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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28930614/inter-species-functional-interactome-of-nuclear-steroid-receptors-r1
#1
Styliani A Geronikolou, Athanasia Pavlopoulou, Christina Kanaka-Gantenbein, George Chrousos
Steroids exert their actions by binding to the glucocorticoid, mineralocorticoid, androgen, estrogen and progesterone classes of receptors. Despite an exponential increase in our knowledge of steroid receptors, their interactions with other molecules, subcellular location and functions still need further elucidation. To unravel the mechanism(s) of action of the steroid hormones, as well as the function of their cognate nuclear receptors, an interaction network was created (henceforth referred to as "R1 Interactome")- illustrating that robust interactions have been preserved in rodents, frog, zebra fish and drosophila...
January 1, 2018: Frontiers in Bioscience (Elite Edition)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28928988/the-effect-of-glucocorticoid-and-glucocorticoid-receptor-interactions-on-brain-spinal-cord-and-glial-cell-plasticity
#2
REVIEW
Kathryn M Madalena, Jessica K Lerch
Stress, injury, and disease trigger glucocorticoid (GC) elevation. Elevated GCs bind to the ubiquitously expressed glucocorticoid receptor (GR). While GRs are in every cell in the nervous system, the expression level varies, suggesting that diverse cell types react differently to GR activation. Stress/GCs induce structural plasticity in neurons, Schwann cells, microglia, oligodendrocytes, and astrocytes as well as affect neurotransmission by changing the release and reuptake of glutamate. While general nervous system plasticity is essential for adaptation and learning and memory, stress-induced plasticity is often maladaptive and contributes to neuropsychiatric disorders and neuropathic pain...
2017: Neural Plasticity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28928654/adenosine-receptor-stimulation-improves-glucocorticoid-induced-osteoporosis-in-a-rat-model
#3
Gabriele Pizzino, Natasha Irrera, Federica Galfo, Giacomo Oteri, Marco Atteritano, Giovanni Pallio, Federica Mannino, Angelica D'Amore, Enrica Pellegrino, Federica Aliquò, Giuseppe P Anastasi, Giuseppina Cutroneo, Francesco Squadrito, Domenica Altavilla, Alessandra Bitto
Glucocorticoid-induced osteoporosis (GIO) is a secondary cause of bone loss. Bisphosphonates approved for GIO, might induce jaw osteonecrosis; thus additional therapeutics are required. Adenosine receptor agonists are positive regulators of bone remodeling, thus the efficacy of adenosine receptor stimulation for treating GIO was tested. In a preventive study GIO was induced in Sprague-Dawley rats by methylprednisolone (MP) for 60 days. Animals were randomly assigned to receive polydeoxyribonucleotide (PDRN), an adenosine A2 receptor agonist, or PDRN and DMPX (3,7-dimethyl-1-propargylxanthine, an A2 antagonist), or vehicle (0...
2017: Frontiers in Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28928407/correlation-between-polymorphisms-of-the-nr3c1-gene-and-glucocorticoid-effectiveness-in-patients-with-pemphigus-vulgaris
#4
Si-Yue Fang, Chun-Lei Li, Xiao-Song Liu, Feng Chen, Hong Hua
Glucocorticoid (GC) resistance is the major obscule in the treatment of pemphigus vulgaris (PV) for both patients and clinicans with unclear mechanism. A hypotheis for this resistance is the mutations or polymorphisms present in the nuclear receptor subfamily 3, group C, member 1 (NR3C1) gene that encodes receptors for steroid hormones. This study aimed to investigate the association between NR3C1 gene polymorphisms and GC effectiveness in PV patients. 94 PV patients (64 GC-sensitive and 30 GC-resistant) and 100 healthy volunteers were enrolled in this case-control study...
September 19, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28928247/endogenous-glucocorticoid-signaling-in-chondrocytes-attenuates-joint-inflammation-and-damage
#5
Jinwen Tu, Shihani Stoner, Phillip D Fromm, Tingyu Wang, Di Chen, Jan Tuckermann, Mark S Cooper, Markus J Seibel, Hong Zhou
Previous studies demonstrated that endogenous glucocorticoid signaling in osteoblasts promotes inflammation in murine immune arthritis. The current study determined whether disruption of endogenous glucocorticoid signaling in chondrocytes also modulates the course and severity of arthritis. Tamoxifen-inducible chondrocyte-targeted glucocorticoid receptor knockout (chGRKO) mice were generated by breeding GR(flox/flox) mice with tamoxifen-inducible Collagen 2a1 Cre mice (Col2a1-CreER(T2)). Antigen-induced arthritis (AIA) and K/BxN serum transfer-induced arthritis (STIA) were induced in both chGRKO mice and their Cre-negative GR(flox/flox) littermates [wild type (WT)]...
September 19, 2017: FASEB Journal: Official Publication of the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28928236/histone-deacetylase-inhibition-ameliorates-hypertension-and-hyperglycemia-in-a-model-of-cushing-s-syndrome
#6
Hae-Ahm Lee, Seol-Hee Kang, Mina Kim, Eunjo Lee, Hyun-Min Cho, Eun-Kyung Moon, Inkyeom Kim
Cushing's syndrome (CS) caused by hypercortisolism is occasionally accompanied by metabolic disorders such as hypertension, diabetes mellitus (DM), dyslipidemia and central obesity. Thus, morbidity and mortality, observed in cardiovascular disease, are elevated in patients with CS. We hypothesized that HDAC inhibition (HDACi) decreased transcriptional activity of glucocorticoid receptor (GR), which ameliorates hypertension and hyperglycemia in patients with CS. To establish an animal model of hypercortisolism, Sprague-Dawley rats were infused with adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH, 40 ng/day) or dexamethasone (Dex, 10 μg/day) via osmotic minipumps for 4 weeks...
September 19, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Endocrinology and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28927900/expression-of-glucocorticoid-receptor-is-associated-with-aggressive-primary-endometrial-cancer-and-increases-from-primary-to-metastatic-lesions
#7
Ingvild L Tangen, Jennifer Taylor Veneris, Mari K Halle, Henrica M Werner, Jone Trovik, Lars A Akslen, Helga B Salvesen, Suzanne D Conzen, Gini F Fleming, Camilla Krakstad
BACKGROUND: Glucocorticoid receptor (GR) has emerged as an important steroid nuclear receptor in hormone dependent cancers, however few data are available regarding a potential role of GR in endometrial cancer. The aim of this study was to investigate expression of GR in primary and metastatic endometrial cancer lesions, and to assess the relationship between GR expression and clinical and histopathological variables and survival. METHODS: Expression of GR was investigated by IHC in 724 primary tumors and 289 metastatic lesions (from 135 patients), and correlations with clinical and histopathological data and survival were explored...
September 16, 2017: Gynecologic Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28926522/bos-is-associated-with-increased-cytotoxic-proinflammatory-cd8-t-nkt-like-and-nk-cells-in-the-small-airways
#8
Greg Hodge, Sandra Hodge, Aeneas Yeo, Phan Nguyen, Emily Hopkins, Chien-Li Holmes-Liew, Paul N Reynolds, Mark Holmes
BACKGROUND: Immunosuppression therapy after lung transplantation fails to prevent bronchiolitis obliterans syndrome (BOS) in many patients, primarily a disease of the small airways. We have reported that BOS is associated with a lack of suppression of cytotoxic mediators, and proinflammatory cytokines, in peripheral blood T, NKT-like (particularly CD8+) and NK cells. We also showed a loss of glucocorticoid receptor (GCR) in proinflammatory lymphocytes after transplant. It is unknown whether these proinflammatory lymphocytes target the small and/or large airways in BOS...
October 2017: Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28925883/novel-therapeutics-in-glaucoma-management
#9
Claudio Bucolo, Chiara Bianca Maria Platania, Filippo Drago, Michele Reibaldi, Vincenza Bonfiglio, Teresio Avitabile, Maurizio Uva
Glaucoma is a progressive optic neuropathy characterized by retinal ganglion cell death and alterations of visual field. Elevated intraocular pressure (IOP) is considered the main risk factor of glaucoma, even though other factors cannot be ruled out, such as epigenetic mechanisms. An overview of the ultimate promising experimental drugs to manage glaucoma has been provided. In particular, we have focused on purinergic ligands, KATP channel activators, gases (nitric oxide, carbon monoxide and hydrogen sulfide), non-glucocorticoid steroidal compounds, neurotrophic factors, PI3K/Akt activators, citicoline, histone deacetylase inhibitors, cannabinoids, dopamine and serotonin receptors ligands, small interference RNA, and Rho kinase inhibitors...
September 15, 2017: Current Neuropharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28923633/changes-in-dna-methylation-of-glucocorticoid-induced-tumor-necrosis-factor-receptor-and-its-ligand-in-liver-transplantation
#10
W Wang, G Ji, Y Chen, J Wang, J Sun, G Tang, Z Xie, H Zhao, G Liu, S Tan, G Chen, H Xue
Liver transplantation (LT) is the criterion standard of care in patients with end-stage liver disease and those with tumors of hepatic origin in the setting of liver dysfunction. Chronic immune rejection of the liver transplant can lead to bad prognosis for patients. Glucocorticoid-induced tumor necrosis factor receptor (GITR) play a key role in dominant immunologic self-tolerance maintained by CD25+/CD4+ regulatory T cells. Here, we investigated the DNA methylation variations of GITR and GITR ligand (GITRL) using pyrosequencing by analyzing blood DNA samples of patients after LT...
October 2017: Transplantation Proceedings
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28923543/selective-glucocorticoid-receptor-modulation-inhibits-cytokine-responses-in-a-canine-model-of-mild-endotoxemia
#11
J Bartko, U Derhaschnig, T Neels, G H Nabozny, C Harcken, J Leuschner, F De Vries, B Jilma
Selective glucocorticoid receptor modulators (GRMs) promise to reduce adverse events of glucocorticoids while maintaining anti-inflammatory potency. The present study tested the anti-inflammatory activity of two novel non-steroidal GRMs (GRM1: BI 607812 BS, GRM2: BI 653048 BS*H3PO4) in comparison to prednisolone in a canine model of low dose endotoxemia. This study compared the anti-inflammatory and pharmacokinetic profile of escalating daily oral doses of GRM1 (1, 2.5, 5 and 10mg/kg) and GRM2 (0.1, 0.25 and 1mg/kg) with prednisolone (0...
September 15, 2017: Pharmacological Research: the Official Journal of the Italian Pharmacological Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28923399/up-regulation-of-rho-associated-kinase-1-2-by-glucocorticoids-promotes-migration-invasion-and-metastasis-of-melanoma
#12
Gao-Xiang Huang, Yan Wang, Jie Su, Peng Zhou, Bo Li, Li-Juan Yin, Jian Lu
Although glucocorticoids (GCs) regulate proliferation, differentiation and apoptosis of tumor cells, their influence on metastasis of tumor cells is poorly understood. Melanoma is a type of skin cancers with high metastasis. We investigated the effect of GCs on metastasis of melanoma cells and its mechanism. We found that GCs significantly promoted the adhesion, migration, invasion of melanoma cells in vitro and lung metastasis in experimental melanoma metastasis mice. Dexamethasone (Dex), a synthetic GC, did not change the RhoA, RhoB and RhoC signalings, but significantly increased the expression and activity of Rho-associated kinase 1/2 (ROCK1/2)...
September 15, 2017: Cancer Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28923345/sirt1-is-a-transcriptional-enhancer-of-the-glucocorticoid-receptor-acting-independently-to-its-deacetylase-activity
#13
Shigeru Suzuki, James R Iben, Steven L Coon, Tomoshige Kino
Glucocorticoids have strong effects on diverse human activities through the glucocorticoid receptor (GR). Sirtuin 1 (SIRT1) is a NAD(+)-dependent histone deacetylase and promotes longevity by influencing intermediary metabolism and other regulatory activities including mitochondrial function. In this study, we examined the effects of SIRT1 on GR-mediated transcriptional activity. We found that SIRT1 enhanced GR-induced transcriptional activity on exogenous and endogenous glucocorticoid-responsive genes, whereas knockdown of SIRT1 attenuated it...
September 15, 2017: Molecular and Cellular Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28916632/tissue-sex-and-age-specific-dna-methylation-of-rat-glucocorticoid-receptor-gene-promoter-and-insulin-like-growth-factor-2-imprinting-control-region
#14
Ogechukwu Brenda Agba, Ludwig Lausser, Klaus Huse, Christoph Bergmeier, Niels Jahn, Marco Groth, Martin Bens, Arne Sahm, Maria Gall, Otto W Witte, Hans A Kestler, Matthias Schwab, Matthias Platzer
Tissue-, sex- and age-specific epigenetic modifications such as DNA methylation are largely unknown. Changes in DNA methylation of the glucocorticoid receptor gene (NR3C1) and imprinting control region (ICR) of IGF2 and H19 genes during the lifespan are particularly interesting since these genes are susceptible to epigenetic modifications by prenatal stress or malnutrition. They are important regulators of development and aging. Methylation changes of NR3C1 affect glucocorticoid receptor expression, which is associated with stress sensitivity and stress-related diseases predominantly occurring during aging...
September 15, 2017: Physiological Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28916285/profiling-of-bisphenol-s-towards-nuclear-receptors-activities-in-human-reporter-cell-lines
#15
Ondrej Zenata, Zdenek Dvorak, Radim Vrzal
Bisphenol S (BPS) is heat-stable structural analog of bisphenol A (BPA), a known endocrine disruptor. Due to the effort to replace BPA with BPS, it is essential to know if BPS is suitable non-toxic replacement without reported deleterious effects of BPA. Since most of the BPA effects are ascribed to its ability to activate nuclear receptors, we screened some prominent members of this family in order to confirm or refute some recent findings. We found that BPS insignificantly activated aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) in reporter gene assay and no induction of AhR target gene CYP1A1 was observed in human hepatocytes (HH)...
September 12, 2017: Toxicology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28915330/impact-of-adrenal-steroids-on-regulation-of-adipose-tissue
#16
Marco Infante, Andrea Armani, Caterina Mammi, Andrea Fabbri, Massimiliano Caprio
Corticosteroids are secreted by the adrenal glands and control the functions of adipose tissue via the activation of mineralocorticoid receptor (MR) and glucocorticoid receptor (GR). In turn, adipocytes release a large variety of adipokines into the bloodstream, regulating the function of several organs and tissues, including the adrenal glands, hereby controlling corticosteroid production. In adipose tissue, the activation of the MR by glucocorticoids (GC) and aldosterone affects important processes such as adipocyte differentiation, oxidative stress, autophagic flux, adipokine expression as well as local production of GC through upregulation of the enzyme 11β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 1 (11β-HSD1)...
September 12, 2017: Comprehensive Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28913592/chronic-stress-causes-sex-specific-and-structure-specific-alterations-in-mitochondrial-respiratory-chain-activity-in-rat-brain
#17
Carina de Souza Mota, Simone Nardin Weis, Roberto Farina Almeida, Carla Dalmaz, Fátima Therezinha Costa Guma, Letícia Ferreira Pettenuzzo
Chronic restraint stress (CRS) induces a variety of changes in brain function, some of which are mediated by glucocorticoids. The response to stress occurs in a sex-specific way, and may include mitochondrial and synaptic alterations. The synapse is highly dependent on mitochondrial energy supply, and when mitochondria become dysfunctional, they orchestrate cell death. This study aimed to investigate the CRS effects on mitochondrial respiratory chain activity, as well as mitochondrial potential and mass in cell body and synapses using hippocampus, cortex and striatum of male and female rats...
September 14, 2017: Neurochemical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28911528/macrophages-in-oxidative-stress-and-models-to-evaluate-the-antioxidant-function-of-dietary-natural-compounds
#18
REVIEW
Omir Adrian Castaneda, Sheng-Chi Lee, Chi-Tang Ho, Tzou-Chi Huang
Antioxidant testing of natural products has attracted increasing interest in recent years, mainly due to the fact that an antioxidant-rich diet might provide health benefits. Activated macrophages are a major source of reactive oxygen species, reactive nitrogen species, and peroxynitrite generated through the so-called respiratory burst. Constitutively released proinflammatory cytokine, especially tumor necrosis factor-α, triggers nuclear factor-κB, and activator protein-1 translocation leading to the over production of reactive oxygen species and reactive nitrogen species in macrophages...
January 2017: Journal of Food and Drug Analysis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28901864/prenatal-stress-enhances-susceptibility-to-allergic-diseases-of-offspring
#19
Maria Moustaki, Sophia Tsabouri, Kostas Priftis, Konstantinos Douros
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Maternal prenatal stress (MPS) may result in a range of long-term consequences in the offspring among which is susceptibility to allergic diseases. This review presents the current knowledge on the pathways through which MPS may affect the fetus, and the existing evidence regarding the association between MPS and development of allergy in the offspring. RESULT AND DISCUSSION: A pivotal mediator triggered in response to stress is the release of glucocorticoids (GC)...
September 12, 2017: Endocrine, Metabolic & Immune Disorders Drug Targets
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28900798/phenotypic-plasticity-in-gene-expression-and-physiological-response-in-red-drum-sciaenops-ocellatus-exposed-to-a-long-term-freshwater-environment
#20
Mariel Gullian Klanian, Omar Zapata Pérez, Miguel Angel Vela-Magaña
Red drum (Sciaenops ocellatus) is a euryhaline fish commonly found in the Gulf of Mexico and along the Atlantic coast of North America. Because of high commercial demand and its euryhaline characteristics, aquaculture of this species has diversified from marine to low-salinity aquaculture systems. In recent years, interest in the feasibility of producing red drum in inland freshwater systems has grown and this prompted us to investigate its osmoregulatory capacity after rearing for 8 months in a freshwater aquaculture system...
September 12, 2017: Fish Physiology and Biochemistry
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