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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28339501/mapping-global-biodiversity-connections-with-dna-barcodes-lepidoptera-of-pakistan
#1
Muhammad Ashfaq, Saleem Akhtar, Muhammad Athar Rafi, Shahid Mansoor, Paul D N Hebert
Sequences from the DNA barcode region of the mitochondrial COI gene are an effective tool for specimen identification and for the discovery of new species. The Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLD) (www.boldsystems.org) currently hosts 4.5 million records from animals which have been assigned to more than 490,000 different Barcode Index Numbers (BINs), which serve as a proxy for species. Because a fourth of these BINs derive from Lepidoptera, BOLD has a strong capability to both identify specimens in this order and to support studies of faunal overlap...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28339499/evaluation-of-fusion-protein-cleavage-site-sequences-of-newcastle-disease-virus-in-genotype-matched-vaccines
#2
Shin-Hee Kim, Zongyan Chen, Asuka Yoshida, Anandan Paldurai, Sa Xiao, Siba K Samal
Newcastle disease virus (NDV) causes a devastating poultry disease worldwide. Frequent outbreaks of NDV in chickens vaccinated with conventional live vaccines suggest a need to develop new vaccines that are genetically matched against circulating NDV strains, such as the genotype V virulent strains currently circulating in Mexico and Central America. In this study, a reverse genetics system was developed for the virulent NDV strain Mexico/01/10 strain and used to generate highly attenuated vaccine candidates by individually modifying the cleavage site sequence of fusion (F) protein...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28339472/vector-status-of-aedes-species-determines-geographical-risk-of-autochthonous-zika-virus-establishment
#3
Lauren Gardner, Nan Chen, Sahotra Sarkar
BACKGROUND: The 2015-16 Zika virus pandemic originating in Latin America led to predictions of a catastrophic global spread of the disease. Since the current outbreak began in Brazil in May 2015 local transmission of Zika has been reported in over 60 countries and territories, with over 750 thousand confirmed and suspected cases. As a result of its range expansion attention has focused on possible modes of transmission, of which the arthropod vector-based disease spread cycle involving Aedes species is believed to be the most important...
March 24, 2017: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28335478/lactational-stage-of-pasteurized-human-donor-milk-contributes-to-nutrient-limitations-for-infants
#4
Christina J Valentine, Georgia Morrow, Amanda Reisinger, Kelly A Dingess, Ardythe L Morrow, Lynette K Rogers
BACKGROUND: Mother's own milk is the first choice for feeding preterm infants, but when not available, pasteurized human donor milk (PDM) is often used. Infants fed PDM have difficulties maintaining appropriate growth velocities. To assess the most basic elements of nutrition, we tested the hypotheses that fatty acid and amino acid composition of PDM is highly variable and standard pooling practices attenuate variability; however, total nutrients may be limiting without supplementation due to late lactational stage of the milk...
March 18, 2017: Nutrients
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28335473/assessment-of-antioxidant-and-cytoprotective-potential-of-jatropha-jatropha-curcas-grown-in-southern-italy
#5
Teresa Papalia, Davide Barreca, Maria Rosaria Panuccio
Jatropha (Jatropha curcas L.) is a plant native of Central and South America, but widely distributed in the wild or semi-cultivated areas in Africa, India, and South East Asia. Although studies are available in literature on the polyphenolic content and bioactivity of Jatropha curcas L., no information is currently available on plants grown in pedoclimatic and soil conditions different from the autochthon regions. The aim of the present work was to characterize the antioxidant system developed by the plant under a new growing condition and to evaluate the polyphenol amount in a methanolic extract of leaves...
March 18, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28335374/beverage-consumption-among-u-s-children-aged-0-24-months-national-health-and-nutrition-examination-survey-nhanes
#6
Carley A Grimes, Ewa A Szymlek-Gay, Theresa A Nicklas
Data on beverage consumption patterns in early life are limited. The aim of this study was to describe beverage consumption by sociodemographic characteristics, along with water intake and sources of water among U.S. children aged 0-24 months. Data from 2740 children in the 2005-2012 NHANES were analysed. Food intake was determined via one 24-h dietary recall. Beverages were categorised according to What We Eat In America groups. Poverty-Income ratio was used to define household income. During infancy (0-5...
March 13, 2017: Nutrients
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28334467/revisiting-the-paradigm-shift-in-opioid-use-developments-and-implications-10%C3%A2-years-later
#7
Benedikt Fischer, Jürgen Rehm
A decade ago, we queried the unfolding of a 'paradigm shift' in illicit opioid use in North America, specifically involving a shift away from heroin to prescription opioid (PO) use. Today, this situation is more acute than ever, with prescription opioid misuse, morbidity and mortality amounting to one of the most severe substance use-related public health crises ever, now even impacting life expectancy in key population segments. Despite medical system-based PO dispensing and practices being recognised as core drivers of the PO crisis, effective policy measures have been long absent or limited-including those to reduce medical PO use to levels supported by best evidence for pain care...
March 23, 2017: Drug and Alcohol Review
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28334411/first-report-of-mating-disruption-with-an-aggregation-pheromone-a-case-study-with-tetropium-fuscum-coleoptera-cerambycidae
#8
Jon Sweeney, Peter J Silk, Marc Rhainds, Wayne MacKay, Cory Hughes, Kate Van Rooyen, Wayne MacKinnon, Gaetan Leclair, Steve Holmes, Edward G Kettela
Tetropium fuscum (F.), native to Europe and established in Nova Scotia, Canada, since at least 1990, is considered a low-to-moderate threat to spruce (Picea spp.) forests in North America and regulated as a quarantine pest by the Canadian Food Inspection Agency. We tested broadcast applications of the aggregation pheromone racemic (5E)-6,10-dimethyl-5,9-undecadien-2-ol (fuscumol), formulated at 10% concentration in Hercon Bio-Flakes (Hercon International, Emigsville, PA), for efficacy in disrupting T. fuscum mating and suppressing populations...
March 16, 2017: Journal of Economic Entomology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28334400/a-bio-economic-case-study-of-canadian-honey-bee-hymenoptera-apidae-colonies-marker-assisted-selection-mas-in-queen-breeding-affects-beekeeper-profits
#9
Miriam Bixby, Kathy Baylis, Shelley E Hoover, Rob W Currie, Andony P Melathopoulos, Stephen F Pernal, Leonard J Foster, M Marta Guarna
Over the past decade in North America and Europe, winter losses of honey bee (Hymenoptera: Apidae) colonies have increased dramatically. Scientific consensus attributes these losses to multifactorial causes including altered parasite and pathogen profiles, lack of proper nutrition due to agricultural monocultures, exposure to pesticides, management, and weather. One method to reduce colony loss and increase productivity is through selective breeding of queens to produce disease-, pathogen-, and mite-resistant stock...
March 16, 2017: Journal of Economic Entomology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28334379/influence-of-different-hazelnut-cultivars-on-some-demographic-characteristics-of-the-filbert-aphid-hemiptera-aphididae
#10
Ali Güncan, Ebru Gümüs
The filbert aphid Myzocallis coryli (Goeze) is a serious pest of hazelnut in North America, Italy, Spain, and Turkey. To evaluate the resistance of hazelnut to this insect, aphids were reared on five major cultivars ('Tombul,' 'Palaz,' 'Çakıldak,' 'Foşa,' and 'Mincane') under laboratory conditions. The developmental times of preadult and adult stages, total longevity, reproduction, and life table parameters were analyzed according to age-stage, two-sex life table theory, in which the stage differentiation and variable developmental rates among individuals could be described...
March 13, 2017: Journal of Economic Entomology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28334351/effects-of-antenatal-maternal-depressive-symptoms-and-socio-economic-status-on-neonatal-brain-development-are-modulated-by-genetic-risk
#11
Anqi Qiu, Mojun Shen, Claudia Buss, Yap-Seng Chong, Kenneth Kwek, Seang-Mei Saw, Peter D Gluckman, Pathik D Wadhwa, Sonja Entringer, Martin Styner, Neerja Karnani, Christine M Heim, Kieran J O'Donnell, Joanna D Holbrook, Marielle V Fortier, Michael J Meaney
This study included 168 and 85 mother-infant dyads from Asian and United States of America cohorts to examine whether a genomic profile risk score for major depressive disorder (GPRSMDD) moderates the association between antenatal maternal depressive symptoms (or socio-economic status, SES) and fetal neurodevelopment, and to identify candidate biological processes underlying such association. Both cohorts showed a significant interaction between antenatal maternal depressive symptoms and infant GPRSMDD on the right amygdala volume...
March 18, 2017: Cerebral Cortex
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28334330/survivorship-of-z-pheromone-race-european-corn-borer-lepidoptera-crambidae-on-a-range-of-host-plants-varying-in-defensive-chemistry
#12
Kelsey E Fisher, Charles E Mason, J Lindsey Flexner, Judith Hough-Goldstein, John H McDonald
The European corn borer, Ostrinia nubilalis (Hübner), was introduced in North America in the early 1900s and became a major pest of corn. After its introduction, it was found on > 200 other plant hosts, but corn remained its primary host. Early life history studies indicated that European corn borer had the potential of a wide host range. For nearly 80 yr before the introduction of Bt corn, the European corn borer was a major pest of corn in North America. This study investigated the growth and survivorship of the Z-pheromone race European corn borer on a range of hosts that vary in defensive chemistries and historic degree of infestation to better understand the current host plant range of Z-pheromone race of O...
March 3, 2017: Journal of Economic Entomology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28334298/distribution-and-persistence-of-sterile-screwworms-diptera-calliphoridae-released-at-the-panama-colombia-border
#13
Steven R Skoda, Pamela L Phillips, Agustin Sagel, Muhammad F Chaudhury
The sterile insect technique is used by the Comisión Panamá - Estados Unidos para la Erradicación y Prevención del Gusano Barrenador del Ganado (COPEG) to maintain a barrier at the border of Panama and Colombia to prevent screwworms, Cochliomyia hominivorax (Coquerel), from South America reinfesting North America. Before studying the distribution and persistence of sterilized, mass-produced screwworms released in the barrier zone, the utility of applying fluorescent dust (∼1.0 mg/fly) to pupae and to newly emerged adults was evaluated to determine the potential effect on fly survival...
February 11, 2017: Journal of Economic Entomology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28334235/establishment-of-parasitoids-of-the-lily-leaf-beetle-coleoptera-chrysomelidae-in-north-america
#14
Lisa Tewksbury, Richard A Casagrande, Naomi Cappuccino, Marc Kenis
Three larval parasitoids were imported from Europe to control the lily leaf beetle, Lilioceris lilii Scopoli (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae), an accidentally introduced herbivore of native and cultivated lilies in North America. Tetrastichus setifer Thomson (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae) was introduced in Massachusetts in 1999, and was found to be established there in 2002. Subsequent releases of T. setifer were made and two additional parasitoids, Lemophagus errabundus Szepligeti (Hymenoptera: Ichneumonidae) and Diaparsis jucunda (Holmgren) (Hymenoptera: Ichneumonidae), were introduced...
March 7, 2017: Environmental Entomology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28334221/enhanced-pest-ant-control-with-hydrophobic-bait
#15
R K Vander Meer, D E Milne
The red imported fire ant, Solenopsis invicta (Buren), left most of its natural enemies behind in South America when it arrived in Mobile, AL, in the 1930s and spread rapidly throughout the southeastern United States, reaching population levels up to 10 times those found in South America. The large population densities and propensity for disturbed habitats led to direct conflict with human activities. Bait control methods were first developed for fire ants in the early 1960s and little has changed in the subsequent decades, despite the drawback that the bait carrier rapidly breaks down when wet...
February 20, 2017: Journal of Economic Entomology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28334204/transcriptomic-and-histological-responses-of-african-rice-oryza-glaberrima-to-meloidogyne-graminicola-provide-new-insights-into-root-knot-nematode-resistance-in-monocots
#16
Anne-Sophie Petitot, Tina Kyndt, Rana Haidar, Alexis Dereeper, Myriam Collin, Janice de Almeida Engler, Godelieve Gheysen, Diana Fernandez
Background and Aims: The root-knot nematode Meloidogyne graminicola is responsible for production losses in rice ( Oryza sativa ) in Asia and Latin America. The accession TOG5681 of African rice, O. glaberrima , presents improved resistance to several biotic and abiotic factors, including nematodes. The aim of this study was to assess the cytological and molecular mechanisms underlying nematode resistance in this accession. Methods: Penetration and development in M...
February 28, 2017: Annals of Botany
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28334091/landscape-level-patterns-of-elevated-fs1-asian-allele-frequencies-in-populations-of-gypsy-moth-lepidoptera-erebidae-at-a-northern-u-s-boundary
#17
Marissa A Streifel, Patrick C Tobin, Lucia Hunt, Hannah Nadel, John J Molongoski, Brian H Aukema
From a regulatory perspective, Asian gypsy moth is a species complex consisting of three species of Lymantria and two subspecies of Lymantria dispar (L.), differing from the European subspecies, L. dispar dispar (L.), by having consistently flight-capable females. As such, the invasion potential in North America is thought to exceed that of European gypsy moth. USDA-APHIS therefore has a monitoring program to detect Asian gypsy moth at high-risk introduction pathways. Molecular markers are used to improve the diagnosis of Asian gypsy moth...
February 17, 2017: Environmental Entomology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28334083/susceptibility-of-seven-selected-tomato-cultivars-to-tuta-absoluta-lepidoptera-gelechiidae-implications-for-its-management
#18
Saeedeh Ghaderi, Yaghoub Fathipour, Shahriar Asgari
Tuta absoluta (Meyrick) (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae) is a serious pest originating from South America that affects tomato production in many countries, particularly in Iran (since 2010). In this study, by using age-stage, two-sex life-table parameters, the resistance of seven tomato cultivars, namely, 'Primo Early', 'Rio Grande', 'Cal JN3', 'Petomech', 'Early Urbana Y', 'Super 2270', and 'Super Strain B' to T. absoluta, was evaluated under laboratory conditions (25 ± 1 °C, 60 ± 5% RH, and a photoperiod of 16:8 (L:D) h)...
February 19, 2017: Journal of Economic Entomology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28334011/suitability-of-eastern-pines-for-oviposition-and-survival-of-sirex-noctilio-f
#19
Laurel J Haavik, Kevin J Dodds, Jeremy D Allison
The European woodwasp, Sirex noctilio F., is a pest of pines in many areas around the world. Since its introduction to North America, the distribution of S. noctilio overlaps with a known host (Pinus sylvestris) and hosts native to North America. Direct comparisons of suitability for oviposition and larval survival among these pines have not been made. We tested the relative suitability of four common pine species in northeastern North America (P. sylvestris, P. resinosa, P. banksiana, and P. strobus) as hosts for S...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28333986/building-the-road-to-a-regional-zoonoses-strategy-a-survey-of-zoonoses-programmes-in-the-americas
#20
Melody J Maxwell, Mary H Freire de Carvalho, Armando E Hoet, Marco A N Vigilato, Julio C Pompei, Ottorino Cosivi, Victor J Del Rio Vilas
BACKGROUND: In recent years, global public health security has been threatened by zoonotic disease emergence as exemplified by outbreaks of H5N1 and H1N1 influenza, SARS, and most recently Ebola and Zika. Additionally, endemic zoonoses, such as rabies, burden countries year after year, placing demands on limited finances and personnel. To survey the baseline status of the emerging and endemic zoonoses programmes of the Latin American and the Caribbean (LAC) countries, the Pan American Health Organization (PAHO) conducted a survey of priority emerging and endemic zoonoses, countries´ prioritization criteria and methodologies, and suggestions to strengthen countries capacities and regional approaches to zoonoses control...
2017: PloS One
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