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externalizing disorder

Subhadeep Roy
The present paper deals with a fiber bundle model which consists of a fraction α of infinitely strong fibers. The inclusion of such an unbreakable fraction has been proven to affect the failure process in early studies, especially around a critical value α_{c}. The present work has a twofold purpose: (i) a study of failure abruptness, mainly the brittle to quasibrittle transition point with varying α and (ii) variation of α_{c} as we change the strength of disorder introduced in the model. The brittle to quasibrittle transition is confirmed from the failure abruptness...
May 2018: Physical Review. E
Ting Chen, Li Qiu, Lin Zhong, Qingfen Tao, Hanmin Liu, Lina Chen
There is a lack of data describing the role of flexible bronchoscopy (FB) in evaluating pulmonary diseases in children with congenital cardiovascular abnormalities in China. Determining whether those children suffer from respiratory complications may be useful for future preoperative planning and family counseling. The present study aimed to investigate the features and FB-associated findings with respect to pulmonary diseases in children with congenital cardiovascular abnormalities. The role of FB in guiding the treatment and safety of procedures was also evaluated...
June 2018: Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine
Francesco Rusconi, Elena Battaglioli
Psychiatric disorders entail maladaptive processes impairing individuals' ability to appropriately interface with environment. Among them, depression is characterized by diverse debilitating symptoms including hopelessness and anhedonia, dramatically impacting the propensity to live a social and active life and seriously affecting working capability. Relevantly, besides genetic predisposition, foremost risk factors are stress-related, such as experiencing chronic psychosocial stress-including bullying, mobbing and abuse-, and undergoing economic crisis or chronic illnesses...
2018: Frontiers in Molecular Neuroscience
Alberto de Ramón-Fernández, Daniel Ruiz-Fernández, Diego Marcos-Jorquera, Virgilio Gilart-Iglesias
Nowadays, in many countries, stress is becoming a problem that increasingly affects the health of people. Suffering stress continuously can lead to serious behavioral disorders such as anxiety or depression. Every person, in his daily routine, can face many factors which can contribute to increase his stress level. This paper describes a flexible and distributed model to monitor environmental variables associated with stress, which provides adaptability to any environment in an agile way. This model was designed to transform stress environmental variables in value added information (key stress indicator) and to provide it to external systems, in both proactive and reactive mode...
June 14, 2018: Sensors
F Charoenwong, A Charlanes, C Chesnel, D Menoux, D Motavasseli, E Tan, F Le Breton, G Amarenco
INTRODUCTION: Need to void level depends on two parameters, bladder volume and attentional process. If it is well known that the maximum voluntary contraction of the perineal muscles may transiently inhibit the micturition reflex itself, no work demonstrates the effect of this contraction on the intensity of the need itself. METHODS: An experimental, prospective, open, monocentric study was conducted between March and April 2017. In total, 15 subjects with no neurological history or neuro-perineal disorders consulting for functional constipation were included...
June 11, 2018: Progrès en Urologie
Antonella Somma, Robert F Krueger, Kristian E Markon, Serena Borroni, Andrea Fossati
To assess the psychometric properties of the Italian translation of the 100-item short form of the Personality Inventory for DSM-5 (PID-5-SF), 2,143 community-dwelling adults (59.6% female), and 706 adult clinical participants (52.4% female) were administered the Italian translation of the PID-5. Clinical participants were also administered the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV (SCID-II), and the Personality Diagnostic Questionnaire-4+ (PDQ-4+). Item response theory analysis showed that all proposed PID-5-SF items showed adequate item discrimination parameters in both community-dwelling adults and clinical adults...
June 1, 2018: Assessment
Kelly M Dumais, Sergey Chernyak, Lisa D Nickerson, Amy C Janes
Focusing on sex differences is necessary to fully understand basic neurobiological processes such as the engagement of large-scale brain networks involved in attention. Prior work suggests that women show enhanced attention during tasks of reward/punishment relative to men. Yet, sex differences in the engagement of neural networks sub serving internal and external focus has been unexplored in regard to reward and punishment. Using data from a large sample (n = 190) of healthy participants from the Human Connectome Project, we investigated sex differences in default mode network (DMN), dorsal attention network (DAN), and frontal parietal network (FPN) activation during exposure to reward and punishment...
2018: PloS One
Eleanor Sugden, Elise Baker, Natalie Munro, A Lynn Williams, Carol M Trivette
BACKGROUND: When planning evidence-based intervention services for children with phonology-based speech sound disorders (SSD), speech and language therapists (SLTs) need to integrate research evidence regarding service delivery and intervention intensity within their clinical practice. However, relatively little is known about the optimal intensity of phonological interventions and whether SLTs' services align with the research evidence. AIMS: The aims are twofold...
June 14, 2018: International Journal of Language & Communication Disorders
Marco A Petilli, Daniela C Trisolini, Roberta Daini
Sustained attention is a fundamental prerequisite for all cognitive functions and its impairment is a common aftermath of both developmental and acquired neurological disorders. To date, all the sustained attention tasks rely heavily on selective attention to external stimuli. The interaction between selective and sustained attention represents a limit in the field of assessment and may mislead researchers or distort conclusions. The aim of the present perspective study was to propose a sustained version of the Paced Finger Tapping (S-PFT) test as a novel approach to measure sustained attention that does not leverage external stimuli...
2018: Frontiers in Psychology
Ashley Ariail, Elizabeth Carpenter, Twyala Smith, Briana Sacco
Eating disorders are prevalent in the pediatric population yet underdiagnosed by pediatric health care professionals. The gold standard of care consists of a multidisciplinary team approach including a therapist, registered dietitian nutritionist (RDN), and psychiatrist, combined with family-centered treatment. Although families do not cause eating disorders, they are essential to a child's recovery from an eating disorder. Psychoeducation, supportive limit setting, processing relational dynamics, and externalizing the eating disorder are therapeutic interventions used in the treatment of an eating disorder...
June 1, 2018: Pediatric Annals
Paolo Fusar-Poli, Nomi Werbeloff, Grazia Rutigliano, Dominic Oliver, Cathy Davies, Daniel Stahl, Philip McGuire, David Osborn
Background: The benefits of indicated primary prevention among individuals at Clinical High Risk for Psychosis (CHR-P) are limited by the difficulty in detecting these individuals. To overcome this problem, a transdiagnostic, clinically based, individualized risk calculator has recently been developed and subjected to a first external validation in 2 different catchment areas of the South London and Maudsley (SLaM) NHS Trust. Methods: Second external validation of real world, real-time electronic clinical register-based cohort study...
June 12, 2018: Schizophrenia Bulletin
Jean Schoenen, Gianluca Coppola
Available preventive drug treatments for migraine lack complete efficacy and often have unpleasant adverse effects. Hence their clinical utility and therapeutic adherence are limited. Hence, non-invasive neurostimulation methods applied over various peripheral sites (forehead, mastoid, upper arm, cervical vagus nerve) have raised great interest because of their excellent efficacy/tolerance profile. Amongst them external trigeminal nerve stimulation (eTNS) was first to obtain FDA approval for migraine therapy...
June 13, 2018: Expert Review of Neurotherapeutics
Leszek Rudzki, Agata Szulc
Interaction between the gastrointestinal tract (GI) and brain functions has recently become a topic of growing interest in psychiatric research. These multidirectional interactions take place in the so-called gut-brain axis or more precisely, the microbiota-gut-brain axis. The GI tract is the largest immune organ in the human body and is also the largest surface of contact with the external environment. Its functions and permeability are highly influenced by psychological stress, which are often a precipitating factor in the first episode, reoccurrence and/or deterioration of symptoms of psychiatric disorders...
2018: Frontiers in Psychiatry
Sean Nee
Survival analysis in biology and reliability theory in engineering concern the dynamical functioning of bio/electro/mechanical units. Here we incorporate effects of chaotic dynamics into the classical theory. Dynamical systems theory now distinguishes strong and weak chaos. Strong chaos generates Type II survivorship curves entirely as a result of the internal operation of the system, without any age-independent, external, random forces of mortality. Weak chaos exhibits (a) intermittency and (b) Type III survivorship, defined as a decreasing per capita mortality rate: engineering explicitly defines this pattern of decreasing hazard as 'infant mortality'...
May 2018: Royal Society Open Science
Francesca A Ververs, Eric Kalkhoven, Belinda Van't Land, Marianne Boes, Henk S Schipper
Invariant natural killer T (iNKT) cells are lipid-reactive T cells with profound immunomodulatory potential. They are unique in their restriction to lipid antigens presented in CD1d molecules, which underlies their role in lipid-driven disorders such as obesity and atherosclerosis. In this review, we discuss the contribution of iNKT cell activation to immunometabolic disease, metabolic programming of lipid antigen presentation, and immunometabolic activation of iNKT cells. First, we outline the role of iNKT cells in immunometabolic disease...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
Tomoaki M Kato, Mie Kubota-Sakashita, Noriko Fujimori-Tonou, Fumihito Saitow, Satoshi Fuke, Akira Masuda, Shigeyoshi Itohara, Hidenori Suzuki, Tadafumi Kato
Although mitochondrial and serotonergic dysfunctions have been implicated in the etiology of bipolar disorder (BD), the relationship between these unrelated pathways has not been elucidated. A family of BD and chronic progressive external ophthalmoplegia (CPEO) caused by a mutation of the mitochondrial adenine nucleotide translocator 1 (ANT1, SLC25A4) implicated that ANT1 mutations confer a risk of BD. Here, we sequenced ANT1 in 324 probands of NIMH bipolar disorder pedigrees and identified two BD patients carrying heterozygous loss-of-function mutations...
June 11, 2018: Molecular Psychiatry
Javier Cortes-Ramirez, Suchithra Naish, Peter D Sly, Paul Jagals
BACKGROUND: Evidence of the association of coal mining with health outcomes such as increased mortality and morbidity in the general population has been provided by epidemiological studies in the last 25 years. Given the diverse sources of data included to investigate different health outcomes in the exposed populations, the International Classification of Diseases (ICD) can be used as a single classification standard to compare the findings of studies conducted in different socioeconomic and geographic contexts...
June 11, 2018: BMC Public Health
Thomas S Copperman, Minh Tam Truong, John L Berk, Rachel K Sobel
PURPOSE: To evaluate the effectiveness of low dose external beam radiation therapy to halt progression of localized periocular light chain (AL) amyloidosis, a clonal plasma cell disorder. METHODS: This is a retrospective review of patients referred to a tertiary care center for external beam radiation treatment of biopsy proven localized periocular light chain amyloidosis. The primary outcome measure was clinical disease stability at one year following radiation therapy as evidenced by slit lamp exam and external photography...
June 11, 2018: Orbit
Eve-Ellen Govek, Zhuhao Wu, Devrim Acehan, Henrik Molina, Keith Rivera, Xiaodong Zhu, Yin Fang, Marc Tessier-Lavigne, Mary Elizabeth Hatten
CNS cortical histogenesis depends on polarity signaling pathways that regulate cell adhesion and motility. Here we report that conditional deletion of the Rho GTPase Cdc42 in cerebellar granule cell precursors (GCPs) results in abnormalities in cerebellar foliation revealed by iDISCO clearing methodology, a loss of columnar organization of proliferating GCPs in the external germinal layer (EGL), disordered parallel fiber organization in the molecular layer (ML), and a failure to extend a leading process and form a neuron-glial junction during migration along Bergmann glia (BG)...
March 23, 2018: iScience
Clement Lin, Guanhui Wu, Kaibo Wang, Buket Onel, Saburo Sakai, Yong Shao, Danzhou Yang
Human telomeres can form DNA G-quadruplex (G4), an attractive target for anticancer drugs. Human telomeric G4s bear inherent structure polymorphism, challenging for understanding specific recognition by ligands or proteins. Protoberberines are medicinal natural-products known to stabilize telomeric G4s and inhibit telomerase. Here we report epiberberine (EPI) specifically recognizes the hybrid-2 telomeric G4 predominant in physiologically relevant K+ solution and converts other telomeric G4 forms to hybrid-2, the first such example...
June 10, 2018: Angewandte Chemie
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