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Cryotherapy and sport

Romain Bouzigon, Frederic Grappe, Gilles Ravier, Benoit Dugue
Cold therapy is commonly used as a method to relieve pain and inflammation. This review focuses primarily on two methods of cold therapy that have received recent attention: whole-body cryotherapy and partial-body cryotherapy. These methods are used to induce physiological and psychological benefits in humans in the context of medicine, health and sports. The subjects experiencing cryotherapy are dressed in minimal clothing and are exposed to very cold air (at -110°C or less) for 1-4min. Despite the increasing scientific interest in these methods, there is a lack of information about the technologies used...
October 2016: Journal of Thermal Biology
Nicky van Melick, Robert E H van Cingel, Frans Brooijmans, Camille Neeter, Tony van Tienen, Wim Hullegie, Maria W G Nijhuis-van der Sanden
AIM: The Royal Dutch Society for Physical Therapy (KNGF) instructed a multidisciplinary group of Dutch anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) experts to develop an evidence statement for rehabilitation after ACL reconstruction. DESIGN: Clinical practice guideline underpinned by systematic review and expert consensus. DATA SOURCES: A multidisciplinary working group and steering group systematically reviewed the literature and wrote the guideline...
August 18, 2016: British Journal of Sports Medicine
Hainan Yu, Kristi Randhawa, Pierre Côté, Optima Collaboration
Study Design Systematic review. Background Soft tissue injuries to the lower limb bring a substantial health and economic burden to society. Physical agents are commonly used to treat these injuries. However, the effectiveness of many such physical agents is not clearly established in the literature. Objective To evaluate the effectiveness and safety of physical agents for soft tissue injuries of the lower limb. Methods We searched 5 databases from 1990 to 2015 for randomized controlled trials (RCTs), cohort studies, and case-control studies...
July 2016: Journal of Orthopaedic and Sports Physical Therapy
Angus Lindsay, Mohd Izani Othman, Hannah Prebble, Sian Davies, Steven P Gieseg
What is the central question of this study? Acute and repetitive cryotherapy are routinely used to accelerate postexercise recovery, although the effect on resident immune cells and repetitive exposure has largely been unexplored and neglected. What is the main finding and its importance? Using blood-derived mononuclear cells and semi-professional mixed martial artists, we show that acute and repetitive cryotherapy reduces the in vitro and in vivo T-cell and monocyte activation response whilst remaining independent of the physical performance of elite athletes...
July 1, 2016: Experimental Physiology
Dimitrios Stasinopoulos, Costas Papadopoulos, Dimitrios Lamnisos, Ioannis Stasinopoulos
Purpose The purpose of this study was to investigate the efficacy of Bioptron light therapy for the treatment of acute ankle sprains. Method A parallel group, single-blind, controlled study was carried out in patients with grade II acute ankle sprains. Patients were randomly allocated into two treatment groups (n = 25 for each). Both groups received cryotherapy, and the test group also received Bioptron light therapy. All treatments were performed daily for 5 d. Evaluations included self-reported pain via a visual analogue scale, degree of ankle edema, and ankle range of motion via goniometry carried out before the treatment and at the end of the treatment...
March 4, 2016: Disability and Rehabilitation
Shawn W Hawkins, Jeremy R Hawkins
BACKGROUND: Therapeutic modalities (TM) are used by sports physical therapists (SPT) but how they are used is unknown. PURPOSE: To identify the current clinical use patterns for cryotherapy among SPT. STUDY DESIGN: Cross-sectional survey. METHODS: All members (7283) of the Sports Physical Therapy Section of the APTA were recruited. A scenario-based survey using pre-participation management of an acute or sub-acute ankle sprain was developed...
February 2016: International Journal of Sports Physical Therapy
Gracielle Vieira Ramos, Clara Maria Pinheiro, Sabrina Peviani Messa, Gabriel Borges Delfino, Rita de Cássia Marqueti, Tania de Fátima Salvini, Joao Luiz Quagliotti Durigan
The application of cryotherapy is widely used in sports medicine today. Cooling could minimize secondary hypoxic injury through the reduction of cellular metabolism and injury area. Conflicting results have also suggested cryotherapy could delay and impair the regeneration process. There are no definitive findings about the effects of cryotherapy on the process of muscle regeneration. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effects of a clinical-like cryotherapy on inflammation, regeneration and extracellular matrix (ECM) remodeling on the Tibialis anterior (TA) muscle of rats 3, 7 and 14 days post-injury...
2016: Scientific Reports
Karl Fullam, Brian Caulfield, Garrett F Coughlan, Mark McGroarty, Eamonn Delahunt
CONTEXT: Decreased postural stability is a primary risk factor for lower limb musculoskeletal injuries. During athletic competitions, cryotherapy may be applied during short breaks in play or during half-time; however, its effects on postural stability remain unclear. OBJECTIVE: To investigate the acute effects of a 15-minute ankle-joint cryotherapy application on dynamic postural stability. DESIGN: Controlled laboratory study. SETTING: University biomechanics laboratory...
September 2015: Journal of Athletic Training
Diego Costa Astur, João Vitor Novaretti, Renato Kalil Uehbe, Gustavo Gonçalves Arliani, Eduardo Ramalho Moraes, Alberto de Castro Pochini, Benno Ejnisman, Moises Cohen
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the management, procedures and perspectives of sports physicians and orthopedists in Brazil with regard to diagnosing and treating muscle injuries. METHODS: A questionnaire containing 20 questions relating to the topic of muscle injury was applied to sports physicians and orthopedists during the Second Brazilian Congress of Arthroscopy and Sports Traumatology, in 2013. RESULTS: Completely answered questionnaires were received from 168 sports physicians and orthopedists...
November 2014: Revista Brasileira de Ortopedia
Babak Shadgan, Sports Med, Amir H Pakravan, Alison Hoens, W Darlene Reid
CONTEXT: Vapocoolant spray, commonly known as cold spray (CS), is a cryotherapy modality used in sports medicine, athletic training, and rehabilitation settings. Proposed physiologic effects of cryotherapy modalities include reductions in tissue blood flow, oxygenation, and cell metabolism in addition to attenuation of pain perception attributed to reduced superficial nerve conduction velocity. OBJECTIVE: To examine the effects of CS on subcutaneous and intramuscular blood flow and oxygenation on the thigh muscle using near-infrared spectroscopy, an optical method to monitor changes in tissue oxygenated (O2Hb), deoxygenated (HHb), and total (tHb) hemoglobin...
August 2015: Journal of Athletic Training
C Huber, J Swanenburg, M Leusch, P M Tscholl
BACKGROUND: The application of ice or other forms of cooling represent a common method to treat acute musculoskeletal injuries during sporting events in order to reduce pain. Often athletes return to competition immediately after cooling. It is not known if short-term cryotherapy in the form of ice spray has an influence on the joint's dynamic stability. The aim of this study was to investigate if application of ice spray to the ankle has an effect on the dynamic stability of the joint in healthy participants...
June 2015: Sportverletzung Sportschaden: Organ der Gesellschaft Für Orthopädisch-Traumatologische Sportmedizin
Peter K Thain, Christopher M Bleakley, Andrew C S Mitchell
CONTEXT: Cryotherapy is used widely in sport and exercise medicine to manage acute injuries and facilitate rehabilitation. The analgesic effects of cryotherapy are well established; however, a potential caveat is that cooling tissue negatively affects neuromuscular control through delayed muscle reaction time. This topic is important to investigate because athletes often return to exercise, rehabilitation, or competitive activity immediately or shortly after cryotherapy. OBJECTIVE: To compare the effects of wet-ice application, cold-water immersion, and an untreated control condition on peroneus longus and tibialis anterior muscle reaction time during a simulated lateral ankle sprain...
July 2015: Journal of Athletic Training
Yi-Ping Chang, Hongsen Chiang, Kao-Shang Shih, Hsiao-Li Ma, Leou-Chyr Lin, Wei-Li Hsu, Yung-Cheng Huang, Hsing-Kuo Wang
STUDY DESIGN: Controlled laboratory study. OBJECTIVES: To measure Achilles tendon microcirculation (total hemoglobin [THb] and oxygen saturation [StO2]) before and after the application of a physical agent in asymptomatic participants, and to compare differences between application location and physical agent dosage. BACKGROUND: Tendon microcirculation can be altered by superficial heating or cryotherapy. METHODS: Fifty-one healthy adults (median age, 22 years; range, 20-34 years) were recruited and randomly assigned into 1 of 4 groups...
July 2015: Journal of Orthopaedic and Sports Physical Therapy
Amilton Vieira, Martim Bottaro, Joao B Ferreira-Junior, Carlos Vieira, Vitor A Cleto, Eduardo L Cadore, Herbert G Simões, Jake Do Carmo, Lee E Brown
Whole-body cryotherapy (WBC) has been used as a recovery strategy following different sports activities. Thus, the aim of the study reported here was to examine the effect of WBC on vertical jump recovery following a high-intensity exercise (HIE) bout. Twelve trained men (mean ± standard deviation age = 23.9±5.9 years) were randomly exposed to two different conditions separated by 7 days: 1) WBC (3 minutes of WBC at -110°C immediately after the HIE) and 2) control (CON; no WBC after the HIE). The HIE consisted of six sets of ten repetitions of knee extensions at 60° · s(-1) concentric and 180° · s(-1) eccentric on an isokinetic dynamometer...
2015: Open Access Journal of Sports Medicine
Mariusz Paweł Furmanek, Kajetan Słomka, Grzegorz Juras
Proprioception plays an important role in the complex mechanism of joint control. Contemporary sport activities impose extremely high physical demands on athletes. Winter sports are played in areas with excessively low temperatures. Moreover, many athletes are subjected to treatments that involve local lowering of the body temperature before, during, and after physical activity. This work reviews the current knowledge regarding the influence of local cryotherapy on the proprioception system. The reviewed literature identified several tests that evaluate different aspects of proprioception...
2014: BioMed Research International
Raúl Alberto Aguilera Eguía, Alejandro Ibacache Palma
INTRODUCTION: Late onset muscle soreness, also known as delayed onset muscle soreness, is a painful musculoskeletal condition that may occur 24-48 and up to 72 hours after the completion of unusual physical or high intensity exercise involving eccentric muscle activity. In the field of physical rehabilitation, immersion in cold water is a common intervention mainly used in sports medicine, to minimize delayed onset muscle soreness and promote recovery after exercise. OBJECTIVES: To assess the validity and applicability of the results regarding the effectiveness of immersion in cold water after high intensity exercise and answer the following question: In subjects who exercise regularly, can cold-water immersion compared to passive therapy (rest) reduce late-onset muscle soreness? METHODS: The article "Cold Water Immersion (cryotherapy) for preventing and treating muscle soreness after exercise," a Cochrane systematic review authored by Bleakley et al (2012), was analyzed...
2014: Medwave
D Grasso, P Lanteri, C Di Bernardo, C Mauri, S Porcelli, A Colombini, V Zani, F G Bonomi, G Melegati, G Banfi, G Lombardi
Saliva represents a low stress, not-invasively collected matrix that allows steroid hormone monitoring in athletes by reflecting type, intensity and duration of exercise. Whole body cryotherapy (WBC) consists of short whole-body exposures to extremely cold air (-110° to -140°C) which, despite being initially used to treat inflammatory diseases, is currently acquiring increasing popularity in sports medicine. Cryostimulation practice is now widely accepted as an effective treatment to accelerate muscle recovery in rugby players...
April 2014: Journal of Biological Regulators and Homeostatic Agents
Chris M Bleakley, François Bieuzen, Gareth W Davison, Joseph T Costello
Whole-body cryotherapy (WBC) involves short exposures to air temperatures below -100°C. WBC is increasingly accessible to athletes, and is purported to enhance recovery after exercise and facilitate rehabilitation postinjury. Our objective was to review the efficacy and effectiveness of WBC using empirical evidence from controlled trials. We found ten relevant reports; the majority were based on small numbers of active athletes aged less than 35 years. Although WBC produces a large temperature gradient for tissue cooling, the relatively poor thermal conductivity of air prevents significant subcutaneous and core body cooling...
2014: Open Access Journal of Sports Medicine
Kyue-Nam Park, Oh-Yun Kwon, Jong-Hyuck Weon, Sung-Dae Choung, Si-Hyun Kim
The objective was to compare the immediate effects of local cryotherapy (LC) and passive cross-body stretch on the extensibility of the posterior shoulder muscle in individuals with posterior shoulder tightness. Eighty-seven healthy subjects with a between-shoulder difference in internal rotation (IR) range of motion (ROM) greater than 10° were randomly divided into three groups: LC group, stretching group, and control group (n = 29 in each group). Subjects in the LC group received LC on infraspinatus and posterior deltoid muscles and subjects in the stretching group performed passive cross-body stretch...
January 2014: Journal of Sports Science & Medicine
Marie-Elaine Grant, Kathrin Steffen, Philip Glasgow, Nicola Phillips, Lynn Booth, Marie Galligan
BACKGROUND: There is a lack of information on the utilisation of physiotherapy services at the Olympic Games. AIM: To better understand the athlete and non-athlete requirements of the physiotherapy services at the Olympic Village Polyclinic during the London 2012 Olympic Games. METHODS: From 16 July to 14 August 2012, physiotherapy encounters for athletes and non-athletes (National Olympic Committee (NOC) team officials, coaches, team managers, workforce, Olympic family, technical officials and press) were recorded on the ATOS electronic medical records system at the polyclinic in the main Athletes' Village in Stratford...
January 2014: British Journal of Sports Medicine
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