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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28339047/hypothalamo%C3%A2-hypophysial-system-in-rats-with-autotransplantation-of-the-adrenal-cortex
#1
Nae Takizawa, Susumu Tanaka, Souichi Oe, Taro Koike, Tadashi Matsuda, Hisao Yamada
Patients with bilateral pheochromocytoma often require an adrenalectomy. Autotransplantation of the adrenal cortex is an alternative therapy that could potentially be performed instead of receiving glucocorticoid replacement following adrenalectomy. Adrenal cortex autotransplantation aims to avoid the side effects of long‑term steroid treatment and adrenal insufficiency. Although the function of the hypothalamo‑hypophysial system is critical for patients who have undergone adrenal cortex autotransplantation, the details of that system, with the exception of adrenocorticotropic hormone in the subjects with adrenal autotransplantation, have been overlooked for a long time...
March 24, 2017: Molecular Medicine Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28338398/dexamethasone-suppresses-jmjd3-gene-activation-via-a-putative-negative-glucocorticoid-response-element-and-maintains-integrity-of-tight-junctions-in-brain-microvascular-endothelial-cells
#2
Wonho Na, Jee Y Shin, Jee Y Lee, Sangyun Jeong, Won-Sun Kim, Tae Y Yune, Bong-Gun Ju
The blood-brain barrier (BBB) exhibits a highly selective permeability to support the homeostasis of the central nervous system (CNS). The tight junctions in the BBB microvascular endothelial cells seal the paracellular space to prevent diffusion. Thus, disruption of tight junctions results in harmful effects in CNS diseases and injuries. It has recently been demonstrated that glucocorticoids have beneficial effects on maintaining tight junctions in both in vitro cell and in vivo animal models. In the present study, we found that dexamethasone suppresses the expression of JMJD3, a histone H3K27 demethylase, via the recruitment of glucocorticoid receptor α (GRα) and nuclear receptor co-repressor (N-CoR) to the negative glucocorticoid response element (nGRE) in the upstream region of JMJD3 gene in brain microvascular endothelial cells subjected to TNFα treatment...
January 1, 2017: Journal of Cerebral Blood Flow and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28337631/upregulation-of-mineralocorticoid-receptor-in-the-hypothalamus-associated-with-a-high-anxiety-like-level-in-apolipoprotein-e4-transgenic-mice
#3
Fan-Tao Meng, Jun Zhao, Hui Fang, Li-Feng Zhang, Hui-Mei Wu, Ya-Jing Liu
Anxiety symptoms occur in a large portion of Alzheimer's disease (AD) patients. ApolipoproteinE-4 (ApoE ε4 allele), a risk factor for AD, has been recognized as an important contributor to psychiatric disorders. In the present study, we aimed to investigate the corticosterone level in relation to anxiety-like behavior changes in transgenic male mice with different glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP)-ApoE isoforms. GFAP-ApoE4 transgenic mice aged 3 months showed higher anxiety-like behavior in open field, light-dark box and elevated plus maze tasks compared with that of age-matched GFAP-ApoE3 mice...
March 24, 2017: Behavior Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28335457/the-epigenetic-link-between-prenatal-adverse-environments-and-neurodevelopmental-disorders
#4
REVIEW
Marija Kundakovic, Ivana Jaric
Prenatal adverse environments, such as maternal stress, toxicological exposures, and viral infections, can disrupt normal brain development and contribute to neurodevelopmental disorders, including schizophrenia, depression, and autism. Increasing evidence shows that these short- and long-term effects of prenatal exposures on brain structure and function are mediated by epigenetic mechanisms. Animal studies demonstrate that prenatal exposure to stress, toxins, viral mimetics, and drugs induces lasting epigenetic changes in the brain, including genes encoding glucocorticoid receptor (Nr3c1) and brain-derived neurotrophic factor (Bdnf)...
March 18, 2017: Genes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28334414/association-of-a-haplotype-in-the-nr3c2-gene-encoding-the-mineralocorticoid-receptor-with-chronic-central-serous-chorioretinopathy
#5
Elon H C van Dijk, Rosa L Schellevis, Maaike G J M van Bergen, Myrte B Breukink, Lebriz Altay, Paula Scholz, Sascha Fauser, Onno C Meijer, Carel B Hoyng, Anneke I den Hollander, Camiel J F Boon, Eiko K de Jong
Importance: Chronic central serous chorioretinopathy (cCSC) is a chorioretinal disease with unknown disease etiology. The glucocorticoid receptor and the mineralocorticoid receptor, 2 glucocorticoid-binding receptors, might be involved in the pathogenesis of cCSC. Objective: To assess the association of functional variants and haplotypes in the glucocorticoid receptor (NR3C1) and mineralocorticoid receptor (NR3C2) genes with cCSC. Design, Setting, and Participants: In this case-control genetic association study, 336 patients with cCSC and 1314 unaffected controls, collected at 3 university medical centers from September 1, 2009, to May 1, 2016, underwent KASP genotyping for selected variants in NR3C1 (rs56149945, rs41423247, and rs6198) and NR3C2 (rs2070951 and rs5522)...
March 23, 2017: JAMA Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28334178/inter-regional-variations-in-gene-expression-and-age-related-cortical-thinning-in-the-adolescent-brain
#6
Angelita Pui-Yee Wong, Leon French, Gabriel Leonard, Michel Perron, G Bruce Pike, Louis Richer, Suzanne Veillette, Zdenka Pausova, Tomáš Paus
Age-related decreases in cortical thickness observed during adolescence may be related to fluctuations in sex and stress hormones. We examine this possibility by relating inter-regional variations in age-related cortical thinning (data from the Saguenay Youth Study) to inter-regional variations in expression levels of relevant genes (data from the Allen Human Brain Atlas); we focus on genes coding for glucocorticoid receptor (NR3C1), androgen receptor (AR), progesterone receptor (PGR), and estrogen receptors (ESR1 and ESR2)...
February 25, 2017: Cerebral Cortex
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28330718/adult-glucocorticoid-receptor-mrna-expression-volatility-in-response-to-an-acute-stressor-and-juvenile-csf-corticotropin-releasing-factor-a-pilot-neurodevelopmental-study
#7
Shariful A Syed, Eric L P Smith, Olcay Batuman, Leonard A Rosenblum, Michael J Owens, Charles B Nemeroff, Jeremy D Coplan
INTRODUCTION: Early life stress (ELS) has been shown to play a role in establishing persistent maladaptive HPA axis modifications that may contribute to the pathogenesis of mood and anxiety disorders. Central glucocorticoid receptor (GR) messenger RNA (mRNA) expression may facilitate (mal)adaptive responsivity to ELS. The role of adult monocytic GR mRNA expression, a putative CNS proxy, during acute stress exposure was explored as well as the ELS marker, juvenile cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) corticotropin-releasing factor...
March 19, 2017: Neuroscience Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28330327/role-of-gnb3-net-kcnj11-tcf7l2-and-grl-genes-single-nucleotide-polymorphism-in-the-risk-prediction-of-type-2-diabetes-mellitus
#8
REVIEW
Saliha Rizvi, Syed Tasleem Raza, Qamar Rahman, Farzana Mahdi
Type 2 diabetes (T2DM) is a polygenic metabolic disorder characterized by hyperglycemia occurring as a result of impaired insulin secretion or insulin resistance. Various environmental and genetic factors interact and increase the risk of T2DM and its complications. Among the various genetic factors associated with T2DM, single nucleotide polymorphism in different candidate genes have been studied intensively and the resulting genetic variants have been found to have either positive or negative association with T2DM thereby increasing or decreasing the risk of T2DM, respectively...
December 2016: 3 Biotech
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28329022/annexin-a1-in-blood-mononuclear-cells-from-patients-with-coronary-artery-disease-its-association-with-inflammatory-status-and-glucocorticoid-sensitivity
#9
Ida Bergström, Anna K Lundberg, Simon Jönsson, Eva Särndahl, Jan Ernerudh, Lena Jonasson
Annexin A1 (AnxA1) is a key player in resolution of inflammation and a mediator of glucocorticoid actions. In atherosclerotic tissue, increased expression of AnxA1 has been associated with protective plaque-stabilizing effects. Here, we investigated the expression of AnxA1 in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) from patients with coronary artery disease (CAD). Blood was collected from 57 patients with stable CAD (SCAD) and 41 healthy controls. We also included a minor group (n = 10) with acute coronary syndrome (ACS)...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28328159/improved-disease-activity-with-fosdagrocorat-pf-04171327-a-partial-agonist-of-the-glucocorticoid-receptor-in-patients-with-rheumatoid-arthritis-a-phase-2-randomized-study
#10
Thomas Stock, Dona Fleishaker, Xin Wang, Arnab Mukherjee, Charles Mebus
AIM: To assess efficacy and safety of fosdagrocorat (PF-04171327), a potential dissociated agonist of the glucocorticoid receptor, in rheumatoid arthritis (RA) patients. METHODS: This multicenter, double-blind, parallel-group, active- and placebo-controlled Phase 2 study (NCT00938587) randomized 86 patients (1 : 1 : 1 : 1) to receive fosdagrocorat 10 mg, fosdagrocorat 25 mg, prednisone 5 mg or placebo, all with stable background methotrexate therapy. The primary outcome was change from baseline in Disease Activity Score of 28 joints (DAS28-4[C-reactive protein (CRP)]) after 2 weeks of treatment...
March 22, 2017: International Journal of Rheumatic Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28325773/cue-domain-containing-protein-2-promotes-the-warburg-effect-and-tumorigenesis
#11
Xiuying Zhong, Shengya Tian, Xiang Zhang, Xinwei Diao, Fangting Dong, Jie Yang, Zhaoyong Li, Linchong Sun, Lin Wang, Xiaoping He, Gongwei Wu, Xin Hu, Lihua Wang, Libing Song, Huafeng Zhang, Xin Pan, Ailing Li, Ping Gao
Cancer progression depends on cellular metabolic reprogramming as both direct and indirect consequence of oncogenic lesions; however, the underlying mechanisms are still poorly understood. Here, we report that CUEDC2 (CUE domain-containing protein 2) plays a vital role in facilitating aerobic glycolysis, or Warburg effect, in cancer cells. Mechanistically, we show that CUEDC2 upregulates the two key glycolytic proteins GLUT3 and LDHA via interacting with the glucocorticoid receptor (GR) or 14-3-3ζ, respectively...
March 21, 2017: EMBO Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28324065/neurod-factors-discriminate-mineralocorticoid-from-glucocorticoid-receptor-dna-binding-in-the-male-rat-brain
#12
Lisa T C M van Weert, Jacobus C Buurstede, Ahmed Mahfouz, Pamela S M Braakhuis, J Annelies E Polman, Hetty C M Sips, Benno Roozendaal, Judit Balog, E Ronald de Kloet, Nicole A Datson, Onno C Meijer
In the limbic brain, mineralocorticoid receptors (MRs) and glucocorticoid receptors (GRs) both function as receptors for the naturally occurring glucocorticoids (corticosterone/cortisol), but mediate distinct effects on cellular physiology via transcriptional mechanisms. The transcriptional basis for specificity of these MR- versus GR-mediated effects is unknown. To address this conundrum we have identified the extent of MR/GR DNA binding selectivity in the rat hippocampus using chromatin immunoprecipitation followed by sequencing (ChIP-seq)...
January 24, 2017: Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28324010/separating-the-anti-inflammatory-and-diabetogenic-effects-of-glucocorticoids-through-lxr%C3%AE-antagonism
#13
Rucha Patel, Lilia Magomedova, Ricky Tsai, Stéphane Angers, Arturo Orellana, Carolyn L Cummins
Synthetic glucocorticoids (GCs) including dexamethasone (DEX) are powerful anti-inflammatory drugs. Long-term use of GCs, however, can result in metabolic side effects such as hyperglycemia, hepatosteatosis, and insulin resistance. The glucocorticoid receptor (GR) and liver X receptors (LXRα and LXRβ) regulate overlapping genes involved in gluconeogenesis and inflammation. We have previously shown that Lxrβ-/- mice are resistant to the diabetogenic effects of DEX, but still sensitive to its immunosuppressive actions...
January 27, 2017: Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28323983/autophagic-degradation-of-collagen-1a1-by-cortisol-in-human-amnion-fibroblasts
#14
Yabing Mi, Wangsheng Wang, Chuyue Zhang, Chao Liu, Jiangwen Lu, Wenjiao Li, Rujuan Zuo, Leslie Myatt, Kang Sun
Rupture of fetal membranes can initiate parturition at both term and preterm. Collagen is the crucial factor determining the tensile strength of the membranes. Toward the end of gestation, a feed-forward regeneration of cortisol via 11β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase 1 exists in fetal membranes. It remains undetermined whether cortisol contributes to collagen reduction in fetal membranes. Here we have examined whether cortisol accumulation is a causative factor for collagen reduction in human amnion fibroblasts, the major source of collagens in the membranes...
January 17, 2017: Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28323049/sutherlandia-frutescens-modulates-adrenal-hormone-biosynthesis-displays-anti-mineralocorticoid-and-serga-properties-acting-as-a-dissociated-glucocorticoid
#15
C A Sergeant, D Africander, P Swart, A C Swart
ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Sutherlandia frutescens is a traditional African medicinal plant used in the treatment of stress and anxiety, while also exhibiting anti-inflammatory properties. AIM OF STUDY: The study aimed at linking anti-stress and anti-inflammatory properties of S. frutescens to its influence on glucocorticoid biosynthesis and the inflammatory response via steroid receptor interaction. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The influence of S...
March 18, 2017: Journal of Ethnopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28321979/effect-of-the-early-social-environment-on-behavioural-and-genomic-responses-to-a-social-challenge-in-a-cooperatively-breeding-vertebrate
#16
Cecilia Nyman, Stefan Fischer, Nadia Aubin-Horth, Barbara Taborsky
The early social environment can have substantial, lifelong effects on vertebrate social behaviour, which can be mediated by developmental plasticity of brain gene expression. Early life effects can influence immediate behavioural responses towards later-life social challenges and can activate different gene expression responses. However, while genomic responses to social challenges have been reported frequently, how developmental experience influences the shape of these genomic reaction norms remains largely unexplored...
March 21, 2017: Molecular Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28321433/transcription-factor-oscillations-in-neural-stem-cells-implications-for-accurate-control-of-gene-expression
#17
REVIEW
Pascal Bielefeld, Marijn Schouten, Paul J Lucassen, Carlos P Fitzsimons
Naturally occurring oscillations in glucocorticoids induce a cyclic activation of the glucocorticoid receptor (GR), a well-characterized ligand-activated transcription factor. These cycles of GR activation/deactivation result in rapid GR exchange at genomic response elements and GR recycling through the chaperone machinery, ultimately generating pulses of GR-mediated transcriptional activity of target genes. In a recent article we have discussed the implications of circadian and high-frequency (ultradian) glucocorticoid oscillations for the dynamic control of gene expression in hippocampal neural stem/progenitor cells (NSPCs) (Fitzsimons et al...
2017: Neurogenesis (Austin, Tex.)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28320277/mechanisms-of-brain-glucocorticoid-resistance-in-stress-induced-psychopathologies
#18
REVIEW
V M Merkulov, T I Merkulova, N P Bondar
Exposure to stress activates the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis and leads to increased levels of glucocorticoid (GC) hormones. Prolonged elevation of GC levels causes neuronal dysfunction, decreases the density of synapses, and impairs neuronal plasticity. Decreased sensitivity to glucocorticoids (glucocorticoid resistance) that develops as a result of chronic stress is one of the characteristic features of stress-induced psychopathologies. In this article, we reviewed the published data on proposed molecular mechanisms that contribute to the development of glucocorticoid resistance in brain, including changes in the expression of the glucocorticoid receptor (GR) gene, biosynthesis of GR isoforms, and GR posttranslational modifications...
March 2017: Biochemistry. Biokhimii︠a︡
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28319850/methylation-of-hpa-axis-related-genes-in-men-with-hypersexual-disorder
#19
Jussi Jokinen, Adrian E Boström, Andreas Chatzittofis, Diana M Ciuculete, Katarina Görts Öberg, John N Flanagan, Stefan Arver, Helgi B Schiöth
Hypersexual Disorder (HD) defined as non-paraphilic sexual desire disorder with components of compulsivity, impulsivity and behavioral addiction, and proposed as a diagnosis in the DSM 5, shares some overlapping features with substance use disorder including common neurotransmitter systems and dysregulated hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis function. In this study, comprising 67 HD male patients and 39 male healthy volunteers, we aimed to identify HPA-axis coupled CpG-sites, in which modifications of the epigenetic profile are associated with hypersexuality...
March 10, 2017: Psychoneuroendocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28319043/glucocorticoid-receptors-finding-the-middle-ground
#20
Sofie J Desmet, Karolien De Bosscher
Glucocorticoids (GCs; referred to clinically as corticosteroids) are steroid hormones with potent anti-inflammatory and immune modulatory profiles. Depending on the context, these hormones can also mediate pro-inflammatory activities, thereby serving as primers of the immune system. Their target receptor, the GC receptor (GR), is a multi-tasking transcription factor, changing its role and function depending on cellular and organismal needs. To get a clearer idea of how to improve the safety profile of GCs, recent studies have investigated the complex mechanisms underlying GR functions...
March 20, 2017: Journal of Clinical Investigation
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