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Zvi Liza, Elaad Eitan
The contribution of the Big-Five personality dimensions and locus of control to examinees' physiological responses in the Concealed Information polygraph Test (CIT) was examined for the first time. One hundred and twenty undergraduate students who completed Big Five personality and locus of control questionnaires were instructed to commit a mock theft. They were subsequently tested in the Guilty Actions polygraph Test, a modified version of the CIT. Each of the six sets of items (questions) was repeated twice...
October 5, 2016: International Journal of Psychophysiology
Karin Pos, Lindy Lou Boyette, Carin J Meijer, Maarten Koeter, Lydia Krabbendam, Lieuwe de Haan
INTRODUCTION: Recent life events are associated with transition to and outcome in psychosis. Childhood trauma and personality characteristics play a role in proneness to adult life events. However, little is known about the relative contribution and interrelatedness of these characteristics in psychotic disorders. Therefore, we investigated whether Five-Factor Model (FFM) personality traits and childhood trauma (abuse and neglect) predict adult life events, and whether the effect of childhood trauma on life events is mediated by personality traits...
September 28, 2016: Cognitive Neuropsychiatry
Jennifer L Tackett, Avanté J Smack, Kathrin Herzhoff, Kathleen W Reardon, Stephanie Daoud, Isabela Granic
Recent efforts have demonstrated that thin-slice (TS) assessment-or assessment of individual characteristics after only brief exposure to that individual's behaviour-can produce reliable and valid measurements of child personality traits. The extent to which this approach can be generalized to archival data not designed to measure personality, and whether it can be used to measure personality pathology traits in youth, is not yet known. Archival video data of a parent-child interaction task was collected as part of a clinical intervention trial for aggressive children (N = 177)...
September 26, 2016: Personality and Mental Health
Kristin Hildenbrand, Claudia A Sacramento, Carmen Binnewies
Grounding our research in conservation of resources theory, we set out to shed light on the relationship between transformational leadership (TFL) and employee burnout. Specifically, we considered both thriving at work, a personal resource, and employees' openness to experience (OTE), a key resource, to uncover whether all employees benefit equally from TFL (a contextual resource). In detail, we argued that the negative effect of TFL on employee burnout is mediated by employee thriving at work, and that employees' OTE constitutes a boundary condition of this process...
September 15, 2016: Journal of Occupational Health Psychology
Daria Schneider-Matyka, Anna Jurczak, Agnieszka Samochowiec, Beata Karakiewicz, Małgorzata Szkup, Anna Grzywacz, Elżbieta Grochans
BACKGROUND: Quality of life can be perceived as a subjective assessment of different aspects of human functioning. Personality is a factor which determines actions taken by individuals and their tendency to perceive reality in a particular way. Therefore, the assumption that personality may influence the QoL assessment seems reasonable. Our purpose was to assess the relationships between personality traits and the presence of the 44-bp VNTR polymorphism in the 5-HTT (SLC 6A4) promoter region and the 30-bp VNTR polymorphism in the MAO-A promoter region...
2016: Annals of General Psychiatry
Maria Rosaria A Muscatello, Antonio Bruno, Carmela Mento, Gianluca Pandolfo, Rocco A Zoccali
The review focuses on those personality traits (neuroticism, extraversion, openness to experience, agreeableness, and conscientiousness), constructs (alexithymia and distressed - Type D personality) and emotional patterns (negative and positive) that are of particular concern in health psychology, with the aim to highlight their potential role on the pathogenesis, onset, symptom clusters, clinical course, and outcome of irritable bowel syndrome (IBS). Personality traits and emotional patterns play key roles in affecting autonomic, immune, inflammatory, and endocrine functions, thus contributing not only to IBS clinical expression and symptomatic burden, but also to disease physiopathology...
July 28, 2016: World Journal of Gastroenterology: WJG
Mahboubeh Ghorbani, Sedigheh Azhari, Habib Allah Esmaily, Bahram Ali GhanbariHashemabadi
BACKGROUND: Research demonstrates that most of the menopausal symptoms and problems are the reflection of individual and social circumstances rather than the endocrine events of the menopause. As majority of women live 30 years or more through postmenopausal period, treatment and following up their problems during this period is among the main duties of a midwife. The aim of this study is to determine the relationship between personality traits and vasomotor symptoms in postmenopausal women...
July 2016: Iranian Journal of Nursing and Midwifery Research
Yueyue Zhou, Dongping Li, Xian Li, Yanhui Wang, Liyan Zhao
This study examined the unique associations between big five personality traits and adolescent Internet addiction (IA), as well as the mediating role of coping style underlying these relations. Our theoretical model was tested with 998 adolescents. Participants provided self-report data on demographic variables, big five personality traits, coping style, and IA. After controlling for demographic variables, it was found that agreeableness and conscientiousness were negatively associated with IA, whereas extraversion, neuroticism, and openness to experience were positively associated with IA...
August 12, 2016: Addictive Behaviors
Dikla Segel-Karpas, Margie E Lachman
OBJECTIVES: Social contact has been shown to be positively associated with cognitive functioning. It is unclear, however, whether all individuals can equally benefit from social contact with regard to their cognitive functioning. The goal of this study was to examine whether the beneficial effects of social contact are affected by individual differences in personality. METHOD: We examined the Big Five personality traits as moderators of the associations between social contact and episodic memory and executive functioning using the second wave of the Midlife in the U...
August 9, 2016: Journals of Gerontology. Series B, Psychological Sciences and Social Sciences
Dorothy Wholihan
Spiritual care is an integral part of multidimensional palliative care and a major domain of care identified in definitions and guidelines. Death bed phenomena include visions, dreams, hallucinations, and premortem energy surges, which can be deeply spiritual experiences. Death bed occurrences are often a source of consolation. However, they have been underrecognized. The last hours of life are sacred; as holistic, multidimensional practitioners, nurses should remain open to experiences not easily explained within a traditional medical model...
September 2016: Nursing Clinics of North America
Eve-Marie C Blouin-Hudon, John M Zelenski
In the present research, we looked at how positive-constructive daydreaming, guilty-dysphoric daydreaming, and poor attentional control associate with both broad (i.e., openness to experience) and specific (i.e., introspection) personality traits. A second aim was to determine how daydreaming styles were associated with psychological well-being. Across four studies, 1081 undergraduate (studies 1, 2, and 4) and MTurk (study 3) participants completed online questionnaires. A fixed-effect meta-analysis revealed that introspection was a significant predictor of both positive and negative daydreaming styles, but not a consistent predictor of poor attentional control...
August 2016: Consciousness and Cognition
Hao-Yuan Chang, Daniel Friesner, I-Chen Lee, Tsung-Lan Chu, Hui-Ling Chen, Wan-Er Wu, Ching-I Teng
AIMS: The purpose of this study is to examine how the interaction between nurse openness and work experience is related to patient safety. BACKGROUND: No study has yet examined the interactions between these, and how openness and work experience jointly impact patient safety. METHODS: This study adopts a cross-sectional design, using self-reported work experience, perceived time pressure and measures of patient safety, and was conducted in a major medical centre...
July 31, 2016: Journal of Nursing Management
Nicholas A Livingston, Nathan Christianson, Bryan N Cochran
BACKGROUND: Sexual minority young adults experience elevated rates of distal stress (discrimination, victimization), and related psychological distress and alcohol misuse. However, few studies have examined the degree to which personality trait differences confer risk/resilience among sexual minority young adults. We hypothesized that psychological distress would mediate the relationship between distal stress and alcohol misuse, but that these relationships would be moderated by personality trait differences...
December 2016: Addictive Behaviors
Patrick D Dunlop, Joshua S Bourdage, Reinout E de Vries, Benjamin E Hilbig, Ingo Zettler, Steven G Ludeke
Overclaiming-in which individuals overstate their level of familiarity with items-has been proposed as a potential indicator of positive self-presentation. However, the precise nature and determinants of overclaiming are not well understood. Herein, we provide novel insights into overclaiming through 4 primary studies (comprising 6 samples) and a meta-analysis. Based on past empirical work and theoretical discussions suggesting that overclaiming may be the result of several processes-including an egoistic tendency to self-enhance, intentional impression managing behavior, and memory biases-we investigate various potential dispositional bases of this behavior...
July 25, 2016: Journal of Personality and Social Psychology
Caitlin M Porter, Scott E Parrigon, Sang Eun Woo, Rachel M Saef, Louis Tay
OBJECTIVE: This study investigates the differential functioning of cultural and intellectual openness (the two aspects of openness to experience) in relation to social cognitive processes by examining how they influence people's perceptions and interpretations of social information when deciding to initiate working relationships. METHOD: Using a policy capturing design, 681 adult participants were asked to rate their similarity to and preference to work with potential work partners characterized by varying nationalities and levels of work-related competence...
July 1, 2016: Journal of Personality
Charlène Villaron, Tanguy Marqueste, François Eisinger, Maria-Antonietta Cappiello, Pierre Therme, François Cury
OBJECTIVE: The purpose of the study was to analyze links between personality, time perspective and intention to practice physical activity during cancer treatment. METHOD: 143 patients participated in survey by questionnaire. Intention to practice physical activity, time perspective using Zimbardo Time Perspective Inventory, and personality with the Big Five Inventory were measured. Structural equation models using Lisrel were developed to examine hypothetical links between the variables...
June 16, 2016: Psycho-oncology
Aneta Libera, Bożena Leszczyńska-Gorzelak, Jan Oleszczuk
OBJECTIVES: The aim of the study was to analyze a possible correlation between personality traits and the level of stress experienced by women after premature labor. MATERIAL AND METHODS: The analysis was carried out on the basis of a study conducted in 96 women after premature labor. The following tools were used: Personality Inventory NEO-FFI, Parental Stressor Scale: NICU (SSR:OITN), and personal data questionnaire. It was an exploratory study since the SSR:OITN method is only applied to find out the characteristic features of stress induced by prematurity, and, therefore, it cannot be applied to study the control sample (i...
2016: Ginekologia Polska
Yousun Baek, Peter Martin, Ilene C Siegler, Adam Davey, Leonard W Poon
The current study attempted to describe how personality traits of older adults are associated with components of successful aging (cognition, volunteering, activities of daily living, and subjective health). Three-hundred and six octogenarians and centenarians who participated in the third phase of the Georgia Centenarian Study provided data for this study. Factor analysis was conducted to test the existence of two higher-order factors of the Big Five personality traits, and a two-factor model (alpha and beta) fit the data well...
September 2016: International Journal of Aging & Human Development
Paul B Ingram, James W Lichtenberg, Erik Clarke
Stigma has received attention as a major barrier toward effective mental health service delivery, and previous research has demonstrated that the Five-Factor Model (FFM) domain of Openness to Experience is negatively correlated with stigmatized views of mental health. However, a lack of established relationships between personality and self-stigma, as well as how these concepts affect an individual's treatment-seeking intentions, has left a gap in the literature. To address this, our study recruited a low-income community sample and tested (a) the relationship between self-stigma of mental health treatment and the FFM, (b) the relationship between self-stigma and treatment-seeking intentions, and (c) the incremental validity of FFM personality beyond stigma in the prediction of treatment seeking...
August 2016: Psychological Services
Ye-Ha Jung, Ul Soon Lee, Joon Hwan Jang, Do-Hyung Kang
OBJECTIVE: It has been known that mind-body training (MBT) can affect personality and behavior system as well as emotional well-being, but different effects of MBT on them has not been reported according to BDNF genetic polymorphism. METHODS: Healthy subjects consisted of 64 subjects and the MBT group who practiced meditation regularly consisted of 72 practitioners. Participants completed neuroticism-extraversion-openness (NEO) Five-Factor Inventory and Behavioral Activation System/Behavioral Inhibition System (BAS/BIS) scales...
May 2016: Psychiatry Investigation
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