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Paula G Williams, Kimberley T Johnson, Brian J Curtis, Jace B King, Jeffrey S Anderson
OBJECTIVE: Individual differences in aesthetic engagement-the propensity to be moved by art, nature, and beauty-are associated with positive health outcomes, as well as stress resilience. The purpose of the current study was to identify potential neural substrate mechanisms underlying individual differences in aesthetic engagement and reported proneness to aesthetic chill. METHODS: Data from the Human Connectome Project (HCP) 1200 Subjects Release were utilized...
June 13, 2018: NeuroImage
Swathi Swaminathan, E Glenn Schellenberg
Individuals differ in musical competence, which we defined as the ability to perceive, remember, and discriminate sequences of tones or beats. We asked whether such differences could be explained by variables other than music training, including socioeconomic status (SES), short-term memory, general cognitive ability, and personality. In a sample of undergraduates, musical competence had positive simple associations with duration of music training, SES, short-term memory, general cognitive ability, and openness-to-experience...
June 15, 2018: Scientific Reports
Emi Sato, Kouhei Matsuda
The purpose of this study was to examine cerebral blood flow in the frontal cortex area during personality self-rating tasks. Our two hypotheses were (1) cerebral blood flow varies based on personality rating condition and (2) cerebral blood flow varies based on the personality traits. This experiment measured cerebral blood flow under 3 personal computer rating conditions and 2 questionnaire conditions. Comparing the rating conditions, the results of the t-test indicated that cerebral blood flow was higher in the questionnaire condition than it was in the personal computer condition...
June 11, 2018: International Journal of Psychology: Journal International de Psychologie
Anna Szücs, Katalin Szanto, Jean-Michel Aubry, Alexandre Y Dombrovski
Background: Suicide rates generally peak in the second half of life and are particularly high in older men; however, little is known about the contribution of dispositional factors to late-life suicide. Maladaptive personality traits have been strongly implicated in suicide among younger adults, but the extent to which they continue to play a role in late-life suicidal behavior is unclear. We also do not know whether specific personality profiles interact with the stressors of aging to cause suicidal behavior...
2018: Frontiers in Psychiatry
Pierce D Ekstrom, Christopher M Federico
OBJECTIVE: To investigate how the relations between the Big Five personality traits and political preferences develop over a campaign. METHOD: We rely on a 6-wave nationwide longitudinal survey from the 2008 U.S. election that included 20,000 respondents. Mean age: 49 (SD=15). 53% of respondents were women, 47% men. 82% were White, 8% Black, 6% Hispanic/Latino, 1% Asian, 1% Native American, and 2% other. Survey weights were applied to approximate a representative sample of the U...
May 27, 2018: Journal of Personality
Nyala Noë, Roger M Whitaker, Stuart M Allen
Personality homophily remains an understudied aspect of social networks, with the traditional focus concerning sociodemographic variables as the basis for assortativity, rather than psychological dispositions. We consider the effect of personality homophily on one of the biggest constraints to human social networks: geographic distance. We use the Big five model of personality to make predictions for each of the five facets: Openness to experience, Conscientiousness, Extraversion, Agreeableness, and Neuroticism...
May 24, 2018: Cyberpsychology, Behavior and Social Networking
Kyriaki Alexandraki, Vasileios Stavropoulos, Tyrone L Burleigh, Daniel L King, Mark D Griffiths
Background and aims Adolescent Internet pornography viewing has been significantly increased in the last decade with research highlighting its association with Internet addiction (IA). However, there is little longitudinal data on this topic, particularly in relation to peer context effects. This study aimed to examine age- and context-related variations in the Internet pornography-IA association. Methods A total of 648 adolescents, from 34 classrooms, were assessed at 16 years and then at 18 years to examine the effect of Internet pornography preference on IA in relation to the classroom context...
May 23, 2018: Journal of Behavioral Addictions
Cihan Aydoğan
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the effects of personality traits to moderate the relationships between orthodontic treatment need and oral health-related quality of life (OHRQoL) in adolescents. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A cross-sectional study was performed that included 230 subjects (125 girls and 105 boys) aged 11-14 years. Orthodontic treatment need was measured using the Index of Complexity, Outcome and Need (ICON). The Child Perceptions Questionnaire, the Basic Personality Traits Inventory (BPTI), and the Revised Life Orientation Test were used to assess the OHRQoL, basic personality dimensions, and dispositional optimism respectively...
May 22, 2018: Angle Orthodontist
Cristina Cacciari, Paola Corrardini, Fabio Ferlazzo
In this exploratory study, we investigated whether and to what extent individual differences in cognitive and personality variables are associated with spoken idiom comprehension in context. Language unimpaired participants were enrolled in a cross-modal lexical decision study in which semantically ambiguous Italian idioms (i.e., strings with both a literal and an idiomatic interpretation as, for instance, break the ice ), predictable or unpredictable before the string offset, were embedded in idiom-biasing contexts...
2018: Frontiers in Psychology
Páraic S O'Súilleabháin, Brian M Hughes
OBJECTIVE: To examine if the personality traits neuroticism, extraversion, and openness to experience are related to all-cause mortality in older adults over a follow-up period of 19 years. METHODS: Participants were a locally representative sample of 417 older adults (M ± SD = 84.55 ± 8.62 years). Statistical significance levels for hazard ratios were estimated having adjusted for age, sex, education, income, depressive illness, and personality traits...
July 2018: Journal of Psychosomatic Research
Karina Elisabeth Jensen, Maja O'Connor, Helle Spindler, Andrew Moskowitz
Bereavement hallucinations (BHs) were assessed in 175 conjugally bereaved participants four years post loss, to explore whether BHs were: a) associated with psychological distress and b) predicted by sociodemographic variables, personality and/or coping style. Participants with BHs scored significantly higher than those without BHs on prolonged grief, post-traumatic stress, depression symptoms, and emotional loneliness. Hierarchical logistic regression analysis showed avoidant coping, openness to experience, and length of marriage to significantly predict BHs, while detached coping was negatively associated with BHs...
May 14, 2018: Death Studies
Alexander P Christensen, Katherine N Cotter, Paul J Silvia
Openness to Experience is a complex trait, the taxonomic structure of which has been widely debated. Previous research has provided greater clarity of its lower order structure by synthesizing facets across several scales related to Openness to Experience. In this study, we take a finer grained approach by investigating the item-level relations of four Openness to Experience inventories (Big Five Aspects Scale, HEXACO-100, NEO PI-3, and Woo et al.'s Openness to Experience Inventory), using a network science approach, which allowed items to form an emergent taxonomy of facets and aspects...
May 10, 2018: Journal of Personality Assessment
Mingke Zhuang, Zhuolin She, Zijun Cai, Zheng Huang, Qian Xiang, Ping Wang, Fei Zhu
Despite career construction theory attends to individual subjective career and provides a useful lens to study well-being, extant research has yielded limited insights into the mechanisms through which career construction variables influence individual well-being. To address this important gap, the present study examined a mediation model that links indicators of career adaptivity (big-five personality and approach/avoidance traits) to psychological well-being (psychological flourishing and life satisfaction) through career adaptability and in sequent meaning of life (presence of life meaning and search for life meaning) among a sample of Chinese university students ( N = 165)...
2018: Frontiers in Psychology
Thomas R Kwapil, Georgina M Gross, Chris J Burgin, Michael L Raulin, Paul J Silvia, Neus Barrantes-Vidal
The present study provided the first examination of the construct validity of the Multidimensional Schizotypy Scale (MSS) and the first assessment of its psychometric properties outside of its derivation samples. The MSS contains 77 items that assess positive, negative, and disorganized schizotypy. A large multisite sample of 1,430 participants completed the MSS and measures of schizotypal personality traits and the five-factor model of personality. The MSS subscales had good-to-excellent internal consistency reliability that showed no shrinkage relative to the MSS derivation samples...
May 3, 2018: Personality Disorders
Jeroen K Joly, Joeri Hofmans, Peter Loewen
We examined the relationship between Big Five personality and the political ideology of elected politicians. To this end, we studied 303 politicians from Flanders, Wallonia, and Canada, relating their self-reported Big Five scores to a partisanship-based measure of political ideology. Our findings show that, in line with the congruency model of personality, Openness to Experience is the best and most consistent correlate of political ideology, with politicians high on Openness to Experience being more likely to be found among the more progressive left-wing political parties...
2018: Frontiers in Psychology
Tobias Iseland, Emma Johansson, Siri Skoog, Anna M Dåderman
Research on drivers has shown how certain visual-manual secondary tasks, unrelated to driving, increase the risk of being involved in crashes. The purpose of the study was to investigate (1) if long-haul truck drivers in Sweden engage in secondary tasks while driving, what tasks are performed and how frequently, (2) the drivers' self-perceived reason/s for performing them, and (3) if psychological factors might reveal reasons for their engaging in secondary tasks. The study comprised 13 long-haul truck drivers and was conducted through observations, interviews, and questionnaires...
April 24, 2018: Accident; Analysis and Prevention
Neusa Maria de Oliveira Chardosim, Camila Rosa Oliveira, Manuela Polidoro Lima, Marianne Farina, Valéria Gonzatti, Dalton Breno Costa, Aline Sória Pereira, Luis Henrique Paloski, Tatiana Quarti Irigaray, Irani Iracema de Lima Argimon
Parkinson's disease (PD) is a chronic and progressive neurological disease, resulting from cell degeneration in the substantia nigra, responsible for the production of dopamine. Objective: This study aimed to characterize the cognitive functioning, personality factors and prevalence of depressive and anxiety symptoms in individuals with Parkinson's disease (PD). Furthermore, this study sought to analyze whether personality factors were predictors of cognitive functioning. Methods: The sample consisted of 30 elderly with PD...
January 2018: Dementia & Neuropsychologia
Oshin Vartanian, Christopher J Wertz, Ranee A Flores, Erin L Beatty, Ingrid Smith, Kristen Blackler, Quan Lam, Rex E Jung
Openness/Intellect (i.e., openness to experience) is the Big Five personality factor most consistently associated with individual differences in creativity. Recent psychometric evidence has demonstrated that this factor consists of two distinct aspects-Intellect and Openness. Whereas Intellect reflects perceived intelligence and intellectual engagement, Openness reflects engagement with fantasy, perception, and aesthetics. We investigated the extent to which Openness and Intellect are associated with variations in brain structure as measured by cortical thickness, area, and volume (N = 185)...
April 15, 2018: Human Brain Mapping
Vaka Vésteinsdóttir, Eva D Steingrimsdottir, Adam Joinson, Ulf-Dietrich Reips, Fanney Thorsdottir
Whether or not socially desirable responding is a cause for concern in personality assessment has long been debated. For many researchers, McCrae and Costa laid the issue to rest when they showed that correcting for socially desirable responding in self-reports did not improve the agreement with spouse ratings on the Neuroticism, Extraversion, and Openness to Experience Personality Inventory. However, their findings rest on the assumption that observer ratings in general, and spouse ratings in particular, are an unbiased external criterion...
January 1, 2018: Psychological Reports
Małgorzata A Gocłowska, Simone M Ritter, Andrew J Elliot, Matthijs Baas
OBJECTIVE: Novelty seeking (the tendency to explore things novel and unfamiliar) has been extensively researched in the clinical and health domains, but its effects on creative performance are largely unknown. We examined whether creativity-related personality traits (openness to experience and extraversion) associate with novelty seeking, and whether novelty seeking is linked to, and facilitates, creativity. METHOD: In Study 1a (N = 230, Mage = 20, 64% females) and Study 1b (N = 421, Mage = 19, 65% females) we measured extraversion, openness to experience, novelty seeking, and divergent thinking...
March 31, 2018: Journal of Personality
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