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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29445138/non-toxic-engineered-carbon-nanodiamond-concentrations-induce-oxidative-nitrosative-stress-imbalance-of-energy-metabolism-and-mitochondrial-dysfunction-in-microglial-and-alveolar-basal-epithelial-cells
#1
Claudia G Fresta, Aishik Chakraborty, Manjula B Wijesinghe, Angela M Amorini, Giacomo Lazzarino, Giuseppe Lazzarino, Barbara Tavazzi, Susan M Lunte, Filippo Caraci, Prajnaparamita Dhar, Giuseppe Caruso
Engineered nanoparticles are finding a wide spectrum of biomedical applications, including drug delivery and capacity to trigger cytotoxic phenomena, potentially useful against tumor cells. The full understanding of their biosafety and interactions with cell processes is mandatory. Using microglial (BV-2) and alveolar basal epithelial (A549) cells, in this study we determined the effects of engineered carbon nanodiamonds (ECNs) on cell viability, nitric oxide (NO) and reactive oxygen species (ROS) production, as well as on energy metabolism...
February 14, 2018: Cell Death & Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29422882/disrupted-brain-intrinsic-networks-and-executive-dysfunction-in-cirrhotic-patients-without-overt-hepatic-encephalopathy
#2
Zhe-Ting Yang, Hua-Jun Chen, Qiu-Feng Chen, Hailong Lin
Objective: Patients with cirrhosis often exhibit cognitive deficits, particularly executive dysfunction, which is considered a predictor of overt hepatic encephalopathy (OHE). We examined brain intrinsic networks associated with executive function to investigate the neural basis of this cognitive deficiency in cirrhosis. Methods: Resting-state functional MRI data were acquired from 20 cirrhotic patients and 18 healthy controls. Seed-based correlation analysis was used to identify the three well-known networks associated with executive function, including executive control (ECN), default mode (DMN), and salience (SN) networks...
2018: Frontiers in Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29365198/altered-functional-connectivity-of-the-default-mode-network-in-patients-with-schizo-obsessive-comorbidity-a-comparison-between-schizophrenia-and-obsessive-compulsive-disorder
#3
Yong-Ming Wang, Lai-Quan Zou, Wen-Lan Xie, Zhuo-Ya Yang, Xiong-Zhao Zhu, Eric F C Cheung, Thomas Alrik Sørensen, Arne Møller, Raymond C K Chan
Clinical and neuroimaging data support the idea that schizo-obsessive comorbidity (SOC), similar to obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) and schizophrenia (SCZ), may be a distinct brain disorder. In this study, we examined the strength of resting-state functional connectivity (rsFC) between 19 subregions of the default mode network (DMN) and whole brain voxels in 22 patients with SOC features, 20 patients with SCZ alone, 22 patients with OCD, and 22 healthy controls (HC). The main results demonstrated that patients with SOC exhibited the highest rsFC strength within subregions of the DMN and the lowest rsFC strength between the DMN and subregions of the salience network (SN) compared with the other 3 groups...
January 20, 2018: Schizophrenia Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29355588/resting-state-functional-connectivity-of-neurotransmitter-producing-sites-in-female-patients-with-borderline-personality-disorder
#4
Gerd Wagner, Annegret Krause-Utz, Feliberto de la Cruz, Andy Schumann, Christian Schmahl, Karl-Jürgen Bär
Impulsive behavior, difficulties in controlling anger and suicidal behavior are typical patterns of affective/behavioral dysregulation in patients with borderline personality disorder (BPD). Previous functional MRI studies in the resting state condition demonstrated altered functional connectivity (FC) between the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) and the frontoparietal executive control network (ECN), which was significantly associated with impulsivity in BPD. Impulsivity is often defined as a function of inhibitory control, strongly relying on the proper functioning of the fronto-cingulo-striatal network...
January 17, 2018: Progress in Neuro-psychopharmacology & Biological Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29335601/loss-of-cd14-leads-to-disturbed-epithelial-b-cell-crosstalk-and-impairment-of-the-intestinal-barrier-after-e-coli-nissle-monoassociation
#5
Marijana Basic, Manuela Buettner, Lydia M Keubler, Anna Smoczek, Inga Bruesch, Stephanie Buchheister, André Bleich
The TLR4 co-receptor CD14 was identified as an IBD candidate gene. Here, its influence on the intestinal barrier was addressed utilizing E. coli Nissle (EcN), which induces severe inflammation in germfree TLR4-/- mice. After monoassociation, EcN was detected in spleens and livers of TLR4-/- and CD14-/- but not wildtype mice. Barrier impairment was characterized by increased apoptosis and decreased epithelial junction (EJ) expression and was reversed by TLR2 stimulation in CD14-/- mice. Bone marrow (BM) transplantation revealed contribution of hematopoietic and non-hematopoietic cells towards intestinal homeostasis...
January 15, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29278802/non-equilibrium-atmospheric-pressure-plasma-as-innovative-method-to-crosslink-and-enhance-mucoadhesion-of-econazole-loaded-gelatin-films-for-buccal-drug-delivery
#6
Luisa S Dolci, Anna Liguori, Silvia Panzavolta, Anna Miserocchi, Nadia Passerini, Matteo Gherardi, Vittorio Colombo, Adriana Bigi, Beatrice Albertini
In this paper we developed an innovative, effective and rapid one-step approach to crosslink mucoadhesive gelatin films for buccal drug delivery. The method, which involves the application of non-equilibrium pressure plasma for 3 or 5 minutes/side, was compared with a classical approach based on the use of a chemical crosslinking agent, namely genipin. Econazole nitrate (ECN), an imidazole antifungal agent used for the treatment of skin infections and mucosal candidiasis, was selected as model drug. X-Ray Diffraction characterization performed on the drug-containing gelatin films revealed that ECN undergoes to a topotactic transformation into Econazole (EC) immediately after mixing with gelatin suggesting the occurrence of an acid-base reaction between drug and gelatin during film processing...
December 19, 2017: Colloids and Surfaces. B, Biointerfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29194983/translational-development-of-microbiome-based-therapeutics-kinetics-of-e-coli-nissle-and-engineered-strains-in-humans-and-nonhuman-primates
#7
Caroline Kurtz, William S Denney, Larry Blankstein, Sarah E Guilmain, Suman Machinani, Jonathan Kotula, Saurabh Saha, Paul Miller, Aoife M Brennan
Understanding the pharmacology of microbiome-based therapeutics is required to support the development of new medicines. Strains of E. coli Nissle (EcN) were genetically modified and administered to cynomolgus monkeys at doses of 1 × 109 and 1 × 1012 colony-forming units (CFU)/day for 28 days. A clinical study to evaluate the exposure and clearance of EcN in healthy volunteers was also performed. Healthy subjects received oral doses of EcN, 2.5 to 25 × 109 CFU 3 times daily for 28 days or a single day. In cynomolgus monkeys, replicating strains yielded higher fecal concentrations than nonreplicating strains and persisted for longer following cessation of dosing...
December 1, 2017: Clinical and Translational Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29164505/network-level-dysconnectivity-in-patients-with-nasopharyngeal-carcinoma-npc-early-post-radiotherapy-longitudinal-resting-state-fmri-study
#8
Yingwei Qiu, Zheng Guo, Lujun Han, Yadi Yang, Jing Li, Shiliang Liu, Xiaofei Lv
In this study, we seek to longitudinally investigate the network-level functional connectivity (FC) alternations and its association with irradiation dose and cognition changes in the early stage post radiotherapy (RT) in nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) patients. We performed independent component analysis (ICA) of resting state blood oxygen level-dependent functional magnetic resonance imaging (BOLD-fMRI) from 39 newly diagnosed NPC patients before receiving treatment (baseline), and 3 months post-RT. the default mode network (DMN), salience network (SN), and executive control network (ECN) were extracted with well-validated software (GIFT)...
November 21, 2017: Brain Imaging and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29156755/escherichia-coli-nissle-1917-engineered-to-express-tum-5-can-restrain-murine-melanoma-growth
#9
Lian He, Huijun Yang, Fei Liu, Yiyan Chen, Sijia Tang, Wei Ji, Jianli Tang, Zhudong Liu, Yunjun Sun, Shengbiao Hu, Youming Zhang, Xiong Liu, Weitao Huang, Xuezhi Ding, Liqiu Xia
Tumor growth and metastasis depend on angiogenesis. Thus, inhibiting tumor angiogenesis has become promising cancer therapeutic strategy in recent years. Tumstatin is a more powerful angiogenesis inhibitor than endostatin. Anti-angiogenic active fragment encoding amino acids 45-132 (Tum-5) of tumstatin was subcloned into four different inducible expression vectors and successfully solubly expressed in Escherichia coli BL21 (DE3) in this study. Subsequently, an anaerobic inducible expression vector was constructed under Vitreoscilla hemoglobin gene promoter Pvhb in E...
October 17, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29138429/brain-network-correlates-of-emotional-aging
#10
Youngwook Lyoo, Sujung Yoon
Physical and cognitive functions typically decline with aging while emotional stability is relatively conserved. The current proof-of-concept study is the first to report of the brain mechanisms underlying emotional aging from a brain network perspective. Two hundred eighty-six healthy subjects aged 20-65 were classified into three groups of the emotionally young, intermediate-aged, and old (E-young, E-intermediate, and E-old, respectively) based on the cluster analysis of the emotion recognition task data...
November 14, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29101366/identification-of-an-analgesic-lipopeptide-produced-by-the-probiotic-escherichia-coli-strain-nissle-1917
#11
Teresa Pérez-Berezo, Julien Pujo, Patricia Martin, Pauline Le Faouder, Jean-Marie Galano, Alexandre Guy, Claude Knauf, Jean Claude Tabet, Sophie Tronnet, Frederick Barreau, Maud Heuillet, Gilles Dietrich, Justine Bertrand-Michel, Thierry Durand, Eric Oswald, Nicolas Cenac
Administration of the probiotic Escherichia coli strain Nissle 1917 (EcN) decreases visceral pain associated with irritable bowel syndrome. Mutation of clbA, a gene involved in the biosynthesis of secondary metabolites, including colibactin, was previously shown to abrogate EcN probiotic activity. Here, we show that EcN, but not an isogenic clbA mutant, produces an analgesic lipopeptide. We characterize lipoamino acids and lipopeptides produced by EcN but not by the mutant by online liquid chromatography mass spectrometry...
November 3, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29101053/doxorubicin-conjugated-escherichia-coli-nissle-1917-swimmers-to-achieve-tumor-targeting-and-responsive-drug-release
#12
Songzhi Xie, Long Zhao, Xiaojie Song, Maosheng Tang, Chuanfei Mo, Xiaohong Li
The use of bacteria as drug carriers meets several challenges, such as biocompatibility, motility deterioration after drug loading and lack of in vivo verification. Escherichia coli Nissle 1917 (EcN) is one of the best studied probiotic strains, and doxorubicin (DOX) is conjugated onto EcN in the current study via acid-labile linkers of cis-aconitic anhydride (EcN-ca-Dox), realizing the bacteria-directed accumulation and acid-responsive release of anticancer drugs in tumors. The drug conjugation has maintained the bacterial motion profiles of over 9μm/s and cell viability of over 70%...
October 31, 2017: Journal of Controlled Release: Official Journal of the Controlled Release Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29079506/evaluating-functional-connectivity-of-executive-control-network-and-frontoparietal-network-in-alzheimer-s-disease
#13
Qinghua Zhao, Hong Lu, Hichem Metmer, Will X Y Li, Jianfeng Lu
Investigating the early Alzheimer's disease (AD) more emphasizes sensitive and specific biomarkers, which can help the clinicians to monitor the progression and treatments of AD. Among these biomarkers, default mode network (DMN) functional connectivity is gaining more attention as a potential noninvasive biomarker to diagnose incipient Alzheimer's disease. However, besides changed functional connectivity of DMN, other functional networks haven't yet been examined systematically. Recent brain imaging studies reported that a number of reproducible and robust functional networks, which were distributed in distant neuroanatomic areas...
October 24, 2017: Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29048824/-regularity-of-effective-carbon-numbers-of-alkanes-alcohols-and-ethers-and-its-application-to-determination-without-authentic-standards-by-gas-chromatography
#14
Liyan Sheng, Tingting Liu, Meihua Li, Jie Pan, Yong Luo
To realize quantitative analysis without authentic standards by gas chromatography, a calculation method of effective carbon numbers (ECNs) was developed by determining the relative response factors of 66 alkanes, alcohols, ethers with GC-FID and studying the relation between ECNs and chemical structures. The correlation coefficient of 0.9998 (N=66) was achieved between theoretical values and experimental values of ECNs. Fifty-seven percent of determined compounds had relative deviations within ±1% and all of them had relative deviations within ±3%...
August 8, 2017: Se Pu, Chinese Journal of Chromatography
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29043908/early-functional-connectome-integrity-and-1-year-recovery-in-comatose-survivors-of-cardiac-arrest
#15
Haris I Sair, Yousef Hannawi, Shanshan Li, Joshua Kornbluth, Athena Demertzi, Carol Di Perri, Russell Chabanne, Betty Jean, Habib Benali, Vincent Perlbarg, James Pekar, Charles-Edouard Luyt, Damien Galanaud, Lionel Velly, Louis Puybasset, Steven Laureys, Brian Caffo, Robert D Stevens
Purpose To assess whether early brain functional connectivity is associated with functional recovery 1 year after cardiac arrest (CA). Materials and Methods Enrolled in this prospective multicenter cohort were 46 patients who were comatose after CA. Principal outcome was cerebral performance category at 12 months, with favorable outcome (FO) defined as cerebral performance category 1 or 2. All participants underwent multiparametric structural and functional magnetic resonance (MR) imaging less than 4 weeks after CA...
October 18, 2017: Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29034316/large-scale-network-coupling-with-the-fusiform-cortex-facilitates-future-social-motivation
#16
Amanda V Utevsky, David V Smith, Jacob S Young, Scott A Huettel
Large-scale functional networks, as identified through the coordinated activity of spatially distributed brain regions, have become central objects of study in neuroscience because of their contributions to many processing domains. Yet, it remains unclear how these domain-general networks interact with focal brain regions to coordinate thought and action. Here, we investigated how the default-mode network (DMN) and executive control network (ECN), two networks associated with goal-directed behavior, shape task performance through their coupling with other cortical regions several seconds in advance of behavior...
September 2017: ENeuro
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29022385/effect-of-antibiotic-probiotic-and-human-rotavirus-infection-on-colonisation-dynamics-of-defined-commensal-microbiota-in-a-gnotobiotic-pig-model
#17
H-C Huang, A N Vlasova, A Kumar, S Kandasamy, D D Fischer, L Deblais, F C Paim, S N Langel, M A Alhamo, A Rauf, L Shao, L J Saif, G Rajashekara
We developed a gnotobiotic (Gn) pig model colonised with defined commensal microbiota (DMF) to provide a simplified and controlled system to study the interactions between intestinal commensals, antibiotics (ciprofloxacin, CIP), probiotics (Escherichia coli Nissle 1917, EcN) and virulent human rotavirus (VirHRV). The DMF included seven gut commensal species of porcine origin that mimic the predominant species in the infant gut. Gn piglets were divided into four groups: DMF control (non-treated), DMF+CIP (CIP treated), DMF+CIP+EcN (CIP/EcN treated), DMF+EcN (EcN treated) and inoculated orally with 10(5) cfu of each DMF strain...
October 12, 2017: Beneficial Microbes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29017089/reduced-interhemispheric-executive-control-network-coupling-in-men-during-early-cocaine-abstinence-a-pilot-study
#18
Julie M McCarthy, Chun S Zuo, Justin M Shepherd, Nadeeka Dias, Scott E Lukas, Amy C Janes
BACKGROUND: Individuals who use cocaine have fewer cognitive resources needed to maintain abstinence. This is evidenced by blunted brain function during cognitive control tasks and reduced communication between brain regions associated with cognitive function. For instance, relapse vulnerability is heightened in individuals with less communication between the right and left frontoparietal executive control network (ECN). Given that recent cocaine use enhances such communication, it is plausible that recency of cocaine use influences interhemispheric ECN communication...
December 1, 2017: Drug and Alcohol Dependence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28993741/executive-control-and-striatal-resting-state-network-interact-with-risk-factors-to-influence-treatment-outcomes-in-alcohol-use-disorder
#19
Milky Kohno, Laura E Dennis, Holly McCready, William F Hoffman
Alterations within mesocorticolimbic terminal regions commonly occur with alcohol use disorder (AUD). As pathological drug-seeking behavior may arise as a consequence of alcohol-induced neuroadaptations, it is critical to understand how such changes increase the likelihood of relapse. This report examined resting-state functional connectivity (RSFC) using both a seed-based and model-free approach in individuals in treatment for AUD and how dysregulation of network connectivity contributes to treatment outcomes...
2017: Frontiers in Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28968564/network-basis-of-suicidal-ideation-in-depressed-adolescents
#20
Sarah J Ordaz, Meghan S Goyer, Tiffany C Ho, Manpreet K Singh, Ian H Gotlib
BACKGROUND: Suicidal ideation rates rise precipitously in adolescence, contributing to risk for attempts. Although researchers are beginning to explore the brain basis of attempts in depressed adolescents, none have focused on the basis of ideation, which has implications for prevention. This study examined the association between intrinsic neural network coherence and the severity of suicidal ideation in depressed adolescents. METHODS: Forty adolescents diagnosed with Major Depressive Disorder were administered the Columbia-Suicide Severity Rating Scale and underwent resting-state fMRI...
September 22, 2017: Journal of Affective Disorders
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