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Beta-hydroxybutyrate

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29657405/immunomodulatory-effects-of-probiotics-and-prilled-fat-supplementation-on-immune-genes-expression-and-lymphocyte-proliferation-of-transition-stage-karan-fries-cows
#1
Meeti Punetha, A K Roy, H M Ajithakumar, Irshad Ahmed Para, Deepanshu Gupta, Mahendra Singh, Jaya Bharati
Background and Aim: Probiotics are the living microorganism which when administered improves the digestion and health of the animal. Saccharomyces cerevisiae (SC) improves the humoral and innate immunity of the animal. Prilled fat is a hydrogenated palm oil triglyceride which has been reported to promote the release of cytokines from macrophages. The aim of the study was to evaluate the immunomodulatory effect of probiotic and prilled fat during transition stage in Karan Fries (KF) cows...
February 2018: Veterinary World
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29625019/beta-hydroxybutyrate-infusion-identifies-acute-differentially-expressed-genes-related-to-metabolism-and-reproduction-in-the-hypothalamus-and-pituitary-of-sheep
#2
Emily R Cope, Brynn H Voy, Brian K Whitlock, Meg Staton, Thomas Lane, Jack Davitt, J Travis Mulliniks
To identify molecular pathways of metabolic imbalances and reproduction, 10 castrated male sheep were randomly assigned to be injected into the lateral ventricle through intracerebroventricular cannulas with 1 mL of β-hydroxybutyric acid sodium salt solution (BHB; 12,800 µmol/L) or saline solution (CON; 0.9% NaCl). Approximately two hours post injection, sheep were humanely euthanized, and hypothalamus and pituitary tissues were harvested for transcriptome characterization using RNA-sequencing. Ribonucleic acid (RNA) was extracted from the hypothalamus and pituitary and sequenced at a high depth (Hypothalamus: 468,912,732 reads; Pituitary: 515,106,092 reads) using the Illumina Hi-Seq 2500 platform and aligned to Bos taurus and Ovis aries genomes...
April 6, 2018: Physiological Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29623227/fulminant-diabetes-in-a-patient-with-advanced-melanoma-on-nivolumab
#3
Nora Chokr, Hafsa Farooq, Elizabeth Guadalupe
Background: Anti-PD-1 agents were approved for advanced melanoma after the landmark trial Checkmate-037. Anti-PD-1 agents can breach immunologic tolerance. Fulminant diabetes is an immune endocrinopathy that results from a violent immune attack leading to complete destruction of pancreatic beta cells in genetically predisposed people. We present a rare case of fulminant diabetes precipitated by anti-PD-1 immunotherapy. Case: A 61-year-old male with advanced melanoma presented with a three-day history of nausea, vomiting, and malaise...
2018: Case Reports in Oncological Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29600506/prediabetes-directly-deteriorates-into-diabetic-ketoacidosis-and-hyperosmolar-hyperglycemic-syndrome-triggered-by-acute-pancreatitis-a-case-report-illustrating-a-chicken-and-egg-paradigm-in-ketosis-prone-diabetes
#4
Runbo Song, Shanjin Cao
INTRODUCTION: Diabetic crises occur most often in patients with type 1 diabetes and occasionally in type 2 diabetes, especially under stressful conditions. However, a diabetic crisis occurring directly from prediabetes is an unusual phenomenon. CASE REPORT: A 45-year-old woman presented with postprandial left upper quadrant abdominal pain, nausea, and vomiting. She had a past medical history of prediabetes with impaired fasting glucose and HbA1c 6.4%. On admission, routine laboratory tests showed high anion gap metabolic acidosis (pH 6...
March 29, 2018: Diabetes Therapy: Research, Treatment and Education of Diabetes and related Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29588985/ketogenic-parenteral-nutrition-in-17-pediatric-patients-with-epilepsy
#5
Anastasia Dressler, Nadja Haiden, Petra Trimmel-Schwahofer, Franz Benninger, Sharon Samueli, Gudrun Gröppel, Sina Spatzierer, Angelika Mühlebner, Klaus Abraham, Martha Feucht
Objective: Ketogenic parenteral nutrition (kPN) is indicated when enteral intake is temporarily limited or impossible, but evidence-based prescriptions are lacking. Objective was to evaluate the efficacy and safety of kPN in children with epileptic encephalopathies using a new computer-based algorithm for accurate component calculating. Methods: Children with epilepsy receiving kPN were included. A computer-based algorithm was established on the basis of guidelines of the European Society for Paediatric Gastroenterology, Hepatology and Nutrition (ESPGHAN): fat intake not exceeding 4 g/kg/day, age-adequate supply of protein, electrolytes, vitamins, and trace elements, but reduced carbohydrates...
March 2018: Epilepsia open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29588960/the-relationship-between-d-beta-hydroxybutyrate-blood-concentrations-and-seizure-control-in-children-treated-with-the-ketogenic-diet-for-medically-intractable-epilepsy
#6
Jeffrey R Buchhalter, Sabrina D'Alfonso, Mary Connolly, Ernest Fung, Aspasia Michoulas, David Sinasac, Rachel Singer, Jacklyn Smith, Narender Singh, Jong M Rho
Objective: The ketogenic diet (KD) is a proven treatment for drug-resistant (DR) seizures in children and adolescents. However, the relationship between seizure control and the most commonly measured metabolite of the diet, the ketone body d-beta-hydroxybutyrate (D-BHB), is controversial. This study was performed to clarify the relationship because specific ketone bodies may be useful as biomarkers of diet efficacy. Methods: Families of children with DR seizures were approached for participation in this open-label, prospective study when they were referred for the KD at two western Canadian children's hospitals...
September 2017: Epilepsia Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29576959/the-use-of-nutritional-supplements-to-induce-ketosis-and-reduce-symptoms-associated-with-keto-induction-a-narrative-review
#7
Cliff J D C Harvey, Grant M Schofield, Micalla Williden
Background: Adaptation to a ketogenic diet (keto-induction) can cause unpleasant symptoms, and this can reduce tolerability of the diet. Several methods have been suggested as useful for encouraging entry into nutritional ketosis (NK) and reducing symptoms of keto-induction. This paper reviews the scientific literature on the effects of these methods on time-to-NK and on symptoms during the keto-induction phase. Methods: PubMed, Science Direct, CINAHL, MEDLINE, Alt Health Watch, Food Science Source and EBSCO Psychology and Behavioural Sciences Collection electronic databases were searched online...
2018: PeerJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29520223/anxiolytic-effect-of-exogenous-ketone-supplementation-is-abolished-by-adenosine-a1-receptor-inhibition-in-wistar-albino-glaxo-rijswijk-rats
#8
Zsolt Kovács, Dominic P D'Agostino, Csilla Ari
Anxiety disorders are one of the most common mental health problems worldwide, but the exact pathophysiology remains largely unknown. It has been demonstrated previously that administration of exogenous ketone supplement KSMCT (ketone salt/KS + medium chain triglyceride/MCT oil) by intragastric gavage for 7 days decreased the anxiety level in genetically absence epileptic Wistar Albino Glaxo/Rijswijk (WAG/Rij) rats. To investigate the potential role of the adenosinergic system in the pathomechanism of anxiety we tested whether the inhibition of adenosine A1 receptors (A1 Rs) influence the anxiolytic effect of the exogenous ketone supplement...
2018: Frontiers in Behavioral Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29518709/metabolic-predictors-of-peri-partum-diseases-and-their-association-with-parity-in-dairy-cows
#9
Gretel Ruprechter, Maria de Lourdes Adrien, Alejandro Larriestra, Otavio Meotti, Chester Batista, Ana Meikle, Mirela Noro
The predictive values of plasma non-esterified fatty acid (NEFA), beta-hydroxybutyrate (BHB), cholesterol, albumin and calcium to predict risk of peripartum diseases in primiparous (PP) and multiparous (MP) Holstein cows was investigated. Besides it was assessed if the health status interacted with parity on body condition score and metabolic profiles during the transition period. Dairy cows (126 PP and 182 MP) from a commercial dairy free stall herd (loose-housing system) were weekly body condition scored and tail bled for metabolites determination from -3 to +4 weeks relative to calving...
February 19, 2018: Research in Veterinary Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29513157/use-of-lispro-insulin-for-treatment-of-diabetic-ketoacidosis-in-cats
#10
Eleonora Malerba, Michela Mazzarino, Francesca Del Baldo, Sara Corradini, Gaia Carotenuto, Massimo Giunti, Federico Fracassi
Objectives The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy and safety of lispro insulin for the treatment of feline diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA). Times to resolution of hyperglycaemia, ketosis and acidosis were compared between cats treated with continuous rate infusion (CRI) of lispro insulin and cats treated with CRI of regular insulin. Methods Client-owned cats with naturally occurring DKA, newly diagnosed with diabetes mellitus (DM) or already receiving treatment for DM, were included. Diagnosis of DKA involved the presence of at least two clinical signs consistent with DKA (eg, polyuria/polydipsia, anorexia, severe lethargy, vomiting and dehydration), blood glucose (BG) concentration >13...
March 1, 2018: Journal of Feline Medicine and Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29446830/prior-ingestion-of-exogenous-ketone-monoester-attenuates-the-glycaemic-response-to-an-oral-glucose-tolerance-test-in-healthy-young-individuals
#11
Étienne Myette-Côté, Helena Neudorf, Hossein Rafiei, Kieran Clarke, Jonathan Peter Little
KEY POINTS: The recent development of exogenous ketone supplements allows direct testing of the metabolic effects of elevated blood ketones without the confounding influence of widespread changes experienced with ketogenic diets or prolonged fasting. In the present study, we determined the effect of (R)-3-hydroxybutyl (R)-3-hydroxybutyrate ketone monoester on the glycaemic response and insulin sensitivity index during a 2 h oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) in humans. The results obtained show that consuming a ketone monoester supplement 30 min prior to an OGTT reduced the glycaemic response and markers of insulin sensitivity without affecting insulin secretion...
February 15, 2018: Journal of Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29385490/serum-and-plasma-metabolites-associated-with-postpartum-ovulation-and-pregnancy-risks-in-suckled-beef-cows-subjected-to-artificial-insemination
#12
S L Hill, K C Olson, J R Jaeger, J S Stevenson
Two experiments were conducted to determine relationships of blood metabolite concentrations, BW, BCS, and rump fat depth with postpartum ovulation and pregnancy risks, as well as their utility in predicting those outcomes in suckled beef cows. In Exp. 1, plasma glucose collected 10 and 3 d before AI of suckled beef cows at 7 locations did not differ between cows that had resumed estrous cycles (ovulated) before AI compared with anovulatory cows, whereas plasma glucose 3 d before AI was greater (P < 0.01) in cows that became pregnant compared with nonpregnant cows...
January 27, 2018: Journal of Animal Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29385067/sensing-technologies-for-detection-of-acetone-in-human-breath-for-diabetes-diagnosis-and-monitoring
#13
REVIEW
Valentine Saasa, Thomas Malwela, Mervyn Beukes, Matlou Mokgotho, Chaun-Pu Liu, Bonex Mwakikunga
The review describes the technologies used in the field of breath analysis to diagnose and monitor diabetes mellitus. Currently the diagnosis and monitoring of blood glucose and ketone bodies that are used in clinical studies involve the use of blood tests. This method entails pricking fingers for a drop of blood and placing a drop on a sensitive area of a strip which is pre-inserted into an electronic reading instrument. Furthermore, it is painful, invasive and expensive, and can be unsafe if proper handling is not undertaken...
January 31, 2018: Diagnostics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29378735/new-onset-diabetes-after-nivolumab-treatment
#14
Ricardo Capitao, Carlos Bello, Ricardo Fonseca, Catarina Saraiva
The authors describe a case of a life-threatening diabetic emergency 25 days after initiation of nivolumab (3 mg/kg) for stage 4 lung adenocarcinoma. She was admitted to the emergency department, with hyperglycaemia-related signs and symptoms, such as polyuria, polydipsia, weight loss, confusion, asthenia, dehydration, hypotension and Kussmaul respiratory pattern. Her body mass index was 21.9 kg/m 2 and she did not show acanthosis nigricans. Arterial blood gas determination revealed high anion gap metabolic acidaemia and blood tests showed hyperglycaemia (1060 mg/dL), hyperketonaemia (beta-hydroxybutyrate: 6...
January 29, 2018: BMJ Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29368093/parkinson-s-disease-the-dopaminergic-neuron-and-gammahydroxybutyrate
#15
Mortimer Mamelak
The high energy demands of the substantia nigra pars compacta dopaminergic (DASNc) neurons render these neurons vulnerable to degeneration. These energy demands are a function of their long and extensively arborized axons and very large number of transmitter release sites, and are further augmented by their natural pacemaking activity. Pacemaking is driven by the rhythmic entry of Ca2+ into the cell and, while the entry of Ca2+ into the neuron stimulates energy (ATP) production, the extrusion of Ca2+ conversely saps the energy that is generated...
January 24, 2018: Neurology and Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29340167/subcutaneous-glucagon-infusion-and-continuous-glucose-monitoring-enable-effective-management-of-hypoglycemia-in-a-patient-with-igf-2-producing-hemangiopericytoma
#16
Eric D Buras, Emily Weatherup, Jennifer Wyckoff
Background: Ectopic insulin-like growth factor (IGF)-2 production is a rare complication of an array of epithelial and mesenchymal tumors, and can clinically manifest as life-threatening hypoglycemia. Case presentation: A 49-year-old woman with 13-year history of metastatic hemangiopericytoma, previously treated with multiple rounds of chemotherapy and palliative radiation, presented to the emergency department after a hypoglycemic seizure. On arrival, glucose was 18 mg/dL (1...
2018: Clinical Diabetes and Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29325899/do-ketone-bodies-mediate-the-anti-seizure-effects-of-the-ketogenic-diet
#17
REVIEW
Timothy A Simeone, Kristina A Simeone, Carl E Stafstrom, Jong M Rho
Although the mechanisms underlying the anti-seizure effects of the high-fat ketogenic diet (KD) remain unclear, a long-standing question has been whether ketone bodies (i.e., β-hydroxybutyrate, acetoacetate and acetone), either alone or in combination, contribute mechanistically. The traditional belief has been that while ketone bodies reflect enhanced fatty acid oxidation and a general shift toward intermediary metabolism, they are not likely to be the key mediators of the KD's clinical effects, as blood levels of β-hydroxybutyrate do not correlate consistently with improved seizure control...
May 1, 2018: Neuropharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29283978/review-hibernation-based-approaches-in-the-treatment-of-hemorrhagic-shock
#18
Andrea Wolf, Elizabeth R Lusczek, Gregory J Beilman
Hemorrhagic shock is the leading cause of preventable death after trauma. Hibernation-based treatment approaches have been of increasing interest for various biomedical applications. Due to apparent similarities in tissue perfusion and metabolic activity between severe blood loss and the hibernating state, hibernation-based approaches have also emerged for the treatment of hemorrhagic shock. Research has shown that hibernators are protected from shock-induced injury and inflammation. Utilizing the adaptive mechanisms that prevent injury in these animals may help alleviate the detrimental effects of hemorrhagic shock in non-hibernating species...
December 27, 2017: Shock
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29273310/evaluation-of-fimc-and-bdha-based-duplex-pcr-for-specific-identification-and-differentiation-of-burkholderia-pseudomallei-from-near-neighbor-burkholderia-species
#19
Bhavani V Peddayelachagiri, Soumya Paul, Madhurjya Gogoi, Murali H Sripathy, Harsh V Batra
Assays for the rapid detection and accurate differentiation of Burkholderia pseudomallei from near-neighbor species are urgently needed in melioidosis endemic regions due to the high associated mortality and biowarfare importance of the pathogen. PCR-based methods have revolutionized this field due to the accuracy, sensitivity, and specificity that are achievable in a rapid way. In this study, a compound molecular detection system, consisting of a duplex PCR assay, was developed for the specific identification of Burkholderia pseudomallei and differentiation from other Burkholderia species...
March 2018: International Journal of Medical Microbiology: IJMM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29206843/periparturient-lipolysis-and-oxylipid-biosynthesis-in-bovine-adipose-tissues
#20
G Andres Contreras, Clarissa Strieder-Barboza, Jonas de Souza, Jeff Gandy, Vengai Mavangira, Adam L Lock, Lorraine M Sordillo
The periparturient period of dairy cows is characterized by intense lipolysis in adipose tissues (AT), which induces the release of free fatty acids (FFA) into circulation. Among FFA, polyunsaturated fatty acids are susceptible to oxidation and can modulate inflammatory responses during lipolysis within AT. Linoleic and arachidonic acid oxidized products (oxylipids) such as hydroxy-octadecadienoic acids (HODE) and hydroxy-eicosatetraenoic acids (HETE), were recently identified as products of lipolysis that could modulate AT inflammation during lipolysis...
2017: PloS One
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