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Indirect calorimetry

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29913228/effects-of-prenatal-exposure-to-cigarettes-on-anthropometrics-energy-intake-energy-expenditure-and-screen-time-in-children
#1
Jameason D Cameron, Éric Doucet, Kristi B Adamo, Mark Walker, Alessandro Tirelli, Joel D Barnes, Kaamel Hafizi, Marisa Murray, Gary S Goldfield
BACKGROUND: Maternal prenatal smoking is associated with downstream childhood obesity. Although animal research suggests reduced resting energy expenditure (REE), decreased physical activity (PA), and increased energy intake as mechanisms, these relationships are unclear in humans. The objectives were to examine the association of prenatal maternal smoking with non-volitional energy expenditure (REE and the thermic effect of feeding [TEF]), child adiposity, energy intake, free-living PA (daily light PA (LPA), daily moderate-to-vigorous PA (MVPA), daily sedentary behavior (SB)), and screen time (television and computer/video game) in children...
June 15, 2018: Physiology & Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29912811/innovations-in-energy-expenditure-assessment
#2
Najate Achamrah, Taku Oshima, Laurence Genton
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Optimal nutritional therapy has been associated with better clinical outcomes and requires providing energy as closed as possible to measured energy expenditure. We reviewed the current innovations in energy expenditure assessment in humans, focusing on indirect calorimetry and other new alternative methods. RECENT FINDINGS: Although considered the reference method to measure energy expenditure, the use of indirect calorimetry is currently limited by the lack of an adequate device...
June 15, 2018: Current Opinion in Clinical Nutrition and Metabolic Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29909972/postprandial-oxidative-metabolism-of-human-brown-fat-indicates-thermogenesis
#3
Mueez U Din, Teemu Saari, Juho Raiko, Nobu Kudomi, Stefanie F Maurer, Minna Lahesmaa, Tobias Fromme, Ez-Zoubir Amri, Martin Klingenspor, Olof Solin, Pirjo Nuutila, Kirsi A Virtanen
Human studies suggest that a meal elevates glucose uptake in brown adipose tissue (BAT). However, in postprandial state the thermogenic activity and the metabolism of non-esterified fatty acids (NEFAs) in BAT remain unclear. Using indirect calorimetry combined with positron emission tomography and computed tomography (PET/CT), we showed that whole-body and BAT thermogenesis (oxygen consumption) increases after the ingestion of a mixed carbohydrate-rich meal, to the same extent as in cold stress. Postprandial NEFA uptake into BAT is minimal, possibly due to elevated plasma insulin inhibiting lipolysis...
June 6, 2018: Cell Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29908813/the-influence-of-fat-and-hemicellulose-on-methane-production-and-energy-utilization-in-lactating-jersey-cattle
#4
O R Drehmel, T M Brown-Brandl, J V Judy, S C Fernando, P S Miller, K E Hales, P J Kononoff
Feeding fat to lactating dairy cows may reduce methane production. Relative to cellulose, fermentation of hemicellulose is believed to result in less methane; however, these factors have not been studied simultaneously. Eight multiparous, lactating Jersey cows averaging (±SD) 98 ± 30.8 d in milk and body weight of 439.3 ± 56.7 kg were used in a twice-replicated 4 × 4 Latin square to determine the effects of fat and hemicellulose on energy utilization and methane production using a headbox-type indirect calorimetry method...
June 13, 2018: Journal of Dairy Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29908690/validation-of-resting-metabolic-rate-equations-in-obese-and-non-obese-young-healthy-adults
#5
Hayder Al-Domi, Alaa Al-Shorman
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Although validating resting metabolic rate (RMR) prediction equations in different populations is warranted to estimate total energy requirements, there are no data about the accuracy and applicability of RMR predictive equations in young healthy Jordanians. This study aimed to test the validity of predicted RMR using four prediction equations and its agreement with RMR measured using indirect calorimetry in healthy young obese and non-obese Jordanian adults. METHODS: Predicted RMR was tested for agreement with indirect calorimetry...
August 2018: Clinical Nutrition ESPEN
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29908689/early-postoperative-undernutrition-following-aortic-valve-replacement-surgery
#6
Agnès Sallé, Emilie Dalmayrac, Christophe Baufreton
BACKGROUND: Experiencing loss of appetite after cardiac surgery is often noted during daily care and has been described by several studies. However, no information is available on either energy needs or spontaneous food intake following aortic valve replacement surgery. The goal of this study was to assess the risk of early postoperative undernutrition following aortic valve replacement in a group of patients who were preoperatively well-nourished. METHODS: Anthropometrics data (body mass index, fat free mass index, albuminemia and prealbuminemia, extracellular water), energy balance and appetite were assessed in a cross-over prospective observational study...
August 2018: Clinical Nutrition ESPEN
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29903737/inactivation-of-the-e3-ubiquitin-ligase-idol-inducible-degrader-of-the-low-density-lipoprotein-receptor-attenuates-diet-induced-obesity-and-metabolic-dysfunction-in-mice
#7
Nienke M van Loon, Roelof Ottenhoff, Sander Kooijman, Martina Moeton, Saskia Scheij, Reinout L P Roscam Abbing, Marion J J Gijbels, Johannes H M Levels, Vincenzo Sorrentino, Jimmy F P Berbée, Patrick C N Rensen, Noam Zelcer
OBJECTIVE: The E3 ubiquitin ligase IDOL (inducible degrader of the LDLR [LDL (low-density lipoprotein) receptor]) is a post-transcriptional regulator of LDLR abundance. Model systems and human genetics support a role for IDOL in regulating circulating LDL levels. Whether IDOL plays a broader metabolic role and affects development of metabolic syndrome-associated comorbidities is unknown. APPROACH AND RESULTS: We studied WT (wild type) and Idol ( -/ - ) (Idol-KO) mice in 2 models: physiological aging and diet-induced obesity...
June 14, 2018: Arteriosclerosis, Thrombosis, and Vascular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29902225/meal-rich-in-rapeseed-oil-increases-24-h-fat-oxidation-more-than-meal-rich-in-palm-oil
#8
Katsuhiko Yajima, Kaito Iwayama, Hitomi Ogata, Insung Park, Kumpei Tokuyama
The fatty acid composition of the diet has been linked to the prevalence of diabetes and cardiovascular diseases. Compared with monounsaturated fatty acids, saturated fatty acids decrease fat oxidation and diet-induced thermogenesis. A potential limitation of previous studies was the short duration (≦5h) of calorimetry used. The present study compared the effects of a meal rich in saturated and unsaturated fatty acids on 24-h of fat oxidation. Ten males participated in two sessions of indirect calorimetry in a whole-room metabolic chamber...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29895717/diet-induced-thermogenesis-fake-friend-or-foe
#9
Ken Ho
Diet-induced thermogenesis (DIT) is energy dissipated as heat after a meal, contributing 5-15% to total daily EE. There has been a long interest in the intriguing possibility that a defect in DIT predisposes to obesity. However the evidence is conflicting, DIT is usually quantified by indirect calorimetry which does not measure heat. Using gas exchange, indirect calorimetry measures total post-prandial EE which comprises heat energy produced from brown adipose tissue (BAT) and energy required for processing and storing nutrients...
June 12, 2018: Journal of Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29892337/parental-history-of-type-2-diabetes-is-associated-with-lower-resting-energy-expenditure-in-normoglycemic-subjects
#10
Ebenezer A Nyenwe, Cherechi C Ogwo, Ibiye Owei, Jim Y Wan, Samuel Dagogo-Jack
Objective: Resting energy expenditure (REE) is linked to obesity, insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes (T2DM). REE and T2DM are inherited traits. Therefore, we investigated the effect of parental T2DM on REE in normoglycemic subjects. Methods: Eighty-seven subjects with parental T2DM and 83 subjects without parental T2DM were matched in age, gender, race, BMI, weight and waist circumference. Subjects underwent a 75 g oral glucose tolerance test; REE was determined by indirect calorimetry and body composition was assessed by dual energy X-ray absorptiometry...
2018: BMJ Open Diabetes Research & Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29885082/no-effect-of-resveratrol-on-vldl-tg-kinetics-and-insulin-sensitivity-in-obese-men-with-nonalcoholic-fatty-liver-disease
#11
Marianne K Poulsen, Birgitte Nellemann, Bo Martin Bibby, Hans Stødkilde-Jørgensen, Steen B Pedersen, Henning Grønbaek, Søren Nielsen
The present study assess long-term effects of high-dose Resveratrol (RSV) on basal and insulin-mediated very low-desity lipoprotein triglyceride (VLDL-TG), palmitate and glucose kinetics, and liver fat content in men with nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). Participants (n=16) were non-diabetic, upper-body obese (BMI >28 kg/m2 , WHR >0.9) men with NAFLD randomized (1:1) in a double-blinded, placebo-controlled clinical trial to either RSV or placebo (500 mg 3 times daily) for 6 months. Magnetic resonance (MR) spectroscopy, dual-X-ray absorptiometry and MR imaging assessed liver fat content and body composition, respectively...
June 8, 2018: Diabetes, Obesity & Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29883939/compliant-walking-appears-metabolically-advantageous-at-extreme-step-lengths
#12
Jaehoon Kim, John E A Bertram
BACKGROUND: Humans alter gait in response to unusual gait circumstances to accomplish the task of walking. For instance, subjects spontaneously increase leg compliance at a step length threshold as step length increases. Here we test the hypothesis that this transition occurs based on the level of energy expenditure, where compliant walking becomes less energetically demanding at long step lengths. RESEARCH QUESTION: To map and compare the metabolic cost of normal and compliant walking as step length increases...
May 19, 2018: Gait & Posture
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29876528/daytime-bright-light-exposure-metabolism-and-individual-differences-in-wake-and-sleep-energy-expenditure-during-circadian-entrainment-and-misalignment
#13
Edward L Melanson, Hannah K Ritchie, Tristan B Dear, Victoria Catenacci, Karen Shea, Elizabeth Connick, Thomas M Moehlman, Ellen R Stothard, Janine Higgins, Andrew W McHill, Kenneth P Wright
Daytime light exposure has been reported to impact or have no influence on energy metabolism in humans. Further, whether inter-individual differences in wake, sleep, 24 h energy expenditure, and RQ during circadian entrainment and circadian misalignment are stable across repeated 24 h assessments is largely unknown. We present data from two studies: Study 1 of 15 participants (7 females) exposed to three light exposure conditions: continuous typical room ~100 lx warm white light, continuous ~750 lx warm white light, and alternating hourly ~750 lx warm white and blue-enriched white light on three separate days in a randomized order; and Study 2 of 14 participants (8 females) during circadian misalignment induced by a simulated night shift protocol...
January 2018: Neurobiology of Sleep and Circadian Rhythms
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29875697/contextualising-maximal-fat-oxidation-during-exercise-determinants-and-normative-values
#14
REVIEW
Ed Maunder, Daniel J Plews, Andrew E Kilding
Using a short-duration step protocol and continuous indirect calorimetry, whole-body rates of fat and carbohydrate oxidation can be estimated across a range of exercise workloads, along with the individual maximal rate of fat oxidation (MFO) and the exercise intensity at which MFO occurs (Fatmax ). These variables appear to have implications both in sport and health contexts. After discussion of the key determinants of MFO and Fatmax that must be considered during laboratory measurement, the present review sought to synthesize existing data in order to contextualize individually measured fat oxidation values...
2018: Frontiers in Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29868964/characterization-of-self-assembled-protein-scaffolds-from-collagen-mimetic-peptides
#15
Devyani Shukla, Jayeeta Lahiri, Avanish Singh Parmar
Collagen-mimetic peptides have been utilized to form structures of different morphology for various biomedical and nanotechnology applications. This chapter describes the characterization of collagen-mimetic peptide self-assembled structures formed by tuning the interactions between peptides. Inclusion of varying hydrophobicity, electrostatic forces, and stereoselectivity was mainly employed in CMP designs discussed herein. The role of these forces can be assessed using multiple characterization techniques...
2018: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29864244/effect-of-a-mitochondrial-targeted-coenzyme-q-analog-on-pancreatic-%C3%AE-cell-function-and-energetics-in-high-fat-fed-obese-mice
#16
Yumi Imai, Brian D Fink, Joseph A Promes, Chaitanya A Kulkarni, Robert J Kerns, William I Sivitz
We recently reported that mitoquinone (mitoQ, 500 μmol/L) added to drinking water of C57BL/6J mice attenuated weight gain and reduced oxidative stress when administered to high-fat (HF) fed mice. Here, we examined the effects of mitoQ administered to HF fed mice on pancreatic islet morphology, dynamics of insulin secretion, and islet mitochondrial metabolism. C57BL/6J mice were fed HF for 130 days while we administered vehicle (cyclodextrin [CD]) or mitoQ added to the drinking water at up to 500 μmol/L...
June 2018: Pharmacology Research & Perspectives
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29863968/validity-of-wearable-activity-monitors-for-tracking-steps-and-estimating-energy-expenditure-during-a-graded-maximal-treadmill-test
#17
Bradley Kendall, Bryanne Bellovary, Neha P Gothe
The purpose of this study was to assess the accuracy of energy expenditure (EE) estimation and step tracking abilities of six activity monitors (AMs) in relation to indirect calorimetry and hand counted steps and assess the accuracy of the AMs between high and low fit individuals in order to assess the impact of exercise intensity. Fifty participants wore the Basis watch, Fitbit Flex, Polar FT7, Jawbone, Omron pedometer, and Actigraph during a maximal graded treadmill test. Correlations, intra-class correlations, and t-tests determined accuracy and agreement between AMs and criterions...
June 4, 2018: Journal of Sports Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29858650/skeletal-muscle-specific-cre-recombinase-expression-controlled-by-the-human-%C3%AE-skeletal-actin-promoter-improves-glucose-tolerance-in-mice-fed-a-high-fat-diet
#18
Rami Al Batran, Keshav Gopal, Mackenzie D Martin, Kim L Ho, Malak Almutairi, Hanin Aburasayn, Farah Eaton, Jonathan E Campbell, John R Ussher
AIMS/HYPOTHESIS: Cre-loxP systems are frequently used in mouse genetics as research tools for studying tissue-specific functions of numerous genes/proteins. However, the expression of Cre recombinase in a tissue-specific manner often produces undesirable changes in mouse biology that can confound data interpretation when using these tools to generate tissue-specific gene knockout mice. Our objective was to characterise the actions of Cre recombinase in skeletal muscle, and we anticipated that skeletal muscle-specific Cre recombinase expression driven by the human α-skeletal actin (HSA) promoter would influence glucose homeostasis...
June 1, 2018: Diabetologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29858465/how-fast-is-fast-enough-walking-cadence-steps-min-as-a-practical-estimate-of-intensity-in-adults-a-narrative-review
#19
REVIEW
Catrine Tudor-Locke, Ho Han, Elroy J Aguiar, Tiago V Barreira, John M Schuna, Minsoo Kang, David A Rowe
BACKGROUND: Cadence (steps/min) may be a reasonable proxy-indicator of ambulatory intensity. A summary of current evidence is needed for cadence-based metrics supporting benchmark (standard or point of reference) and threshold (minimums associated with desired outcomes) values that are informed by a systematic process. OBJECTIVE: To review how fast, in terms of cadence, is enough, with reference to crafting public health recommendations in adults. METHODS: A comprehensive search strategy was conducted to identify relevant studies focused on walking cadence and intensity for adults...
June 2018: British Journal of Sports Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29851217/yerba-mate-stimulates-mitochondrial-biogenesis-and-thermogenesis-in-high-fat-diet-induced-obese-mice
#20
Tanila Wood Dos Santos, Jonatan Miranda, Lucimara Teixeira, Ana Aiastui, Ander Matheu, Alessandra Gambero, María P Portillo, Marcelo Lima Ribeiro
SCOPE: The potential effects of yerba mate (YM) on mitochondrial biogenesis and thermogenesis was evaluated. METHODS AND RESULTS: The in vitro effects of YM on mitochondrial respiration were assessed in C2C12 cells. The expression of genes related with mitochondrial biogenesis and thermogenesis were analyzed by quantitative-PCR. The in vivo experiments were performed in mice fed a high-fat diet (HFD), and treated with YM extract. Indirect calorimetry was performed, and the expression of genes and proteins related to mitochondrial biogenesis, thermogenesis and de novo lipogenesis were determined by quantitative-PCR and western blot...
May 31, 2018: Molecular Nutrition & Food Research
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