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Glucocorticoid receptor

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28102225/glucocorticoid-receptor-signalling-activates-yap-in-breast-cancer
#1
Giovanni Sorrentino, Naomi Ruggeri, Alessandro Zannini, Eleonora Ingallina, Rebecca Bertolio, Carolina Marotta, Carmelo Neri, Elisa Cappuzzello, Mattia Forcato, Antonio Rosato, Miguel Mano, Silvio Bicciato, Giannino Del Sal
The Hippo pathway is an oncosuppressor signalling cascade that plays a major role in the control of cell growth, tissue homoeostasis and organ size. Dysregulation of the Hippo pathway leads to aberrant activation of the transcription co-activator YAP (Yes-associated protein) that contributes to tumorigenesis in several tissues. Here we identify glucocorticoids (GCs) as hormonal activators of YAP. Stimulation of glucocorticoid receptor (GR) leads to increase of YAP protein levels, nuclear accumulation and transcriptional activity in vitro and in vivo...
January 19, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28101786/evaluation-of-t-regulatory-lymphocytes-transcription-factors-in-htlv-1-associated-myelopathy-tropical-spastic-paraparesis-ham-tsp-patients
#2
Sanaz Ahmadi Ghezeldasht, Hamed Sadeghian, Mahmoud Reza Azarpazhooh, Seyyed Ali Akbar Shamsian, Houshang Rafatpanah, Mahmood Mahmoodi, Seyyed Abdolrahim Rezaee
HTLV-1-associated myelopathy/tropical spastic paraparesis (HAM/TSP) is an aggressive neurological disease. The CD4(+)CD25(+) T cell population plays pivotal roles in the maintenance of immunological tolerance and prevention of such autoimmune diseases. In the current study, proviral load (PVL), factor forkhead box p3 (Foxp3), and glucocorticoid-induced tumor necrosis factor receptor-related protein (GITR) gene expression and regulatory T cells (Tregs) counts of 21 HAM/TSP patients and 16 HTLV-1 healthy carriers (ACs) were measured using real-time PCR, TaqMan method, and flow cytometry...
January 18, 2017: Applied Biochemistry and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28101171/effect-of-glucocorticoid-on-cytokines-tlr9-and-tlr7-in-peripheral-blood-for-patients-with-uveitis
#3
Hong-Pei Cui, Yu-Xi Pei, Guan-Feng Li, Yan-Rui Lou
The effect of glucocorticoid on cytokines Toll-like receptor (TLR)9 and TLR7 in peripheral blood of patients with uveitis was explored. Forty-six patients with uveitis admitted to our hospital from April 2014 to April 2015 were selected as the research observational group. Thirty-five able-bodied individuals in the same period were selected as the control group. To treat uveitis, the observational group was injected with glucocorticoid (1-2 mg/kg/day) daily, while the control group did not receive any treatment...
December 2016: Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28099820/new-and-developing-non-adrenoreceptor-small-molecule-drugs-for-the-treatment-of-asthma
#4
Neil C Thomson
Introduction Inhaled corticosteroids (ICS) alone or in combination with an inhaled long-acting beta2-agonist (LABA) are the preferred long-term treatment for adults and adolescents with symptomatic asthma. Additional drugs include leukotriene-receptor antagonists, slow-release theophylline and the long-acting muscarinic antagonist (LAMA) tiotropium (approved in 2015). There is a need for more effective therapies, as many patients continue to have poorly controlled asthma. Areas covered New and developing long-acting non-adrenoreceptor synthetic drugs for the treatment of symptomatic chronic asthma despite treatment with an ICS alone or combined with a LABA...
January 18, 2017: Expert Opinion on Pharmacotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28096435/regulation-of-aldosterone-secretion-by-mineralocorticoid-receptor-mediated-signaling
#5
Cherish Chong, Anis Hamid, Tham Yao, Amanda Garza, Luminita Pojoga, Gail K Adler, Jose R Romero, Gordon H Williams
We posit the existence of a paracrine/autocrine negative feedback loop, mediated by the mineralocorticoid receptor (MR), regulating aldosterone secretion. To assess this hypothesis we asked whether altering MR activity in zona glomerulosa (ZG) cells affects aldosterone production. To this end, we studied ex vivo ZG cells isolated from male Wistar rats fed chow containing either high (1.6% Na+ [HS]) or low (0.03% Na+ [LS]) amount of sodium. Western blot analyses demonstrated that MR was present in both the ZG and zona fasciculata/zona reticularis (ZF/ZR/ZR)...
January 17, 2017: Journal of Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28096152/bcli-glucocorticoid-receptor-polymorphism-in-relation-to-arterial-stiffening-and-cardiac-structure-and-function-the-hoorn-and-codam-studies
#6
Dirk van Moorsel, Ronald M Henry, Nicolaas C Schaper, Marleen M van Greevenbroek, Elisabeth F van Rossum, Leen M 't Hart, Casper G Schalkwijk, Carla J van der Kallen, Jacqueline M Dekker, Coen D Stehouwer, Bas Havekes
BACKGROUND: Chronic glucocorticoid excess is associated with arterial stiffening and cardiac dysfunction. The BclI glucocorticoid receptor (GR) polymorphism increases GR sensitivity and is associated with a higher body mass index (BMI) and some proxies for cardiovascular disease (CVD). Whether BclI influences arterial stiffening and cardiac dysfunction is currently unknown. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to investigate the association of the BclI polymorphism with arterial stiffening and cardiac structure and function...
January 17, 2017: American Journal of Hypertension
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28093219/a-mixed-glucocorticoid-mineralocorticoid-receptor-modulator-dampens-endocrine-and-hippocampal-stress-responsivity-in-male-rats
#7
Elizabeth T Nguyen, Joshua Streicher, Sarah Berman, Jody L Caldwell, Valentina Ghisays, Christina M Estrada, Aynara C Wulsin, Matia B Solomon
Aberrant glucocorticoid secretion is implicated in the pathophysiology of stress-related disorders (i.e., depression, anxiety). Glucocorticoids exert biological effects via mineralocorticoid (MR) and glucocorticoid (GR) receptors. Previous data from our laboratory indicate that GR antagonism/modulation (i.e., mifepristone, CORT 108297) regulate endocrine, behavioral, and central stress responses. Because of the dynamic interplay between MR and GR on HPA axis regulation and emotionality, compounds targeting both receptors are of interest for stress-related pathology...
January 13, 2017: Physiology & Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28092764/common-deregulated-gene-expression-profiles-and-morphological-changes-in-developing-zebrafish-larvae-exposed-to-environmental-relevant-high-to-low-concentrations-of-glucocorticoids
#8
Qiyu Chen, Caixia Li, Zhiyuan Gong, Eric Chun Yong Chan, Shane A Snyder, Siew Hong Lam
Synthetic glucocorticoids have been detected in environmental waters and their biological potency have raised concerns of their impact on aquatic vertebrates especially fish. In this study, developing zebrafish larvae exposed to representative glucocorticoids (dexamethasone, prednisolone and triamcinolone) at 50 pM to 50 nM from 3 h post-fertilisation to 5 days post-fertilisation were investigated. Microarray analysis identified 1255, 1531, and 2380 gene probes, which correspondingly mapped to 660, 882 and 1238 human/rodent homologs, as deregulated by dexamethasone, prednisolone and triamcinolone, respectively...
January 6, 2017: Chemosphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28091621/differential-susceptibility-and-maturation-of-thymocyte-subsets-during-salmonella-typhimurium-infection-insights-on-the-roles-of-glucocorticoids-and-interferon-gamma
#9
Shamik Majumdar, Mukta Deobagkar-Lele, Vasista Adiga, Abinaya Raghavan, Nitin Wadhwa, Syed Moiz Ahmed, Supriya Rajendra Rananaware, Subhashish Chakraborty, Omana Joy, Dipankar Nandi
The thymus is known to atrophy during infections; however, a systematic study of changes in thymocyte subpopulations has not been performed. This aspect was investigated, using multi-color flow cytometry, during oral infection of mice with Salmonella Typhimurium (S. Typhimurium). The major highlights are: First, a block in the developmental pathway of CD4(-)CD8(-) double negative (DN) thymocytes is observed. Second, CD4(+)CD8(+) double positive (DP) thymocytes, mainly in the DP1 (CD5(lo)CD3(lo)) and DP2 (CD5(hi)CD3(int)), but not DP3 (CD5(int)CD3(hi)), subsets are reduced...
January 16, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28089708/hair-corticosterone-measurement-in-mouse-models-of-type-1-and-type-2-diabetes-mellitus
#10
Rebecca L Erickson, Caroline A Browne, Irwin Lucki
In diabetes, glucocorticoid secretion increases secondary to hyperglycemia and is associated with an extensive list of disease complications. Levels of cortisol in humans, or corticosterone in rodents, are usually measured as transitory biomarkers of stress in blood or saliva. Glucocorticoid concentrations accumulate in human or animal hair over weeks and could more accurately measure the cumulative stress burden of diseases like chronic diabetes. In this study, corticosterone levels were measured in hair in verified rodent models of diabetes mellitus...
January 12, 2017: Physiology & Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28089705/so-as-we-worry-we-weigh-visible-burrow-system-stress-and-visceral-adiposity
#11
REVIEW
Michelle T Foster
The visible borrow system (VBS) simulates a natural rodent habitat that supports genuine stress provoking social interactions. This model allows investigation of behavioral, neural and endocrine alterations caused by chronic stress. The Sakai lab further used this model to investigate metabolic outcomes of stress in relation to dominance hierarchies formed within the VBS. Communal social conflict occurs among all VBS rats, but only the SUB rats succumb to the redistribution of lipids in the visceral cavity and consequent metabolic dysregulation, such as hyper-insulinemia...
January 12, 2017: Physiology & Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28089704/brain-mineralocorticoid-receptor-function-in-control-of-salt-balance-and-stress-adaptation
#12
REVIEW
E Ronald de Kloet, Marian Joëls
We will highlight in honor of Randall Sakai the peculiar characteristics of the brain mineralocorticoid receptor (MR) in its response pattern to the classical mineralocorticoid aldosterone and the naturally occurring glucocorticoids corticosterone and cortisol. Neurons in the nucleus tractus solitarii (NTS) express MR, which mediate selectively the action of aldosterone on salt appetite, sympathetic outflow and volume regulation. The MR-containing NTS neurons innervate limbic-forebrain circuits enabling aldosterone to also modulate reciprocally arousal, motivation, fear and reward...
January 13, 2017: Physiology & Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28089628/crf1-but-not-glucocorticoid-receptor-antagonists-reduce-separation-induced-distress-vocalizations-in-guinea-pig-pups-and-crf-overexpressing-mouse-pups-a-combination-study-with-paroxetine
#13
P Monika Verdouw, Joantine C J van Esterik, Bernard W M M Peeters, Mark J Millan, Lucianne Groenink
RATIONALE: Given the large number of patients that does not respond sufficiently to currently available treatment for anxiety disorders, there is a need for improved treatment. OBJECTIVES: We evaluated the anxiolytic effects of corticotropin releasing factor (CRF)1 receptor antagonists and glucocorticoid receptor (GR) antagonists in the separation-induced vocalization test in guinea pigs and transgenic mice with central CRF overexpression. Furthermore, we explored effects of these drugs when given in combination with a suboptimal dose of a selective serotonin re-uptake inhibitor (SSRI)...
January 12, 2017: Pharmacology, Biochemistry, and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28088388/activation-of-gr-but-not-pxr-by-dexamethasone-attenuated-acetaminophen-hepatotoxicities-via-fgf21-induction
#14
Saurabh G Vispute, Pengli Bu, Yuan Le, Xingguo Cheng
Glucocorticoid receptor (GR) signaling is indispensable for cell growth and development, and plays important roles in drug metabolism. Fibroblast growth factor (Fgf) 21, an important regulator of glucose, lipid, and energy metabolism, plays a cytoprotective role by attenuating toxicities induced by chemicals such as dioxins, acetaminophen (APAP), and alcohols. The present study investigates the impact of dexamethasone (DEX)-activated GR on Fgf21 expression and how it affects the progression of APAP-induced hepatotoxicity...
January 11, 2017: Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28086911/enhanced-neuroinflammation-mediated-by-dna-methylation-of-the-glucocorticoid-receptor-triggers-cognitive-dysfunction-after-sevoflurane-anesthesia-in-adult-rats-subjected-to-maternal-separation-during-the-neonatal-period
#15
Yangzi Zhu, Yu Wang, Rui Yao, Ting Hao, Junli Cao, He Huang, Liwei Wang, Yuqing Wu
BACKGROUND: Mounting evidence indicates that children who experience abuse and neglect are prone to chronic diseases and premature mortality later in life. One mechanistic hypothesis for this phenomenon is that early life adversity alters the expression or functioning of the glucocorticoid receptor (GR) throughout the course of life and thereby increases sensitivity to inflammatory stimulation. An exaggerated pro-inflammatory response is generally considered to be a key cause of postoperative cognitive dysfunction (POCD)...
January 7, 2017: Journal of Neuroinflammation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28078411/in-vitro-and-in-silico-assessment-of-the-structure-dependent-binding-of-bisphenol-analogues-to-glucocorticoid-receptor
#16
Jie Zhang, Tiehua Zhang, Tianzhu Guan, Hansong Yu, Tiezhu Li
Widespread use of bisphenol A (BPA) and other bisphenol analogues has attracted increasing attention for their potential adverse effects. As environmental endocrine-disrupting compounds (EDCs), bisphenols (BPs) may activate a variety of nuclear receptors, including glucocorticoid receptor (GR). In this work, the binding of 11 BPs to GR was investigated by fluorescence polarization (FP) assay in combination with molecular dynamics simulations. The human glucocorticoid receptor was prepared as a soluble recombinant protein...
January 11, 2017: Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28076749/epigenetic-changes-of-hepatic-glucocorticoid-receptor-in-sheep-male-offspring-undernourished-in-utero
#17
Stella Chadio, Basiliki Kotsampasi, Stylliani Taka, Emmanouil Liandris, Nikolaos Papadopoulos, Elias Plakokefalos
The aim of this study was to characterise the effects of maternal undernutrition during gestation on hepatic gluconeogenic enzyme gene expression and to determine whether such effects are mediated through epigenetic changes in the glucocorticoid receptor (GR). Pregnant ewes were fed a 50% nutrient-restricted diet from Day 0 to 30 (R1) or from Day 31 to 100 of gestation (R2) or a 100% diet throughout gestation (Control). After parturition lambs were fed to appetite. At 10 months of age offspring were euthanised and livers were removed...
January 12, 2017: Reproduction, Fertility, and Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28069826/endostatin-inhibits-androgen-independent-prostate-cancer-growth-by-suppressing-nuclear-receptor-mediated-oxidative-stress
#18
Joo Hyoung Lee, Minsung Kang, Hong Wang, Gurudatta Naik, James A Mobley, Guru Sonpavde, W Timothy Garvey, Victor M Darley-Usmar, Selvarangan Ponnazhagan
Androgen-deprivation therapy has been identified to induce oxidative stress in prostate cancer (PCa), leading to reactivation of androgen receptor (AR) signaling in a hormone-refractory manner. Thus, antioxidant therapies have gained attention as adjuvants for castration-resistant PCa. Here, we report for the first time that human endostatin (ES) prevents androgen-independent growth phenotype in PCa cells through its molecular targeting of AR and glucocorticoid receptor (GR) and downstream pro-oxidant signaling...
January 9, 2017: FASEB Journal: Official Publication of the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28069523/a-chronic-increase-of-corticosterone-age-dependently-reduces-systemic-dna-damage-from-oxidation-in-rats
#19
Anders Jorgensen, Otto Kalliokoski, Kristin Forsberg, Katrine Breitenstein, Allan Weimann, Trine Henriksen, Jann Hau, Gitta Wörtwein, Henrik Enghusen Poulsen, Martin Balslev Jorgensen
Stress and depression are associated with an acceleration of brain and bodily aging; effects which have been attributed to chronic elevations of glucocorticoids. We tested the hypothesis that a three week administration of stress-associated levels of corticosterone (CORT, the principal rodent glucocorticoid) would increase systemic and CNS DNA and RNA damage from oxidation; a phenomenon known to be centrally involved in the aging process. We also hypothesized that older individuals would be more sensitive to this effect and that the chronic CORT administration would exacerbate age-related memory decline...
January 7, 2017: Free Radical Biology & Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28069032/glucocorticoid-receptor-gene-polymorphisms-in-hereditary-angioedema-with-c1-inhibitor-deficiency
#20
Zsuzsanna Zotter, Zsolt Nagy, Attila Patócs, Dorottya Csuka, Nóra Veszeli, Kinga Viktória Kőhalmi, Henriette Farkas
BACKGROUND: Hereditary angioedema caused by C1-inhibitor deficiency (C1-INH-HAE) is a rare, autosomal dominant disorder. C1-INH-HAE is characterized by edema-formation, which may occur in response to stress. The individual's response to stress stimuli is partly genetically determined. Activation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis results in the release of cortisol. In turn, the secreted gluco- and mineralocorticoids affect the metabolism, as well as the cardiovascular and immune systems...
January 10, 2017: Orphanet Journal of Rare Diseases
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