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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29468890/a-systematic-review-of-the-traits-and-cognitions-associated-with-use-of-and-belief-in-complementary-and-alternative-medicine-cam
#1
Niall Galbraith, Tim Moss, Victoria Galbraith, Satvinder Purewal
Complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) use is widespread despite the controversy over its effectiveness. Although previous reviews have examined the demographics and attitudes of CAM users, there is no existing review on the traits or cognitions which characterise either CAM users or those who believe in CAM effectiveness. The current systematic review set out to address these gaps in the literature by applying a narrative synthesis. A bibliographic search and manual searches were undertaken and key authors were contacted...
February 22, 2018: Psychology, Health & Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29467686/the-role-of-personality-in-daily-food-allergy-experiences
#2
Tamlin S Conner, Miranda Mirosa, Phil Bremer, Rana Peniamina
Food allergies present numerous challenges to coping in everyday life. Even simple things like planning a lunch with a friend can be stressful for people with food allergies. But are some people more adversely impacted by having a food allergy than other people? This paper addressed this question by investigating whether individual differences in the Big Five personality traits (neuroticism, extraversion, openness, agreeableness, and conscientiousness) are related to food allergy-related problems in everyday life among adults with food allergies...
2018: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29465570/transmissibility-and-familiality-of-neo-personality-dimensions-in-a-sample-of-korean-families-with-schizophrenia
#3
Soo Yeon Kim, Byung Dae Lee, Je Min Park, Young Min Lee, Eunsoo Moon, Hee Jeong Jeong, Young In Chung
Categorical syndromes such as schizophrenia may represent complexes of many continuous psychological structural phenotypes along several dimensions of personality development/degeneration. The present study investigated the heritability and familiality of Neuroticism-Extraversion-Openness to experience (NEO) personality dimensions in Korean families with schizophrenic linkage disequilibrium (LD).We have recruited 204 probands (with schizophrenia) with their parents and siblings whenever possible. We have used NEO questionnaires for measuring personality and symptomatic dimensions...
February 2018: Medicine (Baltimore)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29452416/early-and-midlife-predictors-of-wisdom-and-subjective-well-being-in-old-age
#4
Monika Ardelt, Kathryn R Gerlach, George E Vaillant
Objectives: We explored whether wisdom and well-being in old age are the result of early personality traits related to personality growth or personality adjustment, respectively, or successful human development as outlined by Erikson's stage theory and the life course paradigm. Method: Structural equation models were applied to analyze 60-year longitudinal data of 98 white male Harvard graduates born between 1915 and 1924. Different sets of judges rated the men's childhood and adolescence, early adult personality, and midlife generativity...
February 14, 2018: Journals of Gerontology. Series B, Psychological Sciences and Social Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29361852/open-to-exploration-association-of-personality-factors-with-complementary-therapy-use-after-breast-cancer-treatment
#5
Kirsti I Toivonen, Rie Tamagawa, Michael Speca, Joanne Stephen, Linda E Carlson
PURPOSE: Many cancer survivors seek complementary therapies (CTs) to improve their quality of life. While it is well-known that women who are younger, more highly educated, and have higher incomes are more likely to use CTs, individual differences such as personality factors have been largely unexplored as predictors of CT use. METHODS: In a secondary analysis of a larger study, 270 women with stage I to III breast cancer completed self-report measures of demographic and illness-related information, personality variables, and use of several different types of CTs...
January 1, 2018: Integrative Cancer Therapies
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29353281/the-effectiveness-of-dietary-approaches-to-stop-hypertension-diet-intervention-in-persons-with-arterial-hypertension-and-obesity-a-key-role-of-the-patients-personality-profile
#6
Alicja Kucharska, Mariusz Jaworski, Mariusz Panczyk, Magdalena Pilska, Danuta Gajewska, Joanna Niegowska
BACKGROUND/AIMS: Benefits resulting from weight loss and dietary approaches to stop hypertension (DASH) diet in the treatment of arterial hypertension led to a search for a better therapy that would include psychological factors. The present study aimed to assess the relationship between the personality traits included in the Big Five personality traits and the effectiveness of treatment for weight loss in patients with essential hypertension and excessive body weight. METHODS: The study involved 84 patients with essential hypertension, overweight or obesity, managed by a hypertensiologist...
January 19, 2018: Annals of Nutrition & Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29350316/influence-of-personality-and-motivation-on-oral-presentation-performance
#7
Hsin-Yi Liang, Brent Kelsen
Personality and motivation have been identified as influential variables associated with foreign language learning; however, few studies have investigated their effect on oral presentations. This study addresses the importance of both personality and motivation in students' collaborative oral presentation performance. A Big Five personality trait questionnaire measuring Extraversion, Agreeableness, Conscientiousness, Neuroticism and Openness to Experience, together with the Collaborative Inquiry-based Project Questionnaire measuring Task, Project Work, Reinforcement, Social Learning and Social Pressure motivational constructs were employed to evaluate 257 university students...
January 19, 2018: Journal of Psycholinguistic Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29324823/the-relationship-between-personalities-and-self-report-positive-driving-behavior-in-a-chinese-sample
#8
Biying Shen, Weina Qu, Yan Ge, Xianghong Sun, Kan Zhang
Driving behaviors play an important role in accident involvement. Concretely speaking, aberrant driving behaviors would cause more accidents, and oppositely positive driving behaviors would promote to build safety traffic environment. The main goals of this study were to explore the positive driving behavior and its relationship with personality in a Chinese sample. A total of 421 licensed drivers (286 male and 135 female) from Beijing, China completed the Positive Driver Behavior Scale (PDBS), the Driver Behavior Questionnaire (DBQ), the Dula Dangerous Driving Index (DDDI) and the Big Five Inventory (BFI) on a voluntary and anonymous basis...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29323511/representing-schizotypal-thinking-with-dimensional-traits-a-case-for-the-five-factor-schizotypal-inventory
#9
Erin L Moorman, Douglas B Samuel
Building on support for the five-factor model (FFM) of personality disorder, the Five Factor Schizotypal Inventory (FFSI) was developed to assess maladaptive traits relevant to schizotypal personality disorder. While the development of the FFSI supports a continuity between schizotypal thinking and perception (STAP) and the FFM domain of Openness to Experience, other studies show inconsistent findings concerning the strength of this relationship. The current study evaluates these relationships by investigating specific components of a short-form of the FFSI (e...
January 2018: Psychological Assessment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29227758/better-open-than-intellectual-the-benefits-of-investment-personality-traits-for-learning
#10
Sophie von Stumm
The investment theory of adult intelligence posits that individual differences in knowledge attainment result from people's differences in cognitive ability and their propensity to apply and invest that ability, which is referred to as investment personality traits. Here, we differentiated intellectual (i.e., intellectual curiosity) and nonintellectual investment (i.e., openness to experience), and we tested their respective predictive validity for knowledge attainment in four independent lab-based studies (overall N = 649)...
December 1, 2017: Personality & Social Psychology Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29209260/awareness-and-awakening-a-narrative-oriented-inquiry-of-undergraduate-students-development-of-mindful-agency-in-china
#11
Qing Wang, Ho Chung Law, Yan Li, Zhanfei Xu, Weiguo Pang
The article explores undergraduate students' experiences of developing mindful agency as a positive learning disposition, their perceived change as a learner, and the possible impact of mindful agency coaching on students' learning and personal growth, using a narrative research method. Seventy Chinese undergraduate students generated personal reflective journals and eight participants' journals were selected to enter into the narrative-oriented inquiry. Our analysis revealed a number of primary themes based on which we produced a meta-story...
2017: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29166225/big-five-personality-factors-and-facets-as-predictors-of-openness-to-diversity
#12
Suejung Han, M Carole Pistole
Openness to diversity is a crucial component of cultural competence needed in the increasingly diversified modern society and a necessary condition for benefitting from diversity contacts and interventions (e.g., diversity training, cultural courses). Responding to the recent call for more research on personality and its relation to diversity outcomes, we examined the associations between Big Five personality (i.e., Openness to Experience, Agreeableness, Extraversion, Neuroticism, and Conscientiousness) higher order factors and lower order facets and universal-diverse orientation (i...
November 17, 2017: Journal of Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29157511/subtypes-of-homicide-offenders-based-on-psychopathic-traits
#13
Marija Pajevic, Borjanka Batinic, Nikola Stevanovic
The aim of the present study was to explore the subtypes of offenders based on psychopathic traits in a sample of 127 adult homicide offenders (n=40.3% convicted of murder, n=32.6% convicted of aggravated murder, n=27.1% convicted of attempted murder). A two-step cluster analysis of the four factors of psychopathy yielded three clusters, which were then compared on the general dimensions of personality defined by the HEXACO model, intelligence, sadism and psychopathology variables conceptualized by the MMPI-202...
November 2017: International Journal of Law and Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29136310/brain-networks-of-the-imaginative-mind-dynamic-functional-connectivity-of-default-and-cognitive-control-networks-relates-to-openness-to-experience
#14
Roger E Beaty, Qunlin Chen, Alexander P Christensen, Jiang Qiu, Paul J Silvia, Daniel L Schacter
Imagination and creative cognition are often associated with the brain's default network (DN). Recent evidence has also linked cognitive control systems to performance on tasks involving imagination and creativity, with a growing number of studies reporting functional interactions between cognitive control and DN regions. We sought to extend the emerging literature on brain dynamics supporting imagination by examining individual differences in large-scale network connectivity in relation to Openness to Experience, a personality trait typified by imagination and creativity...
November 14, 2017: Human Brain Mapping
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29133409/psychological-targeting-as-an-effective-approach-to-digital-mass-persuasion
#15
S C Matz, M Kosinski, G Nave, D J Stillwell
People are exposed to persuasive communication across many different contexts: Governments, companies, and political parties use persuasive appeals to encourage people to eat healthier, purchase a particular product, or vote for a specific candidate. Laboratory studies show that such persuasive appeals are more effective in influencing behavior when they are tailored to individuals' unique psychological characteristics. However, the investigation of large-scale psychological persuasion in the real world has been hindered by the questionnaire-based nature of psychological assessment...
November 13, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29104107/preference-for-tap-bottled-and-recycled-water-relations-to-ptc-taste-sensitivity-and-personality
#16
Daniel Harmon, Mary Gauvain, Z Reisz, Isaac Arthur, S Drew Story
This study investigated people's preferences for different water sources and factors that predict such preferences using a blind taste test. Water preferences of 143 participants for one name-brand bottled water, one groundwater-sourced tap water, and one indirect potable reuse (IDR) water were assessed. For predictors of water preference, we measured each participant's PTC taste sensitivity and assessed two personality traits (Neuroticism, Openness to Experience). We also explored participants' descriptions of each water source...
November 2, 2017: Appetite
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29091235/predicting-trans-inclusive-attitudes-of-undergraduate-nursing-students
#17
Chris Brown, Chad J Keller, Jenna M Brownfield, Rebekah Lee
BACKGROUND: Research informs that transgender individuals experience harsh and negative experiences when accessing medical care. As a person of contact, nurses serve a key role in providing a sense of emotional safety for transgender patients. METHOD: Undergraduate nursing students (N = 265) completed an online survey assessing transprejudice attitudes and other individual-difference variables (e.g., openness to experience, attribution of cause for being transgender, and empathic concern)...
November 1, 2017: Journal of Nursing Education
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29065317/inspired-by-mary-jane-mechanisms-underlying-enhanced-creativity-in-cannabis-users
#18
Emily M LaFrance, Carrie Cuttler
Previous research suggests cannabis may enhance some aspects of creativity, although the results remain somewhat equivocal. Moreover, it is unclear whether differences in cannabis users' personalities may account for any potentially beneficial effects of cannabis on creativity. This study was designed to examine whether sober cannabis users demonstrate superior self-reported and objective creativity test performance relative to non-users, and to determine whether any of the Big 5 personality domains underlie these effects...
October 21, 2017: Consciousness and Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29058940/much-ado-about-aha-insight-problem-solving-is-strongly-related-to-working-memory-capacity-and-reasoning-ability
#19
Adam Chuderski, Jan Jastrzębski
A battery comprising 4 fluid reasoning tests as well as 13 working memory (WM) tasks that involved storage, recall, updating, binding, and executive control, was applied to 318 adults in order to evaluate the true relationship of reasoning ability and WM capacity (WMC) to insight problem solving, measured using 40 verbal, spatial, math, matchstick, and remote associates problems (insight problems). WMC predicted 51.8% of variance in insight problem solving and virtually explained its almost isomorphic link to reasoning ability (84...
October 23, 2017: Journal of Experimental Psychology. General
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29051684/a-tripartite-taxonomy-of-character-evidence-for-intrapersonal-interpersonal-and-intellectual-competencies-in-children
#20
Daeun Park, Eli Tsukayama, Geoffrey P Goodwin, Sarah Patrick, Angela L Duckworth
Other than cognitive ability, what competencies should schools promote in children? How are they organized, and to what extent do they predict consequential outcomes? Separate theoretical traditions have suggested interpersonal, intrapersonal, and intellectual dimensions, reflecting how children relate to other people, manage their own goals and impulses, and engage with ideas, respectively. However, very little work has examined character empirically. In the current investigation, we partnered with middle schools that had previously identified character strengths relevant in their communities...
January 2017: Contemporary Educational Psychology
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