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Beta-hydroxybutyrate

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28326448/anaerobic-metabolism-in-t4-acanthamoeba-genotype
#1
Daniella de Sousa Mendes Moreira Alves, Luciano Moreira Alves, Tatiane Luiza da Costa, Ana Maria de Castro, Marina Clare Vinaud
Members of the genus Acanthamoeba are of the most common protozoa that has been isolated from a variety of environment and affect immunocompromised individuals, causing granulomatous amoebic encephalitis and skin lesions. Acanthamoeba, in immunocompetent patients, may cause a keratitis related to corneal microtrauma. These free-living amoebas easily adapt to the host environment and wield metabolic pathways such as the energetic and respiratory ones in order to maintain viability for long periods. The energetic metabolism of cysts and trophozoites remains mostly unknown...
March 22, 2017: Current Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28324159/hibernation-based-blood-loss-therapy-increases-survivability-of-lethal-hemorrhagic-shock-in-rats
#2
Cecilia E Perez de Lara Rodriguez, Lester R Drewes, Matthew T Andrews
A small-volume (1 ml/kg) resuscitation fluid based on metabolic adaptations in hibernating mammals was optimized using a rat model of hemorrhagic shock. A previous study of this therapy tested only one concentration of three specific components: 4 M D-stereoisomer of beta-hydroxybutyrate (BHB), 43 mM melatonin, and 20% DMSO. In this study, we considered the range of concentrations of BHB and melatonin seen during the physiological extremes of rapid arousal from hypothermic torpor in natural hibernators and applied these to the non-hibernating Sprague-Dawley rat model...
March 21, 2017: Journal of Comparative Physiology. B, Biochemical, Systemic, and Environmental Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28249376/effects-of-a-specific-blend-of-essential-oils-on-apparent-nutrient-digestion-rumen-fermentation-and-rumen-microbial-populations-in-sheep-fed-a-50-50-alfalfa-hay-concentrate-diet
#3
N Khateri, O Azizi, H Jahani-Azizabadi
OBJECTIVE: An experiment was conducted to investigate the effects of a specific mixture of essential oils (MEO), containing thyme, clove and cinnamon EO, on rumen microbial fermentation, nutrient apparent digestibility and blood metabolites in fistulated sheep. METHODS: Six sheep fitted with ruminal fistulas were used in a repeated measurement design with two 24-d periods to investigate the effect of adding MEO at 0 (control), 0.8, and 1.6 mL/d on apparent nutrient digestibility, rumen fermentation characteristics, rumen microbial population and blood chemical metabolites...
March 2017: Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28150506/beta-hydroxybutyrate-and-pyroglutamate-can-be-included-in-a-rapid-gc-ms-screening-method-for-differential-diagnosis-of-metabolic-acidosis
#4
Siri Føreid, Gaut Gadeholt
A rapid gas chromatographic mass spectrometric method for measuring anions associated with acute anion gap metabolic acidosis is described. The method is an extension of a previous method. The method quantifies glycolic acid, beta-hydroxybutyric acid with good linearity and pyroglutamic acid with a reproducible curvature relation between 1 and 20 mmol/L and can help the clinician distinguish effectively between ethylene glycol poisoning, alcoholic and diabetic ketoacidosis and cysteine deficiency so early that it will have clinical consequences...
April 2017: Scandinavian Journal of Clinical and Laboratory Investigation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28098426/dapagliflozin-in-patients-with-type-1-diabetes-a-post-hoc-analysis-of-the-effect-of-insulin-dose-adjustments-on-24-hour-continuously-monitored-mean-glucose-and-fasting-beta-hydroxybutyrate-levels-from-a-phase-iia-pilot-study
#5
Robert R Henry, Paresh Dandona, Jeremy Pettus, Sunder Mudaliar, John Xu, Lars Hansen
AIMS: To investigate the effects of total daily insulin dose (TDD) reductions on 24-hour continuously monitored mean glucose and fasting beta-hydroxybutyrate (a marker for diabetic ketosis/ketoacidosis [DKA]) using patient-level data from a 14-day, pilot study of dapagliflozin in type 1 diabetes. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Exploratory correlation analysis was performed post-hoc to determine the relationship between change in TDD and a) 24-hour mean glucose (by continuous glucose monitoring) and b) fasting beta-hydroxybutyrate, in 70 patients with type 1 diabetes receiving insulin and dapagliflozin (1-, 2...
January 18, 2017: Diabetes, Obesity & Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28089299/the-non-sense-of-routinely-analysing-beta-hydroxybutyric-acid-in-forensic-toxicology-casework
#6
Nele Sadones, Willy E Lambert, Christophe P Stove
Beta-hydroxybutyric acid (BHB) is a ketone body which is generated from fatty acids as an alternative energy source when glucose is not available. Determination of this compound may be relevant in the forensic laboratory as ketoacidosis - an elevated level of ketone bodies - may contribute to the cause of death. In this study, we aimed at determining the relevance of routinely implementing BHB analysis in the forensic toxicological laboratory, as BHB analysis typically requires an additional workload. We therefore performed an unbiased retrospective analysis of BHB in 599 cases, comprising 553 blood, 232 urine and 62 vitreous humour samples...
January 7, 2017: Forensic Science International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27999529/exogenous-ketone-supplements-reduce-anxiety-related-behavior-in-sprague-dawley-and-wistar-albino-glaxo-rijswijk-rats
#7
Csilla Ari, Zsolt Kovács, Gabor Juhasz, Cem Murdun, Craig R Goldhagen, Andrew M Koutnik, Angela M Poff, Shannon L Kesl, Dominic P D'Agostino
Nutritional ketosis has been proven effective for seizure disorders and other neurological disorders. The focus of this study was to determine the effects of ketone supplementation on anxiety-related behavior in Sprague-Dawley (SPD) and Wistar Albino Glaxo/Rijswijk (WAG/Rij) rats. We tested exogenous ketone supplements added to food and fed chronically for 83 days in SPD rats and administered sub-chronically for 7 days in both rat models by daily intragastric gavage bolus followed by assessment of anxiety measures on elevated plus maze (EPM)...
2016: Frontiers in Molecular Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27999180/a-ketogenic-diet-rescues-hippocampal-memory-defects-in-a-mouse-model-of-kabuki-syndrome
#8
Joel S Benjamin, Genay O Pilarowski, Giovanni A Carosso, Li Zhang, David L Huso, Loyal A Goff, Hilary J Vernon, Kasper D Hansen, Hans T Bjornsson
Kabuki syndrome is a Mendelian intellectual disability syndrome caused by mutations in either of two genes (KMT2D and KDM6A) involved in chromatin accessibility. We previously showed that an agent that promotes chromatin opening, the histone deacetylase inhibitor (HDACi) AR-42, ameliorates the deficiency of adult neurogenesis in the granule cell layer of the dentate gyrus and rescues hippocampal memory defects in a mouse model of Kabuki syndrome (Kmt2d(+/βGeo)). Unlike a drug, a dietary intervention could be quickly transitioned to the clinic...
January 3, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27878924/differences-in-rumen-fermentation-characteristics-between-low-yield-and-high-yield-dairy-cows-in-early-lactation
#9
Ahmad Sofyan, Makoto Mitsumori, Hideyuki Ohmori, Yutaka Uyeno, Toshiya Hasunuma, Kiyoshi Akiyama, Hiroshi Yamamoto, Hiroaki Yokokawa, Tsuneko Yamaguchi, Takumi Shinkai, Makoto Hirako, Shiro Kushibiki
Relationship between rumen fermentation parameters, blood biochemical profiles and milk production traits in different yielding dairy cows during early lactation was investigated. Twelve dairy cows were divided into two groups based on their milk yield, that is low-yield (LY) and high-yield (HY) groups. Rumen fluid and blood were collected at 3 weeks prepartum and 4, 8 and 12 weeks postpartum. Results showed that proportions of acetate, propionate to total short chain fatty acids and acetate : propionate ratio were changed (P < 0...
November 23, 2016: Animal Science Journal, Nihon Chikusan Gakkaihō
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27855237/insulin-autoimmune-syndrome-a-rare-cause-of-postprandial-hypoglycemia
#10
Pooja Sahni, Nitin Trivedi, Abdulkadir Omer
A 65-year-old obese Caucasian woman presented with symptomatic postprandial hypoglycemic episodes, resolution of symptoms with carbohydrate intake and significantly elevated anti-insulin antibody levels. She did not have any evidence for the use of oral antidiabetic medications, insulin, herbal substances, performing strenuous exercise or history of bariatric surgery. Fingerstick blood glucose readings revealed blood sugar of 35 mg/dL and 48 mg/dL, when she had these symptoms. Her medical history was significant for morbid obesity, hypothyroidism and gastro esophageal reflux disease...
2016: Endocrinology, Diabetes & Metabolism Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27807376/the-use-of-serum-beta-hydroxybutyrate-to-determine-whether-nursery-pigs-selected-on-the-basis-of-clinical-signs-are-anorexic
#11
Amanda M Perri, Terri L O'Sullivan, John C S Harding, Robert M Friendship
The process of weaning pigs alters intestinal structures and influences piglet behavior, which can result in anorexia. When housed in large groups, affected pigs can be difficult to identify at an early stage. The clinical signs of anorexia include loss in body condition (thinness) and repetitive oral behavior (chomping). The objective of this study was to determine if pigs identified at 4 to 7 days post-weaning on the basis of clinical signs were anorexic based on elevated serum beta-hydroxybutyrate (BHB) levels (ketosis)...
November 2016: Canadian Veterinary Journal. la Revue Vétérinaire Canadienne
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27795825/usefulness-of-clinical-observations-and-blood-chemistry-values-for-predicting-clinical-outcomes-in-dairy-goats-with-pregnancy-toxaemia
#12
Miguel S Lima, Júlia M Silveira, Nuno Carolino, Luis P Lamas, Rita A Pascoal, Charles A Hjerpe
BACKGROUND: Pregnancy toxaemia (PT) is a disease that affects pregnant goats during their last month of gestation and is characterized by a high case fatality rate. This study involved 32 does maintained on a commercial dairy goat farm that were diagnosed with PT. A physical examination was performed on and haematology parameters obtained from each doe, at the time of diagnosis. The data from the 24 PT goats that died was compared with the corresponding data from the 8 PT goats that survived...
2016: Irish Veterinary Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27788628/serial-changes-in-plasma-ketone-concentrations-in-patients-with-acute-brain-injury
#13
MULTICENTER STUDY
Hayden White, Balasubramanian Venkatesh, Mark Jones, Hesly Fuentes
Objective Acute brain injury (ABI) is a catastrophic event, leading to disruption of the normal cerebral metabolic pathways and a subsequent cerebral energy deficit. Ketones (beta-hydroxybutyrate (BHB) and acetoacetate) may represent an alternative metabolic substrate with the potential to improve cerebral energy supply and decrease injury. The purpose of this study was to evaluate baseline ketone concentrations in the ABI population. Methods Thirty-eight patients with ABI were enrolled into the study and followed for up to 7 days...
January 2017: Neurological Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27633987/prevalence-of-ketosis-ketonuria-and-ketoacidosis-during-liberal-glycemic-control-in-critically-ill-patients-with-diabetes-an-observational-study
#14
Nora Luethi, Luca Cioccari, Marco Crisman, Rinaldo Bellomo, Glenn M Eastwood, Johan Mårtensson
BACKGROUND: It is uncertain whether liberal glucose control in critically ill diabetic patients leads to increased ketone production and ketoacidosis. Therefore, we aimed to assess the prevalence of ketosis, ketonuria and ketoacidosis in critically ill diabetic patients treated in accordance with a liberal glycemic control protocol. METHODS: We performed a prospective observational cohort study of 60 critically ill diabetic patients with blood and/or urine ketone bodies tested in ICU...
September 15, 2016: Critical Care: the Official Journal of the Critical Care Forum
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27632353/prevalence-and-identification-of-burkholderia-pseudomallei-and-near-neighbor-species-in-the-malabar-coastal-region-of-india
#15
Bhavani V Peddayelachagiri, Soumya Paul, Sowmya Nagaraj, Madhurjya Gogoi, Murali H Sripathy, Harsh V Batra
Accurate identification of pathogens with biowarfare importance requires detection tools that specifically differentiate them from near-neighbor species. Burkholderia pseudomallei, the causative agent of a fatal disease melioidosis, is one such biothreat agent whose differentiation from its near-neighbor species is always a challenge. This is because of its phenotypic similarity with other Burkholderia species which have a wide spread geographical distribution with shared environmental niches. Melioidosis is a major public health concern in endemic regions including Southeast Asia and northern Australia...
September 2016: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27599101/changes-in-energetic-metabolism-of-biomphalaria-glabrata-mollusca-planorbidae-in-response-to-exogenous-calcium
#16
L D Silva, V C S Amaral, M C Vinaud, A M Castro, H H A Rezende, D B Santos, C C Mello-Silva, J C B Bezerra
Calcium is considered an essential element for the metabolism of aquatic snail Biomphalaria glabrata (Say, 1818), intermediate host of Schistosoma mansoni Sambon, 1907 in Brazil, and represents a limiting factor to its distribution and adaptation to the environment. This study investigated the effect of different concentrations of exogenous CaCO3 on the energetic metabolism of B. glabrata for better understanding the physiological interference of chemical elements dissolved in the environment with the physiology of this species...
September 5, 2016: Brazilian Journal of Biology, Revista Brasleira de Biologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27590424/influence-of-energy-level-and-nicotinic-acid-supplementation-on-apoptosis-of-blood-leukocytes-of-periparturient-dairy-cows
#17
S Bühler, J Frahm, R Tienken, S Kersten, U Meyer, K Huber, S Dänicke
The periparturient period of dairy cows is accompanied by an immunosuppression that leaves the animal more susceptible to infections and metabolic disorders. Non-esterified fatty acids (NEFA) and beta-hydroxybutyrate (BHB) which peak shortly after parturition due to lipolysis are known to impair immune cell functions. Niacin with its well-known anti-lipolytic effect may have the ability to ameliorate this situation. Additionally, niacin shows also anti-inflammatory effects that may be beneficial to the immune status of the cow...
October 15, 2016: Veterinary Immunology and Immunopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27578413/microwave-assisted-on-spot-derivatization-for-gas-chromatography-mass-spectrometry-based-determination-of-polar-low-molecular-weight-compounds-in-dried-blood-spots
#18
Nele Sadones, Elien Van Bever, John R H Archer, David M Wood, Paul I Dargan, Luc Van Bortel, Willy E Lambert, Christophe P Stove
Dried blood spot (DBS) sampling and analysis is increasingly being applied in bioanalysis. Although the use of DBS has many advantages, it is also associated with some challenges. E.g. given the limited amount of available material, highly sensitive detection techniques are often required to attain sufficient sensitivity. In gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry (GC-MS), derivatization can be helpful to achieve adequate sensitivity. Because this additional sample preparation step is considered as time-consuming, we introduce a new derivatization procedure, i...
September 23, 2016: Journal of Chromatography. A
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27554760/metabolic-blood-profile-of-beef-heifers-during-oestrous-and-non-oestrous-states
#19
E M Crane, J C Munro, S L Bourgon, M Diel de Amorim, R Ventura, A H Fredeen, Y R Montanholi
Haematological metabolic profiles in heifers could contribute to the development of proxies for oestrous detection and provide clues to further characterize biological changes during oestrus. One hundred and seven beef heifers were observed for oestrous behaviour twice daily for 124 days. Feed intake and productive performance (body weight and composition) traits were measured, and feed efficiency was determined using residual feed intake (kg DM/day). Blood plasma samples were collected when signs of oestrus were observed and every 30 ± 2 days...
October 2016: Reproduction in Domestic Animals, Zuchthygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27509509/probing-the-kinetic-anabolism-of-poly-beta-hydroxybutyrate-in-cupriavidus-necator-h16-using-single-cell-raman-spectroscopy
#20
Zhanhua Tao, Lixin Peng, Pengfei Zhang, Yong-Qing Li, Guiwen Wang
Poly-beta-hydroxybutyrate (PHB) can be formed in large amounts in Cupriavidus necator and is important for the industrial production of biodegradable plastics. In this investigation, laser tweezers Raman spectroscopy (LTRS) was used to characterize dynamic changes in PHB content-as well as in the contents of other common biomolecule-in C. necator during batch growth at both the population and single-cell levels. PHB accumulation began in the early stages of bacterial growth, and the maximum PHB production rate occurred in the early and middle exponential phases...
2016: Sensors
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