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Respiratory Quotient

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29778649/fermentation-of-saccharomyces-cerevisiae-combining-kinetic-modeling-and-optimization-techniques-points-out-avenues-to-effective-process-design
#1
Johannes Scheiblauer, Stefan Scheiner, Martin Joksch, Barbara Kavsek
A combined experimental/theoretical approach is presented, for improving the predictability of Saccharomyces cerevisiae fermentations. In particular, a mathematical model was developed explicitly taking into account the main mechanisms of the fermentation process, allowing for continuous computation of key process variables, including the biomass concentration and the respiratory quotient (RQ). For model calibration and experimental validation, batch and fed-batch fermentations were carried out. Comparison of the model-predicted biomass concentrations and RQ developments with the corresponding experimentally recorded values shows a remarkably good agreement for both batch and fed-batch processes, confirming the adequacy of the model...
May 17, 2018: Journal of Theoretical Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29777235/response-of-skeletal-muscle-ucp2-expression-during-metabolic-adaptation-to-caloric-restriction
#2
Sascha Heinitz, Paolo Piaggi, Shanshan Yang, Susan Bonfiglio, Jason Steel, Jonathan Krakoff, Susanne B Votruba
BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: Spendthrift vs. thrifty individuals expend more energy and experience greater weight loss during caloric restriction (CR). Adaptive mechanisms in skeletal muscle, adipose tissue, and on hormone level modulate energy expenditure (EE) during weight loss. Metabolic mechanisms underlying the variability in EE during CR are unclear. The present study explored whether during long-term CR (i) gene expression changes in skeletal muscle and adipose tissue relate with the individual EE response and weight loss, and (ii) altered catecholamine and FGF21-concentrations are associated with measures of metabolic adaptation...
May 17, 2018: International Journal of Obesity: Journal of the International Association for the Study of Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29754194/loss-of-p2x7-receptor-function-dampens-whole-body-energy-expenditure-and-fatty-acid-oxidation
#3
Giacomo Giacovazzo, Savina Apolloni, Roberto Coccurello
The established role of ATP-responsive P2X7 receptor in inflammatory, neurodegenerative, and immune diseases is now expanding to include several aspects of metabolic dysregulation. Indeed, P2X7 receptors are involved in β cell function, insulin secretion, and liability to diabetes, and loss of P2X7 function may increase the risk of hepatic steatosis and disrupt adipogenesis. Recently, body weight gain, abnormal lipid accumulation, adipocyte hyperplasia, increased fat mass, and ectopic fat distribution have been found in P2X7 KO mice...
May 12, 2018: Purinergic Signalling
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29739678/congruent-validity-and-inter-day-reliability-of-two-breath-by-breath-metabolic-carts-to-measure-resting-metabolic-rate-in-young-adults
#4
J M A Alcantara, G Sanchez-Delgado, B Martinez-Tellez, E Merchan-Ramirez, I Labayen, J R Ruiz
BACKGROUND & AIMS: Achieving high inter-day reliability is a key factor to analyze the magnitude of change in RMR, for instance after an intervention. The aims of this study were: i) to determine the congruent validity of RMR and respiratory quotient (RQ) with two breath by breath commercially available metabolic carts [CCM Express (CCM) and Ultima CardiO2 (MGU)]; and ii) to analyze the inter-day reliability of RMR and RQ measurements. METHODS & RESULTS: Seventeen young adults participated in the study...
March 30, 2018: Nutrition, Metabolism, and Cardiovascular Diseases: NMCD
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29702025/depp-depp1-c10orf10-regulates-hepatic-glucose-and-fat-metabolism-partly-via-ros-induced-fgf21
#5
Wenli Li, Meiling Ji, Yandie Lin, Yi Miao, Simin Chen, Hao Li
Decidual protein induced by progesterone (DEPP/DEPP1/C10ORF10) is induced by denying access to food and reduced by refeeding in insulin-sensitive organs in vivo. The negative regulation of DEPP by insulin is also proven in several cell lines. However, the functions of DEPP in insulin-sensitive organs remain unknown. In the present study, we investigated the impact of DEPP on hepatic energy metabolism and addressed the underlying mechanisms. The metabolic effects of DEPP were investigated in mice with adenovirus-mediated hepatic overexpression...
April 27, 2018: FASEB Journal: Official Publication of the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29684438/the-cytoskeleton-in-couch-potato-ism-insights-from-a-murine-model-of-impaired-actin-dynamics
#6
Karen Gertz, Ria Uhlemann, Anna Foryst-Ludwig, Ruben Marquina Barrientos, Kai Kappert, Christa Thöne-Reineke, Pierre Djoufack, Clemens Kirschbaum, Klaus B Fink, Andreas Heinz, Ulrich Kintscher, Matthias Endres, Golo Kronenberg
Evidence for a critical pathophysiological role of aberrant cytoskeletal dynamics is being uncovered in a growing number of neuropsychiatric syndromes. A sedentary lifestyle as well as overt psychopathology is prevalent in patients with the metabolic syndrome. Using mice deficient in gelsolin (Gsn-/- ), a crucial actin-severing protein, we here investigated reduced actin turnover as a potential common driver of metabolic disturbances, sedentary behavior, and an anxious/depressive phenotype. Gelsolin deficiency resulted in reduced lifespan...
April 20, 2018: Experimental Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29678134/health-risk-assessment-of-volatile-organic-compounds-exposure-near-daegu-dyeing-industrial-complex-in-south-korea
#7
Jianfei Shuai, Sunshin Kim, Hyeonsu Ryu, Jinhyeon Park, Chae Kwan Lee, Geun-Bae Kim, Venecio U Ultra, Wonho Yang
BACKGROUND: Studying human health in areas with industrial contamination is a serious and complex issue. In recent years, attention has increasingly focused on the health implications of large industrial complexes. A variety of potential toxic chemicals have been produced during manufacturing processes and activities in industrial complexes in South Korea. A large number of dyeing industries gathered together in Daegu dyeing industrial complex. The residents near the industrial complex could be often exposed to volatile organic compounds...
April 20, 2018: BMC Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29674598/online-monitoring-of-carbon-dioxide-and-oxygen-in-exhaled-mouse-breath-via-substrate-integrated-hollow-waveguide-fourier-transform-infrared-luminescence-spectroscopy
#8
Felicia Seichter, Erhan Tuetuencue, Tamina Hagemann, Josef Vogt, Ulrich Wachter, Michael Groeger, Sandra Kress, Peter Radermacher, Boris Mizaikoff
Exhaled breath offers monitoring bio markers, as well as diagnosing diseases and therapeutic interventions. In addition, vital functions may be non-invasively monitored on-line. Animal models are frequently used in research for determining novel therapeutic approaches and/or for investigating biological pathways. The exhaled carbon dioxide concentration, exhaled and inhaled oxygen concentration, and the subsequent respiratory quotient (RQ) offer insight into metabolic activity. One may adapt breath sampling systems and equipment designed for human applications to large animal studies, however, such adaptations are usually impossible for small animals due to their minuscule breath volume...
April 20, 2018: Journal of Breath Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29670259/association-between-fat-mass-adipose-tissue-fat-fraction-per-adipose-tissue-and-metabolic-risks-a-cross-sectional-study-in-normal-overweight-and-obese-adults
#9
Mark Hübers, Corinna Geisler, Anja Bosy-Westphal, Wiebke Braun, Maryam Pourhassan, Thorkild I A Sørensen, Manfred J Müller
BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: We investigated whether fat mass (FM) and total adipose tissue (TAT) can be used interchangeably and FM per TAT adds to metabolic risk assessment. SUBJECTS/METHODS: Cross-sectional data were assessed in 377 adults (aged 18-60 years; 51.2% women). FM was measured by either 4-compartment (4C) model or quantitative magnetic resonance (QMR); total-, subcutaneous- and visceral adipose tissue (TAT, SAT, VAT), and liver fat by whole-body MRI; leptin, insulin, homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR), C-reactive protein (CRP), and triglycerides; resting energy expenditure and respiratory quotient by indirect calorimetry were determined...
April 18, 2018: European Journal of Clinical Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29667097/an-elevated-respiratory-quotient-predicts-complications-after-cardiac-surgery-under-extracorporeal-circulation-an-observational-pilot-study
#10
J Piot, A Hébrard, M Durand, J F Payen, P Albaladejo
Following cardiac surgery, hyperlactatemia due to anaerobic metabolism is associated with an increase in both morbidity and mortality. We previously found that an elevated respiratory quotient (RQ) predicts anaerobic metabolism. In the present study we aimed to demonstrate that it is also associated with poor outcome following cardiac surgery. This single institution, prospective, observational study includes all those patients that were consecutively admitted to the intensive care unit (ICU) after cardiac surgery with cardiopulmonary bypass, that had also been monitored using pulmonary artery catheter...
April 17, 2018: Journal of Clinical Monitoring and Computing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29658834/alterations-in-thyroid-hormone-levels-following-growth-hormone-replacement-exert-complex-biological-effects
#11
Nigel Glynn, Helena Kenny, Tarik Salim, David J Halsall, Diarmuid Smith, Tommy Kyaw Tun, John H McDermott, William Tormey, Christopher J Thompson, Brendan McAdam, Donal O' Gorman, Amar Agha
OBJECTIVE: Alterations in the thyroid axis are frequently observed following growth hormone (GH) replacement, but uncertainty exists regarding their clinical significance. We aimed to compare fluctuations in circulating thyroid hormone levels, induced by GH, to changes in sensitive biological markers of thyroid hormone action. METHODS: This was a prospective observational clinical study. Twenty hypopituitary men were studied before and after GH replacement. Serum thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH), thyroid hormones, and insulin-like growth factor 1 were measured...
April 2018: Endocrine Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29626611/preliminary-observations-in-systemic-oxygen-consumption-during-targeted-temperature-management-after-cardiac-arrest
#12
Amy Uber, Anne V Grossestreuer, Catherine E Ross, Parth V Patel Rn, Ambica Trehan, Michael W Donnino, Katherine M Berg
AIM: Limited data suggests low oxygen consumption (VO2 ), driven by mitochondrial injury, is associated with mortality after cardiac arrest. Due to the challenges of measurement in the critically ill, post-arrest metabolism remains poorly characterized. We monitored VO2 , carbon dioxide production (VCO2 ) and the respiratory quotient (RQ) in post-arrest patients and explored associations with outcome. METHODS: Using a gas exchange monitor, we measured continuous VO2 and VCO2 in post- arrest patients treated with targeted temperature management...
April 4, 2018: Resuscitation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29617391/biliopancreatic-diversion-is-associated-with-greater-increases-in-energy-expenditure-than-roux-en-y-gastric-bypass
#13
Malin Werling, Lars Fändriks, Torsten Olbers, Tom Mala, Jon Kristinsson, Kaj Stenlöf, Ville Wallenius, Neil G Docherty, Carel W le Roux
OBJECTIVE: The greater weight loss achieved following Biliopancreatic Diversion with Duodenal Switch (BPDS) versus Roux-en-Y Gastric Bypass (RYGB) has been attributed to the malabsorptive effects of BPDS. Increased weight loss after BPDS could also be underpinned by larger increases in energy expenditure. Hypothetically, the more radical reconfiguration of the small intestine in BPDS could result in an accentuated increase in meal associated thermogenesis (MAT). DESIGN: Female subjects (baseline mean age 40 years, mean BMI-55kg/m2) were assessed four years after randomization to BPDS (n = 6) or RYGB (n = 6)...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29607889/effects-of-medium-chain-triacylglycerols-on-the-pathological-condition-and-energy-bioavailability-of-streptozotocin-induced-diabetic-rats
#14
Jun-Ichi Nagata, Chihiro Kuroiwa, Shizuka Tamaru-Hase, Kazunori Koba
Diabetes is a disease characterized not only by a high blood glucose level but also by high ketone levels. Medium chain triacylglycerols (MCT) are known as functional lipids, but they are rapidly metabolized to produce ketone bodies. In this study, we examined the effects of MCT intake on the pathological condition and energy bioavailability of diabetic animals. Streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic rats were used as animal models for type I diabetes. The pathological condition was estimated through blood biochemical values, and the energy expenditure was calculated based on the respiratory quotient, which was analyzed using a mass spectrometer...
2018: Journal of Oleo Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29605434/acsl5-genotype-influence-on-fatty-acid-metabolism-a-cellular-tissue-and-whole-body-study
#15
Abishankari Rajkumar, Awa Liaghati, Jessica Chan, Gilles Lamothe, Robert Dent, Éric Doucet, Rémi Rabasa-Lhoret, Denis Prud'homme, Mary-Ellen Harper, Frédérique Tesson
BACKGROUND: Acyl-CoA Synthetase Long Chain 5 (ACSL5) gene's rs2419621 T/C polymorphism was associated with ACSL5 mRNA expression and response to lifestyle interventions. However, the mechanistic understanding of the increased response in T allele carriers is lacking. Study objectives were to investigate the effect of rs2419621 genotype and ACSL5 human protein isoforms on fatty acid oxidation and respiration. METHODS: Human ACSL5 overexpression in C2C12 mouse myoblasts was conducted to measure14 C palmitic acid oxidation and protein isoform localization in vitro...
March 29, 2018: Metabolism: Clinical and Experimental
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29596463/inhibin-%C3%AE-e-inhbe-is-a-possible-insulin-resistance-associated-hepatokine-identified-by-comprehensive-gene-expression-analysis-in-human-liver-biopsy-samples
#16
Masakazu Sugiyama, Akihiro Kikuchi, Hirofumi Misu, Hirobumi Igawa, Motooki Ashihara, Youichi Kushima, Kiyofumi Honda, Yoshiyuki Suzuki, Yoshiki Kawabe, Shuichi Kaneko, Toshinari Takamura
The liver plays a major role in whole-body energy homeostasis by releasing secretory factors, termed hepatokines. To identify novel target genes associated with insulin resistance, we performed a comprehensive analysis of gene expression profiles using a DNA chip method in liver biopsy samples from humans with varying degrees of insulin resistance. Inhibin βE (INHBE) was identified as a novel putative hepatokine with hepatic gene expression that positively correlated with insulin resistance and body mass index in humans...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29517422/locomotor-respiratory-coupling-is-maintained-in-simulated-moderate-altitude-in-trained-distance-runners
#17
Timothy J Fulton, Hunter L Paris, Abigail S L Stickford, Allison H Gruber, Timothy D Mickleborough, Robert F Chapman
To determine if acute exposure to simulated moderate altitude alters locomotor-respiratory coupling (LRC) patterns in runners, 13 trained male distance runners performed a running economy and maximal oxygen uptake (V̇O2max ) test in normoxia (NORM) and hypoxia (HYP) (FIO2 = 15.8%; ~ 2400m / 8000ft) on separate days. Running economy (RE), the degree of LRC, stride frequency-to-breathing frequency quotients (SF/fb ), ratings of perceived exertion (RPE), and dyspnea (DYS) were assessed at three common submaximal speeds and V̇O2max ...
March 8, 2018: Journal of Applied Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29500970/prognostic-value-of-respiratory-quotients-in-severe-polytrauma-patients-with-nutritional-support
#18
Anna Patkova, Vera Joskova, Eduard Havel, Simona Najpaverova, Daniela Uramova, Miroslav Kovarik, Zdenek Zadak, Miloslav Hronek
OBJECTIVE: The association between energy metabolism and prognosis in polytrauma patients has not yet been defined. The aim of this study was to describe energy metabolism and analyze the prognostic value of respiratory quotient (RQ) and nonprotein respiratory quotient (npRQ) in fasting polytrauma patients (fPP) and polytrauma patients with nutritional support (nsPP). METHODS: Twenty-two polytrauma patients (before and after parenteral nutrition administration) and 22 healthy controls (after overnight fasting) were examined on day 4 (median) after admission to the intensive care unit...
May 2018: Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29494476/the-effectiveness-of-standing-on-a-balance-board-for-increasing-energy-expenditure
#19
Megan C Nelson, Madeline P Casanova, Chantal A Vella
PURPOSE: To investigate differences in energy expenditure (EE), heart rate (HR), productivity, fatigue, and pain while performing desk work while sitting (SIT), standing (STAND), and standing on a balance board (BOARD). METHODS: Thirty healthy adults (60% female; age 39.7 ± 11.8 y; BMI 26.7 ± 5.0 kg·m) employed in sedentary-based jobs volunteered for this randomized crossover trial. Participants performed typing work in three different positions: SIT, STAND, and BOARD; each condition lasting 30 min...
March 1, 2018: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29490097/a-high-fat-compared-with-a-high-carbohydrate-breakfast-enhances-24-hour-fat-oxidation-in-older-adults
#20
Nikki C Bush, Holly E S Resuehr, Laura Lee Goree, Julie L Locher, Molly S Bray, Taraneh Soleymani, Barbara A Gower
Background: The ability to oxidize fat is associated with a lower risk of chronic metabolic disease. Preclinical data in mice showed that a high-fat "breakfast" increased 24-h fat oxidation relative to a high-carbohydrate breakfast. Objectives: The objectives of this study were to determine whether the timing of macronutrient intake in humans affects daily fuel utilization and to examine associations between fuel utilization and metabolic indexes. Methods: Participants were 29 healthy sedentary men and women (aged 55-75 y) with a body mass index (kg/m2) between 25 and 35...
February 1, 2018: Journal of Nutrition
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