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Beta-hydroxybutyrate

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29206843/periparturient-lipolysis-and-oxylipid-biosynthesis-in-bovine-adipose-tissues
#1
G Andres Contreras, Clarissa Strieder-Barboza, Jonas de Souza, Jeff Gandy, Vengai Mavangira, Adam L Lock, Lorraine M Sordillo
The periparturient period of dairy cows is characterized by intense lipolysis in adipose tissues (AT), which induces the release of free fatty acids (FFA) into circulation. Among FFA, polyunsaturated fatty acids are susceptible to oxidation and can modulate inflammatory responses during lipolysis within AT. Linoleic and arachidonic acid oxidized products (oxylipids) such as hydroxy-octadecadienoic acids (HODE) and hydroxy-eicosatetraenoic acids (HETE), were recently identified as products of lipolysis that could modulate AT inflammation during lipolysis...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29194756/a-higher-level-of-ketonaemia-does-not-predict-oral-rehydration-failure-in-vomiting-paediatric-patients-and-routine-measurement-is-unnecessary
#2
Lucía Torres, Marina Sánchez, Blanca Cid, Eva Vicente, Roberto Velasco
AIM: This study determined if blood levels of beta-hydroxybutyrate were associated with the rate of failure in oral rehydration in paediatric patients with vomiting. METHODS: This was a prospective observational study that was carried out from 1 December 2015 to 30 November 2016 in the Rio Hortega University Hospital, Valladolid, Spain. The study cohort were patients up to 14 years old who attended the emergency department with three or more vomiting episodes in the last four hours and glycaemia higher than 45mg/dl...
December 1, 2017: Acta Paediatrica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29183766/ketogenic-diet-using-a-japanese-ketogenic-milk-for-patients-with-epilepsy-a-multi-institutional-study
#3
Tomohiro Kumada, Katsumi Imai, Yukitoshi Takahashi, Shin Nabatame, Hirokazu Oguni
BACKGROUND: In Japan, Meiji 817-B (M817-B), a powdered ketogenic milk, has been available since the ketogenic diet was introduced to infants and tube-fed children with medication-resistant epilepsy in the 1980s. METHODS: We retrospectively evaluated the efficacy, tolerability, and side effects of the ketogenic diet using M817-B as the main source of daily food intake for patients with epilepsy by sending questionnaires to the members of a subcommittee of the Japan Epilepsy Society that focuses on the proper use of M817-B...
November 25, 2017: Brain & Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29178459/inflammatory-and-metabolic-responses-to-an-intramammary-lipopolysaccharide-challenge-in-early-lactating-cows-supplemented-with-conjugated-linoleic-acid
#4
J J Gross, L Grossen-Rösti, R Héritier, A Tröscher, R M Bruckmaier
Supplementation of dairy cows with trans-10, cis-12 conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) allows nutrient repartitioning despite an energy deficiency in early lactation, which might be a benefit for the immune system, too. In this study, we investigated potential nutrient sparing effects of CLA in early lactating cows with low plasma glucose concentrations exposed to an intramammary lipopolysaccharide (LPS) challenge. Fifteen multiparous Holstein cows were exposed to an intramammary LPS challenge in week 4 p.p. Eight cows (CLA) were supplemented daily with 70 g of lipid-encapsulated CLA (6...
November 26, 2017: Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29173326/capillary-blood-ketone-levels-as-an-indicator-of-inadequate-breast-milk-intake-in-the-early-neonatal-period
#5
Takeshi Futatani, Ayako Shimao, Shihomi Ina, Hiroyuki Higashiyama, Shuhei Fujita, Kazuyuki Ueno, Noboru Igarashi, Kiyoshi Hatasaki
OBJECTIVE: To determine the utility of capillary blood ketone levels as an indicator of inadequate intake of breast milk in the early postnatal period. STUDY DESIGN: Levels of capillary blood beta-hydroxybutyrate (βOHB), the main ketone body in the blood, were measured with a bedside ketone meter in 585 full-term neonates aged 48-95 hours who were breastfed exclusively. Relationships between weight-loss percentage, blood sodium, glucose, pH, partial pressure of carbon dioxide, base-deficit levels, and βOHB levels were investigated...
December 2017: Journal of Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29166271/beta-hydroxybutyrate-in-milk-as-screening-test-for-subclinical-ketosis-in-dairy-cows
#6
J Ježek, M R Cincović, M Nemec, B Belić, R Djoković, M Klinkon, J Starič
Ketosis is a very frequent metabolic disease in dairy cows, resulting in lower milk production, impaired fertility and increased frequency of other diseases. The course of the disease is often subclinical, so early detection is very important. The aim of the study was to investigate the relation between the concentration of beta-hydroxybutyrate in blood and milk and to determine the cut-off value in milk for detection of subclinical ketosis. The study included 94 cows, which were in the first third of lactation...
September 26, 2017: Polish Journal of Veterinary Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29139146/effects-of-the-sodium-glucose-cotransporter-2-sglt2-inhibitor-velagliflozin-a-new-drug-with-therapeutic-potential-to-treat-diabetes-in-cats
#7
M Hoenig, M Clark, D J Schaeffer, D Reiche
Sodium-glucose cotransporter 2 (SGLT2) inhibitors are used in the treatment of human diabetics. They increase glucose excretion and correct hyperglycemia. We examined the investigational SGLT2 inhibitor velagliflozin in two groups of six neutered adult obese cats (equal gender distribution). Placebo (Pl) or drug (D; 1 mg/kg) was administered for 35 days. Routine blood examinations, fructosamine, beta-hydroxybutyrate (BHB), nonesterified fatty acids (NEFA), glucagon, adiponectin, and leptin were measured before and after treatment, also water intake, and urinary electrolytes, glucose, and volume...
November 15, 2017: Journal of Veterinary Pharmacology and Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29108901/keto-adaptation-enhances-exercise-performance-and-body-composition-responses-to-training-in-endurance-athletes
#8
Fionn T McSwiney, Bruce Wardrop, Parker N Hyde, Richard A Lafountain, Jeff S Volek, Lorna Doyle
BACKGROUND: Low-carbohydrate diets have recently grown in popularity among endurance athletes, yet little is known about the long-term (>4 wk) performance implications of consuming a low-carbohydrate high fat ketogenic diet (LCKD) in well-trained athletes. METHODS: Twenty male endurance-trained athletes (age 33 ± 11y, body mass 80 ± 11kg; BMI 24.7 ± 3.1 kg/m2) who habitually consumed a carbohydrate-based diet, self-selected into a high-carbohydrate (HC) group (n = 11, %carbohydrate:protein:fat = 65:14:20), or a LCKD group (n = 9, 6:17:77)...
November 3, 2017: Metabolism: Clinical and Experimental
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29100925/trypanosoma-evansi-induces-detrimental-immuno-catabolic-alterations-and-condition-like-type-2-diabetes-in-buffaloes
#9
Shanker K Singh, Vivek K Singh, Priyambada Kumari, Udayraj P Nakade, Satish K Garg
The present study aimed to investigate the perturbations in immuno-metabolic and redox status of buffaloes with trypanosomosis. Thirteen buffaloes suffering from clinical trypanosomosis and eight apparently healthy buffaloes were included in the present study. Buffaloes with trypanosomosis found to have markedly elevated levels of interleukin-10 (IL-10), nonesterified fatty acids (NEFA) and beta-hydroxybutyrate (BHBA) in comparison with healthy controls. Whereas, total antioxidant capacity (TAC) and haemoglobin levels of buffaloes with trypanosomosis were significantly lower than the healthy controls...
October 31, 2017: Parasitology International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28983975/hyperglycaemia-in-transition-dairy-cows-effects-of-lactational-stage-and-conjugated-linoleic-acid-supplementation-on-glucose-metabolism-and-turnover
#10
L Grossen-Rösti, E C Kessler, A Tröscher, R M Bruckmaier, J J Gross
Supplementing conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) is supposed to spare glucose due to the milk fat-depressing effect of the trans-10, cis-12 CLA isomer, and allows repartitioning nutrients despite an energy deficiency in early lactation. However, there is still a lack of knowledge in terms of the dynamic pattern of the glucose turnover in transition dairy cows. We hypothesized that dairy cows supplemented with CLA have an altered rate of glucose turnover and insulin sensitivity during early lactation. We conducted three consecutive hyperglycaemic clamps (HGC) in weeks -2, +2 and +4 relative to parturition in Holstein cows supplemented daily either with 70 g of lipid-encapsulated CLA (6...
October 6, 2017: Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28979786/balancing-personal-maintenance-with-parental-investment-in-a-chick-rearing-seabird-physiological-indicators-change-with-foraging-conditions
#11
Anne E Storey, Morag G Ryan, Michelle G Fitzsimmons, Amy-Lee Kouwenberg, Linda S Takahashi, Gregory J Robertson, Sabina I Wilhelm, Donald W McKay, Gene R Herzberg, Frances K Mowbray, Luke MacMillan, Carolyn J Walsh
Seabird parents use a conservative breeding strategy that favours long-term survival over intensive parental investment, particularly under harsh conditions. Here, we examine whether variation in several physiological indicators reflects the balance between parental investment and survival in common murres (Uria aalge) under a wide range of foraging conditions. Blood samples were taken from adults during mid-chick rearing from 2007 to 2014 and analysed for corticosterone (CORT, stress hormone), beta-hydroxybutyrate (BUTY, lipid metabolism reflecting ongoing mass loss), and haematocrit (reflecting blood oxygen capacity)...
2017: Conservation Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28922379/elevating-serotonin-pre-partum-alters-the-holstein-dairy-cow-hepatic-adaptation-to-lactation
#12
Samantha R Weaver, Allan S Prichard, Noah L Maerz, Austin P Prichard, Elizabeth L Endres, Lorenzo E Hernández-Castellano, Matthew S Akins, Rupert M Bruckmaier, Laura L Hernandez
Serotonin is known to regulate energy and calcium homeostasis in several mammalian species. The objective of this study was to determine if pre-partum infusions of 5-hydroxytryptophan (5-HTP), the immediate precursor to serotonin synthesis, could modulate energy homeostasis at the level of the hepatocyte in post-partum Holstein and Jersey dairy cows. Twelve multiparous Holstein cows and twelve multiparous Jersey cows were intravenously infused daily for approximately 7 d pre-partum with either saline or 1 mg/kg bodyweight of 5-HTP...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28865900/a-benzimidazole-derivative-rcb15-in-vitro-induces-the-alternative-energetic-metabolism-and-glycolysis-in-taenia-crassiceps-cysticerci
#13
Guaraciara de Andrade Picanço, Nayana Ferreira de Lima, Carolina Miguel Fraga, Tatiane Luiza da Costa, Eliana Isac, Javier Ambrosio, Rafael Castillo, Marina Clare Vinaud
The emergence of resistance to albendazole has encouraged the search for effective alternatives for cysticercosis and other parasitosis treatment. RCB15 is a benzimidazole derivative that may be used against such diseases. The aim of this study was to determine the in vitro effect of RCB15 on the alternative energetic pathways of Taenia crassiceps cysticerci. The cysticerci were in vitro exposed to albendazole sulphoxide (ABZSO) or RCB15 at different concentrations during 24h. The cysticerci extract and the culture medium were analyzed through spectrophotometry and high performance liquid chromatography as to detect glucose, urea, creatinine and organic acids of the energetic metabolism...
December 2017: Acta Tropica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28845828/spontaneous-dissemination-in-neighboring-provinces-of-dka-prevention-campaign-successfully-launched-in-nineties-in-parma-s-province
#14
Antonina Marta Cangelosi, Ilaria Bonacini, Roberta Pia Serra, Dora Di Mauro, Brunella Iovane, Valentina Fainardi, Carla Mastrorilli, Maurizio Vanelli
AIM: to investigate how much effectiveness of the historical campaign of DKA prevention at T1D diagnosis has survived in Parma's province where this was launched in Nineties, and how much it has spontaneously spread in the neighboring provinces. METHOD: children aged 6-14 years with newly diagnosed TID coming from province of Parma (Group 1) and from two other nearby provinces (Group 2)  were investigated. Clinical and laboratory data were retrospectively collected from medical files of each patient and included age, gender, capillary pH, serum bicarbonate, 3-beta-hydroxybutyrate (3HB), glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c) at the time of admittance from 1st January 2012 and 31 December 2016...
August 23, 2017: Acta Bio-medica: Atenei Parmensis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28806625/association-of-changes-among-body-condition-score-during-the-transition-period-with-nefa-and-bhba-concentrations-milk-production-fertility-and-health-of-holstein-cows
#15
R V Barletta, M Maturana Filho, P D Carvalho, T A Del Valle, A S Netto, F P Rennó, R D Mingoti, J R Gandra, G B Mourão, P M Fricke, R Sartori, E H Madureira, M C Wiltbank
Our objective was to evaluate the association between body condition score (BCS) change during the transition period with fertility, non-esterified fatty acids (NEFA) and beta-hydroxybutyrate (BHBA) concentrations, milk yield, and health problems of Holstein cows in a retrospective cohort study. Holstein cows (n = 232) were assessed for BCS (5 point scale; 0.25 point increments) and had blood collected at 21 and 7 d before, on the day of, and 7 and 21 d after calving. Blood samples were assayed for NEFA and BHBA concentrations...
July 27, 2017: Theriogenology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28794421/beta-hydroxybutyrate-an-endogenic-nlrp3-inflammasome-inhibitor-attenuates-stress-induced-behavioral-and-inflammatory-responses
#16
Takehiko Yamanashi, Masaaki Iwata, Naho Kamiya, Kyohei Tsunetomi, Naofumi Kajitani, Nodoka Wada, Takahiro Iitsuka, Takahira Yamauchi, Akihiko Miura, Shenghong Pu, Yukihiko Shirayama, Ken Watanabe, Ronald S Duman, Koichi Kaneko
Neuro-inflammation has been shown to play a critical role in the development of depression. Beta-hydroxybutyrate (BHB) is a ketone body and has recently been reported to exert anti-inflammatory effects via inhibition of NLRP3 inflammasome. Here, we investigated the potential antidepressant and anti-inflammatory effects of BHB on rats exposed to acute and chronic stress. We examined the influence of repeated BHB administration on depressive and anxiety behaviors in a rodent model of chronic unpredictable stress (CUS)...
August 9, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28790891/adenosine-a1-receptor-antagonism-abolished-the-anti-seizure-effects-of-exogenous-ketone-supplementation-in-wistar-albino-glaxo-rijswijk-rats
#17
Zsolt Kovács, Dominic P D'Agostino, Arpád Dobolyi, Csilla Ari
The state of therapeutic ketosis can be achieved by using the ketogenic diet (KD) or exogenous ketone supplementation. It was suggested previously that the adenosinergic system may be involved in the mediating effect of KD on suppressing seizure activity in different types of epilepsies, likely by means of adenosine A1 receptors (A1Rs). Thus, we tested in the present study whether exogenous ketone supplements (ketone ester: KE, 2.5 g/kg/day; ketone salt/KS + medium chain triglyceride/MCT: KSMCT, 2.5 g/kg/day) applied sub-chronically (for 7 days) by intragastric gavage can modulate absence epileptic activity in genetically absence epileptic Wistar Albino Glaxo/Rijswijk (WAG/Rij) rats...
2017: Frontiers in Molecular Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28760665/metritis-vaccination-in-holstein-dairy-heifers-using-a-herd-specific-multivalent-vaccine-effects-on-uterine-health-and-fertility-in-first-lactation
#18
M Freick, A Kunze, O Passarge, J Weber, S Geidel
In cattle, acute puerperal metritis (APM) compromises animal welfare and has an economic impact to the farmer because of the detrimental effects on reproductive performance, milk production, and survivability. The aim of this randomized clinical study was to investigate the effects of a prepartum immunization using a herd-specific multivalent vaccine on incidence of APM, prevalence of clinical endometritis (CE), and selected measures of reproductive performance in primiparous Holstein cows. Pregnant nulliparous cows (230±4days of gestation) assigned to the vaccinated group (VG; n=142) received subcutaneously 5...
July 22, 2017: Animal Reproduction Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28752056/the-munich-midy-pig-biobank-a-unique-resource-for-studying-organ-crosstalk-in-diabetes
#19
Andreas Blutke, Simone Renner, Florian Flenkenthaler, Mattias Backman, Serena Haesner, Elisabeth Kemter, Erik Ländström, Christina Braun-Reichhart, Barbara Albl, Elisabeth Streckel, Birgit Rathkolb, Cornelia Prehn, Alessandra Palladini, Michal Grzybek, Stefan Krebs, Stefan Bauersachs, Andrea Bähr, Andreas Brühschwein, Cornelia A Deeg, Erica De Monte, Michaela Dmochewitz, Caroline Eberle, Daniela Emrich, Robert Fux, Frauke Groth, Sophie Gumbert, Antonia Heitmann, Arne Hinrichs, Barbara Keßler, Mayuko Kurome, Miriam Leipig-Rudolph, Kaspar Matiasek, Hazal Öztürk, Christiane Otzdorff, Myriam Reichenbach, Horst Dieter Reichenbach, Alexandra Rieger, Birte Rieseberg, Marco Rosati, Manuel Nicolas Saucedo, Anna Schleicher, Marlon R Schneider, Kilian Simmet, Judith Steinmetz, Nicole Übel, Patrizia Zehetmaier, Andreas Jung, Jerzy Adamski, Ünal Coskun, Martin Hrabě de Angelis, Christian Simmet, Mathias Ritzmann, Andrea Meyer-Lindenberg, Helmut Blum, Georg J Arnold, Thomas Fröhlich, Rüdiger Wanke, Eckhard Wolf
OBJECTIVE: The prevalence of diabetes mellitus and associated complications is steadily increasing. As a resource for studying systemic consequences of chronic insulin insufficiency and hyperglycemia, we established a comprehensive biobank of long-term diabetic INS(C94Y) transgenic pigs, a model of mutant INS gene-induced diabetes of youth (MIDY), and of wild-type (WT) littermates. METHODS: Female MIDY pigs (n = 4) were maintained with suboptimal insulin treatment for 2 years, together with female WT littermates (n = 5)...
August 2017: Molecular Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28750585/nutritional-ketone-salts-increase-fat-oxidation-but-impair-high-intensity-exercise-performance-in-healthy-adult-males
#20
Trevor O'Malley, Etienne Myette-Cote, Cody Durrer, Jonathan P Little
This study investigated the impact of raising plasma beta-hydroxybutyrate (β-OHB) through ingestion of ketone salts on substrate oxidation and performance during cycling exercise. Ten healthy adult males (age, 23 ± 3 years; body mass index, 25 ± 3 kg/m(2), peak oxygen uptake, 45 ± 10 mL/(kg·min)(-1)) were recruited to complete 2 experimental trials. Before enrollment in the experimental conditions, baseline anthropometrics and cardiorespiratory fitness (peak oxygen uptake) were assessed and familiarization to the study protocol was provided...
July 27, 2017: Applied Physiology, Nutrition, and Metabolism, Physiologie Appliquée, Nutrition et Métabolisme
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