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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28829628/evaluation-of-cerebral-hemodynamics-by-computed-tomography-perfusion-imaging-before-and-after-cranioplasty-in-patients-with-brain-injury
#1
Wang Gang, Yu Lan, Zhou Xiao Ming, Li Zhi Ming, Zhao Rui Rui, Niu Lei, Sui Qing Lan, Li Hui Jian
OBJECTIVE: To assess the clinical significance of computed tomography perfusion (CTP) imaging by evaluating cerebral hemodynamic changes quantitatively and qualitatively both before and after cranioplasty in patients with brain injury. METHODS: Sixteen patients with cerebral trauma underwent CTP imaging 2 days before and 10-15 days after cranioplasty. The cerebral blood volume (CBV), cerebral blood flow (CBF), mean transit time and time to peak were analysed in both the affected and corresponding contralateral regions, including the basal ganglia, thalamus, cortex and white matter...
August 22, 2017: Brain Injury: [BI]
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28828867/guidelines-for-support-to-mothers-of-sexually-abused-children-in-north-west-province
#2
Gaboipolelwe M Masilo, Mashudu Davhana-Maselesele
BACKGROUND: South Africa is reported to have the highest rate of sexual assault in the world with over 40% of cases occurring among children. Children who are sexually abused have support programmes and policies to assist them in coping, but there are no support programmes for mothers or caretakers. Caretakers need support for themselves and assisting them will incrementally benefit children under their care. Often mothers of these children experience shock, anger, disbelief and suffer secondary trauma such as depression and post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) following their children's sexual abuse disclosure and yet there are no guidelines for support to these mothers within North-West province (NWP)Objectives: The study seeks to develop guidelines for support to mothers of sexually abused children in NWP...
July 25, 2017: Curationis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28828633/effects-of-dimeric-psd-95-inhibition-on-excitotoxic-cell-death-and-outcome-after-controlled-cortical-impact-in-rats
#3
Jens Bak Sommer, Anders Bach, Hana Malá, Mikko Gynther, Ann-Sofie Bjerre, Marie Gajhede Gram, Linda Marschner, Kristian Strømgaard, Jesper Mogensen, Darryl S Pickering
Therapeutic effects of PSD-95 inhibition have been demonstrated in numerous studies of stroke; however only few studies have assessed the effects of PSD-95 inhibitors in traumatic brain injury (TBI). As the pathophysiology of TBI partially overlaps with that of stroke, PSD-95 inhibition may also be an effective therapeutic strategy in TBI. The objectives of the present study were to assess the effects of a dimeric inhibitor of PSD-95, UCCB01-144, on excitotoxic cell death in vitro and outcome after experimental TBI in rats in vivo...
August 21, 2017: Neurochemical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28827511/is-lateral-femoral-nailing-associated-with-increased-icu-days-a-propensity-matched-analysis-of-848-cases
#4
G Bradley Reahl, Nathan N O'Hara, Max Coale, Lyndsay M O'Hara, Renan Castillo, Robert V O'Toole, Gerard P Slobogean
OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study is to determine if lateral patient position during femoral nailing is associated with increases in intensive care unit (ICU) length of stay (LOS) or ventilator days when compared to femoral nailing in a supine position. DESIGN: Retrospective cohort study. SETTING: Level 1 trauma center. PATIENTS/PARTICIPANTS: Patients with femoral shaft fractures treated with intramedullary (IM) fixation were identified...
August 15, 2017: Journal of Orthopaedic Trauma
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28827177/cortical-compression-rapidly-trimmed-transcallosal-projections-and-altered-axonal-anterograde-transport-machinery
#5
Li-Jin Chen, Yueh-Jan Wang, Guo-Fang Tseng
Trauma and tumor compressing the brain distort underlying cortical neurons. Compressed cortical neurons remodel their dendrites instantly. The effects on axons however remain unclear. Using a rat epidural bead implantation model, we studied the effects of unilateral somatosensory cortical compression on its transcallosal projection and the reversibility of the changes following decompression. Compression reduced the density, branching profuseness and boutons of the projection axons in the contralateral homotopic cortex 1 week and 1 month post-compression...
August 18, 2017: Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28826411/auditory-hallucinations-not-necessarily-a-hallmark-of-psychotic-disorder
#6
F Waters, J D Blom, R Jardri, K Hugdahl, I E C Sommer
Auditory hallucinations (AH) are often considered a sign of a psychotic disorder. This is promoted by the DSM-5 category of Other Specified Schizophrenia Spectrum And Other Psychotic Disorder (OSSSOPD), the diagnostic criteria for which are fulfilled with the sole presence of persistent AH, in the absence of any other psychotic symptoms. And yet, persistent AH are not synonymous with having a psychotic disorder, and should therefore not be uncritically treated as such. Many people who seek treatment for persistent AH have no other psychotic symptoms, have preserved reality-testing capacities, and will never develop a schizophrenia spectrum disorder...
August 22, 2017: Psychological Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28822575/dementia-as-a-predictor-of-mortality-in-adult-trauma-patients
#7
Benjamin C Jordan, Joseph Brungardt, Jared Reyes, Stephen D Helmer, James M Haan
BACKGROUND: The specific contribution of dementia towards mortality in trauma patients is not well defined. The purpose of the study was to evaluate dementia as a predictor of mortality in trauma patients when compared to case-matched controls. METHODS: A 5-year retrospective review was conducted of adult trauma patients with a diagnosis of dementia at an American College of Surgeons-verified level I trauma center. Patients with dementia were matched with non-dementia patients and compared on mortality, ICU length of stay, and hospital length of stay...
July 19, 2017: American Journal of Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28822391/the-impact-of-hemodynamic-transesophageal-echocardiography-on-the-use-of-continuous-renal-replacement-therapy-in-trauma
#8
Madison Griffin, Brett Howard, Sam Devictor, Josh Ferenczy, Frances Cobb, D Benjamin Christie
Post-traumatic fluid management is a widely debated topic. No best-practice consensus exists. Adverse outcomes such as acute kidney injury or volume overload are common. Continuous renal replacement therapy (CRRT) is an adjunct therapy for severe acute renal failure and volume overload, but is costly and not without risk. Hemodynamic transesophageal echocardiography (hTEE) is widely accepted as a reliable way to monitor volume status of intensive care unit (ICU) patients. Although data exist evaluating hTEE and CRRT independently, there is a lack of research mutually inclusive of the two...
August 1, 2017: American Surgeon
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28821528/post-traumatic-stress-disorder-in-adult-victims-of-cluster-munitions-in-lebanon-a-10-year-longitudinal-study
#9
Jawad Fares, Souheil Gebeily, Mohamad Saad, Hayat Harati, Sanaa Nabha, Najwane Said, Mohamad Kanso, Ronza Abdel Rassoul, Youssef Fares
OBJECTIVE: This study aims to explore the short-term and long-term prevalence and effects of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) among victims of cluster munitions. DESIGN AND SETTING: A prospective 10-year longitudinal study that took place in Lebanon. PARTICIPANTS: Two-hundred-and-forty-four Lebanese civilian victims of submunition blasts, who were injured in 2006 and were over 18 years old, were interviewed. Included were participants who had been diagnosed with PTSD according to the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 5th Edition (DSM-5) and the PTSD Checklist - Civilian Version in 2006...
August 18, 2017: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28818702/the-effects-of-cannabinoid-receptors-activation-and-glucocorticoid-receptors-deactivation-in-the-amygdala-and-hippocampus-on-the-consolidation-of-a-traumatic-event
#10
Noa Shoshan, Irit Akirav
Ample evidence demonstrates that fear learning contributes significantly to many anxiety pathologies including post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). The endocannabinoid (eCB) system may offer therapeutic benefits for PTSD and it is a modulator of the hypothalamic pituitary adrenal (HPA) axis. Here we compared the separated and combined effects of blocking glucocorticoid receptors (GRs) using the GR antagonist RU486 and enhancing CB1r signaling using the CB1/2 receptor agonist WIN55,212-2 in the CA1 and basolateral amygdala (BLA) on the consolidation of traumatic memory...
August 14, 2017: Neurobiology of Learning and Memory
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28818324/the-treatment-of-segmental-tibial-fractures-does-patient-preference-differ-from-surgeon-choice
#11
Z Little, T O Smith, S E McMahon, C Cooper, A Trompeter, M Pearse, S Britten, B Rogers, H Sharma, B Narayan, M Costa, D J Beard, C B Hing
INTRODUCTION: Segmental tibial fractures are complex injuries with a prolonged recovery time. Current definitive treatment options include intramedullary fixation or a circular external fixator. However, there is uncertainty as to which surgical option is preferable and there are no sufficiently rigorous multi-centre trials that have answered this question. The objective of this study was to determine whether patient and surgeon opinion was permissive for a randomised controlled trial (RCT) comparing intramedullary nailing to the application of a circular external fixator...
August 9, 2017: Injury
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28818170/post-chemotherapy-neuroblastoma-like-differentiation-in-ewing-sarcoma-of-humerus-report-of-a-rare-case-with-review-of-literature
#12
Nasir Ud Din, Amna Qasim, Zubair Ahmad
A21-year patient initially presented with a fracture of the humerus following minor trauma. Abone scan and biopsy were done due to the suspicion of pathological fracture and the biopsy confirmed the diagnosis of Ewing Sarcoma (EWS). Two months after initial presentation, chemotherapy was started and 5 cycles were given over a span of 6 months. Surgical resection of the tumor was then performed. The post-chemotherapy resection specimen, on histological examination, showed the presence of areas of neuroblastoma-like differentiation in otherwise morphologically classic EWS...
July 2017: Journal of the College of Physicians and Surgeons—Pakistan: JCPSP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28817438/alternatively-activated-macrophages-drive-browning-of-white-adipose-tissue-in-burns
#13
Abdikarim Abdullahi, Christopher Auger, Mile Stanojcic, David Patsouris, Alexandra Parousis, Slava Epelman, Marc G Jeschke
OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to uncover the mediators and mechanistic events that facilitate the browning of white adipose tissue (WAT) in response to burns. BACKGROUND: In hypermetabolic patients (eg, burns, cancer), the browning of WAT has presented substantial clinical challenges related to cachexia, atherosclerosis, and poor clinical outcomes. Browning of the adipose tissue has recently been found to induce and sustain hypermetabolism. Although browning appears central in trauma-, burn-, or cancer-induced hypermetabolic catabolism, the mediators are essentially unknown...
August 16, 2017: Annals of Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28816563/highlighting-the-differences-in-post-traumatic-symptoms-between-patients-with-complicated-and-uncomplicated-mild-traumatic-brain-injury-and-injured-controls
#14
J Julien, S Tinawi, K Anderson, L C Frenette, H Audrit, M C Ferland, M Feyz, E De Guise
OBJECTIVE: The goal of the current study is to explore the difference in acute post-concussive symptoms (PCS), headaches, sleep and mood complaints between groups of patients with complicated and uncomplicated mild traumatic brain injuries (mTBIs) and a comparable group of injured controls. Interactions among the following four factors were studied: presence of (1) PCS; (2) headaches; (3) sleep disorders; and (4) psychological status. METHODS: A total of 198 patients, followed at the outpatient mTBI clinic of the MUHC-MGH, completed questionnaires and a brief neurological assessment two weeks post-trauma...
August 17, 2017: Brain Injury: [BI]
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28816287/-diagnostic-value-of-ct-scan-for-ao-b3-fracture-of-distal-radius
#15
S L Li, M Y Wang, Y Lu
OBJECTIVE: To determine whether 3-dimentional CT scans is able to effectively improve the detection rate of AO B3 distal radius fractures in clinics. METHODS: From Jan 2013 to Jan 2014, 30 patients with distal radius fractures were retrospectively enrolled in this study, all the patients directly visited the skeletal trauma emergency department in Beijing Jishuitan Hospital post injury and all of them accepted open reduction and internal fixation of distal radius fractures at last...
August 18, 2017: Beijing da Xue Xue Bao. Yi Xue Ban, Journal of Peking University. Health Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28816095/new-astroglial-injury-defined-biomarkers-for-neurotrauma-assessment
#16
Julia Halford, Sean Shen, Kyohei Itamura, Jaclynn Levine, Albert C Chong, Gregg Czerwieniec, Thomas C Glenn, David A Hovda, Paul Vespa, Ross Bullock, W Dalton Dietrich, Stefania Mondello, Joseph A Loo, Ina-Beate Wanner
Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is an expanding public health epidemic with pathophysiology that is difficult to diagnose and thus treat. TBI biomarkers should assess patients across severities and reveal pathophysiology, but currently, their kinetics and specificity are unclear. No single ideal TBI biomarker exists. We identified new candidates from a TBI CSF proteome by selecting trauma-released, astrocyte-enriched proteins including aldolase C (ALDOC), its 38kD breakdown product (BDP), brain lipid binding protein (BLBP), astrocytic phosphoprotein (PEA15), glutamine synthetase (GS) and new 18-25kD-GFAP-BDPs...
January 1, 2017: Journal of Cerebral Blood Flow and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28815876/a-treatment-development-study-of-a-cognitive-and-mindfulness-based-therapy-for-adolescents-with-co-occurring-post-traumatic-stress-and-substance-use-disorder
#17
Lisa R Fortuna, Michelle V Porche, Auralyd Padilla
OBJECTIVE: Substance use is common among adolescents with post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). We aimed to develop and study an integrated treatment for adolescents with co-occurring disorders. DESIGN: This is a therapy development and open pilot trial study of a manualized therapy for adolescents with post-traumatic stress, depression, and substance use that uses a combination of cognitive therapy (CT) and mindfulness. METHODS: Descriptive statistics and paired sample t-tests were calculated to assess for changes in PTSD symptoms, depression, and substance use frequency from baseline to end of treatment using standardized measures and validated by urine drug screens...
August 16, 2017: Psychology and Psychotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28814468/persistent-effects-of-acute-stress-on-fear-and-drug-seeking-in-a-novel-model-of-the-comorbidity-between-post-traumatic-stress-disorder-and-addiction
#18
Christie L Pizzimenti, Tom M Navis, K Matthew Lattal
Even following long periods of abstinence, individuals with anxiety disorders have high rates of relapse to drugs of abuse. Although many current models of relapse demonstrate effects of acute stress on drug-seeking, most of these studies examine stressful experiences that occur in close temporal and physical proximity to the reinstatement test. Here, we assess the effects of a stressful experience in one context on fear and drug-seeking in a different context. We adapt the stress-enhanced fear learning procedure to examine impacts on drug-seeking long after the stressful experience occurred...
September 2017: Learning & Memory
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28814465/the-ventromedial-prefrontal-cortex-in-a-model-of-traumatic-stress-fear-inhibition-or-contextual-processing
#19
Zachary T Pennington, Austin S Anderson, Michael S Fanselow
The ventromedial prefrontal cortex (vmPFC) has consistently appeared altered in post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Although the vmPFC is thought to support the extinction of learned fear responses, several findings support a broader role for this structure in the regulation of fear. To further characterize the relationship between vmPFC dysfunction and responses to traumatic stress, we examined the effects of pretraining vmPFC lesions on trauma reactivity and enhanced fear learning in a rodent model of PTSD...
September 2017: Learning & Memory
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28813327/recent-developments-in-understanding-ethnocultural-and-race-differences-in-trauma-exposure-and-ptsd
#20
REVIEW
Anu Asnaani, Brittany Hall-Clark
Our understanding of demographic specifications that put certain individuals at greater risk for trauma exposure and subsequent development of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) has grown significantly over the past few decades. This brief review specifically examines the studies exploring the potential influence of ethnocultural and racial group status on trauma exposure and PTSD, with a focus on findings published recently in the past five years. We first provide a brief review of current epidemiological data examining associations among ethnicity/culture/race and trauma exposure/PTSD...
April 2017: Current Opinion in Psychology
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