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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28443736/brain-resting-state-functional-connectivity-is-preserved-under-sevoflurane-anesthesia-in-patients-with-pervasive-developmental-disorders-a-pilot-study
#1
Lakshmikumar Venkat Raghavan, Suparna Bharadwaj, Vincent Wourms, Audrey Tan, Michael T Jurkiewicz, David J Mikulis, Adrian P Crawley
Background Functional connectivity studies play a huge role in understanding the relationship between the network connections and the behavioral phenotype of patients with Pervasive developmental disorders (PDD). However, some patients with PDD may not tolerate the imaging procedure while awake and they often need general anesthesia. General anesthesia is a confounding factor in functional imaging studies due to its effect on the functional connectivity. The objective of this study is to look at the resting state functional connectivity (RS-FC) under sevoflurane anesthesia in patients with pervasive developmental disorders...
April 26, 2017: Brain Connectivity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28402480/cognitive-benefit-and-cost-of-acute-stress-is-differentially-modulated-by-individual-brain-state
#2
Nils Kohn, Erno J Hermans, Guillén Fernández
Acute stress is associated with beneficial as well as detrimental effects on cognition in different individuals. However, it is not yet known how stress can have such opposing effects. Stroop-like tasks typically show this dissociation: stress diminishes speed, but improves accuracy. We investigated accuracy and speed during a stroop-like task of 120 healthy male subjects after an experimental stress induction or control condition in a randomized, counter-balanced cross-over design; we assessed brain-behavior associations and determined the influence of individual brain connectivity patterns on these associations, which may moderate the effect and help identify stress resilience factors...
April 11, 2017: Social Cognitive and Affective Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28368910/iron-supplements-modulate-colon-microbiota-composition-and-potentiate-the-protective-effects-of-probiotics-in-dextran-sodium-sulfate-induced-colitis
#3
Marco Constante, Gabriela Fragoso, Joseph Lupien-Meilleur, Annie Calvé, Manuela M Santos
BACKGROUND: Iron is an important nutrient for both the host and colonizing bacteria. Oral iron supplementation may impact the composition of the microbiota and can be particularly damaging to patients suffering from inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). However, patients with IBD may require iron supplementation to treat their anemia. METHODS: We fed mice with diets supplemented with ferrous sulfate at different doses (5, 50, and 500 mg of iron/kg chow) and with different iron formulations (ferrous sulfate, ferrous bisglycinate and ferric ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid [FEDTA]), and analyzed the effects on the composition of the gut microbiota by 16S ribosomal RNA gene sequencing...
May 2017: Inflammatory Bowel Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28290245/differentiated-effective-connectivity-patterns-of-the-executive-control-network-in-progressive-mci-a-potential-biomarker-for-predicting-ad
#4
Suping Cai, Yanlin Peng, Tao Chong, Yun Zhang, Karen M von Deneen, Liyu Huang, Aibl Research Group
Mild cognitive impairment (MCI) is often a transitional state between normal aging and Alzheimer's disease (AD). When observed longitudinally, some MCI patients convert to AD, while a considerable portion either remain MCI or revert to a normal functioning state. This divergence has provided some enlightenment on a potential biomarker be represented in the resting state brain activities of MCI patients with different post-hoc labels. Recent studies have shown impaired executive functions, other than typically explicated memory impairment with AD/MCI patients...
March 9, 2017: Current Alzheimer Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28283693/genetically-engineered-escherichia-coli-nissle-1917-synbiotic-counters-fructose-induced-metabolic-syndrome-and-iron-deficiency
#5
Archana Somabhai Chaudhari, Ruma Raghuvanshi, G Naresh Kumar
Consumption of fructose leads to metabolic syndrome, but it is also known to increase iron absorption. Present study investigates the effect of genetically modified Escherichia coli Nissle 1917 (EcN) synbiotic along with fructose on non-heme iron absorption. Charles foster rats weighing 150-200 g were fed with iron-deficient diet for 2 months. Probiotic treatment of EcN (pqq) and EcN (pqq-glf-mtlK) was given once per week, 10(9) cells after 2 months with fructose in drinking water. Iron levels, blood, and liver parameters for oxidative stress, hyperglycemia, and dyslipidemia were estimated...
March 10, 2017: Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28155138/cerebellar-neural-circuits-involving-executive-control-network-predict-response-to-group-cognitive-behavior-therapy-in-social-anxiety-disorder
#6
MinlanYuan, Yajing Meng, Yan Zhang, Xiaojing Nie, Zhengjia Ren, Hongru Zhu, Yuchen Li, Su Lui, Qiyong Gong, Changjian Qiu, Wei Zhang
Some intrinsic connectivity networks including the default mode network (DMN) and executive control network (ECN) may underlie social anxiety disorder (SAD). Although the cerebellum has been implicated in the pathophysiology of SAD and several networks relevant to higher-order cognition, it remains unknown whether cerebellar areas involved in DMN and ECN exhibit altered resting-state functional connectivity (rsFC) with cortical networks in SAD. Forty-six patients with SAD and 64 healthy controls (HC) were included and submitted to the baseline resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI)...
February 2, 2017: Cerebellum
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28132875/the-impact-of-cruciferous-vegetable-isothiocyanates-on-histone-acetylation-and-histone-phosphorylation-in-bladder-cancer
#7
Besma Abbaoui, Kelly H Telu, Christopher R Lucas, Jennifer M Thomas-Ahner, Steven J Schwartz, Steven K Clinton, Michael A Freitas, Amir Mortazavi
Cruciferous vegetable intake is associated with reduced risk of bladder cancer, yet mechanisms remain unclear. Cruciferous vegetable isothiocyanates (ITCs), namely sulforaphane (SFN) and erucin (ECN), significantly inhibit histone deacetylase (HDAC) activity in human bladder cancer cells representing superficial to invasive biology (59-83% inhibition with 20μM, 48h treatment), and in bladder cancer xenografts (59±3% ECN inhibition). Individual HDACs inhibited by SFN and ECN include HDACs 1, 2, 4 and 6. Interestingly, global acetylation status of histones H3 or H4 remain unaltered...
March 6, 2017: Journal of Proteomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28094590/effects-of-supernatants-from-escherichia-coli-nissle-1917-and-faecalibacterium-prausnitzii-on-intestinal-epithelial-cells-and-a-rat-model-of-5-fluorouracil-induced-mucositis
#8
Hanru Wang, Yoga D Jatmiko, Susan E P Bastian, Suzanne Mashtoub, Gordon S Howarth
Faecalibacterium prausnitzii (Fp) and Escherichia coli Nissle 1917 (EcN) are probiotics, which have been reported to ameliorate certain gastrointestinal disorders. We evaluated the effects of supernatants (SN) derived from Fp and EcN on 5-fluorouracil (5-FU)-treated intestinal cells and in a rat model of mucositis. In vitro: IEC-6, Caco-2, and T-84 cells were analyzed for viability and monolayer permeability. In vivo: Female dark agouti rats were gavaged with Fp or EcN SN and injected intraperitoneally with saline (control) or 5-FU to induce mucositis...
February 2017: Nutrition and Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28071147/abstracts-of-presentations-at-the-joint-meeting-of-the-eeg-clinical-neuroscience-society-ecns-the-international-society-for-brain-electromagnetic-topography-isbet-and-the-international-society-for-neuroimaging-in-psychiatry-isnip-in-halifax-nova-scotia-canada
#9
(no author information available yet)
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 2016: Clinical EEG and Neuroscience: Official Journal of the EEG and Clinical Neuroscience Society (ENCS)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28069496/probiotic-e-coli-nissle-1917-biofilms-on-silicone-substrates-for-bacterial-interference-against-pathogen-colonization
#10
Quan Chen, Zhiling Zhu, Jun Wang, Analette I Lopez, Siheng Li, Amit Kumar, Fei Yu, Haoqing Chen, Chengzhi Cai, Lijuan Zhang
Bacterial interference is an alternative strategy to fight against device-associated bacterial infections. Pursuing this strategy, a non-pathogenic bacterial biofilm is used as a live, protective barrier to fence off pathogen colonization. In this work, biofilms formed by probiotic Escherichia coli strain Nissle 1917 (EcN) are investigated for their potential for long-term bacterial interference against infections associated with silicone-based urinary catheters and indwelling catheters used in the digestive system, such as feeding tubes and voice prostheses...
January 6, 2017: Acta Biomaterialia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28054651/alerted-default-mode-functional-connectivity-changes-in-the-aftermath-of-social-stress
#11
Benjamin Clemens, Lisa Wagels, Magdalena Bauchmüller, Rene Bergs, Ute Habel, Nils Kohn
Stress affects the brain at a network level: the salience network is supposedly upregulated, while at the same time the executive control network is downregulated. While theoretically described, the effects in the aftermath of stress have thus far not been tested empirically. Here, we compared for the first time resting-state functional connectivity in a large sample of healthy volunteers before and after a mild social stressor. Following the theoretical prediction, we focused on connectivity of the salience network (SN), the executive control network (ECN) and the default mode network (DMN)...
January 5, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28053163/atgc-database-and-atgc-cogs-an-updated-resource-for-micro-and-macro-evolutionary-studies-of-prokaryotic-genomes-and-protein-family-annotation
#12
David M Kristensen, Yuri I Wolf, Eugene V Koonin
The Alignable Tight Genomic Clusters (ATGCs) database is a collection of closely related bacterial and archaeal genomes that provides several tools to aid research into evolutionary processes in the microbial world. Each ATGC is a taxonomy-independent cluster of 2 or more completely sequenced genomes that meet the objective criteria of a high degree of local gene order (synteny) and a small number of synonymous substitutions in the protein-coding genes. As such, each ATGC is suited for analysis of microevolutionary variations within a cohesive group of organisms (e...
January 4, 2017: Nucleic Acids Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28018313/outer-membrane-vesicles-and-soluble-factors-released-by-probiotic-escherichia-coli-nissle-1917-and-commensal-ecor63-enhance-barrier-function-by-regulating-expression-of-tight-junction-proteins-in-intestinal-epithelial-cells
#13
Carina-Shianya Alvarez, Josefa Badia, Manel Bosch, Rosa Giménez, Laura Baldomà
The gastrointestinal epithelial layer forms a physical and biochemical barrier that maintains the segregation between host and intestinal microbiota. The integrity of this barrier is critical in maintaining homeostasis in the body and its dysfunction is linked to a variety of illnesses, especially inflammatory bowel disease. Gut microbes, and particularly probiotic bacteria, modulate the barrier integrity by reducing gut permeability and reinforcing tight junctions. Probiotic Escherichia coli Nissle 1917 (EcN) is a good colonizer of the human gut with proven therapeutic efficacy in the remission of ulcerative colitis in humans...
2016: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28017917/intrinsic-inter-network-brain-dysfunction-correlates-with-symptom-dimensions-in-late-life-depression
#14
Wenjun Li, Yang Wang, B Douglas Ward, Piero G Antuono, Shi-Jiang Li, Joseph S Goveas
Prior studies have demonstrated dysfunctions within the core neurocognitive networks (the executive control [ECN], default mode [DMN] and salience [SN] networks) in late-life depression (LLD). Whether inter-network dysfunctional connectivity is present in LLD, and if such disruptions are associated with core symptom dimensions is unknown. A cross-sectional resting-state functional connectivity magnetic resonance imaging investigation was conducted of LLD (n = 39) and age- and gender-equated healthy comparison (HC) (n = 29) participants...
April 2017: Journal of Psychiatric Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27999620/effects-of-escherichia-coli-nissle-1917-and-ciprofloxacin-on-small-intestinal-epithelial-cell-mrna-expression-in-the-neonatal-piglet-model-of-human-rotavirus-infection
#15
Francine C Paim, Stephanie N Langel, David D Fischer, Sukumar Kandasamy, Lulu Shao, Moyasar A Alhamo, Huang-Chi Huang, Anand Kumar, Gireesh Rajashekara, Linda J Saif, Anastasia N Vlasova
We evaluated the effects of the probiotic Escherichia coli Nissle 1917 (EcN) and the antibiotic Ciprofloxacin (Cipro) on mRNA expression of intestinal epithelial cells (IEC) in gnotobiotic (Gn) piglets colonized with a defined commensal microflora (DMF) and inoculated with human rotavirus (HRV) that infects IECs. We analyzed mRNA levels of IEC genes for enteroendocrine cells [chromogranin A (CgA)], goblet cells [mucin 2 (MUC2)], transient amplifying progenitor cell [proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA)], intestinal epithelial stem cell (SOX9) and enterocytes (villin)...
2016: Gut Pathogens
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27976093/protective-effect-of-ecn-against-oxidative-stress-is-mediated-by-nrf2-signaling-pathway-in-pc12-cells-therapeutic-strategy-for-neurodegenerative-diseases
#16
J Lee, U Kang, K H Song, E K Seo, Y S Kim
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 2016: Planta Medica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27857682/functional-connectivity-substrates-for-tdcs-response-in-minimally-conscious-state-patients
#17
Carlo Cavaliere, Marco Aiello, Carol Di Perri, Enrico Amico, Charlotte Martial, Aurore Thibaut, Steven Laureys, Andrea Soddu
Transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) is a non-invasive technique recently employed in disorders of consciousness, and determining a transitory recovery of signs of consciousness in almost half of minimally conscious state (MCS) patients. Although the rising evidences about its possible role in the treatment of many neurological and psychiatric conditions exist, no evidences exist about brain functional connectivity substrates underlying tDCS response. We retrospectively evaluated resting state functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI) of 16 sub-acute and chronic MCS patients (6 tDCS responders) who successively received a single left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) tDCS in a double-blind randomized cross-over trial...
2016: Frontiers in Cellular Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27853451/high-protective-efficacy-of-probiotics-and-rice-bran-against-human-norovirus-infection-and-diarrhea-in-gnotobiotic-pigs
#18
Shaohua Lei, Ashwin Ramesh, Erica Twitchell, Ke Wen, Tammy Bui, Mariah Weiss, Xingdong Yang, Jacob Kocher, Guohua Li, Ernawati Giri-Rachman, Nguyen Van Trang, Xi Jiang, Elizabeth P Ryan, Lijuan Yuan
Probiotics have been recognized as vaccine adjuvants and therapeutic agents to treat acute gastroenteritis in children. We previously showed that rice bran (RB) reduced human rotavirus diarrhea in gnotobiotic pigs. Human noroviruses (HuNoVs) are the major pathogens causing non-bacterial acute gastroenteritis worldwide. In this study, Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG (LGG) and Escherichia coli Nissle 1917 (EcN) were first screened for their ability to bind HuNoV P particles and virions derived from clinical samples containing HuNoV genotype GII...
2016: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27830614/we-need-nationally-agreed-patient-group-directives
#19
Robert Shelswell
For years, paramedics have been able to administer a list of more than 30 drugs to ensure that patients receive appropriate and timely treatment. But for emergency care nurses (ECNs), patient group directives vary according to the organisation in which they practise.
November 10, 2016: Emergency Nurse: the Journal of the RCN Accident and Emergency Nursing Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27798599/microcins-mediate-competition-among-enterobacteriaceae-in-the-inflamed-gut
#20
Martina Sassone-Corsi, Sean-Paul Nuccio, Henry Liu, Dulcemaria Hernandez, Christine T Vu, Amy A Takahashi, Robert A Edwards, Manuela Raffatellu
The Enterobacteriaceae are a family of Gram-negative bacteria that include commensal organisms as well as primary and opportunistic pathogens that are among the leading causes of morbidity and mortality worldwide. Although Enterobacteriaceae often comprise less than 1% of a healthy intestine's microbiota, some of these organisms can bloom in the inflamed gut; expansion of enterobacteria is a hallmark of microbial imbalance known as dysbiosis. Microcins are small secreted proteins that possess antimicrobial activity in vitro, but whose role in vivo has been unclear...
December 8, 2016: Nature
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