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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27857682/functional-connectivity-substrates-for-tdcs-response-in-minimally-conscious-state-patients
#1
Carlo Cavaliere, Marco Aiello, Carol Di Perri, Enrico Amico, Charlotte Martial, Aurore Thibaut, Steven Laureys, Andrea Soddu
Transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) is a non-invasive technique recently employed in disorders of consciousness, and determining a transitory recovery of signs of consciousness in almost half of minimally conscious state (MCS) patients. Although the rising evidences about its possible role in the treatment of many neurological and psychiatric conditions exist, no evidences exist about brain functional connectivity substrates underlying tDCS response. We retrospectively evaluated resting state functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI) of 16 sub-acute and chronic MCS patients (6 tDCS responders) who successively received a single left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) tDCS in a double-blind randomized cross-over trial...
2016: Frontiers in Cellular Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27853451/high-protective-efficacy-of-probiotics-and-rice-bran-against-human-norovirus-infection-and-diarrhea-in-gnotobiotic-pigs
#2
Shaohua Lei, Ashwin Ramesh, Erica Twitchell, Ke Wen, Tammy Bui, Mariah Weiss, Xingdong Yang, Jacob Kocher, Guohua Li, Ernawati Giri-Rachman, Nguyen Van Trang, Xi Jiang, Elizabeth P Ryan, Lijuan Yuan
Probiotics have been recognized as vaccine adjuvants and therapeutic agents to treat acute gastroenteritis in children. We previously showed that rice bran (RB) reduced human rotavirus diarrhea in gnotobiotic pigs. Human noroviruses (HuNoVs) are the major pathogens causing non-bacterial acute gastroenteritis worldwide. In this study, Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG (LGG) and Escherichia coli Nissle 1917 (EcN) were first screened for their ability to bind HuNoV P particles and virions derived from clinical samples containing HuNoV genotype GII...
2016: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27830614/we-need-nationally-agreed-patient-group-directives
#3
Robert Shelswell
For years, paramedics have been able to administer a list of more than 30 drugs to ensure that patients receive appropriate and timely treatment. But for emergency care nurses (ECNs), patient group directives vary according to the organisation in which they practise.
November 10, 2016: Emergency Nurse: the Journal of the RCN Accident and Emergency Nursing Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27798599/microcins-mediate-competition-among-enterobacteriaceae-in-the-inflamed-gut
#4
Martina Sassone-Corsi, Sean-Paul Nuccio, Henry Liu, Dulcemaria Hernandez, Christine T Vu, Amy A Takahashi, Robert A Edwards, Manuela Raffatellu
The Enterobacteriaceae are Gram-negative bacteria and include commensal organisms as well as primary and opportunistic pathogens that are among the leading causes of morbidity and mortality worldwide. Although Enterobacteriaceae often comprise less than 1% of a healthy intestine's microbiota(1), some of these organisms can bloom in the inflamed gut(2,3,4,5); indeed, expansion of enterobacteria is a hallmark of microbial imbalance known as "dysbiosis"(6). Microcins are small secreted proteins that possess antimicrobial activity in vitro(7,8), but whose role in vivo has been unclear...
October 31, 2016: Nature
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27795372/escherichia-coli-probiotic-strain-ed1a-in-pigs-has-a-limited-impact-on-the-gut-carriage-of-extended-spectrum-beta-lactamase-producing-e-coli
#5
G Mourand, F Paboeuf, M A Fleury, E Jouy, S Bougeard, E Denamur, I Kempf
Four trials were conducted to evaluate the impact of Escherichia coli probiotic strain ED1a (EcED1a) administration to pigs on the gut carriage or survival in manure of extended-spectrum beta-lactamase-producing E. coli Groups of pigs were orally inoculated with strain E. coli M63 (EcM63) carrying the blaCTX-M-1 gene (n=84) or used as control (n=26). In the first two trials, eight days later, 24 of 40 EcM63 inoculated pigs were given EcED1a orally for six days. In the third trial, 10 EcM63 inoculated pigs were given either EcED1a or probiotic E...
October 17, 2016: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27789703/prokaryotic-virus-orthologous-groups-pvogs-a-resource-for-comparative-genomics-and-protein-family-annotation
#6
Ana Laura Grazziotin, Eugene V Koonin, David M Kristensen
Viruses are the most abundant and diverse biological entities on earth, and while most of this diversity remains completely unexplored, advances in genome sequencing have provided unprecedented glimpses into the virosphere. The Prokaryotic Virus Orthologous Groups (pVOGs, formerly called Phage Orthologous Groups, POGs) resource has aided in this task over the past decade by using automated methods to keep pace with the rapid increase in genomic data. The uses of pVOGs include functional annotation of viral proteins, identification of genes and viruses in uncharacterized DNA samples, phylogenetic analysis, large-scale comparative genomics projects, and more...
October 26, 2016: Nucleic Acids Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27761948/skin-permeation-of-econazole-nitrate-formulated-in-an-enhanced-hydrophilic-multiple-emulsion
#7
Joaquim Suñer-Carbó, Antonio Boix-Montañés, Lyda Halbaut-Bellowa, Nelvis Velázquez-Carralero, Joanna Zamarbide-Ledesma, Nuria Bozal-de-Febrer, Ana Cristina Calpena-Campmany
Local delivery of imidazolic antifungals is limited by its extreme lipophilicity. Multiple emulsions (ME) are a potential vehicle to enhance the delivery of econazole nitrate (ECN), an antifungal targeted to deep-seated epidermal yeast infections. An 1% ECN hydrophilic ME was compared with a commercial formulation in terms of rheology, droplet size and in vitro antifungal activity against Candida species. Comparative in vitro drug release, human skin permeation and drug retention were investigated using vertical diffusion cells...
October 20, 2016: Mycoses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27760187/genetically-engineered-escherichia-coli-nissle-1917-synbiotics-reduce-metabolic-effects-induced-by-chronic-consumption-of-dietary-fructose
#8
Chaudhari Archana Somabhai, Ruma Raghuvanshi, G Nareshkumar
AIMS: To assess protective efficacy of genetically modified Escherichia coli Nissle 1917 (EcN) on metabolic effects induced by chronic consumption of dietary fructose. MATERIALS AND METHODS: EcN was genetically modified with fructose dehydrogenase (fdh) gene for conversion of fructose to 5-keto-D-fructose and mannitol-2-dehydrogenase (mtlK) gene for conversion to mannitol, a prebiotic. Charles foster rats weighing 150-200 g were fed with 20% fructose in drinking water for two months...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27686530/extraintestinal-pathogenic-escherichia-coli-are-associated-with-intestinal-inflammation-in-patients-with-ulcerative-colitis
#9
Hengameh C Mirsepasi-Lauridsen, Sofie Ingdam Halkjaer, Esben Munk Mortensen, Magnus C Lydolph, Inge Nordgaard-Lassen, Karen Angeliki Krogfelt, Andreas Munk Petersen
E. coli of the phylogenetic group B2 harbouring Extra intestinal Pathogenic Escherichia coli (ExPEC) genes are frequently seen as colonizers of the intestine in patients with active ulcerative colitis (UC). In this study, we describe the influence of E. coli Nissle (EcN) B2 as add-on treatment to conventional therapies in patients with active UC. For this study one hundred active UC patients were randomized to ciprofloxacin or placebo for 1 week followed by EcN or placebo for 7 weeks. Stool samples were collected at weeks 0, 1, 8, 12, where E...
September 30, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27640192/genetic-engineering-of-probiotic-escherichia-coli-nissle-1917-for-clinical-application
#10
REVIEW
Bingming Ou, Ying Yang, Wai Liang Tham, Lin Chen, Jitao Guo, Guoqiang Zhu
Escherichia coli strain Nissle 1917 (EcN) has been used as a probiotic. Genetic engineering has enhanced the utility of EcN in several vaccine and pharmaceutical preparations. We discuss in this mini review the genetics and physical properties of EcN. We also discuss the numerous genetic engineering strategies employed for EcN-based vaccine development, including recombinant plasmid transfer, genetic engineering of cryptic plasmids or the EcN chromosome, EcN bacterial ghosts and its outer membrane vesicles...
October 2016: Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27633394/ruminative-brooding-is-associated-with-salience-network-coherence-in-early-pubertal-youth
#11
Sarah J Ordaz, Joelle LeMoult, Natalie L Colich, Gautam Prasad, Madeline Pollak, Morgan Popolizio, Alexandra Price, Michael Greicius, Ian H Gotlib
Rumination, and particularly ruminative brooding, perpetuates dysphoric mood states and contributes to the emergence of depression. Studies of adults and older adolescents have characterized the association between rumination and intrinsic functional connectivity within default mode (DMN), salience (SN), and executive control (ECN) networks; we know little, however, about the brain network basis of rumination during early puberty, a sensitive period for network reorganization. 112 early-puberty boys and girls completed resting-state scans, the Ruminative Response Scale, and the Youth Self-Report questionnaire...
September 14, 2016: Social Cognitive and Affective Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27633185/default-mode-network-changes-in-multiple-sclerosis-a-link-between-depression-and-cognitive-impairment
#12
S Bonavita, R Sacco, S Esposito, A d'Ambrosio, M Della Corte, D Corbo, R Docimo, A Gallo, L Lavorgna, M Cirillo, A Bisecco, F Esposito, G Tedeschi
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: In multiple sclerosis (MS), depression is a common disorder whose pathophysiology is still debated. To gain insights into the pathophysiology of depression in MS, resting-state (RS) functional connectivity (FC) changes of the default mode network (DMN), salience network (SN) and executive control network (ECN) were assessed in a group of depressed MS (D-MS) patients and in appropriately matched control groups. METHODS: Sixteen D-MS patients, 17 non-depressed MS (ND-MS) patients, 17 non-depressed healthy controls and 15 depressed subjects (D-S), age, sex and education matched, cognitively preserved and non-fatigued, were enrolled...
September 16, 2016: European Journal of Neurology: the Official Journal of the European Federation of Neurological Societies
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27619890/escherichia-coli-strain-nissle-1917-from-bench-to-bedside-and-back-history-of-a-special-escherichia-coli-strain-with-probiotic-properties
#13
Ulrich Sonnenborn
Among the gram-negative microorganisms with probiotic properties, Escherichia coli strain Nissle 1917 (briefly EcN) is probably the most intensively investigated bacterial strain today. Since nearly 100 years, the EcN strain is used as the active pharmaceutical ingredient in a licensed medicinal product that is distributed in Germany and several other countries. Over the last few decades, novel probiotic activities have been detected, which taken together are specific of this versatile E. coli strain. This review gives a short overview on the discovery and history of the EcN strain...
October 2016: FEMS Microbiology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27600492/executive-control-network-connectivity-strength-protects-against-relapse-to-cocaine-use
#14
Meredith J McHugh, Hong Gu, Yihong Yang, Bryon Adinoff, Elliot A Stein
Cocaine addiction is characterized by notoriously high relapse rates following treatment. Recent efforts to address poor treatment outcomes have turned to potential neural markers of relapse risk. Accordingly, the present study examined resting state functional connectivity (rsFC) within and between three large-scale cortical networks: the default mode network (DMN), salience network (SN) and executive control network (ECN). All three have been implicated in relapse-related phenomena including craving, withdrawal and executive control deficits...
September 7, 2016: Addiction Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27548937/-analysis-of-single-particle-aging-and-mixing-state-at-an-agriculture-site-quzhou-in-the-north-china-plain-in-summer-using-a-single-particle-aerosol-mass-spectrometer
#15
Zi-long Huang, Li-mm Zeng, I-Iua-Bin Dong, Mei Li, Tong Zhu
To characterize the size distribution and chemical ompsitins f abiet prtices t a agicuturesit intheNorh o Chinese Plain, a single particle aerosol mass spectrometer (SPAMS) was deployed from June 30 to July 8, 2013. A total of 230,152 particles in the size range of 0.2-2.0 pm were chemically analyzed with both positive and negative ion spectra. The results revealed that aerosol could he classified into eight dominant groups, including elemental carbon (EC, 55.5%), organic carbon (OC, 10.7%), alkalis (Na-K, 17...
April 15, 2016: Huan Jing Ke Xue= Huanjing Kexue
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27487470/gating-of-reafference-in-the-external-cuneate-nucleus-during-self-generated-movements-in-wake-but-not-sleep
#16
Alexandre Tiriac, Mark S Blumberg
Nervous systems distinguish between self- and other-generated movements by monitoring discrepancies between planned and performed actions. To do so, corollary discharges are conveyed to sensory areas and gate expected reafference. Such gating is observed in neonatal rats during wake-related movements. In contrast, twitches, which are self-generated movements produced during active (or REM) sleep, differ from wake movements in that they reliably trigger robust neural activity. Accordingly, we hypothesized that the gating actions of corollary discharge are absent during twitching...
2016: ELife
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27487076/outer-membrane-vesicles-from-the-probiotic-escherichia-coli-nissle-1917-and-the-commensal-ecor12-enter-intestinal-epithelial-cells-via-clathrin-dependent-endocytosis-and-elicit-differential-effects-on-dna-damage
#17
María-Alexandra Cañas, Rosa Giménez, María-José Fábrega, Lorena Toloza, Laura Baldomà, Josefa Badia
Interactions between intestinal microbiota and the human host are complex. The gut mucosal surface is covered by a mucin layer that prevents bacteria from accessing the epithelial cells. Thus, the crosstalk between microbiota and the host mainly rely on secreted factors that can go through the mucus layer and reach the epithelium. In this context, vesicles released by commensal strains are seen as key players in signaling processes in the intestinal mucosa. Studies with Gram-negative pathogens showed that outer membrane vesicles (OMVs) are internalized into the host cell by endocytosis, but the entry mechanism for microbiota-derived vesicles is unknown...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27469596/brain-activity-and-functional-connectivity-associated-with-hypnosis
#18
Heidi Jiang, Matthew P White, Michael D Greicius, Lynn C Waelde, David Spiegel
Hypnosis has proven clinical utility, yet changes in brain activity underlying the hypnotic state have not yet been fully identified. Previous research suggests that hypnosis is associated with decreased default mode network (DMN) activity and that high hypnotizability is associated with greater functional connectivity between the executive control network (ECN) and the salience network (SN). We used functional magnetic resonance imaging to investigate activity and functional connectivity among these three networks in hypnosis...
July 28, 2016: Cerebral Cortex
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27457183/escherichia-coli-nissle-1917-protects-gnotobiotic-pigs-against-human-rotavirus-by-modulating-pdc-and-nk-cell-responses
#19
Anastasia N Vlasova, Lulu Shao, Sukumar Kandasamy, David D Fischer, Abdul Rauf, Stephanie N Langel, Kuldeep S Chattha, Anand Kumar, Huang-Chi Huang, Gireesh Rajashekara, Linda J Saif
Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG (LGG), a gram-positive lactic acid bacterium, is one of the most widely used probiotics; while fewer gram-negative probiotics including Escherichia coli Nissle 1917 (EcN) are characterized. A mechanistic understanding of their individual and interactive effects on human rotavirus (HRV) and immunity is lacking. In this study, noncolonized, EcN-, LGG-, and EcN + LGG-colonized neonatal gnotobiotic (Gn) pigs were challenged with HRV. EcN colonization is associated with a greater protection against HRV, and induces the highest frequencies of plasmacytoid dendritic cells (pDCs), significantly increased NK-cell function and decreased frequencies of apoptotic and TLR4(+) mononuclear cells (MNCs)...
October 2016: European Journal of Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27433160/synergic-interaction-of-rifaximin-and-mutaflor-escherichia-coli-nissle-1917-in-the-treatment-of-acetic-acid-induced-colitis-in-rats
#20
Artur Dembiński, Zygmunt Warzecha, Piotr Ceranowicz, Marcin Dembiński, Jakub Cieszkowski, Tomasz Gosiewski, Małgorzata Bulanda, Beata Kuśnierz-Cabala, Krystyna Gałązka, Peter Christopher Konturek
Background. Inflammatory bowel disease results from the dysregulation of immune response to environmental and microbial agents in genetically susceptible individuals. The aim of the present study was to examine the effect of rifaximin and/or Mutaflor (Escherichia coli Nissle 1917, EcN) administration on the healing of acetic acid-induced colitis. Methods. Colitis was induced in male Wistar rats by rectal enema with 3.5% acetic acid solution. Rifaximin (50 mg/kg/dose) and/or Mutaflor (10(9) CFU/dose) were given intragastrically once a day...
2016: Gastroenterology Research and Practice
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