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C Fowler, R J M Lynch, D Shingler, D Walsh, C Carson, A Neale, R J Willson, A Brown
OBJECTIVE: To assess Scanning Electron Microscopy in Back-Scattered Emission mode (BSE-SEM) for measurement of lesion mineral content as a function of depth. Direct comparison is made with Transverse Micro-Radiography (TMR) and Surface Micro-Hardness (SMH) on carious and erosive lesions. DESIGN: Caries lesions prepared from sound bovine enamel at 37 °C and pH 4.6 in unsaturated (7d) or part-saturated (8d, 4.1 mM Ca2+ , 8 mM Pi) lactic acid /methyl cellulose gel system, followed by TMR analysis...
June 13, 2018: Archives of Oral Biology
Kristyna Brejchova, Peter Trosan, Pavel Studeny, Pavlina Skalicka, Tor Paaske Utheim, Jan Bednar, Katerina Jirsova
Human limbal epithelial cells (LECs) intended for treatment of limbal stem cell deficiency are commonly cultivated on a 3T3 feeder layer with complex culture medium supplemented with fetal bovine serum (FBS). However, FBS is a xenogeneic component containing poorly characterised constituents and exhibits quantitative and qualitative lot-to-lot variations. Human limbal explants were plated on untreated or fibrin coated plastic plates and cultured in two non-xenogeneic media (supplemented with either human serum or platelet lysate only)...
June 18, 2018: Experimental Eye Research
Fumihisa Nakamura, Ichiro Tsukamoto, Shinji Inoue, Kazuhiko Hashimoto, Masao Akagi
Angiotensin II type 1 receptor (AT1R) appears to have a mechanosensing function in a number of cell types. The purpose of this study was to examine whether AT1R expressed in articular chondrocytes is involved in osteoarthritis (OA) progression in vivo and whether cyclic compressive loading activates the AT1R and stimulates hypertrophic differentiation of chondrocytes in vitro . The relationships between the modified Mankin score for cartilage degeneration and the expression of AT1R and type X collagen (Col X) were studied in mouse knees with OA induced using the destabilization-of-medial-meniscus model...
June 2018: FEBS Open Bio
Yan Hu, Xiaoou Li, Yacong An, Jinhong Duan, Xian-Da Yang
CD19 is overexpressed in most human B cell malignancies and considered an important tumor marker for diagnosis and treatment. Aptamers are oligonucleotides that may potentially serve as tumor-homing ligand for targeted cancer therapy with excellent affinity and specificity. In this study, we selected a novel CD19 aptamer (LC1) that was a 59-nucleotide single strand DNA. The aptamer could bind to recombinant CD19 protein with a K d of 85.4 nM, and had minimal cross reactivity to bovine serum albumin (BSA) or ovalbumin (OVA)...
June 1, 2018: Oncotarget
Sunday O Peters, Tanveer Hussain, Adeyemi S Adenaike, Matthew A Adeleke, Marcos De Donato, Jordan Hazzard, Masroor E Babar, Ikhide G Imumorin
Genetic polymorphisms and diversity of BoLA-DRB3.2 are essential because of DRB3 gene's function in innate immunity and its association with infectious diseases resistance or tolerance in cattle. The present study was aimed at assessing the level of genetic diversity of DRB3 in the exon 2 (BoLA-DRB3.2) region in African, American and Asian cattle breeds. Amplification of exon 2 in 174 cattle revealed 15 haplotypes. The breeds with the highest number of haplotypes were Brangus (10), Sokoto Gudali (10) and Dajal (9), while the lowest number of haplotypes were found in Holstein and Sahiwal with 4 haplotypes each...
2018: Journal of Genomics
Natasha L Maia, Mariana de Barros, Leandro L de Oliveira, Silvia A Cardoso, Marcelo H Dos Santos, Fabio A Pieri, Teodorico C Ramalho, Elaine F F da Cunha, Maria A S Moreira
Mastitis is an inflammation of the mammary gland that causes major losses in the dairy industry. Streptococcus spp. are among the main agents of this disease. Increased resistance to antibiotics is one of the causes of therapeutic failure. Plants, due to their broad chemodiversity, are an interesting source of new molecules with antibacterial activity. Using these compounds along with traditional antibiotics is a possible method for reversing resistance. The objective of this work was to determine the interactions between the activities of guttiferone-A and 7-epiclusianone, two active substances isolated from the fruits of Garcinia brasiliensis , and traditional antibiotics against Streptococcus spp...
2018: Frontiers in Microbiology
Thibaud Kuca, Thomas Passler, Benjamin W Newcomer, John D Neill, Patricia K Galik, Kay P Riddell, Yijing Zhang, Paul H Walz
Bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) is an economically important pathogen of cattle that can also infect a wide range of domestic and wild species including sheep, goats, deer, camelids, and pigs. BVDV isolates are genetically highly diverse and previous work demonstrated that many substitutions were introduced in the viral genome during acute infections in cattle. In contrast, only limited information exists regarding changes occurring during BVDV infections in species other than cattle. The purpose of this study was to determine the changes introduced in the open reading frame (ORF) of the BVDV genome during serial infection of pregnant cattle and sheep with an isolate of bovine origin...
2018: Frontiers in Microbiology
Tiago Tomazi, Antonio Francisco de Souza Filho, Marcos Bryan Heinemann, Marcos Veiga Dos Santos
The objectives of this study were to: (a) genotypically characterize Streptococcus agalactiae isolates recovered from clinical mastitis (CM) cases in dairy cows and, (b) determine the association of antimicrobial susceptibility (AMS) and genotypes of Strep. agalactiae clustered according to the genetic similarity. A total of 89 Strep. agalactiae isolates recovered from bovine CM were genotyped using random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) analysis. In addition, the AMS of the isolates was determined using a commercial broth microdilution test composed of 10 antimicrobials (penicillin, ampicillin, oxacillin, cephalothin, ceftiofur, penicillin/novobiocin, erythromycin, pirlimycin, tetracycline, and sulfadimethoxine)...
2018: PloS One
Adriana Patricia Corredor, Janneth González, Luis Alfredo Baquero, Hernando Curtidor, Nury Nathalia Olaya-Galán, Manuel Alfonso Patarroyo, María Fernanda Gutiérrez
The envelope glycoprotein 51 (gp51) is essential for bovine leukaemia virus (BLV) entry to bovine B-lymphocytes. Although the bovine adaptor protein 3 complex subunit delta-1 (boAP3D1) has been proposed as the potential receptor, the specific ligand-receptor interaction has not yet been completely defined and boAP3D1 receptor and gp51 3D structures have not been determined. This study was thus aimed at a functional annotation of boAP3D1 cellular adaptor protein and BLV gp51 and, proposing a reliable model for gp51-AP3D1 interaction using bioinformatics tools...
2018: PloS One
Sabera Millan, Aniket Kumar, Lakkoji Satish, B Susrisweta, Priyabrat Dash, Harekrushna Sahoo
The binding affinity between bovine serum albumin (BSA) and copper ferrite (CuFe2 O4 ) nanoparticles in terms of conformation, stability and activity of protein was studied using various spectroscopic methods. The quenching involved in BSA-CuFe2 O4 NP interaction was static quenching as analysed by different techniques (steady-state and time-resolved fluorescence along with temperature-dependent fluorescence measurements). Among all types of possible interactions, it was revealed that the major binding forces were van der Waals interaction and hydrogen bonding, which were explored from negative values of enthalpy change (∆H = -193...
June 21, 2018: Luminescence: the Journal of Biological and Chemical Luminescence
Andrés M Baraibar, Ricardo de Pascual, Marcial Camacho, Natalia Domínguez, J David Machado, Luis Gandía, Ricardo Borges
Three divalent cations can elicit secretory responses in most neuroendocrine cells, including chromaffin cells. The extent to which secretion is elicited by the cations in intact depolarized cells was Ba2+  > Sr2+  ≥ Ca2+ , contrasting with that elicited by these cations in permeabilized cells (Ca2+  > Sr2+  > Ba2+ ). Current-clamp recordings show that extracellular Sr2+ and Ba2+ cause membrane depolarization and action potentials, which are not blocked by Cd2+ but that can be mimicked by tetra-ethyl-ammonium...
June 21, 2018: Pflügers Archiv: European Journal of Physiology
Heng Wang, Chongliang Bi, Yinjie Wang, Jun Sun, Xia Meng, Jianji Li
BACKGROUND: Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) internalization into bovine mammary epithelial cells (bMECs) is considered an important pathogenic mechanism for the establishment of mastitis. Given the interesting link between selenium (Se) status and mastitis, our objective was to prove that Se was essential to suppress pro-inflammatory mediators, in part, by modulation of Toll-like receptor2 (TLR2), nuclear factor kappaB (NF-κB) and mitogen activated protein kinase (MAPK) signal transduction pathway in bMECs...
June 20, 2018: BMC Veterinary Research
Z Xu, C J Suo, Y S Ruan, R Y Tan, W Zhang, T L Niu
Objective: To investigate the effect and related mechanisms of RTA-408 on rat vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) calcification induced by advanced glycation end products(AGE). Methods: VSMCs were isolated from the aorta of Sprague Dawley rats and cultured in vitro. The fifth generation of VSMCs were randomly divided into 4 groups with random number table including control group(cells were incubated with normal medium for 2 days, then incubated with bovine serum albumin for 5 days),AGE group (cells were incubated with normal medium for 2 days, then incubated with 200 mg/L AGE for 5 days), experimental group(cells were incubated with 100 nmol/L RTA-408 for 2 days,then incubated with 200 mg/L AGE for 5 days),and RTA group(cells were incubated with 100 nmol/L RTA-408 for 2 days,then incubated with bovine serum albumin for 5 days)...
June 24, 2018: Zhonghua Xin Xue Guan Bing za Zhi
Jeannette Attiger, Alois Boos, Karl Klisch
Binucleate trophoblast giant cells (TGCs) are one characteristic feature of the ruminant placenta. In cows, the frequency of TGCs remains constant for most of the duration of pregnancy. As TGCs are depleted by their fusion with uterine epithelial cells, they need to be constantly formed. It is still unclear whether they develop from stem cells within the trophectoderm or whether they can arise from any uninucleate trophoblast cell (UTC). Within the latter, generally accepted theory, a basally located uninucleate cell (BUC) without contact to the feto-maternal interface would represent a transient cell between a UTC and a TGC...
June 20, 2018: Cells, Tissues, Organs
Karen Uhde, Helena T A van Tol, Tom A E Stout, Bernard A J Roelen
Chronically high blood glucose concentrations are a characteristic of diabetes mellitus. Maternal diabetes affects the metabolism of early embryos and can cause a delay in development. To mimic maternal diabetes, bovine in vitro fertilization and embryo culture were performed in fertilization medium and culture medium containing 0.5, 2, 3, and 5 mM, glucose whereas under control conditions, the medium was glucose free (0 mM). Compared to control conditions (0 mM, 31%), blastocyst development was decreased to 23% with 0...
2018: PloS One
Nuol Aywel Madut, Adrian Muwonge, George William Nasinyama, John Bwalya Muma, Jacques Godfroid, Ambrose Samuel Jubara, James Muleme, Clovice Kankya
BACKGROUND: Brucellosis is a worldwide recognized bacterial zoonotic disease. There is currently no information on bovine brucellosis sero-prevalence in South Sudan regardless of the economic, social and public health impact on populations. Therefore, for the first time in 33 years, we report the sero-prevalence of brucellosis in cattle and their herders. Furthermore, we characterize the drivers associated with the disease at the human-animal interface in Bahr el Ghazal region, South Sudan...
June 2018: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
Rikke Koch Hansen, Lisbeth Harm Nielsen, Mahmoud El Tholth, Barbara Haesler, Alessandro Foddai, Lis Alban
Denmark has not had cases of bovine tuberculosis (bovTB) for more than 30 years but is obliged by trade agreements to undertake traditional meat inspection (TMI) of finisher pigs from non-controlled housing to detect bovTB. TMI is associated with higher probability of detecting bovTB but is also more costly than visual-only inspection (VOI). To identify whether VOI should replace TMI of finisher pigs from non-controlled housing, the cost of error - defined here as probability of overlooking infection and associated economic costs - should be assessed and compared with surveillance costs...
2018: Frontiers in Veterinary Science
David M Adelman, Kevin G Cornwell
Background: Both synthetic and bioprosthetic meshes play important roles in surgical procedures such as ventral hernia repair. Although sometimes used interchangeably, these devices have inherently different properties. We therefore sought to better understand how these materials interact with the host environment to optimize surgical techniques and to improve outcomes. Methods: Synthetic mesh (polypropylene, Prolene) or bioprosthetic mesh (acellular fetal/neonatal bovine dermis, SurgiMend) was implanted intraperitoneally into rats lateral to a ventral incision in a novel intra-abdominal implant model...
May 2018: Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery. Global Open
Pedram Madadkar, Rahul Sadavarte, Raja Ghosh
Enrichment and immobilization of analytes by chemical bonding or physical adsorption is typically the first step in many commonly used analytical techniques. In this paper, we discuss a permeation drag based technique as an alternative approach for carrying out location-specific immobilization of macromolecular analytes. Fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC) labeled macromolecules and their complexes were enriched near the surface of ultrafiltration membranes and detected by direct visual observation and fluorescence imaging...
June 2018: Journal of Pharmaceutical Analysis
Y-C Lin, A C Hall, A H R W Simpson
Objectives: The purpose of this study was to create a novel ex vivo organ culture model for evaluating the effects of static and dynamic load on cartilage. Methods: The metatarsophalangeal joints of 12 fresh cadaveric bovine feet were skinned and dissected aseptically, and cultured for up to four weeks. Dynamic movement was applied using a custom-made machine on six joints, with the others cultured under static conditions. Chondrocyte viability and matrix glycosaminoglycan (GAG) content were evaluated by the cell viability probes, 5-chloromethylfluorescein diacetate (CMFDA) and propidium iodide (PI), and dimethylmethylene blue (DMMB) assay, respectively...
March 2018: Bone & Joint Research
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