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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29022385/effect-of-antibiotic-probiotic-and-human-rotavirus-infection-on-colonisation-dynamics-of-defined-commensal-microbiota-in-a-gnotobiotic-pig-model
#1
H-C Huang, A N Vlasova, A Kumar, S Kandasamy, D D Fischer, L Deblais, F C Paim, S N Langel, M A Alhamo, A Rauf, L Shao, L J Saif, G Rajashekara
We developed a gnotobiotic (Gn) pig model colonised with defined commensal microbiota (DMF) to provide a simplified and controlled system to study the interactions between intestinal commensals, antibiotics (ciprofloxacin, CIP), probiotics (Escherichia coli Nissle 1917, EcN) and virulent human rotavirus (VirHRV). The DMF included seven gut commensal species of porcine origin that mimic the predominant species in the infant gut. Gn piglets were divided into four groups: DMF control (non-treated), DMF+CIP (CIP treated), DMF+CIP+EcN (CIP/EcN treated), DMF+EcN (EcN treated) and inoculated orally with 10(5) cfu of each DMF strain...
October 12, 2017: Beneficial Microbes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29017089/reduced-interhemispheric-executive-control-network-coupling-in-men-during-early-cocaine-abstinence-a-pilot-study
#2
Julie M McCarthy, Chun S Zuo, Justin M Shepherd, Nadeeka Dias, Scott E Lukas, Amy C Janes
BACKGROUND: Individuals who use cocaine have fewer cognitive resources needed to maintain abstinence. This is evidenced by blunted brain function during cognitive control tasks and reduced communication between brain regions associated with cognitive function. For instance, relapse vulnerability is heightened in individuals with less communication between the right and left frontoparietal executive control network (ECN). Given that recent cocaine use enhances such communication, it is plausible that recency of cocaine use influences interhemispheric ECN communication...
October 5, 2017: Drug and Alcohol Dependence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28993741/executive-control-and-striatal-resting-state-network-interact-with-risk-factors-to-influence-treatment-outcomes-in-alcohol-use-disorder
#3
Milky Kohno, Laura E Dennis, Holly McCready, William F Hoffman
Alterations within mesocorticolimbic terminal regions commonly occur with alcohol use disorder (AUD). As pathological drug-seeking behavior may arise as a consequence of alcohol-induced neuroadaptations, it is critical to understand how such changes increase the likelihood of relapse. This report examined resting-state functional connectivity (RSFC) using both a seed-based and model-free approach in individuals in treatment for AUD and how dysregulation of network connectivity contributes to treatment outcomes...
2017: Frontiers in Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28968564/network-basis-of-suicidal-ideation-in-depressed-adolescents
#4
Sarah J Ordaz, Meghan S Goyer, Tiffany C Ho, Manpreet K Singh, Ian H Gotlib
BACKGROUND: Suicidal ideation rates rise precipitously in adolescence, contributing to risk for attempts. Although researchers are beginning to explore the brain basis of attempts in depressed adolescents, none have focused on the basis of ideation, which has implications for prevention. This study examined the association between intrinsic neural network coherence and the severity of suicidal ideation in depressed adolescents. METHODS: Forty adolescents diagnosed with Major Depressive Disorder were administered the Columbia-Suicide Severity Rating Scale and underwent resting-state fMRI...
September 22, 2017: Journal of Affective Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28959254/oral-administration-of-the-probiotic-strain-escherichia-coli-nissle-1917-reduces-susceptibility-to-neuroinflammation-and-repairs-experimental-autoimmune-encephalomyelitis-induced-intestinal-barrier-dysfunction
#5
Thomas Secher, Sahar Kassem, Mehdi Benamar, Isabelle Bernard, Michele Boury, Frederick Barreau, Eric Oswald, Abdelhadi Saoudi
Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a chronic inflammatory disease of the central nervous system (CNS) with an increasing incidence in developed countries. Recent reports suggest that modulation of the gut microbiota might be one promising therapy for MS. Here, we investigated whether the probiotic Escherichia coli strain Nissle 1917 (ECN) could modulate the outcome of experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE), a murine model of MS. We evidenced that daily oral treatment with ECN, but not with the archetypal K12 E...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28949288/disrupted-coupling-of-large-scale-networks-is-associated-with-relapse-behaviour-in-heroin-dependent-men
#6
Qiang Li, Jierong Liu, Wei Wang, Yarong Wang, Wei Li, Jiajie Chen, Jia Zhu, Xuejiao Yan, Yongbin Li, Zhe Li, Jianjun Ye, Wei Wang
BACKGROUND: It is unknown whether impaired coupling among 3 core large-scale brain networks (salience [SN], default mode [DMN] and executive control networks [ECN]) is associated with relapse behaviour in treated heroin-dependent patients. METHODS: We conducted a prospective resting-state functional MRI study comparing the functional connectivity strength among healthy controls and heroin-dependent men who had either relapsed or were in early remission. Men were considered to be either relapsed or in early remission based on urine drug screens during a 3-month follow-up period...
September 26, 2017: Journal of Psychiatry & Neuroscience: JPN
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28904101/methodological-considerations-for-a-chronic-neural-interface-with-the-cuneate-nucleus-of-macaques
#7
Aneesha K Suresh, Jeremy Winberry, Christopher Versteeg, Raeed H Chowdhury, Tucker Tomlinson, Joshua M Rosenow, Lee E Miller, Sliman J Bensmaia
While the response properties of neurons in the somatosensory nerves and anterior parietal cortex have been extensively studied, little is known about the encoding of tactile and proprioceptive information in the cuneate nucleus (CN) or external cuneate nucleus (ECN), the first recipients of upper limb somatosensory afferent signals. The major challenge in characterizing neural coding in CN/ECN has been to record from these tiny, difficult to access brainstem structures. Most previous investigations of CN response properties have been carried out in decerebrate or anesthetized animals, thereby eliminating the well-documented top-down signals from cortex, which likely exert a strong influence on CN responses...
September 13, 2017: Journal of Neurophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28878749/in-vitro-evaluation-of-the-impact-of-the-probiotic-e-coli-nissle-1917-on-campylobacter-jejuni-s-invasion-and-intracellular-survival-in-human-colonic-cells
#8
Yosra A Helmy, Issmat I Kassem, Anand Kumar, Gireesh Rajashekara
Campylobacter jejuni is a leading cause of bacterial food poisoning in humans. Due to the rise in antibiotic-resistant Campylobacter, there exists a need to develop antibiotic-independent interventions to control infections in humans. Here, we evaluated the impact of Escherichia coli Nissle 1917 (EcN), a probiotic strain, on C. jejuni's invasion and intracellular survival in polarized human colonic cells (HT-29). To further understand how EcN mediates its impact, the expression of 84 genes associated with tight junctions and cell adhesion was profiled in HT-29 cells after treatment with EcN and challenge with C...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28856092/comparison-of-18-f-flutemetamol-and-11-c-pittsburgh-compound-b-in-cognitively-normal-young-cognitively-normal-elderly-and-alzheimer-s-disease-dementia-individuals
#9
Val J Lowe, Emily Lundt, David Knopman, Matthew L Senjem, Jeffrey L Gunter, Christopher G Schwarz, Bradley J Kemp, Clifford R Jack, Ronald C Petersen
BACKGROUND: Understanding the variation in uptake between different amyloid PET tracers is important to appropriately interpret data using different amyloid tracers. Therefore, we compared the uptake differences in [(18)F]Flutemetamol (FMT) and [(11)C]PiB (PiB) PET in the same people. METHODS: Structural MRI, FMT PET and PiB PET were each performed in 30 young cognitively normal (yCN), 31 elderly cognitively normal (eCN) and 21 Alzheimer's disease dementia (AD) participants...
2017: NeuroImage: Clinical
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28772600/electrodeposited-organic-layers-formed-from-aryl-diazonium-salts-for-inhibition-of-copper-corrosion
#10
Ana Chira, Bogdan Bucur, Gabriel-Lucian Radu
Copper substrates deposed on a gold screen-printed electrode were covered with different aryl diazonium salts by electrodeposition at 0.25 mA for 30 or 300 s. Seven compounds were investigated: 4-aminophenylacetic acid, 4-aminophenethyl alcohol, 4-fluoroaniline, 4-(heptadecafluorooctyl)aniline, 4-aminoantipyrine, 4-(4-aminophenyl)butyric acid and 3,4,5-trimethoxyaniline. Quantitative monitoring of the electrodeposition process was carried out by electrogravimetry using quartz crystal microbalance (QCM). The electrodeposited mass varies between 26 ng/cm² for 4-fluoroaniline formed during 30 s to 442 ng/cm² for 4-phenylbutyric acid formed during 300 s...
February 28, 2017: Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28756109/altered-coupling-of-default-mode-executive-control-and-salience-networks-in-internet-gaming-disorder
#11
J T Zhang, S-S Ma, C-G Yan, S Zhang, L Liu, L-J Wang, B Liu, Y-W Yao, Y-H Yang, X-Y Fang
BACKGROUND: Recently, a triple-network model suggested the abnormal interactions between the executive-control network (ECN), default-mode network (DMN) and salience network (SN) are important characteristics of addiction, in which the SN plays a critical role in allocating attentional resources toward the ECN and DMN. Although increasing studies have reported dysfunctions in these brain networks in Internet gaming disorder (IGD), interactions between these networks, particularly in the context of the triple-network model, have not been investigated in IGD...
July 12, 2017: European Psychiatry: the Journal of the Association of European Psychiatrists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28744268/intestinal-anti-inflammatory-effects-of-outer-membrane-vesicles-from-escherichia-coli-nissle-1917-in-dss-experimental-colitis-in-mice
#12
María-José Fábrega, Alba Rodríguez-Nogales, José Garrido-Mesa, Francesca Algieri, Josefa Badía, Rosa Giménez, Julio Gálvez, Laura Baldomà
Escherichia coli Nissle 1917 (EcN) is a probiotic strain with proven efficacy in inducing and maintaining remission of ulcerative colitis. However, the microbial factors that mediate these beneficial effects are not fully known. Gram-negative bacteria release outer membrane vesicles (OMVs) as a direct pathway for delivering selected bacterial proteins and active compounds to the host. In fact, vesicles released by gut microbiota are emerging as key players in signaling processes in the intestinal mucosa. In the present study, the dextran sodium sulfate (DSS)-induced colitis mouse model was used to investigate the potential of EcN OMVs to ameliorate mucosal injury and inflammation in the gut...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28739274/extended-effective-carbon-number-concept-in-the-quantitative-analysis-of-multi-ethers-using-predicted-response-factors
#13
Gangli Zhu, Feng Zhao, Dan Wang, Chungu Xia
Flame ionized detector has been such widely applied in chemical analysis since its great invention and the discovery of chem-ionization. Thanks to the excellent contribution of Sternberg and the successors in this field, effective carbon number concept (ECN) can make the analysis calibration greatly simplified especially when authentic standard substances are unavailable or in the complicated case such as petrochemical industry and biomass processing. To supplement the ECN rule in multi-ethers, this work determined relative response factors of poly(oxymethylene) dimethyl ethers experimentally, and developed a probabilistic P1-P2 effective carbon number model (P-ECN) for multi-ethers compounds...
July 13, 2017: Journal of Chromatography. A
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28715777/regular-cannabis-and-alcohol-use-is-associated-with-resting-state-time-course-power-spectra-in-incarcerated-adolescents
#14
Sandra Thijssen, Barnaly Rashid, Shruti Gopal, Prashanth Nyalakanti, Vince D Calhoun, Kent A Kiehl
Cannabis and alcohol are believed to have widespread effects on the brain. Although adolescents are at increased risk for substance use, the adolescent brain may also be particularly vulnerable to the effects of drug exposure due to its rapid maturation. Here, we examined the association between cannabis and alcohol use duration and resting-state functional connectivity in a large sample of male juvenile delinquents. The present sample was drawn from the Southwest Advanced Neuroimaging Cohort, Youth sample, and from a youth detention facility in Wisconsin...
September 1, 2017: Drug and Alcohol Dependence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28714898/frame-transmission-efficiency-based-cross-layer-congestion-notification-scheme-in-wireless-ad-hoc-networks
#15
Huaguang He, Taoshen Li, Luting Feng, Jin Ye
Different from the traditional wired network, the fundamental cause of transmission congestion in wireless ad hoc networks is medium contention. How to utilize the congestion state from the MAC (Media Access Control) layer to adjust the transmission rate is core work for transport protocol design. However, recent works have shown that the existing cross-layer congestion detection solutions are too complex to be deployed or not able to characterize the congestion accurately. We first propose a new congestion metric called frame transmission efficiency (i...
July 15, 2017: Sensors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28650774/monte-carlo-electron-track-structure-calculations-in-liquid-water-using-a-new-model-dielectric-response-function
#16
Dimitris Emfietzoglou, George Papamichael, Hooshang Nikjoo
Monte Carlo track structure codes provide valuable information for understanding radiation effects down to the DNA level, where experimental measurements are most difficult or unavailable. It is well recognized that the performance of such codes, especially at low energies and/or subcellular level, critically depends on the reliability of the interaction cross sections that are used as input in the simulation. For biological media such as liquid water, one of the most challenging issues is the role of condensed-phase effects...
September 2017: Radiation Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28521281/functional-connectivity-in-incarcerated-male-adolescents-with-psychopathic-traits
#17
Sandra Thijssen, Kent A Kiehl
The present study examined the association between psychopathic traits and functional connectivity in 177 incarcerated male adolescents. We hypothesized that psychopathic symptoms would be associated with functional connectivity within networks encompassing limbic and paralimbic regions, such as the default mode (DMN), salience networks (SN), and executive control network (ECN). The present sample was drawn from the Southwest Advanced Neuroimaging Cohort, Youth sample, and from research at a youth detention facility in Wisconsin...
July 30, 2017: Psychiatry Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28466439/high-sensitivity-neuroimaging-biomarkers-for-the-identification-of-amnestic-mild-cognitive-impairment-based-on-resting-state-fmri-and-a-triple-network-model
#18
Enyan Yu, Zhengluan Liao, Yunfei Tan, Yaju Qiu, Junpeng Zhu, Zhang Han, Jue Wang, Xinwei Wang, Hong Wang, Yan Chen, Qi Zhang, Yumei Li, Dewang Mao, Zhongxiang Ding
Many functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) studies have indicated that Granger causality analysis (GCA) is a suitable method for revealing causal effects between brain regions. The purpose of the present study was to identify neuroimaging biomarkers with a high sensitivity to amnestic mild cognitive impairment (aMCI). The resting-state fMRI data of 30 patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD), 14 patients with aMCI, and 18 healthy controls (HC) were evaluated using GCA. This study focused on the "triple networks" concept, a recently proposed higher-order functioning-related brain network model that includes the default-mode network (DMN), salience network (SN), and executive control network (ECN)...
May 3, 2017: Brain Imaging and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28443736/brain-resting-state-functional-connectivity-is-preserved-under-sevoflurane-anesthesia-in-patients-with-pervasive-developmental-disorders-a-pilot-study
#19
Lakshmikumar Venkatraghavan, Suparna Bharadwaj, Vincent Wourms, Audrey Tan, Michael T Jurkiewicz, David J Mikulis, Adrian P Crawley
Functional connectivity studies play a huge role in understanding the relationship between the network connections and the behavioral phenotype of patients with pervasive developmental disorders (PDD). Some patients with PDD may not be able to tolerate the imaging procedure while they are awake, and, hence, they often need general anesthesia. General anesthesia is a confounding factor in functional imaging studies due to its effect on the functional connectivity. The objective of this study is to look at the resting-state functional connectivity (RS-FC) under sevoflurane anesthesia in patients with PDDs...
May 2017: Brain Connectivity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28402480/cognitive-benefit-and-cost-of-acute-stress-is-differentially-modulated-by-individual-brain-state
#20
Nils Kohn, Erno J Hermans, Guillén Fernández
Acute stress is associated with beneficial as well as detrimental effects on cognition in different individuals. However, it is not yet known how stress can have such opposing effects. Stroop-like tasks typically show this dissociation: stress diminishes speed, but improves accuracy. We investigated accuracy and speed during a stroop-like task of 120 healthy male subjects after an experimental stress induction or control condition in a randomized, counter-balanced cross-over design; we assessed brain-behavior associations and determined the influence of individual brain connectivity patterns on these associations, which may moderate the effect and help identify stress resilience factors...
July 1, 2017: Social Cognitive and Affective Neuroscience
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