metabolism under baseline physiological conditions and in HF. METHODS AND RESULTS: FSTL1 was acutely (10 minutes) or chronically (2 weeks) infused to attain clinically relevant blood levels in conscious dogs with cardiac tachypacing-induced HF...
January 2018: Circulation. Heart Failure
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