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Ali Abbara, Shakunthala Narayanaswamy, Chioma Izzi-Engbeaya, Alexander N Comninos, Sophie Clarke, Zainab Malik, Deborah Papadopoulou, Ailish Clobentz, Zubair Sarang, Paul Bassett, Channa Jayasena, Waljit S Dhillo
<br>Background: Male testosterone levels decline by 1% per year from the age of 40yrs. Whilst a primary testicular deficit occurs, hypothalamic or pituitary dysregulation may also coexist. This study aimed to compare the hypothalamic response to kisspeptin and the pituitary response to GnRH of older men with those of young men. METHODS: Following 1 hour of baseline sampling, healthy older men (n=5, mean age 59.3±2.9yrs) received a 3 hour intravenous infusion (IVI) of either: vehicle, kisspeptin-54 0...
March 15, 2018: Neuroendocrinology
Qingfei Zeng, Erik Jeppesen, Xiaohong Gu, Zhigang Mao, Huihui Chen
The spatial-temporal distribution of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), their source, and potential health risks were determined in overlying water and surface sediments from Chinese Lake Guchenghu, adjacent commercial mitten crab ponds and the connected Wushen Canal to assess the contamination profile of the area. The total PAHs concentrations in sediment and water were 86.7-1790 ng g-1 dry weight (dw) and 184-365 ng L-1 in summer and 184-3140 ng g-1 dw and 410-1160 ng L-1 in winter. Two- and 3-ring PAHs were the predominant compounds in water, while PAHs with 4-6 rings dominated in the sediment at both upstream and downstream sites...
March 6, 2018: Chemosphere
Yilong Hua, Wei Wang, Xiaoyue Huang, Tianhang Gu, Dexin Ding, Lan Ling, Wei-Xian Zhang
Bicarbonate, ubiquitous in natural and waste waters is an important factor regulating the rate and efficiency of pollutant separation and transformation. For example, it can form complexes with U(VI) in the aqueous phase and at the solid-water interface. In this work, we investigated the effect of bicarbonate on the aging of nanoscale zero-valent (nZVI) in the context of U(VI) reduction and removal from wastewater. For fresh nZVI, over 99% aqueous uranium was separated in less than 10 min, of which 83% was reduced from U(VI) to U(IV)...
March 6, 2018: Chemosphere
Jinyu Wang, Haitao Zhang, Mohammed Al Shibar, Belinda Willard, Alo Ray, Kurt W Runge
Telomeres, the ends of eukaryotic chromosomes, consist of repetitive DNA sequences and their bound proteins that protect the end from the DNA damage response. Short telomeres with fewer repeats are preferentially elongated by telomerase. Tel1, the yeast homolog of human ATM kinase, is preferentially recruited to short telomeres and Tel1 kinase activity is required for telomere elongation. Rif1, a telomere-binding protein, negatively regulates telomere length by forming a complex with two other telomere binding proteins, Rap1 and Rif2, to block telomerase recruitment...
March 7, 2018: DNA Repair
Yanping Chen, Yingjun Chi, Qingchang Meng, Xiaolin Wang, Deyue Yu
In plants, various proteins are regulated by the ubiquitin-mediated system in response to different environmental stresses, such as drought, cold and heat. The Skp1-Cullin-F-box (SCF) complex, one of the multisubunit E3 ligases, has been shown to be involved in abiotic response pathways. In this study, Glycine max SKP1-like 1 (GmSK1), which had the typical characteristics of an SKP1 protein, with an alpha/beta structure, targeted to the cytoplasm and nucleus, was isolated from soybean [Glycine max (L.)]. GmSK1 was constitutively expressed in all the tested tissues, especially in the roots...
March 7, 2018: Plant Physiology and Biochemistry: PPB
Naif O Al-Harbi, Ahmed Nadeem, Sheikh F Ahmad, Moureq R Alotaibi, Abdullah F AlAsmari, Wael A Alanazi, Mohammad M Al-Harbi, Ahmad M El-Sherbeeny, Khalid E Ibrahim
Sepsis affects millions of people worldwide and is associated with acute kidney injury (AKI). Innate and adaptive immune cells have been shown to play an important role in AKI through release of various inflammatory mediators which include reactive oxidant species (ROS). Acetate, a short chain fatty acid produced by gut bacteria has anti-inflammatory properties and has also been shown to modulate oxidative stress in different immune cells. Effects of acetate have been shown to be both GPR43 dependent and independent in different cells/tissues...
March 12, 2018: International Immunopharmacology
Laura J Mosher, Sean C Godar, Marc Morissette, Kenneth M McFarlin, Simona Scheggi, Carla Gambarana, Stephen C Fowler, Thérèse Di Paolo, Marco Bortolato
The enzyme steroid 5α-reductase 2 (5αR2) catalyzes the conversion of testosterone into the potent androgen 5α-dihydrotestosterone. Previous investigations showed that 5αR2 is expressed in key brain areas for emotional and socio-affective reactivity, yet the role of this enzyme in behavioral regulation remains mostly unknown. Here, we profiled the behavioral characteristics of 5αR2 heterozygous (HZ) and knockout (KO) mice, as compared with their wild-type (WT) littermates. While male 5αR2 KO mice displayed no overt alterations in motoric, sensory, information-processing and anxiety-related behaviors, they exhibited deficits in neurobehavioral correlates of dominance (including aggression against intruders, mating, and tube dominance) as well as novelty-seeking and risk-taking responses...
February 16, 2018: Psychoneuroendocrinology
Taylor McLinden, Erica E M Moodie, Anne-Marie Hamelin, Sam Harper, Carmine Rossi, Sharon L Walmsley, Sean B Rourke, Curtis Cooper, Marina B Klein, Joseph Cox
BACKGROUND: Severe food insecurity (FI) is common among individuals living with HIV-hepatitis C virus (HCV) co-infection. We hypothesize that the injection of opioids is partly responsible for the association between injection drug use and severe FI. Therefore, this analysis examines whether methadone maintenance treatment for opioid dependence is associated with a lower risk of severe FI. METHODS: We used biannual data from the Canadian Co-infection Cohort (N = 608, 2012-2015)...
February 20, 2018: Drug and Alcohol Dependence
Alzbeta Bujnakova Mlynarcikova, Sona Scsukova
In the present study, we aimed to examine effects of different concentrations of the endocrine disruptor Bisphenol A (BPA; 1 nM, 1 μM, 100 μM) and the flavonoid fisetin (1, 10, 25, 50 μM), individually and in combinations, on steroidogenic function of porcine ovarian granulosa cells (GCs) represented by progesterone production. We confirmed that BPA inhibited progesterone production by GCs at the highest concentration. Fisetin reduced gonadotropin-stimulated progesterone synthesis dose-dependently, and in this manner, fisetin impaired progesterone production when added to BPA-treated GCs...
March 2, 2018: Environmental Toxicology and Pharmacology
Stefano Magni, François Gagné, Chantale André, Camilla Della Torre, Joëlle Auclair, Houda Hanana, Camilla Carla Parenti, Francesco Bonasoro, Andrea Binelli
Microplastics (MPs), plastic debris smaller than 5mm, are widely found in both marine and freshwater ecosystems. However, few studies regarding their hazardous effects on inland water organisms, have been conducted. For this reason, the aim of our research was the evaluation of uptake and chronic toxicity of two mixtures (MIXs) of virgin polystyrene microbeads (PMs) of 10μm and 1μm in size (MIX 1, with 5×105 of 1μmsizePMs/L and 5×105 of 10μmsizePMs/L, and MIX 2 with 2×106 of 1μmsizePMs/L and 2×106 of 10μmsizePMs/L) on freshwater zebra mussel Dreissena polymorpha (Mollusca: Bivalvia) during 6 exposure days...
March 12, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
Dian He, Yuan Li, Yunli Yu, Gang Cai, Fu Ouyang, Yuchan Lin, Hongjuan Lu, Lan Chu
Neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1) is a rare autosomal dominant disorder that primarily affects the skin and the nervous system. This condition is called segmental NF1 (also called neurofibromatosis type V) when clinical features are limited to one area of the body. Segmental NF1 is generally thought to result from somatic mosaicism due to a postzygotic mutation in the NF1 gene, thus a test for NF1 gene abnormalities in peripheral blood is usually negative. Here we report a 31-year-old male presenting with epileptic seizures, who had a history of neurofibromas confirmed by biopsy, but lacked a family history of neurofibromatosis...
March 1, 2018: Clinical Neurology and Neurosurgery
Casey R Guillot, Heidemarie Blumenthal, Michael J Zvolensky, Norman B Schmidt
Anxiety sensitivity (AS)- fear of anxiety symptoms and their potential negative consequences-has been implicated in the development of substance use problems and motivation to use substances for coping with distress, though the AS components (physical, cognitive, and social concerns) have not been studied extensively in relation to alcohol- and cannabis-related variables. In a cross-sectional design, self-report measures of AS and alcohol and cannabis use, motives, and problems were administered to 364 treatment-seeking cigarette smokers with a history of alcohol and cannabis use...
March 8, 2018: Addictive Behaviors
Kevin Smith, Jude Mary Cénat, Andréanne Lapierre, Jacinthe Dion, Martine Hébert, Karine Côté
BACKGROUND: Adolescents in a dating relationship can interact anytime using information and communication technologies. Yet, despite associated potential benefits, this availability of means to reach out to their partner may also exacerbate possible conflictual exchanges, including dating violence through technology. This study aimed to document the prevalence of cyber dating violence (CDV) victimization and perpetration among teenagers. It also explored self-esteem and psychological distress in participants having been perpetrators, victims, or perpetrator-victims, compared with those not having experienced CDV...
February 17, 2018: Journal of Affective Disorders
Toby Wise, Matthew J Taylor, Andres Herane-Vives, Antonella Marino Gammazza, Francesco Cappello, David J Lythgoe, Steve Cr Williams, Allan H Young, Anthony J Cleare, Danilo Arnone
BACKGROUND: There is uncertainty as to whether alterations in glutamatergic function in affective disorders differ between unipolar and bipolar disorders and between depressive and euthymic states. Additionally, there are currently no available blood-based markers of central glutamatergic function to support clinical diagnosis and aid brain based investigations. METHODS: In this study, we measured levels of glutamate in the dorsal anterior cingulate cortex in-vivo using 1H-Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy in medication free unipolar and bipolar patients (n = 29, 20 unipolar and 9 bipolar) experiencing a major depressive episode, in comparison with a group of matched healthy controls (n = 20)...
February 27, 2018: Journal of Affective Disorders
Jinkyu Lee, Yongnam Song, Choongsoo S Shin
BACKGROUND: During landing, the ankle angle at initial contact (IC) exhibits relatively wide individual variation compared to the knee and hip angles. However, little is known about the effect of different IC ankle angles on energy dissipation. RESEARCH QUESTION: The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between individual ankle angles at IC and energy dissipation in the lower extremity joints. METHODS: Twenty-seven adults performed single-leg landings from a 0...
March 7, 2018: Gait & Posture
Jocelyn F Hafer, Katherine A Boyer
BACKGROUND: Aging is associated with a loss of mobility and altered gait mechanics. Loss of function and mobility may be due to or exacerbated by low levels of physical activity in the aged. The mechanisms linking age-related changes in physiology, altered mobility and gait may be elucidated by examining movement coordination and coordination variability. RESEARCH QUESTION: The purpose of this study was to examine the impacts of age and habitual physical activity level on segment coordination and coordination variability during gait...
February 26, 2018: Gait & Posture
Heida Maria Sigurdardottir, Liv Elisabet Fridriksdottir, Sigridur Gudjonsdottir, Árni Kristjánsson
Evidence of interdependencies of face and word processing mechanisms suggest possible links between reading problems and abnormal face processing. In two experiments we assessed such high-level visual deficits in people with a history of reading problems. Experiment 1 showed that people who were worse at face matching had greater reading problems. In experiment 2, matched dyslexic and typical readers were tested, and difficulties with face matching were consistently found to predict dyslexia over and above both novel-object matching as well as matching noise patterns that shared low-level visual properties with faces...
March 12, 2018: Cognition
Michael J Zvolensky, Andrew H Rogers, Kara Manning, Julianna B D Hogan, Daniel J Paulus, Julia D Buckner, Nubia A Mayorga, Gerald Hallford, Norman B Schmidt
Cannabis is among the most widely used psychoactive substances in the United States, and rates of cannabis use and cannabis-related problems are increasing. Anxiety sensitivity, or the fear of aversive interoceptive sensations, may be relevant to better understanding cannabis use problems and other significant cannabis use processes (e.g., beliefs about quitting). Previous research has primarily focused on the global anxiety sensitivity construct; however, anxiety sensitivity lower-order facets (Cognitive Concerns, Physical Concerns, and Social Concerns) tend to be differentially related to substance use processes in non-cannabis specific studies...
March 5, 2018: Psychiatry Research
Ryu Miura, Atsuko Araki, Chihiro Miyashita, Sumitaka Kobayashi, Sachiko Kobayashi, Shu-Li Wang, Chung-Hsing Chen, Kunio Miyake, Mayumi Ishizuka, Yusuke Iwasaki, Yoichi M Ito, Takeo Kubota, Reiko Kishi
BACKGROUND: Prenatal exposure to perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) influences fetal development and later in life. OBJECTIVE: To investigate cord blood DNA methylation changes associated with prenatal exposure to PFASs. METHODS: We assessed DNA methylation in cord blood samples from 190 mother-child pairs from the Sapporo cohort of the Hokkaido Study (discovery cohort) and from 37 mother-child pairs from the Taiwan Maternal and Infant Cohort Study (replication cohort) using the Illumina HumanMethylation 450 BeadChip...
March 12, 2018: Environment International
Wei Qian, Xiaodong Hu, Weifeng He, Rixing Zhan, Menglong Liu, Daijun Zhou, Yong Huang, Xiaohong Hu, Zhanhua Wang, Guoxia Fei, Jun Wu, Malcolm Xing, Hesheng Xia, Gaoxing Luo
Toward fabricating a novel multifunctional wound dressing material, we incorporated a series of contents of reduced graphene oxide (rGO) sheets into polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) matrix to prepare the rGO-PDMS composite membrane and be used for wound dressing. The pore structure, dispersion of rGO, physical properties, water vapor transmission rate (WVTR), cytotoxicity and antibacterial activity were studied. Finally, the effect of the rGO-PDMS composite membrane on wound healing was investigated on a murine full-thickness skin wound model...
March 12, 2018: Colloids and Surfaces. B, Biointerfaces
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