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Joaquim Suñer-Carbó, Antonio Boix-Montañés, Lyda Halbaut-Bellowa, Nelvis Velázquez-Carralero, Joanna Zamarbide-Ledesma, Nuria Bozal-de-Febrer, Ana Cristina Calpena-Campmany
Local delivery of imidazolic antifungals is limited by its extreme lipophilicity. Multiple emulsions (ME) are a potential vehicle to enhance the delivery of econazole nitrate (ECN), an antifungal targeted to deep-seated epidermal yeast infections. An 1% ECN hydrophilic ME was compared with a commercial formulation in terms of rheology, droplet size and in vitro antifungal activity against Candida species. Comparative in vitro drug release, human skin permeation and drug retention were investigated using vertical diffusion cells...
October 20, 2016: Mycoses
Chaudhari Archana Somabhai, Ruma Raghuvanshi, G Nareshkumar
AIMS: To assess protective efficacy of genetically modified Escherichia coli Nissle 1917 (EcN) on metabolic effects induced by chronic consumption of dietary fructose. MATERIALS AND METHODS: EcN was genetically modified with fructose dehydrogenase (fdh) gene for conversion of fructose to 5-keto-D-fructose and mannitol-2-dehydrogenase (mtlK) gene for conversion to mannitol, a prebiotic. Charles foster rats weighing 150-200 g were fed with 20% fructose in drinking water for two months...
2016: PloS One
Hengameh C Mirsepasi-Lauridsen, Sofie Ingdam Halkjaer, Esben Munk Mortensen, Magnus C Lydolph, Inge Nordgaard-Lassen, Karen Angeliki Krogfelt, Andreas Munk Petersen
E. coli of the phylogenetic group B2 harbouring Extra intestinal Pathogenic Escherichia coli (ExPEC) genes are frequently seen as colonizers of the intestine in patients with active ulcerative colitis (UC). In this study, we describe the influence of E. coli Nissle (EcN) B2 as add-on treatment to conventional therapies in patients with active UC. For this study one hundred active UC patients were randomized to ciprofloxacin or placebo for 1 week followed by EcN or placebo for 7 weeks. Stool samples were collected at weeks 0, 1, 8, 12, where E...
September 30, 2016: Scientific Reports
Bingming Ou, Ying Yang, Wai Liang Tham, Lin Chen, Jitao Guo, Guoqiang Zhu
Escherichia coli strain Nissle 1917 (EcN) has been used as a probiotic. Genetic engineering has enhanced the utility of EcN in several vaccine and pharmaceutical preparations. We discuss in this mini review the genetics and physical properties of EcN. We also discuss the numerous genetic engineering strategies employed for EcN-based vaccine development, including recombinant plasmid transfer, genetic engineering of cryptic plasmids or the EcN chromosome, EcN bacterial ghosts and its outer membrane vesicles...
October 2016: Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology
Sarah J Ordaz, Joelle LeMoult, Natalie L Colich, Gautam Prasad, Madeline Pollak, Morgan Popolizio, Alexandra Price, Michael Greicius, Ian H Gotlib
Rumination, and particularly ruminative brooding, perpetuates dysphoric mood states and contributes to the emergence of depression. Studies of adults and older adolescents have characterized the association between rumination and intrinsic functional connectivity within default mode (DMN), salience (SN), and executive control (ECN) networks; we know little, however, about the brain network basis of rumination during early puberty, a sensitive period for network reorganization. 112 early-puberty boys and girls completed resting-state scans, the Ruminative Response Scale, and the Youth Self-Report questionnaire...
September 14, 2016: Social Cognitive and Affective Neuroscience
S Bonavita, R Sacco, S Esposito, A d'Ambrosio, M Della Corte, D Corbo, R Docimo, A Gallo, L Lavorgna, M Cirillo, A Bisecco, F Esposito, G Tedeschi
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: In multiple sclerosis (MS), depression is a common disorder whose pathophysiology is still debated. To gain insights into the pathophysiology of depression in MS, resting-state (RS) functional connectivity (FC) changes of the default mode network (DMN), salience network (SN) and executive control network (ECN) were assessed in a group of depressed MS (D-MS) patients and in appropriately matched control groups. METHODS: Sixteen D-MS patients, 17 non-depressed MS (ND-MS) patients, 17 non-depressed healthy controls and 15 depressed subjects (D-S), age, sex and education matched, cognitively preserved and non-fatigued, were enrolled...
September 16, 2016: European Journal of Neurology: the Official Journal of the European Federation of Neurological Societies
Ulrich Sonnenborn
Among the gram-negative microorganisms with probiotic properties, Escherichia coli strain Nissle 1917 (briefly EcN) is probably the most intensively investigated bacterial strain today. Since nearly 100 years, the EcN strain is used as the active pharmaceutical ingredient in a licensed medicinal product that is distributed in Germany and several other countries. Over the last few decades, novel probiotic activities have been detected, which taken together are specific of this versatile E. coli strain. This review gives a short overview on the discovery and history of the EcN strain...
October 2016: FEMS Microbiology Letters
Meredith J McHugh, Hong Gu, Yihong Yang, Bryon Adinoff, Elliot A Stein
Cocaine addiction is characterized by notoriously high relapse rates following treatment. Recent efforts to address poor treatment outcomes have turned to potential neural markers of relapse risk. Accordingly, the present study examined resting state functional connectivity (rsFC) within and between three large-scale cortical networks: the default mode network (DMN), salience network (SN) and executive control network (ECN). All three have been implicated in relapse-related phenomena including craving, withdrawal and executive control deficits...
September 7, 2016: Addiction Biology
Zi-long Huang, Li-mm Zeng, I-Iua-Bin Dong, Mei Li, Tong Zhu
To characterize the size distribution and chemical ompsitins f abiet prtices t a agicuturesit intheNorh o Chinese Plain, a single particle aerosol mass spectrometer (SPAMS) was deployed from June 30 to July 8, 2013. A total of 230,152 particles in the size range of 0.2-2.0 pm were chemically analyzed with both positive and negative ion spectra. The results revealed that aerosol could he classified into eight dominant groups, including elemental carbon (EC, 55.5%), organic carbon (OC, 10.7%), alkalis (Na-K, 17...
April 15, 2016: Huan Jing Ke Xue= Huanjing Kexue
Alexandre Tiriac, Mark S Blumberg
Nervous systems distinguish between self- and other-generated movements by monitoring discrepancies between planned and performed actions. To do so, corollary discharges are conveyed to sensory areas and gate expected reafference. Such gating is observed in neonatal rats during wake-related movements. In contrast, twitches, which are self-generated movements produced during active (or REM) sleep, differ from wake movements in that they reliably trigger robust neural activity. Accordingly, we hypothesized that the gating actions of corollary discharge are absent during twitching...
2016: ELife
María-Alexandra Cañas, Rosa Giménez, María-José Fábrega, Lorena Toloza, Laura Baldomà, Josefa Badia
Interactions between intestinal microbiota and the human host are complex. The gut mucosal surface is covered by a mucin layer that prevents bacteria from accessing the epithelial cells. Thus, the crosstalk between microbiota and the host mainly rely on secreted factors that can go through the mucus layer and reach the epithelium. In this context, vesicles released by commensal strains are seen as key players in signaling processes in the intestinal mucosa. Studies with Gram-negative pathogens showed that outer membrane vesicles (OMVs) are internalized into the host cell by endocytosis, but the entry mechanism for microbiota-derived vesicles is unknown...
2016: PloS One
Heidi Jiang, Matthew P White, Michael D Greicius, Lynn C Waelde, David Spiegel
Hypnosis has proven clinical utility, yet changes in brain activity underlying the hypnotic state have not yet been fully identified. Previous research suggests that hypnosis is associated with decreased default mode network (DMN) activity and that high hypnotizability is associated with greater functional connectivity between the executive control network (ECN) and the salience network (SN). We used functional magnetic resonance imaging to investigate activity and functional connectivity among these three networks in hypnosis...
July 28, 2016: Cerebral Cortex
Anastasia N Vlasova, Lulu Shao, Sukumar Kandasamy, David D Fischer, Abdul Rauf, Stephanie N Langel, Kuldeep S Chattha, Anand Kumar, Huang-Chi Huang, Gireesh Rajashekara, Linda J Saif
Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG (LGG), a gram-positive lactic acid bacterium, is one of the most widely used probiotics; while fewer gram-negative probiotics including Escherichia coli Nissle 1917 (EcN) are characterized. A mechanistic understanding of their individual and interactive effects on human rotavirus (HRV) and immunity is lacking. In this study, noncolonized, EcN-, LGG-, and EcN + LGG-colonized neonatal gnotobiotic (Gn) pigs were challenged with HRV. EcN colonization is associated with a greater protection against HRV, and induces the highest frequencies of plasmacytoid dendritic cells (pDCs), significantly increased NK-cell function and decreased frequencies of apoptotic and TLR4(+) mononuclear cells (MNCs)...
October 2016: European Journal of Immunology
Artur Dembiński, Zygmunt Warzecha, Piotr Ceranowicz, Marcin Dembiński, Jakub Cieszkowski, Tomasz Gosiewski, Małgorzata Bulanda, Beata Kuśnierz-Cabala, Krystyna Gałązka, Peter Christopher Konturek
Background. Inflammatory bowel disease results from the dysregulation of immune response to environmental and microbial agents in genetically susceptible individuals. The aim of the present study was to examine the effect of rifaximin and/or Mutaflor (Escherichia coli Nissle 1917, EcN) administration on the healing of acetic acid-induced colitis. Methods. Colitis was induced in male Wistar rats by rectal enema with 3.5% acetic acid solution. Rifaximin (50 mg/kg/dose) and/or Mutaflor (10(9) CFU/dose) were given intragastrically once a day...
2016: Gastroenterology Research and Practice
Chase R Figley, Judith S A Asem, Erica L Levenbaum, Susan M Courtney
It is well established that obesity decreases overall life expectancy and increases the risk of several adverse health conditions. Mounting evidence indicates that body fat is likely also associated with structural and functional brain changes, reduced cognitive function, and greater impulsivity. However, previously reported differences in brain structure and function have been variable across studies and difficult to reconcile due to sample population and methodological differences. To clarify these issues, we correlated two independent measures of body composition-i...
2016: Frontiers in Neuroscience
Oya Köseoğlu, Didar Sevim, Pınar Kadiroğlu
The aim of this study was to discriminate the extra virgin olive oils (EVOO) based on quality characteristics, chemical composition and antioxidant activity according to ripening stages of olives. Two different olive varieties (Memecik and Gemlik) were obtained at different stages of ripening based on skin color (green, purple and black). Quality properties of olive oils; free fatty acidity, peroxide value, K232 and K270, purity properties; fatty acid and triacylglycerol (TAG) composition and antioxidant compounds like total phenol, carotenoid and chlorophyll content and antioxidant activity (oxidative stability, ABTS radical scavenging activity) analyses were performed...
December 1, 2016: Food Chemistry
Laura Alonso Sobrado, Laura Freije-Carrelo, Mariella Moldovan, Jorge Ruiz Encinar, J Ignacio García Alonso
GC-FID has been effectively used as a universal quantification technique for volatile organic compounds for a long time. In most cases, the use of the ECN allows for quantification by GC-FID without external calibration using only the response of a single internal standard. In this paper we compare the performance characteristics of GC-FID with those of post-column (13)C Isotope Dilution GC-Combustion-MS for the absolute quantification of organic compounds without the need for individual standards. For this comparison we have selected the quantification of FAMEs in biodiesel...
July 29, 2016: Journal of Chromatography. A
Franco Scaldaferri, Viviana Gerardi, Francesca Mangiola, Loris Riccardo Lopetuso, Marco Pizzoferrato, Valentina Petito, Alfredo Papa, Jovana Stojanovic, Andrea Poscia, Giovanni Cammarota, Antonio Gasbarrini
Ulcerative colitis (UC) is a chronic inflammatory disease, whose etiology is still unclear. Its pathogenesis involves an interaction between genetic factors, immune response and the "forgotten organ", Gut Microbiota. Several studies have been conducted to assess the role of antibiotics and probiotics as additional or alternative therapies for Ulcerative Colitis. Escherichia coli Nissle (EcN) is a nonpathogenic Gram-negative strain isolated in 1917 by Alfred Nissle and it is the active component of microbial drug Mutaflor(®) (Ardeypharm GmbH, Herdecke, Germany and EcN, Cadigroup, In Italy) used in many gastrointestinal disorder including diarrhea, uncomplicated diverticular disease and UC...
June 28, 2016: World Journal of Gastroenterology: WJG
Ying-Wei Qiu, Huan-Huan Su, Xiao-Fei Lv, Xiao-Fen Ma, Gui-Hua Jiang, Jun-Zhang Tian
PURPOSE: To identify codeine-containing cough syrups (CCS)-related modulations of intrinsic connectivity network (ICN) and to investigate whether these changes of ICN can be related to duration of CCS use and to impulsivity behavior in CCS-dependent individuals. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) data in 41 CCS-dependent individuals and 34 healthy controls (HC) were scanned at 1.5T and analyzed using independent component analysis (ICA), in combination with a "dual-regression" technique to identify the group differences of three important resting-state networks, the default mode network (DMN), the executive control network (ECN), and the salience network (SN) between the CCS-dependent individuals and HC...
June 24, 2016: Journal of Magnetic Resonance Imaging: JMRI
Julio César López-Valdés, Rocío Escarcega-Servín
UNLABELLED: Nowadays appendicitis is the leading cause of acute surgical abdomen. It occurs mainly between the first and third decade of life and is very rare in the neonatal period. The pathophysiology and clinical manifestations differ from the typical signs and symptoms, making it difficult to diagnose, which is in mostly cases at the time of surgery, and 74% of them appear with perforation and peritonitis. During the first day there were no complications; however, antibiotic therapy was initiated due to the risk of sepsis...
May 2016: Gaceta Médica de México
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