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Hong-Jin Tang, Wei Li, Mei Zhou, Li-Ying Peng, Jin-Xin Wang, Jia-Huang Li, Jun Chen
Xanthine oxidase, which catalyzes the oxidative reaction of hypoxanthine and xanthine into uric acid, is a key enzyme to the pathogenesis of hyperuricemia and gout. In this study, for the purpose of discovering novel xanthine oxidase (XO) inhibitors, a series of 2-arylbenzo[b]furan derivatives (3a-3d, 4a-4o and 6a-6d) were designed and synthesized. All these compounds were evaluated their xanthine oxidase inhibitory and antioxidant activities by using in vitro enzymatic assay and cellular model. The results showed that a majority of the designed compounds exhibited potent xanthine oxidase inhibitory effects and antioxidant activities, and compound 4a emerged as the most potent xanthine oxidase inhibitor (IC50  = 4...
February 2, 2018: European Journal of Medicinal Chemistry
Daniel de Castro Rodrigues, Carolina Buzullini, Tiago Arantes Pereira, Breno Cayeiro Curz, Lucas Vinicius Costa Gomes, Vando Edésio Soares, Thiago Souza Azeredo Bastos, Luiz Fellipe Monteiro Couto, Welber Daniel Zanetti Lopes, Gilson Pereira de Oliveira, Alvimar José da Costa
The present study was designed to evaluate possible adverse effects of different dosages of avermectins (abamectin and a combination of ivermectin + abamectin) administered subcutaneously in calves less than one month of age. Clinical as well as biochemical parameters of blood and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) were evaluated for animals subjected to various treatments. Thirty-five calves were divided into seven groups of five animals each: T01 (control), T02 (abamectin 200 μg/kg), T03 (abamectin 400 μg/kg), T04 (abamectin 600 μg/kg), T05 (ivermectin 450 μg/kg + abamectin 250 μg/kg), T06 (ivermectin 900 μg/kg + abamectin 500 μg/kg) and T07 (ivermectin 1350 μg/kg + abamectin 750 μg/kg)...
April 16, 2018: Research in Veterinary Science
Yue-Ying Wang, Shi-Ping Sun, He-Shui Zhu, Xian-Qin Jiao, Kai Zhong, Yu-Jie Guo, Guang-Ming Zha, Li-Qiang Han, Guo-Yu Yang, He-Ping Li
Subacute ruminal acidosis (SARA) can cause rapid lipopolysaccharide (LPS) elevation and milk yield decline in lactating ruminants. LPS has been shown to promote apoptosis and reduce the proliferation of mammary epithelial cells. Previous studies have shown that γ- amino butyric acid (GABA) can enhance production performance, regulating β-cell apoptosis and proliferation. Whether GABA can regulate apoptosis and proliferation induced by LPS in mammary epithelial cells is unknown. In this paper, we detected the role of GABA on proliferation and apoptosis as well as inflammation induced by LPS in bovine mammary epithelial cells (MAC-T cell line)...
April 18, 2018: Research in Veterinary Science
Vasiliy I Vladimirov, Evgeni Yu Zernii, Viktoriia E Baksheeva, Hanna Wimberg, Alexey S Kazakov, Natalya K Tikhomirova, Ekaterina L Nemashkalova, Vladimir A Mitkevich, Andrey A Zamyatnin, Valery M Lipkin, Pavel P Philippov, Sergei E Permyakov, Ivan I Senin, Karl-W Koch, Dmitry V Zinchenko
Rod cell membranes contain cholesterol-rich detergent-resistant membrane (DRM) rafts, which accumulate visual cascade proteins as well as proteins involved in regulation of phototransduction such as rhodopsin kinase and guanylate cyclases. Caveolin-1 is the major integral component of DRMs, possessing scaffolding and regulatory activities towards various signaling proteins. In this study, photoreceptor Ca2+ -binding proteins recoverin, NCS1, GCAP1, and GCAP2, belonging to neuronal calcium sensor (NCS) family, were recognized as novel caveolin-1 interacting partners...
April 14, 2018: Cell Calcium
Jing Wang, Lucy K Shewell, Adrienne W Paton, James C Paton, Christopher J Day, Michael P Jennings
The B subunit of the subtilase cytotoxin (SubB) recognises N-glycolylneuraminic acid (Neu5Gc) containing glycans, the most prominent form of aberrant glycosylation in human cancers. We have previously engineered SubB by construction of a SubBΔS106/ΔT107 mutant (SubB2M) for greater specificity and enhanced recognition of Neu5Gc containing glycans,. In this study, we further explore the utility of SubB2M as a Neu5Gc lectin by showing its improved specificity and recognition for Neu5Gc containing glycans over the wild-type SubB protein and a anti-Neu5Gc IgY antibody in a N-acetylneuraminic acid (Neu5Ac)/Neu5Gc glycan array and by surface plasmon resonance...
April 20, 2018: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
Dillip Kumar Sahu, Tapas Pal, Kalyanasis Sahu
A new phase transfer strategy has been introduced to convert aqueous phase protein-protected nanomaterials into fluorescent nanoclusters in the reverse micellar environment using bovine serum albumin (BSA)-protected silver nanoclusters (AgNCs) and nanoparticles (AgNPs) as an example. Thanks to the basic pH employed in the fabrication of protein-protected nanoclusters that induces negative charge of the protein capping and facilitates the transfer process of the nanomaterials from aqueous phase to a cationic gemini surfactant (16-2-16)/hexane/hexanol/water reverse micelle (RM) phase...
April 23, 2018: Chemphyschem: a European Journal of Chemical Physics and Physical Chemistry
Shengshuang Zhu, Hang Xing, Pavlo Gordiichuk, Jungsoo Park, Chad A Mirkin
A new class of polymer spherical nucleic acid (SNA) conjugates comprised of poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) nanoparticle (NP) cores is reported. The nucleic acid shell that defines the PLGA-SNA exhibits a half-life of more than 2 h in fetal bovine serum. Importantly, the PLGA-SNAs can be utilized to encapsulate a hydrophobic model drug, coumarin 6, which can then be released in a polymer composition-dependent tunable manner, while the dissociation rate of the nucleic acid shell remains relatively constant, regardless of core composition...
April 23, 2018: Advanced Materials
A Khojasteh, S Hosseinpour, M M Dehghan, F Mashhadiabbas, M Rezai Rad, S Ansari, S Farzad Mohajeri, H H Zadeh
Among many applications of therapeutic monoclonal antibodies (mAbs), a unique approach for regenerative medicine has entailed antibody-mediated osseous regeneration (AMOR). In an effort to identify a clinically relevant model of craniofacial defect, the present study investigated the efficacy of mAb specific for bone morphogenetic protein- (BMP-) 2 to repair canine segmental mandibular continuity defect model. Accordingly, a 15 mm unilateral segmental defect was created in mandible and fixated with a titanium plate...
2018: BioMed Research International
Susanna Sternberg Lewerin, Cecilia Wolff, Charles Masembe, Karl Ståhl, Sofia Boqvist, Mikael Andersson Franko
Animal production is important for the agricultural economy in low-income countries, but is threatened by infectious diseases. Serosurveys are conducted for different reasons such as disease detection, risk factor studies, disease monitoring and establishing disease-free status. Most reports on such serosurveys include some discussion about methodological constraints but still, by necessity, rely on serological results for case definition. This study uses a cross-sectional serosurvey for foot-and-mouth disease (FMD), Rift Valley fever (RVF) and contagious bovine pleuropneumonia (CBPP) in cattle in three districts in Western Uganda to illustrate the limitations of this approach, addressing the questions of what flaws can be expected in sampling and diagnostics and how these influence the results...
2018: Veterinary Record Open
Rafał I Rawski, Przemysław T Sanecki, Małgorzata Dżugan, Klaudia Kijowska
It has been experimentally proven that germinated plant seeds, such as leek, red clover, broccoli, and others contain proteases, which are able to digest animal protein such as gelatin, bovine albumin, casein, and egg albumin. Preliminary tests were carried out with the use of a semi-qualitative gelatin test, which is often applied to prove the presence of fruit enzymes. Quantitative examinations were carried out with the use of a ninhydrin reaction for amino acid determination as well as the Bradford and Smith methods for protein determination...
2018: Chemické Zvesti
Eduardo M Razza, Mateus J Sudano, Patricia K Fontes, Fernanda F Franchi, Katia Roberta A Belaz, Priscila H Santos, Anthony C S Castilho, Daniele F O Rocha, Marcos N Eberlin, Mariana F Machado, Marcelo F G Nogueira
Mammalian oocytes resume meiosis spontaneously after removal from the ovarian follicle. We tested the effects of a 2-h prematuration treatment (Pre-IVM) with forskolin (FSK) and 3-isobutyl-1-methylxanthine (IBMX) in bovine cumulus-oocyte complexes (COCs) on the lipid content of oocytes and blastocysts, on the membrane lipid composition of blastocysts and on the transcriptional profiling of cumulus cells and blastocysts in a high-throughput platform. Embryonic development rates to the morula (mean 56.1%) or blastocyst (mean 26...
April 23, 2018: Reproduction, Fertility, and Development
Akwoba Joseph Ogugua, Victor Oluwatoyin Akinseye, Eniola O Cadmus, Emmanuel A Jolaoluwa Awosanya, Peter Ibukun Alabi, Olugbenga S Idowu, Samson A Akinade, Emma J Dale, Lorraine Perrett, Andrew Taylor, Moriyon Ignocio, Simeon I B Cadmus
Using a cross-sectional survey, we determined the prevalence and risk factors associated with bovine brucellosis in herds under extensive production system in southwestern Nigeria. Antibodies to Brucella species in serum samples were tested using the Rose Bengal test (RBT) and competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (cELISA); for milk, the milk ring test (MRT) and indirect-ELISA (i-ELISA) were used. Questionnaire was administered to cattle herdsmen to determine factors predisposing the animals to bovine brucellosis...
April 22, 2018: Tropical Animal Health and Production
Claudio Cipolat-Gotet, Michele Pazzola, Alessandro Ferragina, Alessio Cecchinato, Maria L Dettori, Giuseppe M Vacca
The importance of milk coagulation properties for milk processing, cheese yield, and quality is widely recognized. The use of traditional coagulation traits presents several limitations for testing bovine milk and even more for sheep milk, due to its rapid coagulation and curd firming, and early syneresis of coagulum. The aim of this technical note is to test and improve model fitting for assessing coagulation, curd firming, and syneresis of sheep milk. Using milk samples from 87 Sarda ewes, we performed in duplicate lactodynamographic testing...
April 18, 2018: Journal of Dairy Science
S A Metzger, L L Hernandez, J H Skarlupka, G Suen, T M Walker, P L Ruegg
The objective of this pilot study was to evaluate the influence of sampling technique and exposure to different bedding types on the milk microbiome of healthy primiparous cows. Primiparous Holstein cows (n = 20) with no history of clinical mastitis or monthly somatic cell counts >150,000 cells/mL were selected for this study. From each enrolled cow, a composite milk sample was aseptically collected from all 4 mammary quarters (individual quarter somatic cell counts <100,000 cells/mL), 1 individual quarter milk sample was collected using conventional aseptic technique, and 2 individual quarter milk samples were collected directly from the gland cistern using a needle and vacuum tube...
April 18, 2018: Journal of Dairy Science
L Q Han, T Y Gao, G Y Yang, J J Loor
Fatty acid synthase is a key enzyme for the synthesis of milk fat in the ruminant mammary gland. In nonruminants, sterol regulatory element binding protein 1 (SREBP1) is a regulator of FASN gene expression, and SREBF chaperone (SCAP) is essential for SREBP1 maturation and activity. However, the role of SCAP on the regulation of FASN gene expression in ruminants is unknown. The objective of this study was to investigate the transcriptional regulation of FASN by overexpressing SCAP in bovine mammary epithelial cells...
April 18, 2018: Journal of Dairy Science
D A Yang, R A Laven, C Heuer, W D Vink, R N Chesterton
As part of a cross-sectional study of bovine digital dermatitis (BDD) in 60,455 cows across 224 herds, in Taranaki, a region of the North Island of New Zealand, from September 2014 to February 2015, questionnaires from 114 farms were analysed to identify the key management practices which affect the probability of a farm being affected by BDD and the prevalence of an individual cow being affected on affected farms. The data from the questionnaires were analysed using a Bayesian hurdle model. Two factors were identified as being associated with farm level infection status: (1) milking parlour type; farms which had rotary platforms were more likely to be recorded as having BDD than those which had herringbone parlours (odds ratio, OR, 3...
April 2018: Veterinary Journal
Sylvie Pochet, Céline Arnould, Perrine Debournoux, Jocelyne Flament, Odile Rolet-Répécaud, Eric Beuvier
Lactoferrin is an iron-binding cationic glycoprotein (pI = 8.7) beneficial for mammal health, especially udder and milk preservation. A new simple two-step method of quantification was developed. Lactoferrin in 1 mL of bovine skim milk was first adsorbed onto 100 mg of macroporous sulfonated-resin at pH 6.8 by rotary stirring for 90 min at 20-25 °C. After washing the resin, lactoferrin was desorbed using 1 mL of 2 M NaCl containing phenylalanine as a dilution marker, then fully resolved and quantified by RP-HPLC at 220 nm using a wide-bore C4 silica column...
September 1, 2018: Food Chemistry
Yuuki Shimozu, Takayasu Hirai, Tsutomu Hatano
Three oligomeric hydrolysable tannins, coriariins K, L, and M, which were previously undescribed, together with five known hydrolysable tannins were isolated from dried leaves of Coriaria japonica. Their structures were determined based on 1D and 2D NMR spectroscopy, HR-ESI-MS, and ECD spectroscopy experiments. Among the isolated compounds, coriariin M has a unique trimer structure where both dehydrodigalloyl and valoneoyl group linkages were found between the hydrolysable tannin monomers. Dimeric hydrolysable tannins coriariins K and L, having a dehydrodigalloyl group as the linking unit, were structurally related to coriariin A, the main hydrolysable tannin of this plant species...
April 18, 2018: Phytochemistry
Anum Gul, Bimal Kunwar, Maryam Mazhar, Shaheen Faizi, Dania Ahmed, Muhammad Raza Shah, Shabana U Simjee
Numerous studies have suggested that nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) and inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) are important mediators of inflammatory response in human and animal models of arthritis. Besides, oxidative stress markers, nitric oxide (NO) and peroxide (PO) are also major contributors in the pathogenesis of rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Over expression of these inflammatory mediators leads to the extracellular matrix degradation, and excessive cartilage and bone resorption, ultimately leading to the irreversible damage to joints...
April 18, 2018: International Immunopharmacology
Parvin Taghipour, Mostafa Zakariazadeh, Maryam Sharifi, Jafar Ezzati Nazhad Dolatabadi, Abolfazl Barzegar
Bovine serum albumin (BSA) is the most abundant protein in the blood circulation and it is commonly used for drug delivery in blood. Therefore, we aim to study BSA interaction with erlotinib as an anticancer drug using surface plasmon resonance (SPR) and molecular modeling methods under physiological conditions (pH = 7.4). BSA immobilized on carboxymethyl dextran hydrogel Au chip (CMD) after activation with N-hydroxysuccinimide and N-ethyl-N-(3-diethylaminopropyl) carbodiimide and then the erlotinib binding to BSA at different concentrations was evaluated...
April 9, 2018: Journal of Photochemistry and Photobiology. B, Biology
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