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Eliane Brito Cortez Lima, Caren Nádia Soares de Sousa, Lucas Nascimento Meneses, Yuri Freitas E Silva Pereira, Natália Castelo Branco Matos, Rayanne Brito de Freitas, Nycole Brito Cortez Lima, Manoel Cláudio Azevedo Patrocínio, Luzia Kalyne Almeida Moreira Leal, Glauce Socorro Barros Viana, Silvânia Maria Mendes Vasconcelos
Extracts from the husk fiber of Cocos nucifera are used in folk medicine, but their actions on the central nervous system have not been studied. Here, the anxiolytic and antidepressant effects of the standardized hydroalcoholic extract of C. nucifera husk fiber (HECN) were evaluated. Male Swiss mice were treated with HECN (50, 100, or 200 mg/kg) 60 min before experiments involving the plus maze test, hole-board test, tail suspension test, and forced swimming test (FST). HECN was administered orally (p.o.) in acute and repeated-dose treatments...
October 21, 2016: Journal of Natural Medicines
Yuichiro Miyake, Junichi Nishimura, Hidekazu Takahashi, Naotsugu Haraguchi, Taishi Hata, Ichiro Takemasa, Tsunekazu Mizushima, Hirofumi Yamamoto, Yuichiro Doki, Masaki Mori
PURPOSE: Laparoscopic surgery for locally advanced colorectal cancer suspected of direct invasion to adjacent organs or structures remains controversial because of its high conversion rate, inadequate oncologic clearance and surgical outcomes. This study retrospectively evaluated the short-term outcomes of laparoscopic multivisceral resection for colorectal cancer and investigated the factors influencing conversion to open surgery. METHODS: Between 2010 and 2015, 39 patients who underwent laparoscopic multivisceral resection for colorectal cancer intraoperatively suspected of direct invasion to adjacent organs or structures were included...
October 21, 2016: Surgery Today
Sally Lindsay, Laura McAdam, Tania Mahendiran
BACKGROUND: Young men with Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) live into adulthood and need specialized care. However, services for adults are fragmented. We know little about young men's experiences, their parents, and clinicians who support them as they transition to adult care. OBJECTIVE: To explore the enablers and barriers of clinicians, young men, and parents as they transition from an adult DMD clinic within a pediatric hospital to an adult health facility...
October 11, 2016: Disability and Health Journal
A Kanashiro, J M Gaya, J Palou, L Gausa, H Villavicencio
OBJECTIVES: To review our experience in robot-assisted radical cystectomy, assessing the complications and oncological and functional results. MATERIALS AND METHODS: From 2007 to 2014, we performed 67 robot-assisted radical cystectomies combined with lymphadenectomy in 61 cases. The operations were performed on 37 patients due to muscle-invasive tumours and on 30 due to high-risk nonmuscle-invasive tumours. Urinary diversion was conducted extracorporeally, using a Studer neobladder in 47 cases...
October 18, 2016: Actas Urologicas Españolas
Adey A Berhanu, Svetlana Krasnokutsky, Robert T Keenan, Michael H Pillinger
INTRODUCTION: Pegloticase is a highly effective therapy for patients with refractory and/or tophaceous gout, but has a high discontinuation rate (30-50%) due to development of anti-drug antibodies causing loss of efficacy and risk of infusion reactions. OBJECTIVE: To describe the use of azathioprine or other immunosuppressive therapies as a pegloticase adjunct to prevent pegloticase immunogenicity when treating gout. METHODS: Case report of azathioprine use in a patient receiving pegloticase therapy for refractory tophaceous gout, and review of the literature for the impact of immunosuppressive agents on development of anti-drug antibodies...
September 20, 2016: Seminars in Arthritis and Rheumatism
Hardeep Singh, Mark L Graber, Timothy P Hofer
Timely and accurate diagnosis is foundational to good clinical practice and an essential first step to achieving optimal patient outcomes. However, a recent Institute of Medicine report concluded that most of us will experience at least one diagnostic error in our lifetime. The report argues for efforts to improve the reliability of the diagnostic process through better measurement of diagnostic performance. The diagnostic process is a dynamic team-based activity that involves uncertainty, plays out over time, and requires effective communication and collaboration among multiple clinicians, diagnostic services, and the patient...
October 20, 2016: Journal of Patient Safety
David L Horn, Jong Ho Won, Jay T Rubinstein, Lynne A Werner
OBJECTIVES: Spectral resolution is a correlate of open-set speech understanding in postlingually deaf adults and prelingually deaf children who use cochlear implants (CIs). To apply measures of spectral resolution to assess device efficacy in younger CI users, it is necessary to understand how spectral resolution develops in normal-hearing children. In this study, spectral ripple discrimination (SRD) was used to measure listeners' sensitivity to a shift in phase of the spectral envelope of a broadband noise...
October 20, 2016: Ear and Hearing
Xiangyi Zhang, Gavin O Jones, James L Hedrick, Robert M Waymouth
Ring-opening polymerization of lactones is a versatile approach to generate well-defined functional polyesters. Typical ring-opening catalysts are subject to a trade-off between rate and selectivity. Here we describe an effective catalytic system combining alkoxides with thioureas that catalyses rapid and selective ring-opening polymerizations. Deprotonation of thioureas by sodium, potassium or imidazolium alkoxides generates a hydrogen-bonded alcohol adduct of the thiourea anion (thioimidate). The ring-opening polymerization of L-lactide mediated by these alcohol-bonded thioimidates yields highly isotactic polylactide with fast kinetics and living polymerization behaviour, as evidenced by narrow molecular weight distributions (Mw/Mn < 1...
November 2016: Nature Chemistry
J Kyle Bohannon, Krisztina Janosko, Michael R Holbrook, Jason Barr, Daniela Pusl, Laura Bollinger, Linda Coe, Lisa E Hensley, Peter B Jahrling, Jiro Wada, Jens H Kuhn, Matthew G Lackemeyer
Aerosol or inhalational studies of high-consequence pathogens have recently been increasing in number due to the perceived threat of intentional aerosol releases or unexpected natural aerosol transmission. Specific laboratories designed to perform these experiments require tremendous engineering controls to provide a safe and secure working environment and constant systems maintenance to sustain functionality. Class III biosafety cabinets, also referred to as gloveboxes, are gas-tight enclosures with non-opening windows...
October 3, 2016: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
Joshua R Biller, Deborah G Mitchell, Mark Tseytlin, Hanan Elajaili, George A Rinard, Richard W Quine, Sandra S Eaton, Gareth R Eaton
We demonstrate a superior method of 2D spectral-spatial imaging of stable radical reporter molecules at 250 MHz using rapid-scan electron-paramagnetic-resonance (RS-EPR), which can provide quantitative information under in vivo conditions on oxygen concentration, pH, redox status and concentration of signaling molecules (i.e., OH(•), NO(•)). The RS-EPR technique has a higher sensitivity, improved spatial resolution (1 mm), and shorter acquisition time in comparison to the standard continuous wave (CW) technique...
September 26, 2016: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
Lena Lipskaya-Velikovsky, Moshe Kotler, Terry Krupa
People with mental health conditions (MHCs) frequently experience participation and functional restrictions. Today, hospitals still serve a significant number of people with MHCs. However, there is little evidence for occupation-oriented interventions to support participation, health, and well-being in these hospital settings. This article describes a newly developed, short-term, structured intervention for the inpatient setting, Occupational Connections (OC), that focuses on promoting everyday functions and participation in daily life and presents preliminary findings for its effectiveness...
November 2016: American Journal of Occupational Therapy: Official Publication of the American Occupational Therapy Association
Amy J Wint, Diane L Smith, Lisa I Iezzoni
OBJECTIVE: This study describes how women with physical disability experience caregiving for a new infant and how they adapt their home environment and care tasks. METHOD: In 2013, we conducted 2-hr telephone interviews with 22 women with significant physical disability who had delivered babies within the previous 10 yr. The semistructured, open-ended interview protocol addressed wide-ranging pregnancy-related topics. NVivo was used to sort the texts for content analysis...
November 2016: American Journal of Occupational Therapy: Official Publication of the American Occupational Therapy Association
John Turri
This paper addresses a fundamental question in folk metaphysics: how do we ordinarily view human agency? According to the transcendence account, we view human agency as standing outside of the causal order and imbued with exceptional powers. According to a naturalistic account, we view human agency as subject to the same physical laws as other objects and completely open to scientific investigation. According to exceptionalist naturalism, the truth lies somewhere in between: we view human agency as fitting broadly within the causal order while still being exceptional in important respects...
October 21, 2016: Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology: QJEP
Gianluigi Franci, Federica Sarno, Angela Nebbioso, Lucia Altucci
Epigenetic modifications are functionally involved in gene expression regulation. In particular, histone posttranslational modifications play a crucial role in functional chromatin organization. Several drugs able to inhibit or stimulate some families of proteins involved in epigenetic histone regulation have been found, a number of which are FDA-approved for the treatment of cutaneous T-cell lymphoma or are in phase I/II/III clinical trials for solid tumors. Although some protein families, such as histone deacetylases and their inhibitors, are well characterized, our understanding of histone lysine demethylases is still incomplete...
October 21, 2016: Epigenetics: Official Journal of the DNA Methylation Society
Wei Lv, Asegun Henry
Thermal conductivity is important for almost all applications involving heat transfer. The theory and modeling of crystalline materials is in some sense a solved problem, where one can now calculate their thermal conductivity from first principles using expressions based on the phonon gas model (PGM). However, modeling of amorphous materials still has many open questions, because the PGM itself becomes questionable when one cannot rigorously define the phonon velocities. In this report, we used our recently developed Green-Kubo modal analysis (GKMA) method to study amorphous silicon dioxide (a-SiO2)...
October 21, 2016: Scientific Reports
Jean-Marie E P Cols, Cameron E Taylor, Kevin J Gagnon, Simon J Teat, Ruaraidh D McIntosh
The synthesis and full characterisation of four discrete tetrametallic titanium complexes is reported. These well-defined compounds are isostructural in the solid state and share the same general formula: Ti4(μ-O)2L4 (L = 1, 2, 3 or 4). Using a combination of NMR techniques the complexes are found to be stable in solution, even at elevated temperatures. Further studies show that the carboxylate moieties of the supporting amine bis(phenolate) ligands can be displaced by a more strongly coordinating solvent...
October 21, 2016: Dalton Transactions: An International Journal of Inorganic Chemistry
Angel Lareo, Caroline G Forlim, Reynaldo D Pinto, Pablo Varona, Francisco de Borja Rodriguez
Closed-loop activity-dependent stimulation is a powerful methodology to assess information processing in biological systems. In this context, the development of novel protocols, their implementation in bioinformatics toolboxes and their application to different description levels open up a wide range of possibilities in the study of biological systems. We developed a methodology for studying biological signals representing them as temporal sequences of binary events. A specific sequence of these events (code) is chosen to deliver a predefined stimulation in a closed-loop manner...
2016: Frontiers in Neuroinformatics
Trond Erik Grønnestad, Hildegunn Sagvaag
OBJECTIVE: The objective of this article is to gain insight into how individuals who frequent open illicit drug scenes experience opioid maintenance treatment (OMT) and investigate how this appears to affect their recovery processes. METHOD: By means of the ethnographic method, one of the researchers spent time in an open illicit drug scene over a 1-year span, and gathered data on individuals who frequent the scene on a regular basis, and their experiences with OMT...
2016: International Journal of Qualitative Studies on Health and Well-being
Alex R Hardisty, Finn Bacall, Niall Beard, Maria-Paula Balcázar-Vargas, Bachir Balech, Zoltán Barcza, Sarah J Bourlat, Renato De Giovanni, Yde de Jong, Francesca De Leo, Laura Dobor, Giacinto Donvito, Donal Fellows, Antonio Fernandez Guerra, Nuno Ferreira, Yuliya Fetyukova, Bruno Fosso, Jonathan Giddy, Carole Goble, Anton Güntsch, Robert Haines, Vera Hernández Ernst, Hannes Hettling, Dóra Hidy, Ferenc Horváth, Dóra Ittzés, Péter Ittzés, Andrew Jones, Renzo Kottmann, Robert Kulawik, Sonja Leidenberger, Päivi Lyytikäinen-Saarenmaa, Cherian Mathew, Norman Morrison, Aleksandra Nenadic, Abraham Nieva de la Hidalga, Matthias Obst, Gerard Oostermeijer, Elisabeth Paymal, Graziano Pesole, Salvatore Pinto, Axel Poigné, Francisco Quevedo Fernandez, Monica Santamaria, Hannu Saarenmaa, Gergely Sipos, Karl-Heinz Sylla, Marko Tähtinen, Saverio Vicario, Rutger Aldo Vos, Alan R Williams, Pelin Yilmaz
BACKGROUND: Making forecasts about biodiversity and giving support to policy relies increasingly on large collections of data held electronically, and on substantial computational capability and capacity to analyse, model, simulate and predict using such data. However, the physically distributed nature of data resources and of expertise in advanced analytical tools creates many challenges for the modern scientist. Across the wider biological sciences, presenting such capabilities on the Internet (as "Web services") and using scientific workflow systems to compose them for particular tasks is a practical way to carry out robust "in silico" science...
October 20, 2016: BMC Ecology
Shaniece Criss, Emily Oken, Lauren Guthrie, Marie-France Hivert
BACKGROUND: Gestational weight gain (GWG) is an important predictor of short and long-term pregnancy outcomes for both mother and child, and women who set a GWG goal are more likely to gain within recommended ranges. Little information is available regarding potentially modifiable factors that underlie a woman's GWG goals. Our aims were to explore women's perceptions regarding factors that affect GWG, their understanding of appropriate GWG, their goal-setting experiences including patient-health care provider (HCP) conversations, and supportive interventions they would most like to help them achieve the recommended GWG...
October 20, 2016: BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth
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