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Hornet sting

Justin O Schmidt
Many familiar Hymenoptera are brightly colored and can sting painfully-thus, their threat and clinical importance may be exaggerated. Most stinging insects only sting to defend themselves or their colonies from predators. The clinical nature of Hymenoptera envenomations contrasts that of other venomous animals, including other arthropods, primarily because allergic reaction, not direct intoxication, is the usual main concern. This review focuses mainly on the clinical features of direct toxicity to Hymenoptera envenomations, which can induce a high incidence of acute renal failure, liver failure, multiple organ failures, and death...
May 18, 2018: Toxicon: Official Journal of the International Society on Toxinology
Senanayake A M Kularatne, Seyed Shahmy, Shantha S Rathnayake, Andrew H Dawson
OBJECTIVE: Arthropod stinging and bites are common environmental hazards in Sri Lanka. However, their medical importance has not been fully evaluated yet. This study aims to study the burden, epidemiology, and outcome of stings and bites in primary hospitals in the Kurunegala district in North Western Province (NWP) of Sri Lanka. METHODOLOGY: The study was conducted one year from 25th May 2013 to 25th May 2014. Details of all stings and bites admissions and their outcomes were retrospectively extracted from hospital records in all 44 primary hospitals in the district...
March 6, 2018: Clinical Toxicology
Takashi Ono, Masaharu Iida, Yosai Mori, Ryohei Nejima, Takuya Iwasaki, Shiro Amano, Kazunori Miyata
PURPOSE: To compare the outcomes of ocular injuries of hornets and paper wasps' stings. STUDY DESIGN: Retrospective case series. METHODS: Patients diagnosed with ocular injuries sustained by bee stings at Miyata Eye Hospital (Miyazaki, Japan) between August 2000 and July 2016 were enrolled. Retrospective data regarding type of bee, visual acuity, and treatment were collected from medical records. Outcomes of the hornet and wasp groups were compared...
March 2018: Japanese Journal of Ophthalmology
Jared A Forrester, Thomas G Weiser, Joseph D Forrester
INTRODUCTION: To review recent (2008-2015) United States mortality data from deaths caused by nonvenomous and venomous animals and compare with historical data. METHODS: The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Wide-Ranging Online Data for Epidemiologic Research database was queried to return all animal-related fatalities between 2008 and 2015. Mortality frequencies for animal-related fatalities were calculated using the estimated 2011 United States population...
March 2018: Wilderness & Environmental Medicine
Rosario Maugeri, Roberto G Giammalva, Francesca Graziano, Luigi Basile, Carlo Gulì, Antonella Giugno, Domenico G Iacopino
BACKGROUND: Cranioplasty (CP) is a widespread surgical procedure aimed to restore skull integrity and physiological cerebral hemodynamics, to improve neurological functions and to protect the underlying brain after a life-saving decompressive craniectomy (DC). Nevertheless, CP is still burdened by surgical complications, among which early or late graft infections are the most common outcome-threatening ones. CASE DESCRIPTION: We report the case of 48-year-old man admitted to our neurosurgical unit because of a painful right frontal swelling and 1-week purulent discharge from a cutaneous fistula...
2017: Surgical Neurology International
Ya-Nan Cheng, Ping Wen, Shi-Hao Dong, Ken Tan, James C Nieh
In colonial organisms, alarm pheromones can provide a key fitness advantage by enhancing colony defence and warning of danger. Learning which species use alarm pheromone and the key compounds involved therefore enhances our understanding of how this important signal has evolved. However, our knowledge of alarm pheromones is more limited in the social wasps and hornets compared with the social bees and ants. Vespa velutina is an economically important and widespread hornet predator that attacks honey bees and humans...
February 15, 2017: Journal of Experimental Biology
M Schiener, B Eberlein, C Moreno-Aguilar, G Pietsch, P Serrano, M McIntyre, L Schwarze, D Russkamp, T Biedermann, E Spillner, U Darsow, M Ollert, C B Schmidt-Weber, S Blank
BACKGROUND: Hymenoptera stings can cause severe anaphylaxis in untreated venom-allergic patients. A correct diagnosis regarding the relevant species for immunotherapy is often hampered by clinically irrelevant cross-reactivity. In vespid venom allergy, cross-reactivity between venoms of different species can be a diagnostic challenge. To address immunological IgE cross-reactivity on molecular level, seven recombinant antigens 5 of the most important Vespoidea groups were assessed by different diagnostic setups...
January 2017: Allergy
Sebastian Ibarra Jimenez, Regine Gries, Huimin Zhai, Nathan Derstine, Sean McCann, Gerhard Gries
In eusocial insects like Bald-faced hornets, Dolichovespula maculata, nest defense is essential because nests contain a large number of protein-rich larvae and pupae, and thus are attractive to nest predators. Our objectives were to investigate whether D. maculata exhibit pheromone-mediated nest defense, and to identify and field test any pheromone components. We tested for pheromone-mediated nest defense behavior of D. maculata by placing a paired box-apparatus near the entrance of D. maculata nests, and treating both boxes with a solvent control, or one of the two boxes with a solvent control and the other with either venom sac extract, the putative source of nest defense pheromone, or synthetic pheromone...
May 2016: Journal of Chemical Ecology
Senanayake A M Kularatne, Sathasivam Raveendran, Jayanthi Edirisinghe, Inoka Karunaratne, Kosala Weerakoon
In the order Hymenoptera, bees, hornets, and wasps are well-known stinging insects whose envenoming can be fatal. Their stinging attacks are common in rural and forested areas of Sri Lanka. However, fatal stinging by the large-bodied carpenter bees is unreported. We report the first known case of a fatal sting by the large carpenter bee, Xylocopa tranquebarica, in a forested area in Puttalam (North Western Province) in the dry zone of Sri Lanka. A 59-year-old healthy male manual laborer accompanied by a fellow worker had been fixing a fence on a coconut estate bordering a forested area when a flying insect emerged from a dead tree trunk and stung him on his face...
June 2016: Wilderness & Environmental Medicine
Zheng Liu, Xiang-Dong Li, Bo-Hui Guo, Yi Li, Ming Zhao, Hai-Yan Shen, Ying Zhai, Xue-Li Wang, Tao Liu
OBJECTIVES: During July to October 2013, the Asian giant hornet has killed 42 and injured 1,675 people in the southern part of Shaanxi Province, China. This study investigated this unusual and frequent public health event. METHODS: During the 3 months, 103 patients with severe Asian hornet stings were hospitalized in our hospital. Clinical data were collected using a standardized data collection form which included sex, age, length of hospital stay and medical recorder...
July 2016: Environmental Health and Preventive Medicine
Lorraine du Toit-Prinsloo, Neil Kennith Morris, Pieter Meyer, Gert Saayman
In South Africa bee stings are most commonly caused by either Apis mellifera capensis or A. mellifera scutellata, indigenous species which are notoriously aggressive when compared to European honey bees. According to Statistics South Africa, 109 deaths were documented for the period 2001-2011 as having been caused by hornets, wasps, and bees (ICD10-X26). This appears to be a small number but, as was reported in Australia, these statistics might be inaccurate due to either over- or underreporting of cases. We report 3 cases of fatalities due to bee stings, including one with postmortem features of diffuse intravascular coagulopathy...
March 2016: Forensic Science, Medicine, and Pathology
Hathairat Srisong, Sakda Daduang, Andreas L Lopata
The main insects causing allergy reactions to stinging insect in humans are Apidae (bees), Vespidae (wasps, yellow jackets and hornets) and Formicidae (ants). Their venom stings are composed of various biologically active peptides and protein components, some of which can cause toxicity or anaphylaxis in humans. The protein venom demonstrate some common allergenic activity such as for fire ants and vespids, which have two common allergens that are phospholipase A1 (enzymatic activity) and antigen 5 with unknown biological activity...
January 2016: Molecular Immunology
Marita Nittner-Marszalska, Ewa Cichocka-Jarosz
During their lifetime, 94.5% of people are stung by wasps, honeybees, hornets, or bumblebees (order Hymenoptera). After a sting, most people show typical local symptoms, 5% to 15% develop local allergic reactions, and 3% to 8.9%--systemic allergic reactions (SARs), which may be potentially life-threatening in about 10% of them. In mild forms of Hymenoptera-venom allergy (HVA), the leading symptoms are urticaria and edema (grades I and II, respectively, according to the Mueller classification). Severe SARs are classified as grade III (respiratory symptoms) and IV (cardiovascular symptoms)...
2015: Polskie Archiwum Medycyny Wewnętrznej
Naruo Yoshida, Hirokuni Hirata, Mineaki Watanabe, Kumiya Sugiyama, Masafumi Arima, Yasutsugu Fukushima, Yoshiki Ishii
BACKGROUND: Ves v 5 and Pol d 5, which constitute antigen 5, are recognized as the major, most potent allergens of family Vespidae. Several studies have reported the diagnostic sensitivity of the novel recombinant (r)Ves v 5 and rPol d 5 allergens in routine clinical laboratory settings by analyzing a group of Vespula and Polistes venom-allergic patients. In this study, we analyzed the sensitivity to venom specific (s)IgE by spiking with rVes v 5 and rPol d 5 in Japanese patients suspected of Hymenoptera venom allergy...
July 2015: Allergology International: Official Journal of the Japanese Society of Allergology
Xiang-Dong Li, Zheng Liu, Ying Zhai, Ming Zhao, Hai-Yan Shen, Yi Li, Bo Zhang, Tao Liu
BACKGROUND: The Asian giant hornet is the largest wasp species in the world. Its stings can cause acute interstitial nephritis and acute renal failure. From July to October, 2013, Asian giant hornet attacks have killed 42 people and injured 1675 people with their powerful venomous stings in Hanzhong, Ankang, and Shangluo, three cities in the southern part of Shaanxi Province, China. CASE REPORT: We report here a case of a 42-year-old man with acute interstitial nephritis following multiple Asian giant hornet stings...
2015: American Journal of Case Reports
E W R A Witharana, S K J Wijesinghe, K S M Pradeepa, W A I P Karunaratne, S Jayasinghe
OBJECTIVES: To describe wasp and bee species that sting humans, analyse risk factors and clinical features. METHODS: A prospective observational study was conducted on patients presenting to Base Hospital Deniyaya with suspected bee and wasp stings from 2011 to 2013. Data were gathered using a questionnaire and specimens of offending insects collected for identification. When the insect specimen was unavailable, identification was made by the victim selecting (without prompting) from several dead specimens presented by the first author...
March 2015: Ceylon Medical Journal
Dissanayake Mudiyanselage Priyantha Udaya Kumara Ralapanawa, Senanayake Abeysinghe Mudiyanselage Kularatne
BACKGROUND: Acute coronary syndrome after hymenoptera stings or exposure to environment toxins is referred to as the Kounis syndrome or allergic myocardial ischaemia with or without infarction. We report a case of hornet (Vespa affinis) sting causing Kounis syndrome in Sri Lanka and present a review of literature. CASE PRESENTATION: A 60-year -old female with diabetes mellitus and known allergy to bee venom was stung by a hornet on the right hand. Within 30 minutes she developed hypotension and wide spread T wave inversion in the 12 leads ECG that remained unchanged about 5 hours and reversed back to normal...
2014: BMC Research Notes
Jonathan Ciron, Stéphane Mathis, Anna Iljicsov, Samy Boucebci, Jean-Philippe Neau
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 2015: Clinical Neurology and Neurosurgery
S Müller, D Rafei-Shamsabadi, T Jakob
BACKGROUND: Hymenoptera stings give rise to anaphylactic reactions in 1.2-3.5 % of the population. The risk of repeat anaphylaxis following subsequent stings is greatly reduced through immunotherapy with the culprit venom. A prerequisite for allergen-specific immunotherapy is a precise diagnostic work-up. AIMS AND OBJECTIVES: We review the efficacy of currently available in-vitro diagnostic tests for hymenoptera venom allergy in different clinical scenarios. METHODS: A targeted literature review in PubMed and a review of the current guideline on hymenoptera venom allergy were performed...
September 2014: Der Hautarzt; Zeitschrift Für Dermatologie, Venerologie, und Verwandte Gebiete
W Hemmer
Simultaneous reactivity with the venoms of different Hymenoptera is commonly seen in patients allergic to insect venoms. Strong, though individually variable, cross-reactivity occurs between the venoms of different Vespinae species (Vespula, Dolichovespula, Vespa). In Middle Europe, anaphylaxis after European hornet stings is nearly always due to cross-reactivity with Vespula venom. The identification of the primary venom in patients testing positive for Vespula and Polistes (paper wasps) is particularly important in Mediterranean areas...
September 2014: Der Hautarzt; Zeitschrift Für Dermatologie, Venerologie, und Verwandte Gebiete
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