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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28544750/unexpected-ethical-dilemmas-in-sex-assignment-in-46-xy-dsd-due-to-5-alpha-reductase-type-2-deficiency
#1
Heather M Byers, Lauren H Mohnach, Patricia Y Fechner, Ming Chen, Inas H Thomas, Linda A Ramsdell, Margarett Shnorhavorian, Elizabeth A McCauley, Anne-Marie E Amies Oelschlager, John M Park, David E Sandberg, Margaret P Adam, Catherine E Keegan
Sex assignment at birth remains one of the most clinically challenging and controversial topics in 46,XY disorders of sexual development (DSD). This is particularly challenging in deficiency of 5-alpha reductase type 2 given that external genitalia are typically undervirilized at birth but typically virilize at puberty to a variable degree. Historically, most individuals with 5-alpha reductase deficiency were raised females. However, reports that over half of patients who underwent a virilizing puberty adopted an adult male gender identity have challenged this practice...
May 25, 2017: American Journal of Medical Genetics. Part C, Seminars in Medical Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28542508/the-measurement-of-alexithymia-in-children-and-adolescents-psychometric-properties-of-the-alexithymia-questionnaire-for-children-and-the-twenty-item-toronto-alexithymia-scale-in-different-non-clinical-and-clinical-samples-of-children-and-adolescents
#2
Gwenolé Loas, Stéphanie Braun, Marie Delhaye, Paul Linkowski
This study had two aims. Firstly, the psychometric properties of the 20-item Toronto Alexithymia Scale (TAS-20) and the Alexithymia Questionnaire for Children (AQC) that measure the three dimensions of alexithymia (DIF, difficulty identifying feelings; DDF, difficulty describing feelings; EOT, externally-oriented thinking) were explored in various samples of children, adolescents or young adults to detect the best factor-structure and to examine if the Externally-Oriented Thinking (EOT) factor must be deleted or not...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28542505/alzhcpi-a-knowledge-base-for-predicting-chemical-protein-interactions-towards-alzheimer-s-disease
#3
Jiansong Fang, Ling Wang, Yecheng Li, Wenwen Lian, Xiaocong Pang, Hong Wang, Dongsheng Yuan, Qi Wang, Ai-Lin Liu, Guan-Hua Du
Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a complicated progressive neurodegeneration disorder. To confront AD, scientists are searching for multi-target-directed ligands (MTDLs) to delay disease progression. The in silico prediction of chemical-protein interactions (CPI) can accelerate target identification and drug discovery. Previously, we developed 100 binary classifiers to predict the CPI for 25 key targets against AD using the multi-target quantitative structure-activity relationship (mt-QSAR) method. In this investigation, we aimed to apply the mt-QSAR method to enlarge the model library to predict CPI towards AD...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28542328/phenotypic-factor-analysis-of-psychopathology-reveals-a-new-body-related-transdiagnostic-factor
#4
Patrizia Pezzoli, Jan Antfolk, Pekka Santtila
Comorbidity challenges the notion of mental disorders as discrete categories. An increasing body of literature shows that symptoms cut across traditional diagnostic boundaries and interact in shaping the latent structure of psychopathology. Using exploratory and confirmatory factor analysis, we reveal the latent sources of covariation among nine measures of psychopathological functioning in a population-based sample of 13024 Finnish twins and their siblings. By implementing unidimensional, multidimensional, second-order, and bifactor models, we illustrate the relationships between observed variables, specific, and general latent factors...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28541762/chronic-stress-exposure-and-generation-are-related-to-the-p-factor-and-externalizing-specific-psychopathology-in-youth
#5
Hannah R Snyder, Jami F Young, Benjamin L Hankin
Psychopathology is posited to be transdiagnostically linked to chronic stress. Yet efforts to understand the specificity and directionality of these links have been sparse, and the ubiquitous comorbidity of psychopathology has made the seemingly nonspecific links between psychological disorders and chronic stress difficult to interpret. The current study used a latent dimensional bifactor model of psychopathology to account for comorbidity and a multiwave prospective design to disentangle temporal associations between psychopathology and chronic stress longitudinally during the critical adolescent period for psychopathology risk and stress reactivity...
May 25, 2017: Journal of Clinical Child and Adolescent Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28541211/cortical-brain-computer-interface-for-closed-loop-deep-brain-stimulation
#6
Jeffrey Herron, Margaret Thompson, Tim Brown, Howard Chizeck, Jeffrey Ojemann, Andrew Ko
Essential Tremor is the most common neurological movement disorder. This progressive disease causes uncontrollable rhythmic motions-most often affecting the patient's dominant upper extremity-that occur during volitional movement and make it difficult for the patient to perform everyday tasks. Medication may also become ineffective as the disorder progresses. For many patients, deep brain stimulation (DBS) of the thalamus is an effective means of treating this condition when medication fails. In current use, however, clinicians set the patient's stimulator to apply stimulation at all times-whether it is needed or not...
May 18, 2017: IEEE Transactions on Neural Systems and Rehabilitation Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28539943/the-hierarchical-implications-of-internet-gaming-disorder-criteria-which-indicate-more-severe-pathology
#7
Seung-Yup Lee, Hae Kook Lee, Hyunsuk Jeong, Hyeon Woo Yim, Soo-Young Bhang, Sun-Jin Jo, Kyung-Young Baek, Eunjin Kim, Min Seob Kim, Jung-Seok Choi, Yong-Sil Kweon
OBJECTIVE: To explore the structure of Internet gaming disorder (IGD) criteria and their distribution according to the different severity level of IGD. The associations of psychiatric comorbidities to each IGD symptom and to the IGD severity were also investigated. METHODS: Consecutively recruited 330 Korean middle school students underwent face-to-face diagnostic interviews to assess their gaming problems by clinicians. The psychiatric comorbidities were also evaluated with a semi-structured instrument...
May 2017: Psychiatry Investigation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28539839/ppard-is-an-inhibitor-of-cartilage-growth-in-external-ears
#8
Zhen Zhang, Yanyu Duan, Zhongping Wu, Hui Zhang, Jun Ren, Lusheng Huang
Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor beta/delta (PPARD) is an important determinant of multiple biological processes. Our previous studies identified a missense mutation in the PPARD gene that significantly reduces its transcription activity, and consequently causes enlarged external ears in pigs. However, the mechanisms underlying the causality has remained largely unknown. Here, we show that PPARD retards the development of auricular cartilage by accelerating the apoptosis of cartilage stem/progenitor cells (CSPCs), the terminal differentiation of cartilage cells and the degradation of cartilage extracellular matrix in the auricle...
2017: International Journal of Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28535943/pragmatic-approach-to-intersex-including-genital-ambiguity-in-the-newborn
#9
Kanthi Bangalore Krishna, Christopher P Houk, Peter A Lee
The evaluation and management of a newborn with ambiguous genitalia must be undertaken as quickly as possible and with great sensitivity for the child's family. Where possible, a comprehensive team approach with a pediatric urologist, endocrinologist, geneticist, neonatologist, and child psychiatrist/psychologist should work closely with the family to establish the diagnosis and determine gender. Although the preferred gender assignment is not always clear, a thorough examination of endocrine function, karyotype, and potential for fertility should guide the determination...
May 20, 2017: Seminars in Perinatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28533170/synchronizing-effects-of-melatonin-on-diurnal-and-circadian-rhythms
#10
REVIEW
Martina Pfeffer, Horst-Werner Korf, Helmut Wicht
In mammals, the rhythmic secretion of melatonin from the pineal gland is driven by the circadian clock in the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN) of the hypothalamus. The robust nightly peak of melatonin secretion is an output signal of the circadian clock and is supposed to deliver the circadian message to the whole of the organism. Since the circadian system regulates many behavioral and physiological processes, its disruption by external (shift-work, jet-lag) or internal desynchronization (blindness, aging) causes many different health problems...
May 19, 2017: General and Comparative Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28532884/the-role-of-scapular-kinematics-in-patients-with-different-shoulder-musculoskeletal-disorders-a-systematic-review-approach
#11
REVIEW
Roshanak Keshavarz, Siamak Bashardoust Tajali, Seyed Mohsen Mir, H Ashrafi
This study aimed to identify the role of the scapula in shoulder musculoskeletal disorders (SMDs) and provided a systematic review of available studies in the field of scapular three-dimensional kinematics. We systematically searched 5 international databases, including Scopus, EMBASE, PubMed, CINAHL, PEDro, and Cochrane Library from June to September 2015. Twenty studies met the inclusion criteria and were retrieved in full paper. The selected studies were critically appraised independently by two researchers...
April 2017: Journal of Bodywork and Movement Therapies
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28532686/mismatch-negativity-mmn-to-spatial-deviants-and-behavioral-spatial-discrimination-ability-in-the-etiology-of-auditory-verbal-hallucinations-and-thought-disorder-in-schizophrenia
#12
Megan A Perrin, Joshua T Kantrowitz, Gail Silipo, Elisa Dias, Omar Jabado, Daniel C Javitt
Persistent auditory verbal hallucinations (AVH) in schizophrenia are increasingly tied to dysfunction at the level of auditory cortex. AVH may reflect in part misattribution of internally generated thoughts to external spatial locations. Here, we investigated the association between persistent AVH and spatial localization abilities assessed both behaviorally and by mismatch negativity (MMN) to location deviants. METHODS: Spatial- and tonal- discrimination abilities were assessed in patients (n=20) and controls (n=20) using free-field tones...
May 19, 2017: Schizophrenia Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28531764/disrupted-resting-brain-graph-measures-in-individuals-at-high-risk-for-alcoholism
#13
Bharath Holla, Rajanikant Panda, Ganesan Venkatasubramanian, Bharat Biswal, Rose Dawn Bharath, Vivek Benegal
Familial susceptibility to alcoholism is likely to be linked to the externalizing diathesis seen in high-risk offspring from high-density alcohol use disorder (AUD) families. The present study aimed at comparing resting brain functional connectivity and their association with externalizing symptoms and alcoholism familial density in 40 substance-naive high-risk (HR) male offspring from high-density AUD families and 30 matched healthy low-risk (LR) males without a family history of substance dependence using graph theory-based network analysis...
May 14, 2017: Psychiatry Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28530344/-suppression-of-a-non-trauma-related-threatening-thought-as-an-avoidance-strategy-in-post-traumatic-stress-disorder-patients
#14
Lilach Abramsky-Arazi, Zeev Kaplan, Hagit Cohen
AIMS: Our goal was to examine how suppression of nontrauma- related thoughts differs between PTSD patients and patients with non-PTSD anxiety disorder compared to a group of matched controls. BACKGROUND: Intrusive recollections of aspects of the traumatic event and its sequelae are at the core of the post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). People who have suffered a traumatic event may implement some form of avoidance coping strategies in order to deal with the unwanted memories that accompany them...
December 2016: Harefuah
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28528253/pressure-induced-transformations-in-sorbic-acid
#15
G D Saraiva, J R Maia, J A Lima, C E S Nogueira, P T C Freire, F F de Sousa, A M R Teixeira, J Mendes Filho
This research reports a pressure dependent Raman study of the sorbic acid between 0.0 and 10.0GPa. The unpolarized Raman spectra were measured in the spectral range of 20-3000cm(-1). The high-pressure Raman scattering study of the sorbic acid showed that it underwent a gradual, disordering process. At the room temperature and at the ambient pressure conditions, the crystal structure of the sorbic acid belongs to the monoclinic system with a C2/c (C2h(6)) space group. The pressure increase induced a higher disorder in the monoclinic unit cell, since a single bending mode, and only very broad stretching Raman modes are present at pressure of ~10GPa...
May 10, 2017: Spectrochimica Acta. Part A, Molecular and Biomolecular Spectroscopy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28521112/prevalence-of-externalizing-disorders-and-autism-spectrum-disorder-among-children-with-fetal-alcohol-spectrum-disorder-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#16
Shannon Lange, Jürgen Rehm, Evdokia Anagnostou, Svetlana Popova
Due to their central nervous system impairments, children with Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorder (FASD) commonly exhibit externalizing behaviours such as hyperactivity, impulsivity, and/or delinquency. The purpose of the current study was to estimate the prevalence of neurodevelopmental disorders with prominent externalizing behaviours, namely Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD), Conduct Disorder (CD), Oppositional Defiant Disorder (ODD), as well as Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) among children with FASD...
May 18, 2017: Biochemistry and Cell Biology, Biochimie et Biologie Cellulaire
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28517951/treatment-as-usual-therapy-targets-for-comorbid-youth-disproportionately-focus-on-externalizing-problems
#17
Matthew Milette-Winfree, Charles W Mueller
This study examined whether psychological treatment for youth with comorbid externalizing and internalizing disorders targets externalizing rather than internalizing pathology. Therapist-reported treatment targets for youth (N = 679) with (a) only internalizing diagnoses (n = 195); (b) only externalizing diagnoses (n = 314); (c) a primary internalizing diagnosis and at least 1 additional externalizing diagnosis (n = 75); and (d) a primary externalizing diagnosis and at least 1 additional internalizing diagnosis (n = 95) receiving treatment-as-usual in a public mental health system of care were examined...
May 18, 2017: Psychological Services
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28516196/coupling-dynamics-in-speech-gestures-amplitude-and-rate-influences
#18
Pascal H H M van Lieshout
Speech is a complex oral motor function that involves multiple articulators that need to be coordinated in space and time at relatively high movement speeds. How this is accomplished remains an important and largely unresolved empirical question. From a coordination dynamics perspective, coordination involves the assembly of coordinative units that are characterized by inherently stable coupling patterns that act as attractor states for task-specific actions. In the motor control literature, one particular model formulated by Haken et al...
May 17, 2017: Experimental Brain Research. Experimentelle Hirnforschung. Expérimentation Cérébrale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28515908/renal-manifestations-of-primary-mitochondrial-disorders
#19
Josef Finsterer, Fulvio Scorza
The aim of the present review was to summarize and discuss previous findings concerning renal manifestations of primary mitochondrial disorders (MIDs). A literature review was performed using frequently used databases. The study identified that primary MIDs frequently present as mitochondrial multiorgan disorder syndrome (MIMODS) at onset or in the later course of the MID. Occasionally, the kidneys are affected in MIDs. Renal manifestations of MIDs include renal insufficiency, nephrolithiasis, nephrotic syndrome, renal cysts, renal tubular acidosis, Bartter-like syndrome, Fanconi syndrome, focal segmental glomerulosclerosis, tubulointerstitial nephritis, nephrocalcinosis, and benign or malign neoplasms...
May 2017: Biomedical Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28515474/blunted-ambiguity-aversion-during-cost-benefit-decisions-in-antisocial-individuals
#20
Joshua W Buckholtz, Uma Karmarkar, Shengxuan Ye, Grace M Brennan, Arielle Baskin-Sommers
Antisocial behavior is often assumed to reflect aberrant risk processing. However, many of the most significant forms of antisocial behavior, including crime, reflect the outcomes of decisions made under conditions of ambiguity rather than risk. While risk and ambiguity are formally distinct and experimentally dissociable, little is known about ambiguity sensitivity in individuals who engage in chronic antisocial behavior. We used a financial decision-making task in a high-risk community-based sample to test for associations between sensitivity to ambiguity, antisocial behavior, and arrest history...
May 17, 2017: Scientific Reports
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