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Work of breathing

Daniel Langer, Casey E Ciavaglia, Azmy Faisal, Katherine A Webb, J Alberto Neder, Rik Gosselink, Sauwaluk Dacha, Marko Topalovic, Anna Ivanova, Denis E O'Donnell
Among patients with COPD, those with the lowest maximal inspiratory pressures experience greater breathing discomfort (dyspnea) during exercise. In such individuals, inspiratory muscle training (IMT) may be associated with improvement of dyspnea but the mechanisms for this are poorly understood. Therefore, we aimed to identify physiological mechanisms of improvement in dyspnea and exercise endurance following inspiratory muscle training (IMT) in patients with COPD and low maximal inspiratory pressure (Pi,max)...
March 15, 2018: Journal of Applied Physiology
David M Edmunds, Lone Gothard, Komel Khabra, Anna Kirby, Poonam Madhale, Helen McNair, David Roberts, K K Tang, Richard Symonds-Tayler, Fatemeh Tahavori, Kevin Wells, Ellen Donovan
Voluntary inspiration breath hold (VIBH) for left breast cancer patients has been shown to be a safe and effective method of reducing radiation dose to the heart. Currently, VIBH protocol compliance is monitored visually. In this work, we establish whether it is possible to gate the delivery of radiation from an Elekta linac using the Microsoft Kinect version 2 (Kinect v2) depth sensor to measure a patient breathing signal. This would allow contactless monitoring during VMAT treatment, as an alternative to equipment-assisted methods such as active breathing control (ABC)...
March 13, 2018: Journal of Applied Clinical Medical Physics
Yeonsik Noh, Hugo F Posada-Quintero, Yan Bai, Joseph White, John P Florian, Peter R Brink, Ki H Chon
Prolonged and high pressure diving may lead to various physiological changes including significant alterations of autonomic nervous system (ANS) activity that may be associated with altered physical performance, decompression sickness, or central nervous system oxygen toxicity. Ideally, researchers could elucidate ANS function before, during, and after dives that are most associated with altered function and adverse outcomes. However, we have a limited understanding of the activities of the ANS especially during deeper prolonged SCUBA diving because there has never been a convenient way to collect physiological data during deep dives...
2018: Frontiers in Physiology
Vinícius Barreto-Silva, Marcelo Bigliassi, Priscila Chierotti, Leandro R Altimari
Immersive environments induced by audiovisual stimuli are hypothesised to facilitate the control of movements and ameliorate fatigue-related symptoms during exercise. The objective of the present study was to investigate the effects of pleasant and unpleasant audiovisual stimuli on perceptual and psychophysiological responses during moderate-intensity exercises performed on an electromagnetically braked cycle ergometer. Twenty young adults were administered three experimental conditions in a randomised and counterbalanced order: unpleasant stimulus (US; e...
March 12, 2018: European Journal of Sport Science
Jun Lv, Wenjian Huang, Jue Zhang, Xiaoying Wang
OBJECTIVE: In free-breathing multi-b-value diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI), a series of images typically requires several minutes to collect. During respiration the kidney is routinely displaced and may also undergo deformation. These respiratory motion effects generate artifacts and these are the main sources of error in the quantification of intravoxel incoherent motion (IVIM) derived parameters. This work proposes a fully automated framework that combines a kidney segmentation to improve the registration accuracy Methods: Ten healthy subjects were recruited to participate in this experiment...
March 12, 2018: British Journal of Radiology
Devin B Phillips, Craig D Steinback, Sophie É Collins, Desi P Fuhr, Tracey L Bryan, Eric Y L Wong, Vincent Tedjasaputra, Mohit Bhutani, Michael K Stickland
COPD patients have increased central arterial stiffness and muscle sympathetic nervous activity (MSNA), both of which contribute to cardiovascular (CV) dysfunction and increased CV risk. Previous work suggests that COPD patients have elevated carotid chemoreceptor (CC) activity/sensitivity, which may contribute to the elevated MSNA and arterial stiffness. Accordingly, the effect of CC inhibition on central arterial stiffness, MSNA and CV function at rest in COPD patients was examined in a randomized placebo-controlled study...
March 12, 2018: Journal of Physiology
Tanmay Pal, Pranab Kumar Dutta, Srinivasu Maka
Periodic Breathing (PB) is a diseased condition of the cardiorespiratory system, and mathematically it is modelled as an oscillation. Modeling approaches replicate periodic oscillation in the minute ventilation due to a higher than normal gain of the feedback signals from the chemoreceptors coupled with a longer than normal latency in feedback, and do not consider the waxing-waning pattern of the oronasal airflow. In this work, a noted regulation model is extended by integrating respiratory mechanics and respiratory Central Pattern Generator (rCPG) model, using modulation-demodulation1 hypothesis...
March 8, 2018: Respiratory Physiology & Neurobiology
Rocío Martínez, Carlos Torrente
A 3-month-old intact male Prague ratter was presented to the emergency service for evaluation of progressive lethargy, weakness, coughing and labour breathing after an episode of resistance to oral deworming. The patient exhibited depression, increased respiratory effort and cyanosis at initial presentation. Results of first diagnostic work-up (complete blood cell count, biochemistry panel and thoracic x-rays) were all consistent with aspiration pneumonia. The puppy was initially treated with balanced isotonic crystalloids, broad spectrum antibiotics, nebulization with thoracic coupage and was transferred to an infant incubator with a sustained FiO2 of 40-50%...
December 2017: Topics in Companion Animal Medicine
Noora K Airaksinen, Ilona S Nurmi-Lüthje, J Matti Kataja, Heikki P J Kröger, Peter M J Lüthje
BACKGROUND: Most of the cycling accidents that occur in Finland do not end up in the official traffic accident statistics. Thus, there is minimal information on these accidents and their consequences, particularly in cases in which alcohol was involved. The focus of the present study is on cycling accidents and injuries involving alcohol in particular. METHODS: Data on patients visiting the emergency department at North Kymi Hospital because of a cycling accident was prospectively collected for two years, from June 1, 2004 to May 31, 2006...
March 3, 2018: Injury
Judette M Louis, Matthew A Koch, Uma M Reddy, Robert M Silver, Corette B Parker, Francesca L Facco, Susan Redline, Chia-Ling Nhan-Chang, Judith H Chung, Grace W Pien, Robert C Basner, William A Grobman, Deborah A Wing, Hyagriv N Simhan, David M Haas, Brian M Mercer, Samuel Parry, Daniel Mobley, Benjamin Carper, George R Saade, Frank P Schubert, Phyllis C Zee
BACKGROUND: Sleep-disordered breathing (SDB) is common in pregnancy, but there are limited data on predictors. OBJECTIVES: The objective of this study was to develop predictive models of sleep-disordered breathing during pregnancy. STUDY DESIGN: Nulliparous women completed validated questionnaires to assess for symptoms related to snoring, fatigue, excessive daytime sleepiness, insomnia, and restless leg syndrome. The questionnaires included questions regarding the timing of sleep and sleep duration, work schedules (eg, shift work, night work), sleep positions, and previously diagnosed sleep disorders...
February 2, 2018: American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology
Maja Elstad, Erin L O'Callaghan, Alexander J Smith, A Ben-Tal, Rohit Ramchandra
The cardiorespiratory system exhibits oscillations from a range of sources. One of the most studied oscillations is heart rate variability, which is thought to be beneficial and can serve as an index of a healthy cardiovascular system. Heart rate variability is dampened in many diseases including depression, autoimmune diseases, hypertension and heart failure. Thus, understanding the interactions that lead to heart rate variability, and its physiological role, could help with prevention, diagnosis and treatment of cardiovascular diseases...
March 9, 2018: American Journal of Physiology. Heart and Circulatory Physiology
Xiumei Sun, Jianxin Zhou
Esophageal pressure monitoring provides a minimally invasive method to assess the pleural pressure, which can be used to differentiate the lung and chest wall mechanics. The information of transpulmonary pressure, work of breathing, intrinsic positive end-expiratory pressure and respiratory muscle performance can facilitate the proper setting of mechanical ventilation. Esophageal pressure monitoring is still not routinely used in the clinical setting because of difficulty in esophageal balloon catheter placement and data interpretation due to esophageal pressure monitoring has certain technical requirements, and the measurement results are influenced by many factors such as airbag volume, location, esophageal wall elasticity and mediastinal organ weight...
March 2018: Zhonghua Wei Zhong Bing Ji Jiu Yi Xue
Rana Ahmed, Ryan Robinson, Asma Elsony, Rachael Thomson, S Bertel Squire, Rasmus Malmborg, Peter Burney, Kevin Mortimer
INTRODUCTION: Data collection using paper-based questionnaires can be time consuming and return errors affect data accuracy, completeness, and information quality in health surveys. We compared smartphone and paper-based data collection systems in the Burden of Obstructive Lung Disease (BOLD) study in rural Sudan. METHODS: This exploratory pilot study was designed to run in parallel with the cross-sectional household survey. The Open Data Kit was used to programme questionnaires in Arabic into smartphones...
2018: PloS One
Zhen Zhen, Zechen Li, Xuanliang Zhao, Yujia Zhong, Li Zhang, Qiao Chen, Tingting Yang, Hongwei Zhu
Portable humidity sensors with ultrafast responses fabricated in wearable devices have promising application prospects in disease diagnostics, health status monitoring, and personal healthcare data collecting. However, prolonged exposures to high-humidity environments usually cause device degradation or failure due to excessive water adsorbed on the sensor surface. In the present work, a graphene film based humidity sensor with a hydrophobic surface and uniformly distributed ring-like wrinkles is designed and fabricated that exhibits excellent performance in breath sensing...
March 8, 2018: Small
Reza Abbasi-Kesbi, Atefeh Valipour, Khadije Imani
This Letter proposes a wireless acoustic sensor for monitoring heartbeat and respiration rate based on phonocardiogram (PCG). The developed sensor comprises a processor, a transceiver which operates at industrial, scientific and medical band and the frequency of 2.54 GHz as well as two capacitor microphones which one for recording the heartbeat and another one for respiration rate. To evaluate the precision of the presented sensor in estimating heartbeat and respiration rate, the sensor is tested on the different volunteers and the obtained results are compared with a gold standard as a reference...
February 2018: Healthcare Technology Letters
Karen E A Burns, Stavroula Raptis, Rosane Nisenbaum, Leena Rizvi, Andrew Jones, Jyoti Bakshi, Wylie Tan, Aleksander Meret, Deborah J Cook, Francois Lellouche, Scott K Epstein, David Gattas, Farhad N Kapadia, Jesús Villar, Laurent Brochard, Martin R Lessard, Maureen O Meade
RATIONALE: Randomized trials and meta-analyses have informed several aspects of weaning. Results are rarely replicated in practice as evidence is applied in intensive care units (ICUs) that differ from the settings in which it was generated. OBJECTIVES: We aimed to (i) describe weaning practice variation (identifying weaning candidates, conducting spontaneous breathing trials (SBTs), using ventilator modes, other aspects of care during weaning); (ii) characterize regional differences in weaning practices; and (iii) identify predictors of common practices...
March 6, 2018: Annals of the American Thoracic Society
Payam Dadvand, Jesus Pujol, Dídac Macià, Gerard Martínez-Vilavella, Laura Blanco-Hinojo, Marion Mortamais, Mar Alvarez-Pedrerol, Raquel Fenoll, Mikel Esnaola, Albert Dalmau-Bueno, Mónica López-Vicente, Xavier Basagaña, Michael Jerrett, Mark J Nieuwenhuijsen, Jordi Sunyer
BACKGROUND: Proponents of the biophilia hypothesis believe that contact with nature, including green spaces, has a crucial role in brain development in children. Currently, however, we are not aware of evidence linking such exposure with potential effects on brain structure. OBJECTIVE: We determined whether lifelong exposure to residential surrounding greenness is associated with regional differences in brain volume based on 3-dimensional magnetic resonance imaging (3D MRI) among children attending primary school...
February 23, 2018: Environmental Health Perspectives
James A Stefater, Dean Eliott, Leo A Kim
Purpose: To describe a case of a patient with acute systemic lupus erythematous (SLE) causing choroidal effusions and to report a novel technique for evaluation of the choroidal fluid which sheds light on effusion pathogenesis. Observations: A 37 year-old woman was referred for decreased vision, eye pain and shortness of breath. The patient had bilateral angle closure glaucoma from choroidal effusions and bilateral pleural effusions. Work-up revealed new onset acute SLE...
April 2017: American Journal of Ophthalmology Case Reports
Julia Silver, Colleen Caleshu, Sylvie Casson-Parkin, Kelly Ormond
Genetic counselors experience high rates of compassion fatigue and an elevated risk for burnout, both of which can negatively impact patient care and retention in the profession. In other healthcare professions, mindfulness training has been successfully used to address similar negative psychological sequelae and to bolster empathy, which is the foundation of our counseling work. We aimed to assess associations between mindfulness and key professional variables, including burnout, compassion fatigue, work engagement, and empathy...
March 4, 2018: Journal of Genetic Counseling
Ana S Fonseca, Eelco Kuijpers, Kirsten I Kling, Marcus Levin, Antti J Koivisto, Signe H Nielsen, W Fransman, Yijri Fedutik, Keld A Jensen, Ismo K Koponen
Fume hoods are one of the most common types of equipment applied to reduce the potential of particle exposure in laboratory environments. A number of previous studies have shown particle release during work with nanomaterials under fume hoods. Here, we assessed laboratory workers' inhalation exposure during synthesis and handling of CuO, TiO2 and ZnO in a fume hood. In addition, we tested the capacity of a fume hood to prevent particle release to laboratory air during simulated spillage of different powders (silica fume, zirconia TZ-3Y and TiO2 )...
2018: Journal of Nanoparticle Research: An Interdisciplinary Forum for Nanoscale Science and Technology
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