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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29792867/effects-of-amphetamine-exposure-during-adolescence-on-behavior-and-prelimbic-cortex-neuron-activity-in-adulthood
#1
Luke K Sherrill, Joshua M Gulley
Repeated exposure to psychostimulants during adolescence produces long-lasting changes in behavior that may be mediated by disrupted development of the mesocorticolimbic dopamine system. Here, we tested this hypothesis by assessing the effects of amphetamine (AMPH) and dopamine receptor-selective drugs on behavior and neuron activity in the prelimbic region of the medial prefrontal cortex (PFC). Adolescent male, Sprague-Dawley rats were given saline or 3 mg/kg AMPH between postnatal day (P) 27 and P45. In Experiment 1, locomotor behavior was assessed during adulthood following challenges with a dopamine D1 (SKF 82958) or D2 (quinpirole) receptor-selective agonist...
May 21, 2018: Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29792722/-laparoscopic-versus-open-left-pancreatectomy-surgical-stress-response-comparison-in-the-porcine-model
#2
R Pohnán, M Ryska, J Kalvach, L Hána, T Henlín, J Pejchal
INTRODUCTION: Although several techniques of laparoscopic left pancreatectomy have already been developed through experiments on animals and human patients, there is still insufficient information about their pathophysiological mechanisms, especially the impact on surgical stress. METHOD: In a group of 10 pigs, open left pancreatectomy was performed, and the other group of 10 pigs underwent laparoscopic left pancreatectomy. Postoperative stress was compared by determining serum levels of leukocytes, interleukin 1, 6 and CRP from peripheral venous blood collection...
2018: Rozhledy V Chirurgii: Měsíčník Československé Chirurgické Společnosti
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29792523/personality-homophily-and-geographic-distance-in-facebook
#3
Nyala Noë, Roger M Whitaker, Stuart M Allen
Personality homophily remains an understudied aspect of social networks, with the traditional focus concerning sociodemographic variables as the basis for assortativity, rather than psychological dispositions. We consider the effect of personality homophily on one of the biggest constraints to human social networks: geographic distance. We use the Big five model of personality to make predictions for each of the five facets: Openness to experience, Conscientiousness, Extraversion, Agreeableness, and Neuroticism...
May 24, 2018: Cyberpsychology, Behavior and Social Networking
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29792443/sympathy-and-responses-to-suffering-similarity-and-variation-in-china-and-the-united-states
#4
Jennifer L Goetz, Kaiping Peng
Feeling sympathy in response to suffering appears to be a universal human experience, but we know very little about how it is experienced in non-Western cultures. In the present studies, we show that sympathy is a complex emotion that has a distinct appraisal theme of wanting to alleviate suffering and that cultural variation occurs in interpretations of suffering and behavioral responses. In particular, the present studies show that sympathy is conceptualized similarly in both the United States and China (Studies 1 and 2), and that it is elicited by undeserved suffering in both cultures (Study 2), is experienced as unpleasant (Study 2), and motivates a desire to help others (Studies 2, 3, and 4)...
May 24, 2018: Emotion
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29792088/experimental-evaluation-of-ontology-based-hiv-aids-frequently-asked-question-retrieval-system
#5
Yirsaw Ayalew, Barbara Moeng, Gontlafetse Mosweunyane
This study presents the results of experimental evaluations of an ontology-based frequently asked question retrieval system in the domain of HIV and AIDS. The main purpose of the system is to provide answers to questions on HIV/AIDS using ontology. To evaluate the effectiveness of the frequently asked question retrieval system, we conducted two experiments. The first experiment focused on the evaluation of the quality of the ontology we developed using the OQuaRE evaluation framework which is based on software quality metrics and metrics designed for ontology quality evaluation...
May 1, 2018: Health Informatics Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29791866/17-%C3%AE-estradiol-exacerbates-methamphetamine-induced-anxiety-like-behavior-in-female-mice
#6
A S Rauhut, M A Curran-Rauhut
The present experiment investigated the effect of 17 β-estradiol (E2 ) on anxiety-like behavior following methamphetamine administration in female, Swiss-Webster mice. Mice underwent bilateral ovariectomy (OVX) followed by a subcutaneous implantation of a Silastic capsule containing either sesame oil (OVX + Oil) or E2 (36 μg/ml; OVX + E2 ). One week later, mice were placed in an open-field chamber for an 8-hour session. During the first 3 hours of the session, mice were permitted to run in the absence of any drug (baseline)...
May 20, 2018: Neuroscience Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29791264/the-economic-problem-of-candidacy
#7
Susan E Barbour
Candidates frequently accept one or multiple low-fee cases as part of their training experience. Although the practical and unconscious meanings of the formerly taboo topic of money have recently been discussed in the literature, the candidate's experience in regard to the fee is rarely discussed. The author argues that the candidate is positioned to face a Gordian knot of personal, training, and clinical intensity in the duration of training that impacts casework. This paper discusses two prototypical characterological constellations related to the fee...
June 2018: Psychoanalytic Review
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29790660/drama-to-promote-non-verbal-communication-skills
#8
Martina Kelly, Lara Nixon, Kirsten Broadfoot, Marianna Hofmeister, Tim Dornan
BACKGROUND: Non-verbal communication skills (NVCS) help physicians to deliver relationship-centred care, and the effective use of NVCS is associated with improved patient satisfaction, better use of health services and high-quality clinical care. In contrast to verbal communication skills, NVCS training is under developed in communication curricula for the health care professions. One of the challenges teaching NVCS is their tacit nature. In this study, we evaluated drama exercises to raise awareness of NVCS by making familiar activities 'strange'...
May 23, 2018: Clinical Teacher
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29790211/opening-the-black-box-an-observational-study-of-teaching-and-learning-interactions-for-paediatrics-trainees-on-consultant-ward-rounds
#9
Amy Gray, Helen Enright
AIM: Ward rounds are complex activities in which education must be balanced against service. Limited evidence exists regarding how to optimise ward round education. In order to improve the educational experience, we aimed to understand the teaching and learning interactions on ward rounds with a particular focus on the experience of paediatric trainees. METHODS: We conducted an initial quantitative survey as a needs assessment regarding learning and teaching in clinical settings using a structured survey of 21 trainees...
May 22, 2018: Journal of Paediatrics and Child Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29790139/-the-process-of-healing-child-physical-abuse-sprouting-and-twining
#10
Hsin-Yi Chang, Jui-Ying Feng, Ren-Mei Tseng
BACKGROUND: Child physical abuse impacts the physical and psychological health of survivors. Healing child abuse is an essential process that helps survivors reorganize the meaning of the trauma and pursue a normal life. Considering the trauma of child physical abuse within the social context allows the experiences of individual survivors to be reflected in their process of healing. PURPOSE: To explore the social interaction and construction process of healing experienced by survivors of child physical abuse...
June 2018: Hu Li za Zhi the Journal of Nursing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29790048/analysis-of-mercury-adsorption-at-the-gibbsite-water-interface-using-the-cd-music-model
#11
Chang Min Park
Mercury (Hg), one of the most toxic substances in nature, has long been released during the anthropogenic activity. A correct description of the adsorptive behavior of mercury is important to gain a better insight into its fate and transport in natural mineral surfaces, which will be a prerequisite for the development of surface complexation model for the adsorption processes. In the present study, simulation experiments on macroscopic Hg(II) sorption by gibbsite (α-Al(OH)3 ), a representative aluminum (hydr)oxide mineral, were performed using the charge distribution and multi-site complexation (CD-MUSIC) approach with 1-pK triple plane model (TPM)...
May 22, 2018: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29790042/orthopaedic-regenerative-tissue-engineering-en-route-to-the-holy-grail-disequilibrium-between-the-demand-and-the-supply-in-the-operating-room
#12
REVIEW
Ibrahim Fatih Cengiz, Hélder Pereira, Laura de Girolamo, Magali Cucchiarini, João Espregueira-Mendes, Rui L Reis, Joaquim Miguel Oliveira
Orthopaedic disorders are very frequent, globally found and often partially unresolved despite the substantial advances in science and medicine. Their surgical intervention is multifarious and the most favourable treatment is chosen by the orthopaedic surgeon on a case-by-case basis depending on a number of factors related with the patient and the lesion. Numerous regenerative tissue engineering strategies have been developed and studied extensively in laboratory through in vitro experiments and preclinical in vivo trials with various established animal models, while a small proportion of them reached the operating room...
May 22, 2018: Journal of Experimental Orthopaedics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29789815/challenging-case-robot-assisted-laparoscopic-prostatectomy-after-prior-suprapubic-open-prostatectomy
#13
Shirin Razdan, Sanjay Razdan
Introduction: Given the ubiquity of robot-assisted laparoscopic prostatectomy (RALP) for treatment of localized prostate cancer, more surgeons are encountering challenging cases, either secondary to difficult anatomy, prior abdominal surgery, or prior radiation therapy. Our case is of RALP in a patient after prior suprapubic prostatectomy. Case Presentation: A 61-year-old otherwise healthy Hispanic gentleman presented for consultation after being found to have Gleason 4 + 4 = 8 prostate cancer on transrectal ultrasound-guided biopsy by an outside provider in July 2017...
2018: Journal of Endourology Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29789707/the-natural-course-of-passive-tenodesis-grip-in-individuals-with-spinal-cord-injury-with-preserved-wrist-extension-power-but-paralyzed-fingers-and-thumbs
#14
Hae Yoon Jung, Jieun Lee, Hyung Ik Shin
STUDY DESIGN: Cross-sectional. OBJECTIVES: To investigate the natural course of passive tenodesis grip in individuals with spinal cord injury (SCI) with no experience of tenodesis splint application and the related factors for success of the grip. SETTING: Community-dwelling persons with chronic SCI in South Korea. METHODS: Individuals with cervical SCI with preserved wrist extensor power, but completely paralyzed fingers and thumbs, were recruited...
May 22, 2018: Spinal Cord
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29789595/endocide-induced-abnormal-growth-forms-of-invasive-giant-salvinia-salvinia-molesta
#15
Shiyou Li, Ping Wang, Zushang Su, Emily Lozano, Olivia LaMaster, Jason B Grogan, Yuhui Weng, Thomas Decker, John Findeisen, Monica McGarrity
Giant salvinia (Salvinia molesta) is one of the most noxious invasive species in the world. The fern is known to have primary, secondary, and tertiary growth forms, which are also commonly hypothesized as growth stages. The identification of these forms is primarily based on the size and folding status of the floating leaves. However, we identified 12 forms in the greenhouse and the field. Our experiments showed that the folding of floating leaves is a reversible trait dependent on water access. The floating leaves quickly fold in response to water shortage, reducing water loss and needs, decreasing growth, and avoiding trichome damage...
May 22, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29789589/characterization-of-different-bubble-formulations-for-blood-brain-barrier-opening-using-a-focused-ultrasound-system-with-acoustic-feedback-control
#16
Chenchen Bing, Yu Hong, Christopher Hernandez, Megan Rich, Bingbing Cheng, Imalka Munaweera, Debra Szczepanski, Yin Xi, Mark Bolding, Agata Exner, Rajiv Chopra
Focused ultrasound combined with bubble-based agents serves as a non-invasive way to open the blood-brain barrier (BBB). Passive acoustic detection was well studied recently to monitor the acoustic emissions induced by the bubbles under ultrasound energy, but the ability to perform reliable BBB opening with a real-time feedback control algorithm has not been fully evaluated. This study focuses on characterizing the acoustic emissions of different types of bubbles: Optison, Definity, and a custom-made nanobubble...
May 22, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29789285/-all-my-relations-experiences-and-perceptions-of-indigenous-patients-connecting-with-indigenous-elders-in-an-inner-city-primary-care-partnership-for-mental-health-and-well-being
#17
George Hadjipavlou, Colleen Varcoe, David Tu, Jennifer Dehoney, Roberta Price, Annette J Browne
BACKGROUND: Mental health services in urban settings generally have not been adapted to serve the needs of Indigenous patients. We explored how patients' encounters with Indigenous Elders affected their overall mental health and well-being to identify therapeutic mechanisms underlying improvement. METHODS: We conducted qualitative interviews of participants enrolled in a 6-month prospective mixed-methods evaluation of a program for mental health and well-being that featured the inclusion of Elders in the direct care of Indigenous patients in an inner city primary care clinic...
May 22, 2018: CMAJ: Canadian Medical Association Journal, Journal de L'Association Medicale Canadienne
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29789087/individual-differences-in-adaptability-to-isolated-confined-and-extreme-environments
#18
Paul T Bartone, Gerald P Krueger, Jocelyn V Bartone
INTRODUCTION: Future deep space missions will expose astronauts to more intense stressors than previously encountered. Isolation will be greater and more prolonged, living and work areas more confined, and communications and resupply channels to Earth longer and less reliable. Astronauts will need to function more autonomously, with less guidance and support from Earth. Thus, it is important to select and train astronauts who can adapt and function effectively under extreme and variable conditions...
June 1, 2018: Aerospace Medicine and Human Performance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29789064/surface-and-defect-chemistry-of-oxide-materials
#19
Ulrich Aschauer
Oxides and oxide-derived materials find ubiquitous applications in many industrial applications. These materials usually contain point defects, the concentration and type depending on the synthesis and operating conditions. Many of the functional properties are determined or strongly affected by the presence of these point defects. Despite steady advances in experimental techniques it is still difficult to unambiguously identify point defects and resulting atomic-scale mechanisms from experiment alone. Atomic-scale computational approaches such as density functional theory (DFT) provide an alternative approach that ideally complements experimental investigations...
May 30, 2018: Chimia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29788747/internet-pornography-viewing-preference-as-a-risk-factor-for-adolescent-internet-addiction-the-moderating-role-of-classroom-personality-factors
#20
Kyriaki Alexandraki, Vasileios Stavropoulos, Tyrone L Burleigh, Daniel L King, Mark D Griffiths
Background and aims Adolescent Internet pornography viewing has been significantly increased in the last decade with research highlighting its association with Internet addiction (IA). However, there is little longitudinal data on this topic, particularly in relation to peer context effects. This study aimed to examine age- and context-related variations in the Internet pornography-IA association. Methods A total of 648 adolescents, from 34 classrooms, were assessed at 16 years and then at 18 years to examine the effect of Internet pornography preference on IA in relation to the classroom context...
May 23, 2018: Journal of Behavioral Addictions
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