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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28641278/astragaloside-iv-alleviates-heat-induced-inflammation-by-inhibiting-endoplasmic-reticulum-stress-and-autophagy
#1
Zhiwei Dong, Jian Zhou, Ying Zhang, Yajie Chen, Zichen Yang, Guangtao Huang, Yu Chen, Zhiqiang Yuan, Yizhi Peng, Tongtong Cao
BACKGROUND: Thermal injury is the main cause of pulmonary disease in stroke after burn and can be life threatening. Heat-induced inflammation is an important factor that triggers a series of induces pathological changes. However, this mechanism underlying heat-induced inflammation in thermal inhalation injury remains unclear. Studies have revealed that astragaloside-IV (AS-IV), a natural compound extracted from Astragalus membranaceus, has protective effects in inflammatory diseases. Here, we investigated whether the protective effects of AS-IV occur because of the suppression of heat-induced endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress and excessive autophagy Methods: AS-IV was administered to Wistar rats after thermal inhalation injury and 16HBE140-cells were treated with AS-IV...
June 23, 2017: Cellular Physiology and Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28640955/in-solution-antibody-harvesting-with-a-plant-produced-hydrophobin-protein-a-fusion
#2
Katri Kurppa, Lauri Reuter, Anneli Ritala, Markus Linder, Jussi Joensuu
Purification is a bottleneck and a major cost factor in the production of antibodies. We set out to engineer a bi-functional fusion protein from two building blocks, Protein A and a hydrophobin, aiming at low-cost and scalable antibody capturing in solutions. Immunoglobulin-binding Protein A is widely used in affinity-based purification. The hydrophobin fusion tag, on the other hand, has been shown to enable purification by two-phase separation. Protein A was fused to two different hydrophobin tags, HFBI or II, and expressed transiently in Nicotiana benthamiana...
June 22, 2017: Plant Biotechnology Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28640942/polyfunctional-response-by-immtac-imcgp100-redirected-cd8-and-cd4-t-cells
#3
Caroline Boudousquie, Giovanna Bossi, Jacob M Hurst, Karolina A Rygiel, Bent K Jakobsen, Namir J Hassan
The success of immune system based cancer therapies depends on a broad immune response engaging a range of effector cells and mechanisms. Immune mobilising monoclonal TCRs against cancer (ImmTAC(™) molecules, fusion proteins consisting of a soluble, affinity enhanced TCR and an anti-CD3 scFv Ab) were previously shown to redirect CD8(+) and CD4(+) T cells against tumours. Here we present evidence that IMCgp100 (ImmTAC recognising a peptide derived from the melanoma-specific protein, gp100, presented by HLA-A*0201) efficiently redirects and activates effector and memory cells from both CD8(+) and CD4(+) repertoires...
June 22, 2017: Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28640934/substrate-specificity-and-safener-inducibility-of-the-plant-udp-glucose-dependent-family-1-glycosyltransferases-super-family
#4
Melissa Brazier-Hicks, Markus Gershater, David Dixon, Robert Edwards
Plants contain large numbers of family 1 UDP-glucose dependent glycosyltransferases (UGTs), including members that conjugate xenobiotics. Arabidopsis contains 107 UGT genes with 99 family members successfully expressed as glutathione transferase (GST)-fusion proteins in E.coli. A high-throughput catalytic screen was developed based on quantification of the fusion by measuring GST activity. UGT activity using UDP-glucose as donor was then determined using 11 synthetic acceptors bearing hydroxyl, amino and thiol groups that had been shown to undergo conjugation in plant extracts...
June 22, 2017: Plant Biotechnology Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28637309/anterior-cervical-pseudarthrosis-treated-with-bilateral-posterior-cervical-cages
#5
William Smith, Mark Gillespy, Jason Huffman, Veasna Vong, Bruce M McCormack
BACKGROUND: Pseudarthrosis after anterior cervical discectomy and fusion (ACDF) causes persistent pain and related disability. Posterior revision surgery results in higher healing rates, but is more extensive compared to anterior surgery. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate minimally disruptive, tissue sparing posterior fusion via bilateral placement of posterior cages between the facet joints as an alternative treatment option. METHODS: A retrospective, multicenter, medical chart review was performed and included 25 patients with symptomatic pseudarthrosis after ACDF treated with posterior cervical cages, and in select cases, anterior revision...
June 14, 2017: Operative Neurosurgery (Hagerstown, Md.)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28637120/is-tutobone-an-efficient-alternative-to-other-implants-used-in-anterior-cervical-discectomy-and-fusion-surgeries
#6
Savithru Kumar Prakash, Nitin Mukerji, Fredrik Prem Nath
BACKGROUND: The graft site morbidity following iliac crest harvesting is significant. To overcome this, different bone substitutes like coral dowels, solvent dissolved bovine/human bone substitutes, and carbon fiber/titanium cages have been used. This study was undertaken to assess the postoperative radiological fusion rates and symptom relief in patients who had Tutobone used as an interbody spacer compared to autologous bone graft (ABG), cages, surgibone and coral dowels. METHODS: This was a retrospective, observational study...
March 6, 2017: British Journal of Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28636943/opa1-isoforms-in-the-hierarchical-organization-of-mitochondrial-functions
#7
Valentina Del Dotto, Prashant Mishra, Sara Vidoni, Mario Fogazza, Alessandra Maresca, Leonardo Caporali, J Michael McCaffery, Martina Cappelletti, Enrico Baruffini, Guy Lenaers, David Chan, Michela Rugolo, Valerio Carelli, Claudia Zanna
OPA1 is a GTPase that controls mitochondrial fusion, cristae integrity, and mtDNA maintenance. In humans, eight isoforms are expressed as combinations of long and short forms, but it is unclear whether OPA1 functions are associated with specific isoforms and/or domains. To address this, we expressed each of the eight isoforms or different constructs of isoform 1 in Opa1(-/-) MEFs. We observed that any isoform could restore cristae structure, mtDNA abundance, and energetic efficiency independently of mitochondrial network morphology...
June 20, 2017: Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28636930/a-tonoplast-p3b-atpase-mediates-fusion-of-two-types-of-vacuoles-in-petal-cells
#8
Marianna Faraco, Yanbang Li, Shuangjiang Li, Cornelis Spelt, Gian Pietro Di Sansebastiano, Lara Reale, Francesco Ferranti, Walter Verweij, Ronald Koes, Francesca M Quattrocchio
It is known that plant cells can contain multiple distinct vacuoles; however, the abundance of multivacuolar cells and the mechanisms underlying vacuolar differentiation and communication among different types of vacuoles remain unknown. PH1 and PH5 are tonoplast P-ATPases that form a heteromeric pump that hyper-acidifies the central vacuole (CV) of epidermal cells in petunia petals. Here, we show that the sorting of this pump and other vacuolar proteins to the CV involves transit through small vacuoles: vacuolinos...
June 20, 2017: Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28636907/epr-spectroscopy-targets-structural-changes-in-the-e-%C3%A2-coli-membrane-fusion-cusb-upon-cu-i-binding
#9
Aviv Meir, Ahmad Abdelhai, Yoni Moskovitz, Sharon Ruthstein
Bacterial cells have developed sophisticated systems to deal with the toxicity of metal ions. Escherichia coli CusCFBA is a complex efflux system, responsible for transferring Cu(I) and Ag(I) ions; this system, located in the periplasm, involves four proteins, CusA, CusB, CusC, and CusF. CusA, CusB, and CusC are connected to one another in an oligomerization ratio of 3:6:3 CusA/CusB/CusC to form the CusCBA periplasm membrane transporter. CusB is an adaptor protein that connects the two membrane proteins CusA (inner membrane) and CusC (outer membrane)...
June 20, 2017: Biophysical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28636088/multicompartment-drug-release-system-for-dynamic-modulation-of-tissue-responses
#10
Aaron H Morris, Rajwant S Mahal, Jillian Udell, Michelle Wu, Themis R Kyriakides
Pharmacological modulation of responses to injury is complicated by the need to deliver multiple drugs with spatiotemporal resolution. Here, a novel controlled delivery system containing three separate compartments with each releasing its contents over different timescales is fabricated. Core-shell electrospun fibers create two of the compartments in the system, while electrosprayed spheres create the third. Utility is demonstrated by targeting the foreign body response to implants because it is a dynamic process resulting in implant failure...
June 21, 2017: Advanced Healthcare Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28636010/engineering-multi-functional-bacterial-outer-membrane-vesicles-as-modular-nanodevices-for-biosensing-and-bioimaging
#11
Qi Chen, Sharon Rozovsky, Wilfred Chen
Outer membrane vesicles (OMVs) are proteoliposomes derived from the outer membrane and periplasmic space of many Gram-negative bacteria including E. coli as part of their natural growth cycle. Inspired by the natural ability of E. coli to sort proteins to both the exterior and interior of OMVs, we reported here a one-pot synthesis approach to engineer multi-functionalized OMV-based sensors for both antigen binding and signal generation. SlyB, a native lipoprotein, was used a fusion partner to package nanoluciferase (Nluc) within OMVs, while a previously developed INP-Scaf3 surface scaffold was fused to the Z-domain for antibody recruiting...
June 21, 2017: Chemical Communications: Chem Comm
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28635660/diverse-regulation-of-vitamin-d-receptor-gene-expression-by-1-25-dihydroxyvitamin-d-and-atra-in-murine-and-human-blood-cells-at-early-stages-of-their-differentiation
#12
Sylwia Janik, Urszula Nowak, Agnieszka Łaszkiewicz, Anastasiia Satyr, Michał Majkowski, Aleksandra Marchwicka, Łukasz Śnieżewski, Klaudia Berkowska, Marian Gabryś, Małgorzata Cebrat, Ewa Marcinkowska
Vitamin D receptor (VDR) is present in multiple blood cells, and the hormonal form of vitamin D, 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D (1,25D) is essential for the proper functioning of the immune system. The role of retinoic acid receptor α (RARα) in hematopoiesis is very important, as the fusion of RARα gene with PML gene initiates acute promyelocytic leukemia where differentiation of the myeloid lineage is blocked, followed by an uncontrolled proliferation of leukemic blasts. RARα takes part in regulation of VDR transcription, and unliganded RARα acts as a transcriptional repressor to VDR gene in acute myeloid leukemia (AML) cells...
June 21, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28635568/additional-value-of-magnetic-resonance-targeted-biopsies-to-standard-transrectal-ultrasound-guided-biopsies-for-detection-of-clinically-significant-prostate-cancer
#13
Catrin von Below, Cecilia Wassberg, Mona Norberg, Anna Tolf, Joel Kullberg, Sam Ladjevardi, Michael Häggman, Anna Bill Axelson, Håkan Ahlström
OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to evaluate the additional value of magnetic resonance imaging-targeted biopsy (MRI-TB) to standard transrectal ultrasound-guided biopsy (SB) for detection of clinically significant prostate cancer (PCa). An additional aim was to compare the biopsy results to MRI evaluation using a Likert scale. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Patients with newly diagnosed localized PCa (n = 53) by clinical routine SB were prospectively included. The majority of the patients were scheduled for curative therapy before enrollment...
February 24, 2017: Scandinavian Journal of Urology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28634853/chloroplast-aggregation-during-the-cold-positioning-response-in-the-liverwort-marchantia-polymorpha
#14
Hiroyuki Tanaka, Mayuko Sato, Yuka Ogasawara, Noriko Hamashima, Othmar Buchner, Andreas Holzinger, Kiminori Toyooka, Yutaka Kodama
Under low-light conditions, chloroplasts localize along periclinal cell walls at temperatures near 20 °C, but they localize along anticlinal cell walls near 5 °C. This phenomenon is known as the cold-positioning response. We previously showed that chloroplasts move as aggregates rather than individually during the cold-positioning response in the fern Adiantum capillus-veneris. This observation suggested that chloroplasts physically interact with each other during the cold-positioning response. However, the physiological processes underlying chloroplast aggregation are unclear...
June 20, 2017: Journal of Plant Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28634814/assessment-of-waterborne-amine-coated-silver-nanoparticle-ag-np-induced-toxicity-in-labeo-rohita-by-histological-and-hematological-profiles
#15
Muhammad Saleem Khan, Naureen Aziz Qureshi, Farhat Jabeen, Muhammad Shakeel, Muhammad Saleem Asghar
Silver nanoparticles (Ag-NPs) have wide applications in the medical field; however, the toxicological effects are still poorly studied. The study was aimed to determine the effects of 15.78 nm spherical and amine-coated Ag-NPs on hematology and histology of gills and liver tissues in 28 days treated Labeo rohita (L. rohita). It was found that Ag-NPs induced alterations in the hematological parameters in a dose dependent manner. The Ag-NPs also induced histological alterations in a dose-dependent manner. In gill tissues, it induced fusion of secondary lamellae, separation of gill epithelium, fusion and necrosis of lamellar cells, hyperplasia, deformed cartilaginous skeleton, separation and lifting of epithelium, and curling of lamellae in a dose dependent manner...
June 20, 2017: Biological Trace Element Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28634789/detection-and-grading-of-prostate-cancer-using-temporal-enhanced-ultrasound-combining-deep-neural-networks-and-tissue-mimicking-simulations
#16
Shekoofeh Azizi, Sharareh Bayat, Pingkun Yan, Amir Tahmasebi, Guy Nir, Jin Tae Kwak, Sheng Xu, Storey Wilson, Kenneth A Iczkowski, M Scott Lucia, Larry Goldenberg, Septimiu E Salcudean, Peter A Pinto, Bradford Wood, Purang Abolmaesumi, Parvin Mousavi
PURPOSE  : Temporal Enhanced Ultrasound (TeUS) has been proposed as a new paradigm for tissue characterization based on a sequence of ultrasound radio frequency (RF) data. We previously used TeUS to successfully address the problem of prostate cancer detection in the fusion biopsies. METHODS  : In this paper, we use TeUS to address the problem of grading prostate cancer in a clinical study of 197 biopsy cores from 132 patients. Our method involves capturing high-level latent features of TeUS with a deep learning approach followed by distribution learning to cluster aggressive cancer in a biopsy core...
June 20, 2017: International Journal of Computer Assisted Radiology and Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28634583/circular-rnas-biogenesis-function-and-role-in-human-diseases
#17
REVIEW
John Greene, Anne-Marie Baird, Lauren Brady, Marvin Lim, Steven G Gray, Raymond McDermott, Stephen P Finn
Circular RNAs (circRNAs) are currently classed as non-coding RNA (ncRNA) that, unlike linear RNAs, form covalently closed continuous loops and act as gene regulators in mammals. They were originally thought to represent errors in splicing and considered to be of low abundance, however, there is now an increased appreciation of their important function in gene regulation. circRNAs are differentially generated by backsplicing of exons or from lariat introns. Unlike linear RNA, the 3' and 5' ends normally present in an RNA molecule have been joined together by covalent bonds leading to circularization...
2017: Frontiers in Molecular Biosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28634401/ohrr-of-mycobacterium-smegmatis-senses-and-responds-to-intracellular-organic-hydroperoxide-stress
#18
Omar A Garnica, Kishore Das, Subramanian Dhandayuthapani
Organic hydroperoxide reductase regulator (OhrR) in bacteria is a sensor for organic hydroperoxide stress and a transcriptional regulator for the enzyme organic hydroperoxide reductase (Ohr). In this study we investigated, using a GFP reporter system, whether Mycobacterium smegmatis OhrR has the ability to sense and respond to intracellular organic hydroperoxide stress. It was observed that M. smegmatis strains bearing the pohr-gfpuv fusion construct were able to express GFP only in the absence of an intact ohrR gene, but not in its presence...
June 20, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28634358/hiv-1-gp41-targeting-fusion-inhibitory-peptides-enhance-the-gp120-targeting-protein-mediated-inactivation-of-hiv-1-virions
#19
Qianqian Qi, Qian Wang, Weizao Chen, Lanying Du, Dimiter S Dimitrov, Lu Lu, Shibo Jiang
Protein- or peptide-based viral inactivators are being developed as novel antiviral drugs with improved efficacy, pharmacokinetics and toxicity profiles because they actively inactivate cell-free human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) virions before attachment to host cells. By contrast, most clinically used antiviral drugs must penetrate host cells to inhibit viral replication. In this study, we pre-treated HIV-1 particles with a gp120-targeting bispecific multivalent protein, 2Dm2m or 4Dm2m, in the presence or absence of the gp41-targeting HIV-1 fusion inhibitory peptides enfuvirtide (T20), T2635, or sifuvirtide (SFT)...
June 21, 2017: Emerging Microbes & Infections
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28634303/structural-characterization-of-the-rabphilin-3a-snap25-interaction
#20
Cristina Ferrer-Orta, María Dolores Pérez-Sánchez, Teresa Coronado-Parra, Cristina Silva, David López-Martínez, Jesús Baltanás-Copado, Juan Carmelo Gómez-Fernández, Senena Corbalán-García, Núria Verdaguer
Membrane fusion is essential in a myriad of eukaryotic cell biological processes, including the synaptic transmission. Rabphilin-3A is a membrane trafficking protein involved in the calcium-dependent regulation of secretory vesicle exocytosis in neurons and neuroendocrine cells, but the underlying mechanism remains poorly understood. Here, we report the crystal structures and biochemical analyses of Rabphilin-3A C2B-SNAP25 and C2B-phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate (PIP2) complexes, revealing how Rabphilin-3A C2 domains operate in cooperation with PIP2/Ca(2+) and SNAP25 to bind the plasma membrane, adopting a conformation compatible to interact with the complete SNARE complex...
June 20, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
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