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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28437594/a-mesoamerican-origin-of-cherimoya-annona-cherimola-mill-implications-for-the-conservation-of-plant-genetic-resources
#1
N Larranaga, F J Albertazzi, G Fontecha, M Palmieri, H Rainer, M van Zonneveld, J I Hormaza
Knowledge on the structure and distribution of genetic diversity is a key aspect in order to plan and execute an efficient conservation and utilization of the genetic resources of any crop as well as for determining historical demographic inferences. In this work, a large data set of 1765 accessions of cherimoya (Annona cherimola Mill, Annonaceae), an underutilized fruit tree crop native to the neotropics and used as a food source by pre-Columbian cultures, was collected from 6 different countries across the American continent and amplified with 9 highly informative microsatellite markers...
April 24, 2017: Molecular Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28437593/tabula-rasa-in-the-patagonian-channels-the-phylogeography-of-oreobolus-obtusangulus-cyperaceae
#2
Simon Pfanzelt, Dirk C Albach, Klaus Bernhard von Hagen
The extent of the Pleistocene glaciations in the Patagonian Channel region (southwesternmost South America) and their impact on the vegetation there is largely unknown. Whether the regional flora was wiped out completely (tabula rasa) or survived in ice-free pockets (in situ survival) is still an open question. The molecular imprint of either scenario should still be visible in extant populations. Therefore, DNA sequence data of Oreobolus obtusangulus Gaudich. (Cyperaceae) were analyzed. This species is an abundant constitutent of Patagonian cushion peat bogs, one of the Patagonian Channel region's major vegetation types...
April 24, 2017: Molecular Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28437376/organizational-issues-structure-and-processes-of-care-in-257-icus-in-latin-america-a-study-from-the-latin-america-intensive-care-network
#3
Elisa Estenssoro, Leyla Alegría, Gastón Murias, Gilberto Friedman, Ricardo Castro, Nicolas Nin Vaeza, Cecilia Loudet, Alejandro Bruhn, Manuel Jibaja, Gustavo Ospina-Tascon, Fernando Ríos, Flavia R Machado, Alexandre Biasi Cavalcanti, Arnaldo Dubin, F Javier Hurtado, Arturo Briva, Carlos Romero, Guillermo Bugedo, Jan Bakker, Maurizio Cecconi, Luciano Azevedo, Glenn Hernandez
OBJECTIVE: Latin America bears an important burden of critical care disease, yet the information about it is scarce. Our objective was to describe structure, organization, processes of care, and research activities in Latin-American ICUs. DESIGN: Web-based survey submitted to ICU directors. SETTINGS: ICUs located in nine Latin-American countries. SUBJECTS: Individual ICUs. INTERVENTIONS: None. MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS: Two hundred fifty-seven of 498 (52%) of submitted surveys responded: 51% from Brazil, 17% Chile, 13% Argentina, 6% Ecuador, 5% Uruguay, 3% Colombia, and 5% between Mexico, Peru, and Paraguay...
April 21, 2017: Critical Care Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28437138/epidemiology-of-basil-downy-mildew
#4
Yigal Cohen, Yariv Ben-Naim, Lidan Falach, Evgenia Rubin
Basil downy mildew (BDM) caused by the oomycete Peronospora belbahrii is a destructive disease of sweet basil (Ocimum basilicum) worldwide. It has originated in Uganda in the 1930's and recently spread to Europe, Middle East, Americas and the Far East. Seed transmission may be responsible to its quick global spread. The pathogen attacks leaf blades, producing chlorotic lesions with ample dark asexual spores on the lower leaf surface. Oospores may occur in the mesophyll of infected leaves. The asexual spores germinate on a wet leaf surface within 2h and penetrate into the epidermis within 4h...
April 24, 2017: Phytopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28436706/tobacco-use-and-attachment-style-in-appalachia
#5
Mary Heath Wise, Florence Weierbach, Yan Cao, Ken Phillips
Tobacco has been recognized as the number one cause of preventable death in America and results in almost 5.2 million years of potential life lost each year. The use of tobacco products is highly correlated with pulmonary disease, cardiovascular disease, and other forms of chronic illness in America. New tobacco products are trending in the tobacco market such as the water pipe/hookah and e-cigarettes. With e-cigarettes and other newer forms of tobacco on the rise, it is important to look at the underlying factors for using all kinds of tobacco products as a means of prevention...
April 24, 2017: Issues in Mental Health Nursing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28436262/private-philanthropy-and-basic-research-in-mid-twentieth-century-america-the-hickrill-chemical-research-foundation
#6
Leon Gortler, Stephen J Weininger
The Hickrill Chemical Research Foundation, located north of New York City on the estate of its patrons, Sylvan and Ruth Alice Norman Weil, had a short (1948-59) but productive life. Ruth Alice Weil received a Ph.D. in organic chemistry in 1947, directed by William von Eggers Doering of Columbia University. She intended that Hickrill contribute to cancer chemotherapy while providing resources for Doering's more speculative research. Ultimately, Doering's commitment to theoretical organic chemistry set Hickrill's research agenda...
April 24, 2017: Ambix
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28435888/continental-drift-and-speciation-of-the-cryptococcus-neoformans-and-cryptococcus-gattii-species-complexes
#7
Arturo Casadevall, Joudeh B Freij, Christopher Hann-Soden, John Taylor
Genomic analysis has placed the origins of two human-pathogenic fungi, the Cryptococcus gattii species complex and the Cryptococcus neoformans species complex, in South America and Africa, respectively. Molecular clock calculations suggest that the two species separated ~80 to 100 million years ago. This time closely approximates the breakup of the supercontinent Pangea, which gave rise to South America and Africa. On the basis of the geographic distribution of these two species complexes and the coincidence of the evolutionary divergence and Pangea breakup times, we propose that a spatial separation caused by continental drift resulted in the emergence of the C...
March 2017: MSphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28435812/scientometrics-on-public-health-research-in-iran-increase-of-area-studies-despite-embargoes-a-review-article
#8
REVIEW
Brice Poreau
BACKGROUND: Due to embargoes and sanctions from 1979 until 2015, impact on scientific research in Iran may be critical. Public health is the main example of this burning point. In this paper, the aim was to map the scientific research in public health in Iran until 2014 with area studies as well as networks of countries involved. METHODS: We used bibliographic analyses using VOS viewer software for network analysis during the period 1975-2014. Two databases were used: Web of Science and PubMed...
March 2017: Iranian Journal of Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28435679/targeting-the-pro-inflammatory-factor-ccl2-mcp-1-with-bindarit-for-influenza-a-h7n9-treatment
#9
Stefan Wolf, Scott Johnson, Olivia Perwitasari, Suresh Mahalingam, Ralph A Tripp
Influenza A viruses are important human and animal pathogens. Seasonal influenza viruses cause infections every year, and occasionally zoonotic viruses emerge to cause pandemics with significantly higher morbidity and mortality rates. Three cases of laboratory confirmed human infection with avian influenza A (H7N9) virus were reported in 2013, and there have been several cases reported across South East Asia, and recently in North America. Most patients experience severe respiratory illness, with mortality rates approaching 40%...
March 2017: Clinical & Translational Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28435445/cardiometabolic-risk-factors-metabolic-syndrome-and-pre-diabetes-in-adolescents-in-the-sierra-region-of-ecuador
#10
Sharon L Casapulla, Cheryl A Howe, Gabriela Rosero Mora, Darlene Berryman, Mario J Grijalva, Edgar W Rojas, Masato Nakazawa, Jay H Shubrook
BACKGROUND: Excess weight (overweight and obesity) is the major modifiable risk factor for type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and other non-communicable diseases. However, excess weight may not be as predictive of diabetes risk as once thought. While excess weight and other obesity-related non-communicable diseases are of growing concern in low-middle income countries in Latin America, there is limited research on risk factors associated with T2DM in adolescents. This study investigated prevalence of overweight, obesity, prediabetes, diabetes and metabolic syndrome in adolescents in Ecuador...
2017: Diabetology & Metabolic Syndrome
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28435428/in-silico-cd4-cd8-t-cell-and-b-cell-immunity-associated-immunogenic-epitope-prediction-and-hla-distribution-analysis-of-zika-virus
#11
Essam Mohammed Janahi, Anupam Dhasmana, Vandana Srivastava, Aditya Narayan Sarangi, Sana Raza, Jamal M Arif, Madan Lal Bramha Bhatt, Mohtashim Lohani, Mohammed Yahya Areeshi, Anand Murari Saxena, Shafiul Haque
Zika virus (ZIKV) is a mosquito-borne flavivirus distributed all over Africa, South America and Asia. The infection with the virus may cause acute febrile sickness that clinically resembles dengue fever, yet there is no vaccine, no satisfactory treatment, and no means of evaluating the risk of the disease or prognosis in the infected people. In the present study, the efficacy of the host's immune response in reducing the risk of infectious diseases was taken into account to carry out immuno-informatics driven epitope screening strategy of vaccine candidates against ZIKV...
2017: EXCLI journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28435013/modeling-chagas-disease-in-chile-from-vector-to-congenital-transmission
#12
Mauricio Canals, Dante Cáceres, Sergio Alvarado, Andrea Canals, Pedro E Cattan
Chagaś disease is a human health problem in Latin America. It is highly prevalent in northern Chile between the Arica-Parinacota and Coquimbo regions, with reported incidence of 3-11/100000 inhabitants and mortality of 0.3-0.4/100000. The interruption of vector transmission was reported in 1999 by means of the elimination of the primary vector, Triatoma infestans, from human dwellings, thus the epidemiologic dynamics of this disease should be modified. Here we model the dynamics of Chagaś disease based on previous models for vector and congenital transmission, propose a model that includes both transmission forms and perform simulations...
April 20, 2017: Bio Systems
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28434763/computer-aided-discovery-of-two-novel-chalcone-like-compounds-active-and-selective-against-leishmania-infantum
#13
Marcelo N Gomes, Laura M Alcântara, Bruno J Neves, Cleber C Melo-Filho, Lucio H Freitas-Junior, Carolina B Moraes, Rui Ma, Scott G Franzblau, Eugene Muratov, Carolina Horta Andrade
Leishmaniasis are infectious diseases caused by parasites of genus Leishmania that affect affects 12 million people in 98 countries mainly in Africa, Asia, and Latin America. Effective treatments for this disease are urgently needed. In this study, we present a computer-aided approach to investigate a set of 32 recently synthesized chalcone and chalcone-like compounds to act as antileishmanial agents. As a result, nine most promising compounds and three potentially inactive compounds were experimentally evaluated against Leishmania infantum amastigotes and mammalian cells...
April 4, 2017: Bioorganic & Medicinal Chemistry Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28434732/the-effect-of-a-furnished-individual-hutch-pre-weaning-on-calf-behavior-response-to-novelty-and-growth
#14
J A Pempek, M L Eastridge, K L Proudfoot
Housing preweaned dairy calves in individual outdoor hutches is common in North America. However, this type of housing lacks stimulation and minimizes calves' ability to express natural behavior. Providing a social companion has been shown to stimulate natural behavior and promote growth, but no research has assessed the effect of providing physical enrichment items to calves pre-weaning. The objective of this study was to determine calf use of physical items added to an individual hutch, and if providing these items affected growth, behavior (e...
April 20, 2017: Journal of Dairy Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28434656/an-overview-of-eu-and-usa-intestinal-transplant-current-activity
#15
A Lauro, F Panaro, K R Iyer
AIM OF THE STUDY: To report the current activity of intestinal transplantation in Europe (EU) and Unites States of America (USA), underlining outcomes in the last 5 years and discussing possible trends. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Data review of results was performed through analysis of ITR and UNOS registries, Eurotransplant and newsletter transplant reports, congress abstracts, international published literature, personal communications and hospital web sites. RESULTS: The absence in Europe of a sole organization collecting donors and the presence of many low-volume centers (less than 5 cases/year) makes the difference with USA: in the last 5 years (2010-2014), 222 intestinal/multivisceral transplants have been performed in EU countries (most of them in the UK), while in USA, the number of transplants achieved 634 procedures in the same period of time...
April 20, 2017: Journal of Visceral Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28434128/aspects-on-the-history-of-transmission-and-favor-of-distribution-of-viruses-by-iatrogenic-action-perhaps-an-example-of-a-paradigm-of-the-worldwide-spread-of-hiv
#16
REVIEW
Lutz G Gürtler, Josef Eberle
Transmission of infectious agents might be associated with iatrogenic actions of charitable help in health care. An example is the vaccination against yellow fever in USA that transmitted hepatitis B virus. Another example is injections of praziquantel for treatment and cure of schistosomiasis in Central and Northern Africa, with a focus in Egypt that has spread hepatitis C virus. There is no indication that human T-lymphotropic virus type 1 was spread by injection treatment for African trypanosomiasis, syphilis and treponematosis, but these treatments might have contributed to the early spread of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) in Central Africa...
April 22, 2017: Medical Microbiology and Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28433920/proteomic-analysis-of-sockeye-salmon-serum-as-a-tool-for-biomarker-discovery-and-new-insight-into-the-sublethal-toxicity-of-diluted-bitumen
#17
Sarah L Alderman, Laura A Dindia, Christopher J Kennedy, Anthony P Farrell, Todd E Gillis
Pipelines carrying diluted bitumen (dilbit) from Canada's oil sands traverse North America, including the freshwater habitat of Pacific salmon, posing a risk of environmental release and aquatic exposure. Swimming performance is impacted in juvenile sockeye (Oncorhynchus nerka) exposed to dilbit; therefore biomarkers of dilbit exposure will be valuable for monitoring at-risk salmon stocks. This study characterized changes in the serum proteome of sockeye exposed to a sub-lethal and environmentally relevant concentration of dilbit using isobaric tags for relative and absolute quantitation (iTRAQ), and included a range of experimental conditions to permit identification of biomarkers that are robust across time (1 and 4wk) and exercise level (at rest and following a swim test)...
April 12, 2017: Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology. Part D, Genomics & Proteomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28433869/community-based-barriers-to-the-wider-acceptance-of-solid-state-nmr
#18
Paul Jonsen
During August 2015, the author surveyed 76 solid state NMR scientists from materials science to biology, academic to industrial, based in North America, Europe, India, China, Japan and Australia. The subject concerned barriers to the wider acceptance of solid state NMR and included the various barriers based on experimental, funding, vendor based and community aspects. This survey was confidential. However, many of the survey participants requested that at least the results of the part of the survey relevant to our community be made public...
February 9, 2017: Solid State Nuclear Magnetic Resonance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28433817/climate-change-risks-extinction-debt-and-conservation-implications-for-a-threatened-freshwater-fish-carmine-shiner-notropis-percobromus
#19
Shubha N Pandit, Bryan M Maitland, Laxmi K Pandit, Mark S Poesch, Eva C Enders
Climate change is affecting many freshwater species, particularly fishes. Predictions of future climate change suggest large and deleterious effects on species with narrow dispersal abilities due to limited hydrological connectivity. In turn, this creates the potential for population isolation in thermally unsuitable habitats, leading to physiological stress, species declines or possible extirpation. The current extent of many freshwater fish species' spatio-temporal distribution patterns and their sensitivity to thermal impacts from climate change - critical information for conservation planning - are often unknown...
April 20, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28433728/vector-competence-of-amblyomma-americanum-acari-ixodidae-for-rickettsia-rickettsii
#20
Michael L Levin, Galina E Zemtsova, Lindsay F Killmaster, Alyssa Snellgrove, Lauren B M Schumacher
Rickettsia rickettsii - the etiologic agent of Rocky Mountain spotted fever (RMSF) - is widely spread across the Americas. In the US, Dermacentor spp. ticks are identified as primary vectors of R. rickettsii and Rhipicephalus sanguineus s.l. has been implicated in transmission of this pathogen in several locations in the Southwest. Conversely, ticks of the genus Amblyomma are recognized vectors of RMSF in Central and South America, but not in the US. A. americanum is one of the most aggressive human-biting ticks in the US, whose geographical range overlaps with that of reported RMSF cases...
April 12, 2017: Ticks and Tick-borne Diseases
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