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Work of breathing

Rene Bastkowski, Kilian Weiss, David Maintz, Daniel Giese
PURPOSE: The acquisition of 4D flow magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in cardiovascular applications has recently made large progress toward clinical feasibility. The need for simultaneous compensation of cardiac and breathing motion still poses a challenge for widespread clinical use. Especially, breathing motion, addressed by gating approaches, can lead to unpredictable and long scan times. The current work proposes a time-efficient self-gated 4D flow sequence that exploits up to 100% of the acquired data and operates at a predictable scan time...
January 17, 2018: Magnetic Resonance in Medicine: Official Journal of the Society of Magnetic Resonance in Medicine
R Moshiro, H L Ersdal, P Mdoe, H L Kidanto, C Mbekenga
BACKGROUND: Intrapartum-related hypoxia accounts for 30% of neonatal deaths in Tanzania. This has led to the introduction and scaling-up of the Helping Babies Breathe (HBB) programme, which is a simulation-based learning programme in newborn resuscitation skills. Studies have documented ineffective ventilation of non-breathing newborns and the inability to follow the HBB algorithm among providers. OBJECTIVE: This study aimed at exploring barriers and facilitators to effective bag mask ventilation, an essential component of the HBB algorithm, during actual newborn resuscitation in rural Tanzania...
2018: Global Health Action
Erik Hulzebos, Tim Takken, Elja A Reijneveld, Mark M G Mulder, Bart C Bongers
BACKGROUND: Measurement of respiratory muscle function is important in the diagnosis of respiratory muscle disease, respiratory failure, to assess the impact of chronic diseases, and/or to evaluate respiratory muscle function after treatment. OBJECTIVES: To establish reference values for maximal inspiratory and expiratory pressure, and the tension-time index at rest in healthy children and adolescents aged 8-19 years, as well as to present sex- and age-related reference centiles normalized for demographic and anthropometric determinants...
January 17, 2018: Respiration; International Review of Thoracic Diseases
Andrea Romano, George B Hanna
Proton Transfer Reaction Time of Flight Mass Spectrometry (PTR-ToF-MS) is a direct injection MS technique, allowing for the sensitive and real-time detection, identification and quantification of volatile organic compounds (VOCs). When aiming to employ PTR-ToF-MS for targeted VOC analysis some methodological questions must be addressed, such as the need to correctly identify product ions, or evaluating the quantitation accuracy. This work proposes a workflow for PTR-ToF-MS method development, addressing the main issues affecting the reliable identification and quantification of target compounds...
January 16, 2018: Journal of Mass Spectrometry: JMS
Gabriel Casulari Motta-Ribeiro, Frederico Caetano Jandre, Hermann Wrigge, Antonio Giannella-Neto
BACKGROUND: The multiple-breath washout (MBW) is able to provide information about the distribution of ventilation-to-volume (v/V) ratios in the lungs. However, the classical, all-parallel model may return skewed results due to the mixing effect of a common dead space. The aim of this work is to examine whether a novel mathematical model and algorithm is able to estimate v/V of a physical model, and to compare its results with those of the classical model. The novel model takes into account a dead space in series with the parallel ventilated compartments, allows for variable tidal volume (VT) and end-expiratory lung volume (EELV), and does not require a ideal step change of the inert gas concentration...
January 15, 2018: Biomedical Engineering Online
Ying Tian, Hua Jiang, Patrik Laiho, Esko I Kauppinen
Although it is known that the Raman spectroscopic signature of single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) is highly chirality dependent, using Raman spectroscopy as a tool for quantifying fraction of either metallic or semiconducting nanotubes in a sample has become a widely used analytical method. In this work, using the electron diffraction technique as a basis, we have examined the validity of Raman spectroscopy for quantitative evaluation of metallic fractions (M%) in single-walled carbon nanotube samples...
January 16, 2018: Analytical Chemistry
Fiona Wixted, Cliona O'Riordan, Leonard O'Sullivan
OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to investigate if a breathing technique could counteract the effects of hyperventilation due to a sustained attention task on shoulder muscle activity. BACKGROUND: The trend towards higher levels of automation in industry is increasing. Consequently, manufacturing operators often monitor automated process for long periods of their work shift. Prolonged monitoring work requires sustained attention, which is a cognitive process that humans are typically poor at and find stressful...
January 11, 2018: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
Song Chen, Haizhou Liu, Shuqi Liu, Pingping Wang, Songshan Zeng, Luyi Sun, Lan Liu
Ionic liquids (ILs) are regarded as ideal components in the next generation of strain sensors because their ultralow modulus can commendably circumvent or manage the mechanical mismatch in traditional strain sensors. In addition to strain sensors, stretchable conductors with strain-insensitive conductance are also indispensable in artificial systems for connecting and transporting electrons, similar to the function of blood vessels in the human body. In this work, two types of ILs-based conductive fibers were fabricated by developing hollow fibers with specific micro-scale channels which were then filled with ILs...
January 10, 2018: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
Faris Younes, Aryan Eghbali, Thomas Goemaere, Thomas De Bruyckere, Jan Cosyn
OBJECTIVES: The aim of this systematic review is to assess patient-reported outcome measures (PROMs) after a sinus lift elevation by means of a lateral approach. MATERIAL AND METHODS: An electronic search was performed to search for eligible publications reporting PROMs after a lateral wall sinus lift procedure. Selected articles were further scrutinized and underwent a quality check before inclusion in a final study pool. RESULTS: The electronic search provided us with 2444 articles of which 98 were further examined through a full-text analysis...
January 9, 2018: Implant Dentistry
Shang-Jie Yu, Min Ouyang
Understanding and controlling the phononic characteristics in solids is crucial to elucidate many physical phenomena and develop new phononic devices with optimal performance. Although substantial progress on the spatial control of phonons by material design has been achieved, the manipulation of phonons in the time domain has been less studied but can elucidate in-depth insight into various phonon-coupling processes. In this work, we explore different time-domain pump-control(s)-probe phonon manipulation schemes in both simulations and experiments with good consistency...
January 9, 2018: Nano Letters
Maulik Panchal, Ahmed Alansari, Marc Wallack, Ferdinand Visco, Susan Williams, Alexander M Sy
Commonly reported complications of hepatic cysts are spontaneous hemorrhage, rupture into the peritoneal cavity, infection and compression of the biliary tree however cardiac complications are not commonly reported. We are presenting a case of a large liver cyst presenting with right atrial and ventricular inflow tract impingement resulting in cardiac symptoms. A 68 year-old Hispanic female presented with one month of fatigue and shortness of breath after household work and walking less than one block, right upper quadrant pain and weight loss...
December 27, 2017: Annals of Hepatology
Katie Hunt, Theodore Dassios, Kamal Ali, Anne Greenough
OBJECTIVES: To assess the work of breathing at different levels of volume targeting in prematurely born infants with evolving or established bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD). DESIGN: Randomised crossover study. SETTING: Tertiary neonatal intensive care unit. PATIENTS: Eighteen infants born at <32 weeks gestation who remained ventilated at or beyond 1 week after birth, that is, they had evolving or established BPD...
January 5, 2018: Archives of Disease in Childhood. Fetal and Neonatal Edition
Andrew D Scott, Sonia Nielles-Vallespin, Pedro F Ferreira, Zohya Khalique, Peter D Gatehouse, Philip Kilner, Dudley J Pennell, David N Firmin
BACKGROUND: Stimulated-echo (STEAM) and, more recently, motion-compensated spin-echo (M2-SE) techniques have been used for in-vivo diffusion tensor cardiovascular magnetic resonance (DT-CMR) assessment of cardiac microstructure. The two techniques differ in the length scales of diffusion interrogated, their signal-to-noise ratio efficiency and sensitivity to both motion and strain. Previous comparisons of the techniques have used high performance gradients at 1.5 T in a single cardiac phase...
January 3, 2018: Journal of Cardiovascular Magnetic Resonance
Evelyn Hamilton, Nicolas Bruot, Pietro Cicuta
The chimera state is the incongruous situation where coherent and incoherent populations coexist in sets of identical oscillators. Using driven non-linear oscillators interacting purely through hydrodynamic forces at low Reynolds number, previously studied as a simple model of motile cilia supporting waves, we find concurrent incoherent and synchronised subsets in small arrays. The chimeras seen in simulation display a "breathing" aspect, reminiscent of uniformly interacting phase oscillators. In contrast to other systems where chimera has been observed, this system has a well-defined interaction metric, and we know that the emergent dynamics inherit the symmetry of the underlying Oseen tensor eigenmodes...
December 2017: Chaos
Jingjing Yu, Xingcai Qin, Xiaojun Xian, Nongjian Tao
Newspaper is known to turn yellow over time. We show here that this yellowing process is sensitive to oxygen when ex-posed to UV light, leading to oxygen sensing. Oxygen sensing is critical to many applications, including industrial process control and breath analysis, but the existing oxygen sensors have limitations, especially for breath analysis that operates at 100% humidity. The UV irradiation also triggers fluorescence emission from newspaper, and the fluorescence intensity depends on oxygen concentration, providing an additional oxygen sensing method...
December 26, 2017: ACS Sensors
Jun Lv, Ming Yang, Jue Zhang, Xiaoying Wang
OBJECTIVE: Free-breathing abdomen imaging requires non-rigid motion registration of unavoidable respiratory motion in 3D under-sampled datasets. In this work, we introduce an image registration method based on the convolutional neural network (CNN) to obtain motion-free abdominal images throughout the respiratory cycle. METHODS: Abdominal data were acquired from 10 volunteers using a 1.5T MRI system. The respiratory signal was extracted from the central-space spokes, and the acquired data were reordered in 3 bins according to the corresponding breathing signal...
December 20, 2017: British Journal of Radiology
Nilakash Das, Marko Topalovic, Wim Janssens
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The application of artificial intelligence in the diagnosis of obstructive lung diseases is an exciting phenomenon. Artificial intelligence algorithms work by finding patterns in data obtained from diagnostic tests, which can be used to predict clinical outcomes or to detect obstructive phenotypes. The purpose of this review is to describe the latest trends and to discuss the future potential of artificial intelligence in the diagnosis of obstructive lung diseases. RECENT FINDINGS: Machine learning has been successfully used in automated interpretation of pulmonary function tests for differential diagnosis of obstructive lung diseases...
December 14, 2017: Current Opinion in Pulmonary Medicine
Alexandre B Desbiens, Jean-Philippe Lucking Bigué, Catherine Véronneau, Patrice Masson, Karl Iagnemma, Jean-Sébastien Plante
To perform untethered operations, soft robots require mesoscale power units (10-1000 W) with high energy densities. In this perspective, air-breathing combustion offers an interesting alternative to battery-powered systems, provided sufficient overall energy conversion efficiency can be reached. Implementing efficient air-breathing combustion in mesoscale soft robots is notoriously difficult, however, as it requires optimization of very small combustion actuators and simultaneous minimization of fluidic (e...
December 2017: Soft Robotics
Uwe Drescher, R Schmale, J Koschate, L Thieschäfer, T Schiffer, S Schneider, U Hoffmann
PURPOSE: The aim of the study was to test for significant differences in non-invasively estimated muscle oxygen uptake ([Formula: see text]) kinetics, assessed by a square-wave exercise protocol (STEP) as well as by a time series approach with pseudorandom binary sequence (PRBS) work rate (WR) changes. METHODS: Seventeen healthy and active individuals (10 women, 7 men; 23 ± 2 years old; height 175 ± 11 cm; body mass 73 ± 14 kg [mean ± SD]) completed five repetitions of WR transitions from 30 to 80 W for the STEP approach and two sequences of pseudorandom binary WR changes between 30 and 80 W for the PRBS approach...
December 18, 2017: European Journal of Applied Physiology
Abbas Jafari, Rogaieh Bargeshadi, Fatemeh Jafari, Iraj Mohebbi, Mohammad Hajaghazadeh
PURPOSE: The present study aimed to compare the concentration of isoflurane and sevoflurane in the individual's breathing zone and ambient air of operating rooms (ORs), to investigate the correlation between breathing zone levels and urinary concentrations, and to evaluate the ORs pollution in the different working hours and weeks. METHODS: Environmental and biological concentrations of isoflurane and sevoflurane were evaluated at 9ORs. Air samples were collected by active sampling method and urine samples were collected from each subject at the end of the work shift...
December 15, 2017: International Archives of Occupational and Environmental Health
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