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Takeharu Shiroki, Misa Yokoyama, Nobuhiro Tanuma, Ryuhei Maejima, Keiichi Tamai, Kazunori Yamaguchi, Tomoyuki Oikawa, Tetsuya Noguchi, Koh Miura, Tsuneaki Fujiya, Hiroshi Shima, Ikuro Sato, Naoko Murata-Kamiya, Masanori Hatakeyama, Katsunori Iijima, Tooru Shimosegawa, Kennichi Satoh
Recent studies have indicated that an increased expression of the M2 isoform of pyruvate kinase (PKM2) is involved in glycolysis and in tumor development. However, little is known about the role of PKM2 in gastric cancer (GC). Therefore, we examined the expression and function of PKM2 in human GC. We evaluated PKM1 and PKM2 expression by quantitative RT-PCR in gastric tissues from 10 patients who underwent gastric endoscopic submucosal dissection (ESD), 80 patients who underwent gastrectomy, and 7 healthy volunteers, and analyzed the correlation with clinicopathological variables...
February 24, 2017: Cancer Science
Chen Yan, Yaqing Chen, Wewei Kong, Liya Fu, Yunde Liu, Qingjuan Yao, Yuhua Yuan
Accumulating evidences indicate ectopic expression of noncoding RNAs are responsible for breast cancer progression. Increased non-coding RNA PVT1, the host gene of microRNA-1207-5p (miR-1207-5p), has been associated with breast cancer proliferation. However, how PVT1 functions in breast cancer is still not clear. In this study, we show a PVT1 derived microRNA, miR-1207-5p, which promotes the proliferation of breast cancer cells by directly regulating STAT6. We first confirm the positive correlated expression pattern between PVT1 and miR-1207-5p by observing consistent induced expression by estrogen, and overexpression in breast cancer cell lines and breast cancer patient specimens...
February 24, 2017: Cancer Science
Anita Y Voigt, Georg Zeller, Peer Bork
The human microbiome - the vast amount of microbes that colonize our body - play an important role in maintaining our health. Changes in microbiome composition have been linked to multiple diseases including cancer. Although mechanisms and causalities of these associations still have to be uncovered, microbiome alterations across various stages of disease can be utilized for novel diagnostic and prognostic tests. Research on biomarkers extracted from the gut microbiome has in particular focused on colorectal cancer, where clinical use is already on the horizon...
February 2017: Deutsche Medizinische Wochenschrift
Andreas Stallmach, Arndt Steube
Malignant diseases pose an enormous challenge to today's health care system. Advanced pathophysiological understanding of gastrointestinal microbiota and a viable, causal relation to the development of malignant tumors is increasingly becoming the focus of medical research. The following article presents key pathomechanisms of reciprocal interaction between microbiota and malignancy and illustrates the associated role of diet.
February 2017: Deutsche Medizinische Wochenschrift
Stefan Wirz, Steffen T Simon, Thomas Frieling, Claudia Bausewein, Raymond Voltz, Anne Pralong, Stefan Mönig, Markus Follmann, Martin Holtmann, Gerhild Becker
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 2017: Deutsche Medizinische Wochenschrift
David Felix Heigener, Gert Hoeffken, Dieter Wuerflein, Matthias Feurer, Achim Rittmeyer, Roland Maria Huber, Markus Pietsch, Arne Ring, Karl-Matthias Deppermann
Background Elderly patients (70 years or older) with non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) do benefit from systemic chemotherapy as shown in many studies. We prospectively collected multicentric data on therapeutic decisions from patients 70 years or older to reflect the reality in the German health care system. Material and Methods Patients 70 years or older with NSCLC Stage IIIB or IV were eligible. No more than 20 consecutive patients from each center were included. Comorbidities, weighted by the Charlson-comorbidity-index, and survival data were collected...
February 2017: Deutsche Medizinische Wochenschrift
Shantanu N Razdan, Peter G Cordeiro, Claudia R Albornoz, Joseph J Disa, Hina J Panchal, Alice Y Ho, Adeyiza O Momoh, Evan Matros
Background Immediate breast reconstruction (IBR) is often deferred, when postmastectomy radiotherapy (PMRT) is anticipated, due to high complication rates. Nonetheless, because of robust data supporting improved health-related quality of life associated with reconstruction, physicians and patients may be more accepting of tradeoffs. The current study explores national trends of IBR utilization rates and methods in the setting of PMRT, using the National Cancer Database (NCDB). The study hypothesis is that prosthetic techniques have become the most common method of IBR in the setting of PMRT...
February 24, 2017: Journal of Reconstructive Microsurgery
Michael W Chu, Fares Samra, Suhail K Kanchwala, Arash Momeni
More than 250,000 women will be diagnosed with invasive breast cancer in the United States in 2017 alone. A large number of these patients will undergo mastectomy and will be candidates for immediate breast reconstruction. The most common reconstructive options are either implant-based or autologous tissue reconstruction, with the latter having been reported to have higher rates of long-term patient satisfaction, lower cost, and less postoperative pain. A subset of patients, however, may not be ideal candidates for autologous microsurgical reconstruction, for example, due to inadequate abdominal tissues, yet they may desire this reconstructive modality...
February 24, 2017: Journal of Reconstructive Microsurgery
Matthew E Welsch, Anna Kaplan, Jennifer M Chambers, Michael E Stokes, Pieter H Bos, Arie Zask, Yan Zhang, Marta Sanchez-Martin, Michael A Badgley, Christine S Huang, Timothy H Tran, Hemanth Akkiraju, Lewis M Brown, Renu Nandakumar, Serge Cremers, Wan Seok Yang, Liang Tong, Kenneth P Olive, Adolfo Ferrando, Brent R Stockwell
Design of small molecules that disrupt protein-protein interactions, including the interaction of RAS proteins and their effectors, may provide chemical probes and therapeutic agents. We describe here the synthesis and testing of potential small-molecule pan-RAS ligands, which were designed to interact with adjacent sites on the surface of oncogenic KRAS. One compound, termed 3144, was found to bind to RAS proteins using microscale thermophoresis, nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy, and isothermal titration calorimetry and to exhibit lethality in cells partially dependent on expression of RAS proteins...
February 23, 2017: Cell
Pengfei Liu, Bo Yuan, Claudia M B Carvalho, Arthur Wuster, Klaudia Walter, Ling Zhang, Tomasz Gambin, Zechen Chong, Ian M Campbell, Zeynep Coban Akdemir, Violet Gelowani, Karin Writzl, Carlos A Bacino, Sarah J Lindsay, Marjorie Withers, Claudia Gonzaga-Jauregui, Joanna Wiszniewska, Jennifer Scull, Paweł Stankiewicz, Shalini N Jhangiani, Donna M Muzny, Feng Zhang, Ken Chen, Richard A Gibbs, Bernd Rautenstrauss, Sau Wai Cheung, Janice Smith, Amy Breman, Chad A Shaw, Ankita Patel, Matthew E Hurles, James R Lupski
De novo copy number variants (dnCNVs) arising at multiple loci in a personal genome have usually been considered to reflect cancer somatic genomic instabilities. We describe a multiple dnCNV (MdnCNV) phenomenon in which individuals with genomic disorders carry five to ten constitutional dnCNVs. These CNVs originate from independent formation incidences, are predominantly tandem duplications or complex gains, exhibit breakpoint junction features reminiscent of replicative repair, and show increased de novo point mutations flanking the rearrangement junctions...
February 23, 2017: Cell
Jan Schjøtt, Hilde Marie Torgauten, Tormod Karlsen Bjånes
Drug shortages occur frequently and they can affect patient safety [1-3]. Shortage involves medicines used in cancer, anaesthesia and in the treatment and prevention of chronic diseases and life-threatening conditions [1-3]. The potential for medication errors increases during drug shortages due to prescribing of unfamiliar agents [4]. This problem was highlighted with digitalis glycosides in Norway 2012. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
February 24, 2017: Basic & Clinical Pharmacology & Toxicology
Cory M Vela, Todd C Knepper, Nancy K Gillis, Christine M Walko, Howard L McLeod, J Kevin Hicks
INTRODUCTION: Moffitt Cancer Center's Personalized Medicine Clinical Service (PMCS) reviews somatic next-generation sequencing (NGS) assay results, provides interpretations, and identifies potential therapeutic options. The number of individuals reviewed by our clinical service who are eligible for on-label or off-label drug therapy based on genetic test results has previously not been quantitated. Herein, we determined the number of patients harboring an actionable mutation that would qualify a patient for an on-label drug or consideration for off-label drug treatment...
February 24, 2017: Pharmacotherapy
Dong Wook Shin, Young Il Kim, Seung Joon Kim, Jung Soo Kim, SeMin Chong, Young Sik Park, Sang-Yun Song, Jin Han Lee, Hee Kyung Ahn, Eun Young Kim, Sei Hoon Yang, Myoung Kyu Lee, Deog Gon Cho, Tae Won Jang, Ji Woong Son, Jeong-Seon Ryu, Moon-June Cho
OBJECTIVES: Despite a sharp increase in e-cigarette use, there is debate about whether e-cigarettes are a viable alternative for harm reduction, and the forms that regulation should take. Healthcare providers can be effective in offering guidance to patients and their families and shaping regulatory policy. We described lung cancer specialists' attitudes toward e-cigarettes and its regulation. METHODS: We undertook a nationwide survey of pulmonologists, thoracic surgeons, medical and radiological oncologists who are members of Korean Association for Lung Cancer...
2017: PloS One
Jun Yin, Jian Zhao, Weimin Hu, Guangping Yang, Hui Yu, Ruihao Wang, Linjing Wang, Guoqian Zhang, Wenfan Fu, Lu Dai, Wanzhen Li, Boyu Liao, Shuxu Zhang
Radio- and chemo-resistance represent major obstacles in the therapy of non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) and the underlying molecular mechanisms are not known. In the present study, during induction of radio- or chemo-resistance in NSCLC cells, dynamic analyses revealed that decreased expression of let-7 induced by irradiation or cisplatin resulted in increased expression of its target gene LIN28, and increased expression of LIN28 then contributed to further decreased expression of let-7 by inhibiting its maturation and biogenesis...
2017: PloS One
Jae Uk Chong, Ho Kyoung Hwang, Jin Ho Lee, Mijin Yun, Chang Moo Kang, Woo Jung Lee
PURPOSE: To investigate the association between clinical PET (positron emission tomography) type and oncologic outcome in resectable pancreatic cancer. METHODS: Between January 2008 and October 2012, patients who underwent potentially curative resection for resectable pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma without neoadjuvant treatment were retrospectively investigated. Clinical PET type was defined as follows: pancreatic cancer with similar 18FDG uptake to renal calyx was determined as kidney-type (K-type), and relatively lower 18FDG uptake than that of renal calyx was regarded as Non-K type...
2017: PloS One
Jessica Burkhamer, David Kriebel, Richard Clapp
Cancer incidence is rising among adolescents ("teens"). The causes of the increase are unknown but studying incidence patterns and trends may produce insights into etiology. Using data from the US National Cancer Institute's Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) program we described trends of cancer incidence among teens (15-19 year olds). We reviewed and summarized incidence patterns for histologic cancer groups and the most frequently diagnosed sites of cancer among teens during 2008-2012 reported by the SEER Cancer Statistics Review...
2017: PloS One
Andrew Schumacher, William M Sikov, Matthew I Quesenberry, Howard Safran, Humera Khurshid, Kristen M Mitchell, Adam J Olszewski
BACKGROUND: Informed consent forms (ICFs) for oncology clinical trials have grown increasingly longer and more complex. We evaluated objective understanding of critical components of informed consent among patients enrolling in contemporary trials of conventional or novel biologic/targeted therapies. METHODS: We evaluated ICFs for cancer clinical trials for length and readability, and patients registered on those studies were asked to complete a validated 14-question survey assessing their understanding of key characteristics of the trial...
2017: PloS One
Marisa Simon, Fahmi Mesmar, Luisa Helguero, Cecilia Williams
Triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) is an aggressive, highly recurrent breast cancer subtype, affecting approximately one-fifth of all breast cancer patients. Subpopulations of treatment-resistant cancer stem cells within the tumors are considered to contribute to disease recurrence. A potential druggable target for such cells is the maternal embryonic leucine-zipper kinase (MELK). MELK expression is upregulated in mammary stem cells and in undifferentiated cancers, where it correlates with poor prognosis and potentially mediates treatment resistance...
2017: PloS One
Yunbao Pan, Yufen Yuan, Guoshi Liu, Yongchang Wei
Triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) is an aggressive subgroup of breast cancer lack of effective target therapy. This study was to investigate the prognostic role of p53 and Ki-67 in 156 cases of TNBC patients. Logistic regression analysis was used to examine the association between clinical parameters and recurrence. Univariate and multivariate analyses were used to examine the association between clinical characteristics and disease-free survival (DFS) or overall survival (OS). Survival analyses using the Kaplan-Meier method were performed to examine the association between p53/Ki-67 and DFS and OS...
2017: PloS One
Márcia Faria, Paulo Matos, Teresa Pereira, Rafael Cabrera, Bruno A Cardoso, Maria João Bugalho, Ana Luísa Silva
Overexpression of tumor-associated RAC1b has been recently highlighted as one of the most promising targets for therapeutic intervention in colon, breast, lung and pancreatic cancer. RAC1b is a hyperactive variant of the small GTPase RAC1 and has been recently shown to be overexpressed in a subset of papillary thyroid carcinomas associated with unfavorable outcome. Using the K1 PTC derived cell line as an in vitro model, we observed that both RAC1 and RAC1b were able to induce a significant increase on NF-kB and cyclin D1 reporter activity...
2017: PloS One
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