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Beta-hydroxybutyrate

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28504317/adrenal-cortex-reactivity-in-dairy-cows-differs-between-lactational-stages-and-between-different-feeding-levels
#1
J J Gross, R S Zbinden, F Dohme-Meier, R M Bruckmaier
Changes in ACTH challenge test characteristics in dairy cows changing their physiological status at different lactational stages and different feeding levels were not investigated in terms of repeatability yet. In 23 multiparous Holstein cows (10 cows fed a sole fresh herbage diet without concentrate, 13 cows fed with concentrate), three ACTH challenge tests were performed: once during pregnancy shortly prior to drying off (T1), and in week 3 (T2) and 8 (T3) after parturition. Test characteristics were correlated to performance and metabolic parameters: DMI, BW, energy balance (EB), plasma concentrations of free fatty acids (NEFA) and beta-hydroxybutyrate (BHB)...
May 15, 2017: Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28489728/novel-adjunct-drugs-reverse-endothelial-glycocalyx-damage-after-hemorrhagic-shock-in-rats
#2
Ivo P Torres Filho, Luciana N Torres, Christi Salgado, Michael A Dubick
INTRODUCTION: There is interest in the small-volume therapeutic use of adjunct drugs for treating hemorrhagic shock (HS). However, critical information is only partially available on mechanisms of action of promising compounds such as adenosine-lidocaine-Magnesium (ALM), beta-hydroxybutyrate plus melatonin (BHB/M), and poloxamer 188 (P-188). Therefore, we tested the hypothesis that these adjuncts would reverse HS-induced damage to microvascular endothelial glycocalyx and hemodynamics...
May 9, 2017: Shock
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28464111/circulating-beta-hydroxybutyrate-concentration-may-be-a-predictive-measurement-for-young-cows-that-have-a-greater-probability-to-conceive-at-a-fixed-time-artificial-insemination
#3
J D Hobbs, S R Edwards, E R Cope, Z D McFarlane, K G Pohler, J T Mulliniks
Timing of conception, which has been indicated to be negatively influenced by metabolic dysfunctions, can influence lifetime productivity within the cow herd. Therefore, our objective was to analyze the association of milk production, serum metabolites as an indicator of nutrient status, cow BW and BW change, and calf BW with timing of pregnancy in 183 spring-calving beef cows. Cows were retrospectively classified by timing of pregnancy as cows that were diagnosed pregnant by timed AI (TAI; = 118) or natural breeding (NAT; = 65)...
April 2017: Journal of Animal Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28450695/hyperphosphatemia-a-cause-of-high-anion-gap-metabolic-acidosis-report-of-a-case-and-review-of-the-literature
#4
Seyed Ali Sadjadi, Alexander Pi
BACKGROUND Hyperphosphatemia is a common problem in patients with kidney failure. It is usually mild and rarely severe enough to cause metabolic acidosis on its own. Besides kidney failure, use of phosphate containing enemas, rhabdomyolysis, and tumor lysis syndrome are common causes of severe hyperphosphatemia. CASE REPORT A 74-year-old man with a history of diabetes mellitus type II, arterial hypertension, and end stage renal disease, who was on hemodialysis and who had undergone hemicolectomy for ischemic bowel disease, and had not eaten for several days, developed severe metabolic acidosis, with an anion gap (AG) of 31 meq/L, -uncorrected for serum albumin...
April 28, 2017: American Journal of Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28395176/the-ketogenic-diet-metabolite-beta-hydroxybutyrate-%C3%AE-hb-reduces-incidence-of-seizure-like-activity-sla-in-a-katp-and-gabab-dependent-manner-in-a-whole-animal-drosophila-melanogaster-model
#5
Jinglu Li, Emma I O'Leary, Geoffrey R Tanner
The high-fat, low-carbohydrate ketogenic diet (KD) is an effective clinical treatment for epilepsy in juveniles, especially for drug-resistant seizures. The KD results in elevated production of ketone bodies (KB's), such as beta-hydroxybutyrate (β-HB), which are thought to have anticonvulsant properties; however, their exact mechanism of action is unknown. In vitro, KB effects on reducing neuronal firing rates are mediated in part by Katp channel activity and GABAb signaling. In order to study metabolic and pharmacological effects in a whole-animal model, we used the eas "bang-sensitive" (BS) mutant strain of Drosophila, which exhibits seizure-like activity (SLA) upon mechanical stimulation...
April 5, 2017: Epilepsy Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28326448/anaerobic-metabolism-in-t4-acanthamoeba-genotype
#6
Daniella de Sousa Mendes Moreira Alves, Luciano Moreira Alves, Tatiane Luiza da Costa, Ana Maria de Castro, Marina Clare Vinaud
Members of the genus Acanthamoeba are of the most common protozoa that has been isolated from a variety of environment and affect immunocompromised individuals, causing granulomatous amoebic encephalitis and skin lesions. Acanthamoeba, in immunocompetent patients, may cause a keratitis related to corneal microtrauma. These free-living amoebas easily adapt to the host environment and wield metabolic pathways such as the energetic and respiratory ones in order to maintain viability for long periods. The energetic metabolism of cysts and trophozoites remains mostly unknown...
March 22, 2017: Current Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28324159/hibernation-based-blood-loss-therapy-increases-survivability-of-lethal-hemorrhagic-shock-in-rats
#7
Cecilia E Perez de Lara Rodriguez, Lester R Drewes, Matthew T Andrews
A small-volume (1 ml/kg) resuscitation fluid based on metabolic adaptations in hibernating mammals was optimized using a rat model of hemorrhagic shock. A previous study of this therapy tested only one concentration of three specific components: 4 M D-stereoisomer of beta-hydroxybutyrate (BHB), 43 mM melatonin, and 20% DMSO. In this study, we considered the range of concentrations of BHB and melatonin seen during the physiological extremes of rapid arousal from hypothermic torpor in natural hibernators and applied these to the non-hibernating Sprague-Dawley rat model...
March 21, 2017: Journal of Comparative Physiology. B, Biochemical, Systemic, and Environmental Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28249376/effects-of-a-specific-blend-of-essential-oils-on-apparent-nutrient-digestion-rumen-fermentation-and-rumen-microbial-populations-in-sheep-fed-a-50-50-alfalfa-hay-concentrate-diet
#8
N Khateri, O Azizi, H Jahani-Azizabadi
OBJECTIVE: An experiment was conducted to investigate the effects of a specific mixture of essential oils (MEO), containing thyme, clove and cinnamon EO, on rumen microbial fermentation, nutrient apparent digestibility and blood metabolites in fistulated sheep. METHODS: Six sheep fitted with ruminal fistulas were used in a repeated measurement design with two 24-d periods to investigate the effect of adding MEO at 0 (control), 0.8, and 1.6 mL/d on apparent nutrient digestibility, rumen fermentation characteristics, rumen microbial population and blood chemical metabolites...
March 2017: Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28150506/beta-hydroxybutyrate-and-pyroglutamate-can-be-included-in-a-rapid-gc-ms-screening-method-for-differential-diagnosis-of-metabolic-acidosis
#9
Siri Føreid, Gaut Gadeholt
A rapid gas chromatographic mass spectrometric method for measuring anions associated with acute anion gap metabolic acidosis is described. The method is an extension of a previous method. The method quantifies glycolic acid, beta-hydroxybutyric acid with good linearity and pyroglutamic acid with a reproducible curvature relation between 1 and 20 mmol/L and can help the clinician distinguish effectively between ethylene glycol poisoning, alcoholic and diabetic ketoacidosis and cysteine deficiency so early that it will have clinical consequences...
April 2017: Scandinavian Journal of Clinical and Laboratory Investigation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28098426/dapagliflozin-in-patients-with-type-1-diabetes-a-post-hoc-analysis-of-the-effect-of-insulin-dose-adjustments-on-24-hour-continuously-monitored-mean-glucose-and-fasting-%C3%AE-hydroxybutyrate-levels-in-a-phase-iia-pilot-study
#10
Robert R Henry, Paresh Dandona, Jeremy Pettus, Sunder Mudaliar, John Xu, Lars Hansen
AIMS: To investigate the effects of total daily insulin dose (TDD) reductions on 24-hour continuously monitored mean glucose and fasting β-hydroxybutyrate (a marker for diabetic ketosis/ketoacidosis [DKA]) levels, using patient-level data from a 14-day, pilot study of dapagliflozin in type 1 diabetes (T1DM). METHODS: A post hoc exploratory correlation analysis was performed to determine the relationship between change in TDD and (1) 24-hour mean glucose, assessed by continuous glucose monitoring, and (2) fasting β-hydroxybutyrate, in 70 patients with T1DM receiving insulin and dapagliflozin (1, 2...
June 2017: Diabetes, Obesity & Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28089299/the-non-sense-of-routinely-analysing-beta-hydroxybutyric-acid-in-forensic-toxicology-casework
#11
Nele Sadones, Willy E Lambert, Christophe P Stove
Beta-hydroxybutyric acid (BHB) is a ketone body which is generated from fatty acids as an alternative energy source when glucose is not available. Determination of this compound may be relevant in the forensic laboratory as ketoacidosis - an elevated level of ketone bodies - may contribute to the cause of death. In this study, we aimed at determining the relevance of routinely implementing BHB analysis in the forensic toxicological laboratory, as BHB analysis typically requires an additional workload. We therefore performed an unbiased retrospective analysis of BHB in 599 cases, comprising 553 blood, 232 urine and 62 vitreous humour samples...
May 2017: Forensic Science International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27999529/exogenous-ketone-supplements-reduce-anxiety-related-behavior-in-sprague-dawley-and-wistar-albino-glaxo-rijswijk-rats
#12
Csilla Ari, Zsolt Kovács, Gabor Juhasz, Cem Murdun, Craig R Goldhagen, Andrew M Koutnik, Angela M Poff, Shannon L Kesl, Dominic P D'Agostino
Nutritional ketosis has been proven effective for seizure disorders and other neurological disorders. The focus of this study was to determine the effects of ketone supplementation on anxiety-related behavior in Sprague-Dawley (SPD) and Wistar Albino Glaxo/Rijswijk (WAG/Rij) rats. We tested exogenous ketone supplements added to food and fed chronically for 83 days in SPD rats and administered sub-chronically for 7 days in both rat models by daily intragastric gavage bolus followed by assessment of anxiety measures on elevated plus maze (EPM)...
2016: Frontiers in Molecular Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27999180/a-ketogenic-diet-rescues-hippocampal-memory-defects-in-a-mouse-model-of-kabuki-syndrome
#13
Joel S Benjamin, Genay O Pilarowski, Giovanni A Carosso, Li Zhang, David L Huso, Loyal A Goff, Hilary J Vernon, Kasper D Hansen, Hans T Bjornsson
Kabuki syndrome is a Mendelian intellectual disability syndrome caused by mutations in either of two genes (KMT2D and KDM6A) involved in chromatin accessibility. We previously showed that an agent that promotes chromatin opening, the histone deacetylase inhibitor (HDACi) AR-42, ameliorates the deficiency of adult neurogenesis in the granule cell layer of the dentate gyrus and rescues hippocampal memory defects in a mouse model of Kabuki syndrome (Kmt2d(+/βGeo)). Unlike a drug, a dietary intervention could be quickly transitioned to the clinic...
January 3, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27878924/differences-in-rumen-fermentation-characteristics-between-low-yield-and-high-yield-dairy-cows-in-early-lactation
#14
Ahmad Sofyan, Makoto Mitsumori, Hideyuki Ohmori, Yutaka Uyeno, Toshiya Hasunuma, Kiyoshi Akiyama, Hiroshi Yamamoto, Hiroaki Yokokawa, Tsuneko Yamaguchi, Takumi Shinkai, Makoto Hirako, Shiro Kushibiki
Relationship between rumen fermentation parameters, blood biochemical profiles and milk production traits in different yielding dairy cows during early lactation was investigated. Twelve dairy cows were divided into two groups based on their milk yield, that is low-yield (LY) and high-yield (HY) groups. Rumen fluid and blood were collected at 3 weeks prepartum and 4, 8 and 12 weeks postpartum. Results showed that proportions of acetate, propionate to total short chain fatty acids and acetate : propionate ratio were changed (P < 0...
November 23, 2016: Animal Science Journal, Nihon Chikusan Gakkaihō
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27855237/insulin-autoimmune-syndrome-a-rare-cause-of-postprandial-hypoglycemia
#15
Pooja Sahni, Nitin Trivedi, Abdulkadir Omer
A 65-year-old obese Caucasian woman presented with symptomatic postprandial hypoglycemic episodes, resolution of symptoms with carbohydrate intake and significantly elevated anti-insulin antibody levels. She did not have any evidence for the use of oral antidiabetic medications, insulin, herbal substances, performing strenuous exercise or history of bariatric surgery. Fingerstick blood glucose readings revealed blood sugar of 35 mg/dL and 48 mg/dL, when she had these symptoms. Her medical history was significant for morbid obesity, hypothyroidism and gastro esophageal reflux disease...
2016: Endocrinology, Diabetes & Metabolism Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27807376/the-use-of-serum-beta-hydroxybutyrate-to-determine-whether-nursery-pigs-selected-on-the-basis-of-clinical-signs-are-anorexic
#16
Amanda M Perri, Terri L O'Sullivan, John C S Harding, Robert M Friendship
The process of weaning pigs alters intestinal structures and influences piglet behavior, which can result in anorexia. When housed in large groups, affected pigs can be difficult to identify at an early stage. The clinical signs of anorexia include loss in body condition (thinness) and repetitive oral behavior (chomping). The objective of this study was to determine if pigs identified at 4 to 7 days post-weaning on the basis of clinical signs were anorexic based on elevated serum beta-hydroxybutyrate (BHB) levels (ketosis)...
November 2016: Canadian Veterinary Journal. la Revue Vétérinaire Canadienne
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27795825/usefulness-of-clinical-observations-and-blood-chemistry-values-for-predicting-clinical-outcomes-in-dairy-goats-with-pregnancy-toxaemia
#17
Miguel S Lima, Júlia M Silveira, Nuno Carolino, Luis P Lamas, Rita A Pascoal, Charles A Hjerpe
BACKGROUND: Pregnancy toxaemia (PT) is a disease that affects pregnant goats during their last month of gestation and is characterized by a high case fatality rate. This study involved 32 does maintained on a commercial dairy goat farm that were diagnosed with PT. A physical examination was performed on and haematology parameters obtained from each doe, at the time of diagnosis. The data from the 24 PT goats that died was compared with the corresponding data from the 8 PT goats that survived...
2016: Irish Veterinary Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27788628/serial-changes-in-plasma-ketone-concentrations-in-patients-with-acute-brain-injury
#18
MULTICENTER STUDY
Hayden White, Balasubramanian Venkatesh, Mark Jones, Hesly Fuentes
Objective Acute brain injury (ABI) is a catastrophic event, leading to disruption of the normal cerebral metabolic pathways and a subsequent cerebral energy deficit. Ketones (beta-hydroxybutyrate (BHB) and acetoacetate) may represent an alternative metabolic substrate with the potential to improve cerebral energy supply and decrease injury. The purpose of this study was to evaluate baseline ketone concentrations in the ABI population. Methods Thirty-eight patients with ABI were enrolled into the study and followed for up to 7 days...
January 2017: Neurological Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27633987/prevalence-of-ketosis-ketonuria-and-ketoacidosis-during-liberal-glycemic-control-in-critically-ill-patients-with-diabetes-an-observational-study
#19
Nora Luethi, Luca Cioccari, Marco Crisman, Rinaldo Bellomo, Glenn M Eastwood, Johan Mårtensson
BACKGROUND: It is uncertain whether liberal glucose control in critically ill diabetic patients leads to increased ketone production and ketoacidosis. Therefore, we aimed to assess the prevalence of ketosis, ketonuria and ketoacidosis in critically ill diabetic patients treated in accordance with a liberal glycemic control protocol. METHODS: We performed a prospective observational cohort study of 60 critically ill diabetic patients with blood and/or urine ketone bodies tested in ICU...
September 15, 2016: Critical Care: the Official Journal of the Critical Care Forum
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27632353/prevalence-and-identification-of-burkholderia-pseudomallei-and-near-neighbor-species-in-the-malabar-coastal-region-of-india
#20
Bhavani V Peddayelachagiri, Soumya Paul, Sowmya Nagaraj, Madhurjya Gogoi, Murali H Sripathy, Harsh V Batra
Accurate identification of pathogens with biowarfare importance requires detection tools that specifically differentiate them from near-neighbor species. Burkholderia pseudomallei, the causative agent of a fatal disease melioidosis, is one such biothreat agent whose differentiation from its near-neighbor species is always a challenge. This is because of its phenotypic similarity with other Burkholderia species which have a wide spread geographical distribution with shared environmental niches. Melioidosis is a major public health concern in endemic regions including Southeast Asia and northern Australia...
September 2016: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
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