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Indirect calorimetry

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29045327/aging-impairs-whole-body-heat-loss-in-women-under-both-dry-and-humid-heat-stress
#1
Sean R Notley, Martin P Poirier, Stephen G Hardcastle, Andreas D Flouris, Pierre Boulay, Ronald J Sigal, Glen P Kenny
PURPOSE: This study was designed to determine whether age-related impairments in whole-body heat loss, which are known to exist in dry heat, also occur in humid heat in women. METHODS: To evaluate this possibility, 10 young (25 ± 4 yr) and 10 older (51 ± 7 yr) women matched for body surface area (young, 1.69 ± 0.11; older, 1.76 ± 0.14 m, P = 0.21) and peak oxygen consumption (V˙O2peak) (young, 38.6 ± 4.6; older, 34.8 ± 6.6 mL·kg·min, P = 0.15) performed four 15-min bouts of cycling at a fixed metabolic heat production rate (300 W; equivalent to ~45% V˙O2peak), each separated by a 15-min recovery, in dry (35°C, 20% relative humidity) and humid heat (35°C, 60% relative humidity)...
November 2017: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29043499/open-circuit-respirometry-a-historical-review-of-portable-gas-analysis-systems
#2
REVIEW
Duncan J Macfarlane
Scientists such as physiologists, engineers, and nutritionists have often sought to estimate human metabolic strain during daily activities and physical pursuits. The measurement of human metabolism can involve direct calorimetry as well as indirect calorimetry using both closed-circuit respirometry and open-circuit methods that can include diluted flow chambers and laboratory-based gas analysis systems. For field studies, methods involving questionnaires, pedometry, accelerometery, heart rate telemetry, and doubly labelled water exist, yet portable metabolic gas analysis remains the gold standard for most field studies on energy expenditure...
October 17, 2017: European Journal of Applied Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29040301/surveying-predictors-of-late-life-longitudinal-change-in-daily-activity-energy-expenditure
#3
Vincenzo Valiani, Sandrine Sourdet, Dale A Schoeller, Dawn C Mackey, Douglas C Bauer, Nancy W Glynn, Yosuke Yamada, Tamara B Harris, Todd M Manini
BACKGROUND: Total daily energy expenditure (TEE) is composed of resting metabolic rate (RMR), post-prandial thermogenesis and activity energy expenditure (AEE). Higher AEE is strongly associated with lower mortality and physical limitations among older adults, but factors that predict changes in AEE in septu and octogenarians are not clearly understood. OBJECTIVE: To identify factors associated with late-life longitudinal change in AEE. DESIGN: Energy expenditure was re-assessed in 83 participants (average age at baseline, 74...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29034600/no-adverse-programming-by-post-weaning-dietary-fructose-of-body-weight-adiposity-glucose-tolerance-or-metabolic-flexibility
#4
Lianne M S Bouwman, José M S Fernández-Calleja, Hans J M Swarts, Inge van der Stelt, Annemarie Oosting, Jaap Keijer, Evert M van Schothorst
SCOPE: Metabolic programming can occur not only in the perinatal period, but also post-weaning. This study aimed to assess whether fructose, in comparison to glucose, in the post-weaning diet programs body weight, adiposity, glucose tolerance, metabolic flexibility and health at adult age. METHODS AND RESULTS: Three-week-old male and female C57BL6/JRccHsd mice were given an intervention diet with 32 en% glucose or fructose for only three weeks. Next, all animals were switched to the same 40 en% high fat diet for nine weeks...
October 16, 2017: Molecular Nutrition & Food Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29031721/cdkal1-a-type-2-diabetes-susceptibility-gene-regulates-mitochondrial-function-in-adipose-tissue
#5
Colin J Palmer, Raphael J Bruckner, Joao A Paulo, Lawrence Kazak, Jonathan Z Long, Amir I Mina, Zhaoming Deng, Katherine B LeClair, Jessica A Hall, Shangyu Hong, Peter-James H Zushin, Kyle L Smith, Steven P Gygi, Susan Hagen, David E Cohen, Alexander S Banks
OBJECTIVES: Understanding how loci identified by genome wide association studies (GWAS) contribute to pathogenesis requires new mechanistic insights. Variants within CDKAL1 are strongly linked to an increased risk of developing type 2 diabetes and obesity. Investigations in mouse models have focused on the function of Cdkal1 as a tRNA(Lys) modifier and downstream effects of Cdkal1 loss on pro-insulin translational fidelity in pancreatic β-cells. However, Cdkal1 is broadly expressed in other metabolically relevant tissues, including adipose tissue...
October 2017: Molecular Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29023358/wrist-acceleration-cut-points-for-moderate-to-vigorous-physical-activity-in-youth
#6
Christiana M T van Loo, Anthony D Okely, Marijka J Batterham, Trina Hinkley, Ulf Ekelund, Søren Brage, John J Reilly, Stewart G Trost, Rachel A Jones, Xanne Janssen, Dylan P Cliff
PURPOSE: To examine the validity of wrist acceleration cut-points for classifying moderate (MPA), vigorous (VPA) and moderate-to-vigorous (MVPA) physical activity. METHODS: Fifty-seven children (5-12y) completed 15 semi-structured activities. Three sets of wrist cut-points (>192mg, >250mg, >314mg), previously developed using Euclidian norm minus one (ENMO192+), GENEActiv software (GENEA250+) and Bandpass Filtered followed by Euclidian Norm (BFEN314+), were evaluated against indirect calorimetry...
October 10, 2017: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29018488/higher-resting-metabolic-rate-in-long-lived-breeding-ansell-s-mole-rats-fukomys-anselli
#7
Charlotte Katharina Maria Schielke, Hynek Burda, Yoshiyuki Henning, Jan Okrouhlík, Sabine Begall
BACKGROUND: Reproduction is an energetically expensive process that supposedly impairs somatic integrity in the long term, because resources are limited and have to be allocated between reproduction and somatic maintenance, as predicted by the life history trade-off model. The consequence of reduced investment in somatic maintenance is a gradual deterioration of function, i.e. senescence. However, this classical trade-off model gets challenged by an increasing number of contradicting studies...
2017: Frontiers in Zoology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29018355/criterion-validity-of-commercially-available-physical-activity-tracker-to-estimate-step-count-covered-distance-and-energy-expenditure-during-sports-conditions
#8
Yvonne Wahl, Peter Düking, Anna Droszez, Patrick Wahl, Joachim Mester
Background: In the past years, there was an increasing development of physical activity tracker (Wearables). For recreational people, testing of these devices under walking or light jogging conditions might be sufficient. For (elite) athletes, however, scientific trustworthiness needs to be given for a broad spectrum of velocities or even fast changes in velocities reflecting the demands of the sport. Therefore, the aim was to evaluate the validity of eleven Wearables for monitoring step count, covered distance and energy expenditure (EE) under laboratory conditions with different constant and varying velocities...
2017: Frontiers in Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28992016/determining-the-effects-of-early-gestation-in-utero-heat-stress-on-postnatal-fasting-heat-production-and-circulating-biomarkers-associated-with-metabolism-in-growing-pigs
#9
N M Chapel, C J Byrd, D W Lugar, G M Morello, L H Baumgard, J W Ross, T J Safranski, M C Lucy, J S Johnson
The study objective was to characterize effects of early gestation in utero heat stress (IUHS) on postnatal fasting heat production (FHP) and blood biomarkers associated with metabolism in growing pigs. Based on previous observation of increased postnatal core body temperature set point in IUHS pigs, we hypothesized that FHP would be altered during postnatal life because of IUHS. Pregnant first-parity gilts were exposed to thermoneutral (TN; = 4; 17.8 ± 0.1°C) or heat stress (HS; = 4; cyclical 28 to 38°C) conditions from d 30 to 60 of gestation...
September 2017: Journal of Animal Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28991046/does-a-prolonged-work-day-in-the-heat-impair-heat-loss-on-the-next-day-in-young-men
#10
Sean R Notley, Robert D Meade, Brian J Friesen, Andrew W DʼSouza, Glen P Kenny
PURPOSE: Heat strain is known to be exacerbated on the second of consecutive work days. We therefore evaluated whether prolonged work in the heat would impair whole-body heat loss capacity on the next day. METHODS: To evaluate this possibility, we assessed changes in whole-body heat exchange and heat storage in eight young (26 years (SD 4)) males during heat stress tests performed on the same day prior to (Day 1), and on the day following (Day 2), a prolonged work simulation...
October 3, 2017: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28990936/olfactory-receptor-544-reduces-adiposity-by-steering-fuel-preference-toward-fats
#11
Chunyan Wu, Su Hyeon Hwang, Yaoyao Jia, Joobong Choi, Yeon-Ji Kim, Dahee Choi, Duleepa Pathiraja, In-Geol Choi, Seung-Hoi Koo, Sung-Joon Lee
Olfactory receptors (ORs) are present in tissues outside the olfactory system; however, the function of these receptors remains relatively unknown. Here, we determined that olfactory receptor 544 (Olfr544) is highly expressed in the liver and adipose tissue of mice and regulates cellular energy metabolism and obesity. Azelaic acid (AzA), an Olfr544 ligand, specifically induced PKA-dependent lipolysis in adipocytes and promoted fatty acid oxidation (FAO) and ketogenesis in liver, thus shifting the fuel preference to fats...
October 9, 2017: Journal of Clinical Investigation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28982199/impact-of-anatomical-placement-of-an-accelerometer-on-prediction-of-physical-activity-energy-expenditure-in-lower-limb-amputees
#12
Peter Ladlow, Tom E Nightingale, M Polly McGuigan, Alexander N Bennett, Rhodri Phillip, James L J Bilzon
PURPOSE: To assess the influence of the anatomical placement of a tri-axial accelerometer on the prediction of physical activity energy expenditure (PAEE) in traumatic lower-limb amputees during walking and to develop valid population-specific prediction algorithms. METHODS: Thirty participants, consisting of unilateral (n = 10), and bilateral (n = 10) amputees, and non-injured controls (n = 10) volunteered to complete eight activities; resting in a supine position, walking on a flat (0...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28978547/validation-of-the-doubly-labeled-water-method-using-off-axis-integrated-cavity-output-spectroscopy-and-isotope-ratio-mass-spectrometry
#13
Edward L Melanson, Tracy Swibas, Wendy M Kohrt, Vicki A Catenacci, Seth A Creasy, Guy Plasqui, Loek Wouters, John R Speakman, Elena S F Berman
When the doubly-labeled water (DLW) method is used to measure total daily energy expenditure (TDEE), isotope measurements are typically performed using isotope ratio mass spectrometry (IRMS). New technologies, such as off-axis integrated cavity output spectroscopy (OA-ICOS) provide comparable isotopic measurements of standard waters and human urine samples, but the accuracy of carbon dioxide production (VCO2) determined with OA-ICOS has not been demonstrated. We compared simultaneous measurement of VCO2 obtained using whole-room indirect calorimetry (IC) with DLW-based measurements from IRMS and OA-ICOS...
October 3, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Endocrinology and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28975572/does-endogenous-glp-1-affect-resting-energy-expenditure-and-fuel-selection-in-overweight-and-obese-adults
#14
E Poggiogalle, L M Donini, C Chiesa, L Pacifico, A Lenzi, S Perna, M Faliva, M Naso, M Rondanelli
PURPOSE: To investigate the association between fasting glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1) levels and resting energy expenditure (REE), and respiratory quotient (RQ) in overweight and obese adults. METHOD: Study participants were enrolled at the Dietetic and Metabolic Unit, University of Pavia, Italy. Inclusion criteria were age ≥ 25 and ≤ 45 years, and body mass index (BMI) ≥ 25 and ≤ 35 kg/m(2). Diabetic subjects were excluded. Body composition was measured by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry...
October 3, 2017: Journal of Endocrinological Investigation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28974575/insights-into-the-roles-of-non-catalytic-residues-in-the-active-site-of-a-gh10-xylanase-with-activity-on-cellulose
#15
Yindi Chu, Tao Tu, Leena Penttinen, Xianli Xue, Xiaoyu Wang, Zhuolin Yi, Li Gong, Juha Rouvinen, Huiying Luo, Nina Hakulinen, Bin Yao, Xiaoyun Su
Bifunctional glycoside hydrolases have potential for cost saving in enzymatic decomposition of plant cell wall polysaccharides for biofuels and bio-based chemicals. The N-terminal GH10 domain of a bifunctional multimodular enzyme CbXyn10C/Cel48B from Caldicellulosiruptor bescii, is an enzyme able to degrade xylan and cellulose simultaneously. However, the molecular mechanism underlying its substrate promiscuity has not been elucidated. Herein, we discovered that the binding cleft of CbXyn10C would have at least six sugar binding subsites by using isothermal titration calorimetry analysis of the inactive E140Q/E248Q mutant with xylo- and cellooligosaccharides...
October 3, 2017: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28952554/encapsulation-of-olive-leaves-extracts-in-biodegradable-pla-nanoparticles-for-use-in-cosmetic-formulation
#16
Maritina Kesente, Eleni Kavetsou, Marina Roussaki, Slim Blidi, Sofia Loupassaki, Sofia Chanioti, Paraskevi Siamandoura, Chrisoula Stamatogianni, Eleni Philippou, Constantine Papaspyrides, Stamatina Vouyiouka, Anastasia Detsi
The aim of the current work was to encapsulate olive leaves extract in biodegradable poly(lactic acid) nanoparticles, characterize the nanoparticles and define the experimental parameters that affect the encapsulation procedure. Moreover, the loaded nanoparticles were incorporated in a cosmetic formulation and the stability of the formulation was studied for a three-month period of study. Poly(lactic acid) nanoparticles were prepared by the nanoprecipitation method. Characterization of the nanoparticles was performed using a variety of techniques: size, polydispersity index and ζ-potential were measured by Dynamic Light Scattering; morphology was studied using Scanning Electron Microscopy; thermal properties were investigated using Differential Scanning Calorimetry; whereas FT-IR spectroscopy provided a better insight on the encapsulation of the extract...
September 12, 2017: Bioengineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28947262/perfluorooctanoic-acid-exposure-disturbs-glucose-metabolism-in-mouse-liver
#17
Fei Zheng, Nan Sheng, Hongxia Zhang, Shengmin Yan, Jianhai Zhang, Jianshe Wang
Environmental pollutants such as perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) can influence human metabolism processes and are associated with certain metabolic diseases. To investigate the effect of PFOA on liver glucose homeostasis, adult male Balb/c mice were orally administered 1.25mg/kg of PFOA for 28d consecutively. Compared with the control mice, the body weights of the PFOA-treated mice were unchanged following exposure. However, PFOA exposure increased fasting blood glucose levels and decreased glycogen and glucose content in the liver of treated mice, but did not influence blood insulin significantly...
September 23, 2017: Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28940704/hypermetabolism-is-a-deleterious-prognostic-factor-in-patients-with-amyotrophic-lateral-sclerosis
#18
Pierre Jésus, Philippe Fayemendy, Marie Nicol, Géraldine Lautrette, Huguette Sourisseau, Pierre-Marie Preux, Jean-Claude Desport, Benoit Marin, Philippe Couratier
The aim of this study was to investigate in ALS patients in order to determine their nutritional, neurological and respiratory parameters and their survival according to the metabolic level. METHODS: Nutritional assessment included resting energy expenditure (REE) measured by indirect calorimetry (hypermetabolism if REE variation [ΔREE] > 10%) and fat mass (FM) using impedancemetry. Neurological assessment included ALSFRS-R score. Survival analysis used the Kaplan-Meier method and the multivariate Cox model...
September 20, 2017: European Journal of Neurology: the Official Journal of the European Federation of Neurological Societies
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28936712/early-goal-directed-nutrition-versus-standard-of-care-in-adult-intensive-care-patients-the-single-centre-randomised-outcome-assessor-blinded-eat-icu-trial
#19
Matilde Jo Allingstrup, Jens Kondrup, Jørgen Wiis, Casper Claudius, Ulf Gøttrup Pedersen, Rikke Hein-Rasmussen, Mads Rye Bjerregaard, Morten Steensen, Tom Hartvig Jensen, Theis Lange, Martin Bruun Madsen, Morten Hylander Møller, Anders Perner
PURPOSE: We assessed the effects of early goal-directed nutrition (EGDN) vs. standard nutritional care in adult intensive care unit (ICU) patients. METHODS: We randomised acutely admitted, mechanically ventilated ICU patients expected to stay longer than 3 days in the ICU. In the EGDN group we estimated nutritional requirements by indirect calorimetry and 24-h urinary urea aiming at covering 100% of requirements from the first full trial day using enteral and parenteral nutrition...
September 22, 2017: Intensive Care Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28935829/contribution-of-structural-brain-phenotypes-to-the-variance-in-resting-energy-expenditure-in-healthy-caucasian-subjects
#20
Corinna Geisler, Mark Hübers, Oliver Granert, Manfred James Muller
BACKGROUND: Brain gray (GM) and white matter (WM) volumes are related to weight changes. The impact of structural variations in GM and WM on the variance in resting energy expenditure (REE) and the REE on fat free mass (FFM) association is unknown. The aim of this study was to address this in healthy Caucasian subjects. METHODS: Cross-sectional data analysis of 493 healthy Caucasian subjects (age range 6 to 80 years; three age groups) with comprehensive information on FFM, organ and tissue masses and detailed brain composition as assessed by whole body magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and REE (assessed by indirect calorimetry)...
September 21, 2017: Journal of Applied Physiology
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