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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29054034/an-exploration-of-common-dopaminergic-variants-and-behavior-problems-in-siblings-at-high-risk-for-autism-spectrum-disorder
#1
Devon N Gangi, Lauren V Usher, Daniel S Messinger
Younger siblings of children with ASD often exhibit elevated internalizing and externalizing problems. We investigated common dopaminergic variants (DRD4 and DRD2) in relation to behavior problems at 36 months. Genotypes linked to less efficient dopaminergic functioning were associated with higher internalizing problems in high-risk siblings.
October 17, 2017: Infant Behavior & Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29053687/bead-based-multiplex-assay-for-analysis-of-tear-cytokine-profiles
#2
Praveen Kumar Balne, Veonice Bijin Au, Louis Tong, Arkasubhra Ghosh, Mukesh Agrawal, John Connolly, Rupesh Agrawal
Tear film is a complex mixture of lipids, proteins and minerals which covers the external surface of the eye, thereby providing lubrication, nutrition and protection to the underlying cells. Analysis of tears is an emerging area for the identification of biomarkers for the prediction, diagnosis, and prognosis of various ocular diseases. Tears are easily accessible and their collection is non-invasive. Therefore, advancing technologies are gaining prominence for identification of multiple analytes in tears to study changes in protein or metabolite composition and its association with pathological conditions...
October 13, 2017: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29052041/suicide-of-isolated-inmates-suffering-from-psychiatric-disorders-when-a-preventive-measure-becomes-punitive
#3
S Grassi, G Mandarelli, M Polacco, G Vetrugno, A G Spagnolo, Fabio De-Giorgio
We performed external autopsies and examinations on two inmates who had committed suicide by hanging themselves with their underwear and using the window bars of their cells as ligature points after they had been placed in solitary confinement. In one case, the inmate had even been deprived of her clothing (with the exception to her underwear). Underwear has been rarely described as a means for self-harm and, to the best of our knowledge, no previous study has focused on cases of prison suicides committed using this garment, even though it is available to every inmate...
October 19, 2017: International Journal of Legal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29049988/magnolia-officinalis-bark-extract-induces-depolarization-of-pacemaker-potentials-through-m2-and-m3-muscarinic-receptors-in-cultured-murine-small-intestine-interstitial-cells-of-cajal
#4
Hyun Jung Kim, Taewon Han, Yun Tai Kim, Insuk So, Byung Joo Kim
BACKGROUND: Magnolia officinalis Rehder and EH Wilson (M. officinalis) are traditional Chinese medicines widely used for gastrointestinal (GI) tract motility disorder in Asian countries. We investigated the effects of an ethanol extract of M. officinalis (MOE) on the pacemaker potentials of cultured interstitial cells of Cajal (ICCs) in vitro and its effects on GI motor functions in vivo. METHODS: We isolated ICCs from small intestines, and the whole-cell patch-clamp configuration was used to record the pacemaker potentials in cultured ICCs in vitro...
October 19, 2017: Cellular Physiology and Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29041989/links-of-gut-microbiota-composition-with-alcohol-dependence-syndrome-and-alcoholic-liver-disease
#5
Veronika B Dubinkina, Alexander V Tyakht, Vera Y Odintsova, Konstantin S Yarygin, Boris A Kovarsky, Alexander V Pavlenko, Dmitry S Ischenko, Anna S Popenko, Dmitry G Alexeev, Anastasiya Y Taraskina, Regina F Nasyrova, Evgeny M Krupitsky, Nino V Shalikiani, Igor G Bakulin, Petr L Shcherbakov, Lyubov O Skorodumova, Andrei K Larin, Elena S Kostryukova, Rustam A Abdulkhakov, Sayar R Abdulkhakov, Sergey Y Malanin, Ruzilya K Ismagilova, Tatiana V Grigoryeva, Elena N Ilina, Vadim M Govorun
BACKGROUND: Alcohol abuse has deleterious effects on human health by disrupting the functions of many organs and systems. Gut microbiota has been implicated in the pathogenesis of alcohol-related liver diseases, with its composition manifesting expressed dysbiosis in patients suffering from alcoholic dependence. Due to its inherent plasticity, gut microbiota is an important target for prevention and treatment of these diseases. Identification of the impact of alcohol abuse with associated psychiatric symptoms on the gut community structure is confounded by the liver dysfunction...
October 17, 2017: Microbiome
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29039227/the-violent-accounts-of-men-diagnosed-with-comorbid-antisocial-and-borderline-personality-disorders
#6
Craig Falcus, Darren Johnson
This study explored the violent offence accounts of life-sentenced prisoners diagnosed with comorbid antisocial personality disorder (ASPD) and borderline personality disorder (BPD). The aim of the current study was to gain needed clinical insight into the mechanisms involved in this specific group offenders' use of violence against others. Six adult male personality-disordered offenders were interviewed via a semistructured interview schedule to collate individual offence accounts. Interview transcripts were analyzed by the lead researcher (first author) using interpretative phenomenological analysis (IPA) who compared and contrasted findings to develop superordinate themes across the group...
October 1, 2017: International Journal of Offender Therapy and Comparative Criminology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29038990/personality-and-alexithymic-disparity-in-obsessive-compulsive-disorder-based-on-washing-and-checking
#7
Hwa-Sheng Tang, Po-Fei Chen, For-Wey Lung
The aim of this study was to investigate pathway relationship of personality characteristics and alexithymic traits in OCD symptoms of obsession, and compulsive behavior of washing and checking. Two-hundred and seventy patients diagnosed with OCD were consecutively recruited from the psychiatric outpatient department of a teaching hospital. Structural equation modeling showed those more neurotic, less extraverted and with higher levels of alexithymia difficulty identifying feelings (DIF), difficulty describing feelings (DDF) and externally oriented thinking (EOT) were more likely to develop obsessive thoughts...
October 17, 2017: Psychiatric Quarterly
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29038777/the-abcd-study-of-neurodevelopment-identifying-neurocircuit-targets-for-prevention-and-treatment-of-adolescent-substance-abuse
#8
James M Bjork, Lisa K Straub, Rosellen G Provost, Michael C Neale
Substance use disorders (SUD) can be considered developmental disorders in light of their frequent origins in substance initiation during adolescence. Cross-sectional functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) studies of adolescent substance users or adolescents with SUD have indicated aberrations in brain structures or circuits implicated in motivation, self-control, and mood-regulation. However, attributing these differences to the neurotoxicological effects of chronic substance use has been problematic in that these circuits are also aberrant in at-risk children, such as those with prenatal substance exposure, externalizing disorders (such as conduct disorder), or prodromal internalizing disorders such as depression...
June 2017: Current Treatment Options in Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29035775/avoiding-the-pocket-a-case-report-of-coiling-of-distal-shunt-catheter-into-subcutaneous-pocket
#9
Richard Justin Garling, Sandeep Sood, Carolyn Anne Harris
INTRODUCTION: Hydrocephalus is one of the most common disorders of neurosurgery and ventricular shunting, the primary surgical intervention, malfunctions in 85% of patients by 10 years. PRESENTATION OF CASE: Here we present a case of a 12-year-old girl with history of a vagal nerve stimulator (VNS) and ventricular shunt, most recently revised from ventriculoatrial (VA) to ventriculoperitoneal (VP) shunt at an outside hospital. The patient presented with a new left chest bulge, nausea, emesis, and seizures...
October 10, 2017: International Journal of Surgery Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29035611/are-people-who-inject-drugs-frequent-users-of-emergency-department-services-a-cohort-study-2008-2013
#10
Dhanya Nambiar, Tim Spelman, Mark Stoové, Paul Dietze
BACKGROUND: Although people who inject drugs (PWID) have been described as frequent users of emergency services, the majority of research is cross-sectional and involves records from a single emergency department (ED). OBJECTIVES: We describe characteristics of state-wide ED presentations in a cohort of PWID, and compare presentation rates to the general population. We also examine characteristics associated with frequent ED use. METHODS: We used data from a retrospective linkage of public ED presentations from a cohort of 678 PWID between January 2008 and June 2013...
October 16, 2017: Substance Use & Misuse
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29035377/nme4-nucleoside-diphosphate-kinase-d-in-cardiolipin-signaling-and-mitophagy
#11
Uwe Schlattner, Malgorzata Tokarska-Schlattner, Richard M Epand, Mathieu Boissan, Marie-Lise Lacombe, Valerian E Kagan
Mitophagy is an emerging paradigm for mitochondrial quality control and cell homeostasis. Dysregulation of mitophagy can lead to human pathologies such as neurodegenerative disorders and contributes to the aging process. Complex protein signaling cascades have been described that regulate mitophagy. We have identified a novel lipid signaling pathway that involves the phospholipid cardiolipin (CL). CL is synthesized and normally confined at the inner mitochondrial membrane. However, upon a mitophagic trigger, ie, collapse of the inner membrane potential, CL is rapidly externalized to the mitochondrial surface with the assistance of the hexameric nucleoside diphosphate kinase D (NME4, NDPK-D, or NM23-H4)...
October 16, 2017: Laboratory Investigation; a Journal of Technical Methods and Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29035296/a-wireless-monitoring-system-using-a-tunneling-sensor-array-in-a-smart-oral-appliance-for-sleep-apnea-treatment
#12
Kun-Ying Yeh, Chao-Chi Yeh, Chun-Chang Wu, Kuan Tang, Jyun-Yi Wu, Yun-Ting Chen, Ming-Xin Xu, Yunn-Jy Chen, Yao-Joe Yang, Shey-Shi Lu
Sleep apnea is a serious sleep disorder, and the most common type is obstructive sleep apnea (OSA). Untreated OSA will cause lots of potential health problems. Oral appliance therapy is an effective and popular approach for OSA treatment, but making a perfect fit for each patient is time-consuming and decreases its efficiency considerably. This paper proposes a System-on-a-Chip (SoC) enabled sleep monitoring system in a smart oral appliance, which is capable of intelligently collecting the physiological data about tongue movement through the whole therapy...
October 16, 2017: Sensors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29033255/how-do-voice-perceptual-changes-predict-acoustic-parameters-in-persian-voice-patients
#13
Shamim Hosseinifar, Farhad Torabinezhad, Leila Ghelichi, Masoud Roudbari, Erin Pearson Silverman, Maryam Faham
INTRODUCTION: Perceptual and acoustic analyses are essential tools that help voice therapists comprehensively assess voice quality. While perceptual evaluations are subjective and are influenced by external and culturally driven factors, acoustic analysis is an objective and reliable means of evaluating voice. The goals of this study were (1) to determine which acoustic parameters were predicted by perceptual voice quality and (2) to assess the effect of a short period of training on the reliability of perceptual voice analyses for Persian speakers...
October 12, 2017: Journal of Voice: Official Journal of the Voice Foundation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29032488/how-do-individuals-develop-alcohol-use-disorder-after-bariatric-surgery-a-grounded-theory-exploration
#14
Ruth Yoder, Padraig MacNeela, Ronan Conway, Caroline Heary
BACKGROUND: Bariatric surgery is the most effective treatment for severe obesity. However, following Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB) surgery, a small minority of patients develop new-onset alcohol use disorder (AUD), the aetiology of which is poorly understood. AIM: The aim is to construct a theory to explain the development of AUD among a sample of individuals who reported problematic drinking following RYGB. METHOD: Semi-structured interviews were conducted with eight RYGB patients diagnosed with AUD attending a multi-disciplinary outpatient weight management service at a public hospital in the Republic of Ireland...
October 14, 2017: Obesity Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29031217/quality-of-life-and-burden-in-caregivers-of-youth-with-obsessive-compulsive-disorder-presenting-for-intensive-treatment
#15
Monica S Wu, Rebecca Hamblin, Joshua Nadeau, Jessica Simmons, Ashley Smith, Meredith Wilson, Stephanie Eken, Brent Small, Vicky Phares, Eric A Storch
BACKGROUND: Pediatric obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) is associated with deleterious familial effects; caregivers are often enmeshed in the disorder and can experience considerable burden and decreased quality of life (QoL). Consequently, this study examined burden and QoL in caregivers of youth with OCD enrolled in an intensive outpatient or partial hospitalization program. METHOD: The relationships between caregiver QoL and burden and the following variables were investigated: OCD symptom severity, functioning (youth functional impairment, general family functioning), family (family accommodation, parental relationship satisfaction, positive aspects of caregiving), and comorbid psychopathology (caregiver anxiety and depressive symptoms, youth internalizing and externalizing behaviors)...
August 30, 2017: Comprehensive Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29030901/disrupted-integration-of-exteroceptive-and-interoceptive-signaling-in-autism-spectrum-disorder
#16
Jean-Paul Noel, Marisa Lytle, Carissa Cascio, Mark T Wallace
In addition to deficits in social communication, individuals diagnosed with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) frequently exhibit changes in sensory and multisensory function. Recent evidence has focused on changes in audiovisual temporal processing, and has sought to relate these sensory-based changes to weaknesses in social communication. These changes in audiovisual temporal function manifest as differences in the temporal epoch or "window" within which paired auditory and visual stimuli are integrated or bound, with those with ASD exhibiting expanded audiovisual temporal binding windows (TBWs)...
October 14, 2017: Autism Research: Official Journal of the International Society for Autism Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29029972/development-of-indicators-for-a-nationwide-cross-sectoral-quality-assurance-procedure-for-mental-health-care-of-patients-with-schizophrenia-schizotypal-and-delusional-disorders-in-germany
#17
Constance Stegbauer, Gerald Willms, Katja Kleine-Budde, Anke Bramesfeld, Carina Stammann, Joachim Szecsenyi
PURPOSE: This paper describes the development of quality indicators for an external statutory and cross-sectoral quality assurance (QA) procedure in the context of the German health care system for adult patients suffering from schizophrenia, schizotypal and delusional disorders (F20-F29). METHODS: Indicators were developed by a modified RAND/UCLA Appropriateness Method with 1) the compilation of an indicator register based on a systematic literature search and analyses of health care claims data, 2) the selection of indicators by an expert panel that rated them for relevance and for feasibility regarding implementation...
October 10, 2017: Zeitschrift Für Evidenz, Fortbildung und Qualität Im Gesundheitswesen
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29028369/toll-like-receptors-significance-ligands-signaling-pathways-and-functions-in-mammals
#18
Mallenahally Kusha Vidya, V Girish Kumar, Veerasamy Sejian, Madiajagan Bagath, Govindan Krishnan, Raghavendra Bhatta
This review attempts to cover the implication of the toll-like receptors (TLRs) in controlling immune functions with emphasis on their significance, function, regulation and expression patterns. The tripartite TLRs are type I integral transmembrane receptors that are involved in recognition and conveying of pathogens to the immune system. These paralogs are located on cell surfaces or within endosomes. The TLRs are found to be functionally involved in the recognition of self and non-self-antigens, maturation of DCs and initiation of antigen-specific adaptive immune responses as they bridge the innate and adaptive immunity...
October 13, 2017: International Reviews of Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29027226/efferocytosis-of-dying-cells-differentially-modulate-immunological-outcomes-in-tumor-microenvironment
#19
REVIEW
Sushil Kumar, David Calianese, Raymond B Birge
Programmed cell death (apoptosis) is an integral part of tissue homeostasis in complex organisms, allowing for tissue turnover, repair, and renewal while simultaneously inhibiting the release of self antigens and danger signals from apoptotic cell-derived constituents that can result in immune activation, inflammation, and autoimmunity. Unlike cells in culture, the physiological fate of cells that die by apoptosis in vivo is their rapid recognition and engulfment by phagocytic cells (a process called efferocytosis)...
November 2017: Immunological Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29026461/role-of-aryl-hydrocarbon-receptor-in-mesenchymal-stromal-cell-activation-a-minireview
#20
REVIEW
Danilo Candido de Almeida, Laura Sibele Martins Evangelista, Niels Olsen Saraiva Câmara
Mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) possess great therapeutic advantages due to their ability to produce a diverse array of trophic/growth factors related to cytoprotection and immunoregulation. MSC activation via specific receptors is a crucial event for these cells to exert their immunosuppressive response. The aryl-hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) is a sensitive molecule for external signals and it is expressed in MSCs and, upon positive activation, may potentially regulate the MSC-associated immunomodulatory function...
September 26, 2017: World Journal of Stem Cells
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