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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29150654/primary-aldosteronism-patients-show-skin-alterations-and-abnormal-activation-of-glucocorticoid-receptor-in-keratinocytes
#1
Julia Boix, Judit Bigas, Lisa M Sevilla, Maurizio Iacobone, Marilisa Citton, Francesca Torresan, Brasilina Caroccia, Gian Paolo Rossi, Paloma Pérez
Primary aldosteronism (PA) is a disease characterized by high aldosterone levels caused by benign adrenal tumors being the most frequent cause of secondary hypertension. Aldosterone plays vital physiological roles through the mineralocorticoid receptor (MR) but in certain cell types, it can also activate the glucocorticoid (GC) receptor (GR). Both MR and GR are structurally and functionally related and belong to the same family of ligand-dependent transcription factors that recognize identical GC regulatory elements (GREs) on their target genes...
November 17, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29146629/erratum-adipocyte-glucocorticoid-receptor-deficiency-attenuates-aging-and-hfd-induced-obesity-and-impairs-the-feeding-fasting-transition-diabetes-2017-66-272-286
#2
Kristina M Mueller, Kerstin Hartmann, Doris Kaltenecker, Sabine Vettorazzi, Mandy Bauer, Lea Mauser, Sabine Amann, Sigrid Jall, Katrin Fischer, Harald Esterbauer, Timo D Müller, Matthias H Tschöp, Christoph Magnes, Johannes Haybaeck, Thomas Scherer, Natalie Bordag, Jan P Tuckermann, Richard Moriggl
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 16, 2017: Diabetes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29145837/molecular-network-based-analysis-of-the-mechanism-of-liver-injury-induced-by-volatile-oils-from-artemisiae-argyi-folium
#3
Hongjie Liu, Sha Zhan, Yan Zhang, Yan Ma, Liang Chen, Lingxiu Chen, Hanqiu Dong, Min Ma, Zhe Zhang
BACKGROUND: Volatile oils from Artemisiae argyi folium (VOAAF) is reported with hepatotoxicity, but the underlying mechanism is still unclear. METHODS: In the present study this molecular mechanism was explored with the Ingenuity Pathway Analysis (IPA). The chemical components of the VOAAF were searched in the database, and their target proteins were all identified in the PubChem, while drug-induced liver injury (DILI) genes were searched in the PubMed gene databases...
November 16, 2017: BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29145494/global-analysis-of-gene-expression-mediated-by-ox1-orexin-receptor-signaling-in-a-hypothalamic-cell-line
#4
Eric Koesema, Thomas Kodadek
The orexins and their cognate G-protein coupled receptors have been widely studied due to their associations with various behaviors and cellular processes. However, the detailed downstream signaling cascades that mediate these effects are not completely understood. We report the generation of a neuronal model cell line that stably expresses the OX1 orexin receptor (OX1) and an RNA-Seq analysis of changes in gene expression seen upon receptor activation. Upon treatment with orexin, several families of related transcription factors are transcriptionally regulated, including the early growth response genes (Egr), the Kruppel-like factors (Klf), and the Nr4a subgroup of nuclear hormone receptors...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29141867/host-resistance-to-endotoxic-shock-requires-the-neuroendocrine-regulation-of-group-1-innate-lymphoid-cells
#5
Linda Quatrini, Elisabeth Wieduwild, Sophie Guia, Claire Bernat, Nicolas Glaichenhaus, Eric Vivier, Sophie Ugolini
Upon infection, the immune system produces inflammatory mediators important for pathogen clearance. However, inflammation can also have deleterious effect on the host and is tightly regulated. Immune system-derived cytokines stimulate the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis, triggering endogenous glucocorticoid production. Through interaction with ubiquitously expressed glucocorticoid receptors (GRs), this steroid hormone has pleiotropic effects on many cell types. Using a genetic mouse model in which the gene encoding the GR is selectively deleted in NKp46(+) innate lymphoid cells (ILCs), we demonstrated a major role for the HPA pathway in host resistance to endotoxin-induced septic shock...
November 15, 2017: Journal of Experimental Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29141305/-research-progress-on-rhinitis-medicamentosa
#6
Y N Wang, Z L Luan, H T Wang
Rhinitis medicamentosa (RM) refers to nonallergic inflammation in the nasal mucosa which is caused by the abuse of nasal decongestant and it often occurs in patients with allergic/nonallergic rhinitis along with nasal congestion. RM is characterized by nasal congestion based on long-term use of nasal decongestant, without rhinorrhoea or sneezing. The signs of RM include nasal swelling, thickening, loss of elasticity, and loss of sensitivity to the decongestant. The histological changes of RM are loss of nasal mucosa cilia, squamous epithelium metaplasia, edema of epithelium cell, hyperplasia of goblet cell, increased expression of epidermal growth factor receptor and infiltration of inflammatory cells, etc...
November 7, 2017: Zhonghua Er Bi Yan Hou Tou Jing Wai Ke za Zhi, Chinese Journal of Otorhinolaryngology Head and Neck Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29141220/phosphorylation-and-ubiquitination-regulate-protein-phosphatase-5-activity-and-its-prosurvival-role-in-kidney-cancer
#7
Natela Dushukyan, Diana M Dunn, Rebecca A Sager, Mark R Woodford, David R Loiselle, Michael Daneshvar, Alexander J Baker-Williams, John D Chisholm, Andrew W Truman, Cara K Vaughan, Timothy A Haystead, Gennady Bratslavsky, Dimitra Bourboulia, Mehdi Mollapour
The serine/threonine protein phosphatase 5 (PP5) regulates multiple cellular signaling networks. A number of cellular factors, including heat shock protein 90 (Hsp90), promote the activation of PP5. However, it is unclear whether post-translational modifications also influence PP5 phosphatase activity. Here, we show an "on/off switch" mechanism for PP5 regulation. The casein kinase 1δ (CK1δ) phosphorylates T362 in the catalytic domain of PP5, which activates and enhances phosphatase activity independent of Hsp90...
November 14, 2017: Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29139255/-association-rules-analysis-for-exploring-combined-medication-characteristics-of-fufang-kushen-injection-real-world-study-based-on-49-597-cases
#8
Yin Zhang, Yan-Ming Xie, Yan-Nan Li, Chang Zhang, Cen Chen, Yan Zhuang
The present study aimed to analyze the association rules of Fufang Kushen injection in combined medications in the real world based on electrical medical records in hospital information system, and provide reference for its reasonable clinical application. The electrical medical records of the hospitalized patients using Fufang Kushen injection were extracted to analyze the frequency distribution characteristics in combined application with Western medicine, and analyze the specific association rules between these combinations by using Apriori algorithm...
August 2017: Zhongguo Zhong Yao za Zhi, Zhongguo Zhongyao Zazhi, China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29138984/11%C3%AE-hydroxysteroid-dehydrogenases-and-hypertension-in-the-metabolic-syndrome
#9
REVIEW
Matthew A Bailey
The metabolic syndrome describes a clustering of risk factors-visceral obesity, dyslipidaemia, insulin resistance, and salt-sensitive hypertension-that increases mortality related to cardiovascular disease, type 2 diabetes, cancer, and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease. The prevalence of these concurrent comorbidities is ~ 25-30% worldwide, and metabolic syndrome therefore presents a significant global public health burden. Evidence from clinical and preclinical studies indicates that glucocorticoid excess is a key causal feature of metabolic syndrome...
November 14, 2017: Current Hypertension Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29138818/%C3%AE-%C3%A2-ecdysterone-promotes-autophagy-and-inhibits-apoptosis-in-osteoporotic-rats
#10
Yang-Hua Tang, Zhen-Shuang Yue, Da-Wei Xin, Lin-Ru Zeng, Zhen-Fei Xiong, Zhong-Qing Hu, Can-Da Xu
Osteoporosis is an aging process of skeletal tissues with characteristics of reductions in bone mass and microarchitectural deterioration of bone tissue. The present study aimed to investigate the effects of glucocorticoid‑induced osteoporosis on osteoblasts and to examine the roles of β‑ecdysterone (β‑Ecd) involved. In the present study, an in vivo model of osteoporosis was established through the subcutaneous implantation of prednisolone (PRED) into Sprague‑Dawley rats, with or without a subcutaneous injection of β‑Ecd (5 or 10 mg/kg body weight)...
November 14, 2017: Molecular Medicine Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29138442/uv-irradiation-to-mouse-skin-decreases-hippocampal-neurogenesis-and-synaptic-protein-expression-via-hpa-axis-activation
#11
Mira Han, Jae-Jun Ban, Jung-Soo Bae, Chang-Yup Shin, Dong Hun Lee, Jin Ho Chung
The skin senses external environment, including ultraviolet light (UV). Hippocampus is a brain region that is responsible for memory and emotion. However, changes in hippocampus by UV irradiation to the skin have not been studied. In this study, after 2 weeks of UV irradiation to the mouse skin, we examined molecular changes related to cognitive functions in the hippocampus and activation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis. UV exposure to the skin decreased doublecortin-positive immature neurons and synaptic proteins, including N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor 2 A and postsynaptic density protein-95, in the hippocampus...
November 14, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29137551/environmental-manipulations-as-an-effective-alternative-treatment-to-reduce-endometriosis-progression
#12
Annelyn Torres-Reverón, Leslie L Rivera, Idhaliz Flores, Caroline B Appleyard
Treatments for endometriosis include pharmacological or surgical procedures that produce significant side effects. We aimed to determine how environmental enrichment (EE) could impact the progression of endometriosis using the autotransplantation rat model. Female rats were exposed to EE (endo-EE: toys and nesting materials, 4 rats per cage, larger area enclosure) or no enrichment (endo-NE: 2 rats per cage) starting on postnatal day 21. After 8 weeks, sham surgery or surgical endometriosis was induced by suturing uterine horn tissue next to the intestinal mesentery, then allowed to progress for 60 days during which EE or NE continued...
January 1, 2017: Reproductive Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29137141/steroid-and-xenobiotic-receptor-signalling-in-apoptosis-and-autophagy-of-the-nervous-system
#13
REVIEW
Agnieszka Wnuk, Małgorzata Kajta
Apoptosis and autophagy are involved in neural development and in the response of the nervous system to a variety of insults. Apoptosis is responsible for cell elimination, whereas autophagy can eliminate the cells or keep them alive, even in conditions lacking trophic factors. Therefore, both processes may function synergistically or antagonistically. Steroid and xenobiotic receptors are regulators of apoptosis and autophagy; however, their actions in various pathologies are complex. In general, the estrogen (ER), progesterone (PR), and mineralocorticoid (MR) receptors mediate anti-apoptotic signalling, whereas the androgen (AR) and glucocorticoid (GR) receptors participate in pro-apoptotic pathways...
November 11, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29133811/site-specific-phosphorylation-regulates-the-structure-and-function-of-an-intrinsically-disordered-domain-of-the-glucocorticoid-receptor
#14
Shagufta H Khan, William A McLaughlin, Raj Kumar
Intrinsically disordered (ID) regions of the transcription factor proteins have much larger frequency of phosphorylation sites than ordered regions, suggesting an important role in their regulatory capacity. Consistent with this phenomenon, most of the functionally known phosphorylation sites in the steroid receptor family of transcription factors are located in the ID N-terminal domain that contains a powerful activation function (AF1) region. In this study, we determined the structural and functional consequences of functionally known phosphorylation residues (Ser203, 211, and 226) located in the human glucocorticoid receptor's (GR's) ID AF1 domain...
November 13, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29132937/arsenic-exposure-during-embryonic-development-alters-the-expression-of-the-long-noncoding-rna-growth-arrest-specific-5-gas5-in-a-sex-dependent-manner
#15
Kevin K Caldwell, Alexander Hafez, Elizabeth Solomon, Matthew Cunningham, Andrea M Allan
Our previous studies suggest that prenatal arsenic exposure (50ppb) modifies epigenetic control of the programming of the glucocorticoid receptor (GR) signaling system in the developing mouse brain. These deficits may lead to long-lasting consequences, including deficits in learning and memory, increased depressive-like behaviors, and an altered set-point of GR feedback throughout life. To understand the arsenic-induced changes within the GR system, we assessed the impact of in utero arsenic exposure on the levels of the GR and growth arrest-specific-5 (Gas5), a noncoding RNA, across a key gestational period for GR programming (gestational days, GD 14-18) in mice...
November 10, 2017: Neurotoxicology and Teratology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29129720/glucocorticoid-receptor-signaling-in-the-eye
#16
Rania S Sulaiman, Mahita Kadmiel, John A Cidlowski
Glucocorticoids (GCs) are essential steroid hormones that regulate numerous metabolic and homeostatic functions in almost all physiological systems. Synthetic glucocorticoids are among the most commonly prescribed drugs for the treatment of various conditions including autoimmune, allergic and inflammatory diseases. Glucocorticoids are mainly used for their potent anti-inflammatory and immunosuppressive activities mediated through signal transduction by their nuclear receptor, the glucocorticoid receptor (GR)...
November 9, 2017: Steroids
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29128319/a-proteomic-investigation-into-mechanisms-underpinning-corticosteroid-effects-on-neural-stem-cells
#17
Rawaa S Al-Mayyahi, Luke D Sterio, Joanne B Connolly, Christopher F Adams, Wa'il A Al-Tumah, Jon Sen, Richard D Emes, Sarah R Hart, Divya M Chari
Corticosteroids (CSs) are widely used clinically, for example in pediatric respiratory distress syndrome, and immunosuppression to prevent rejection of stem cell transplant populations in neural cell therapy. However, such treatment can be associated with adverse effects such as impaired neurogenesis and myelination, and increased risk of cerebral palsy. There is increasing evidence that CSs can adversely influence key biological properties of neural stem cells (NSCs) but the molecular mechanisms underpinning such effects are largely unknown...
November 8, 2017: Molecular and Cellular Neurosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29126303/inhibition-of-the-mitochondrial-pyruvate-carrier-by-tolylfluanid
#18
Yana Chen, Kyle S McCommis, Daniel Ferguson, Angela M Hall, Charles A Harris, Brian N Finck
Several recent studies have suggested that compounds known as endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) can promote obesity by serving as ligands for nuclear receptors, including the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ (PPARγ) and the glucocorticoid receptor (GR). Thiazolidinedione insulin sensitizers, which act as ligands for PPARγ, also interact with and regulate the activity of the mitochondrial pyruvate carrier (MPC). We evaluated whether several EDCs might also affect MPC activity. Most of the EDCs evaluated did not acutely affect pyruvate metabolism...
November 8, 2017: Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29126175/conventional-and-pioneer-modes-of-glucocorticoid-receptor-interaction-with-enhancer-chromatin-in-vivo
#19
Thomas A Johnson, Razvan V Chereji, Diana A Stavreva, Stephanie A Morris, Gordon L Hager, David J Clark
Glucocorticoid hormone plays a major role in metabolism and disease. The hormone-bound glucocorticoid receptor (GR) binds to a specific set of enhancers in different cell types, resulting in unique patterns of gene expression. We have addressed the role of chromatin structure in GR binding by mapping nucleosome positions in mouse adenocarcinoma cells. Before hormone treatment, GR-enhancers exist in one of three chromatin states: (i) Nucleosome-depleted enhancers that are DNase I-hypersensitive, associated with the Brg1 chromatin remodeler and flanked by nucleosomes incorporating histone H2A...
November 8, 2017: Nucleic Acids Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29125184/hepatic-and-hippocampal-cytochrome-p450-enzyme-overexpression-during-spontaneous-recurrent-seizures
#20
Leonie Runtz, Benoit Girard, Marion Toussenot, Julie Espallergues, Alexis Fayd'Herbe De Maudave, Alexandre Milman, Frederic deBock, Chaitali Ghosh, Nathalie C Guérineau, Jean-Marc Pascussi, Federica Bertaso, Nicola Marchi
OBJECTIVE: Available evidence points to a role of cytochrome P450 (Cyp) drug biotransformation enzymes in central nervous system diseases, including epilepsy. Deviations in drug pharmacokinetic profiles may impact therapeutic outcomes. Here, we ask whether spontaneous recurrent seizure (SRS) activity is sufficient to modulate the expression of major Cyp enzymes in the liver and brain. METHODS: Unilateral intrahippocampal (IH) kainic acid (KA) injections were used to elicit nonconvulsive status epilepticus (SE), epileptogenesis, and SRS, as monitored by video-electroencephalography...
November 10, 2017: Epilepsia
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