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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29793210/polypharmacological-profile-of-1-2-dihydro-2-oxo-pyridine-3-carboxamides-in-the-endocannabinoid-system
#1
Andrea Chicca, Chiara Arena, Simone Bertini, Francesca Gado, Elena Ciaglia, Mario Abate, Maria Digiacomo, Margherita Lapillo, Giulio Poli, Maurizio Bifulco, Marco Macchia, Tiziano Tuccinardi, Jürg Gertsch, Clementina Manera
The endocannabinoid system (ECS) represents one of the major neuromodulatory systems involved in different physiological and pathological processes. Multi-target compounds exert their activities by acting via multiple mechanisms of action and represent a promising pharmacological modulation of the ECS. In this work we report 4-substituted and 4,5-disubstituted 1,2-dihydro-2-oxo-pyridine-3-carboxamide derivatives with a broad spectrum of affinity and functional activity towards both cannabinoid receptors and additional effects on the main components of the ECS...
May 14, 2018: European Journal of Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29793182/healthcare-provider-counseling-to-quit-smoking-and-patient-desire-to-quit-the-role-of-negative-smoking-outcome-expectancies
#2
Joan S Tucker, Brian D Stucky, Maria Orlando Edelen, William G Shadel, David J Klein
AIMS: The U.S. Public Health Service Clinical Practice Guideline on treating tobacco use and dependence recommends providing advice to quit to every tobacco user seen in a healthcare setting. However, the mechanism through which counseling encourages patients to quit has not been adequately studied. This study tests whether the association between receiving healthcare provider counseling and desire to quit is accounted for by negative health and psychosocial outcome expectancies of smoking...
May 21, 2018: Addictive Behaviors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29793180/insulin-is-a-potential-antioxidant-for-diabetes-associated-cognitive-decline-via-regulating-nrf2-dependent-antioxidant-enzymes
#3
Ying Song, Wei Ding, Yun Bei, Yan Xiao, Hai-Da Tong, Li-Bo Wang, Li-Yao Ai
PURPOSE: To investigate the neuroprotective effects of insulin on diabetic encephalopathy and its mechanism. EXPERIMENTAL AND APPROACH: The diabetic model was established by injection of streptozotocin. Behavior examinations were conducted by the Morris water maze. Histopathological alterations were detected by HE staining. ROS, CAT levels and SOD activity were measured using a microplate reader. In vitro, the viability of wild type and knock-down PC12 cells was detected by MTT assay, the morphology of cells was monitored under a microscope...
May 21, 2018: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29793174/effect-of-ca-2-ion-concentration-on-adsorption-of-poly-carboxylate-ether-based-pce-superplasticizer-on-mica
#4
Bo Wu, Byong-Wa Chun, Le Gu, Tonya L Kuhl
HYPOTHESIS: Poly(carboxylate ether)-based (PCE) superplasticizers consist of a carboxylic acid backbone and grafted poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) side chains. Ca2+ ion bridging mechanism is commonly purported to control PCE's adsorption on negatively charged cement particle surfaces in cement suspension, thus PCE was expected to adsorb on negatively charged surfaces in synthetic pore solutions via Ca2+ /COO- interactions. EXPERIMENTS: Adsorption behaviors of a commercial PCE on negatively charged mica were studied in aqueous electrolyte solutions by a surface forces apparatus...
May 9, 2018: Journal of Colloid and Interface Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29793165/inhibition-of-acetaminophen-induced-hepatotoxicity-in-mice-by-exogenous-thymosin%C3%AE-4-treatment
#5
Lei Wang, Xiankui Li, Cai Chen
OBJECTIVE: To study the effects of exogenous thymosinβ4 (Tβ4) treatment in acetaminophen (APAP)-induced hepatotoxicity. METHODS: Liver injury was induced in mice by a single intraperitoneal injection of APAP (500 mg/kg). Exogenous Tβ4 was intraperitoneally administrated at 0 h, 2 h and 4 h after APAP injection. Chloroquine (CQ) (60 mg/kg) was intraperitoneally injected 2 h before APAP administration to inhibit autophagy. Six hours after APAP injection liver injury was evaluated by histological examinations, biochemical measurements and enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISAs)...
May 21, 2018: International Immunopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29793158/botulinum-toxin-type-a-affects-mechanics-of-non-injected-antagonistic-rat-muscles
#6
Filiz Ateş, Can A Yucesoy
Botulinum toxin type A (BTX-A) effects on the mechanics of non-injected antagonistic muscles are unknown. The aim was to test the following hypotheses in a rat model: BTX-A injected into gastrocnemius medialis (GM) and lateralis (GL) (1) decreases forces of the antagonistic tibialis anterior (TA) and extensor digitorum longus (EDL), (2) reduces length range of force exertion and (3) increases passive forces of the TA, and (4) changes inter-antagonistic and inter-synergistic epimuscular myofascial force transmission (EMFT)...
May 17, 2018: Journal of the Mechanical Behavior of Biomedical Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29793157/energy-dissipation-in-quasi-linear-viscoelastic-tissues-cells-and-extracellular-matrix
#7
Behzad Babaei, A J Velasquez-Mao, Kenneth M Pryse, William B McConnaughey, Elliot L Elson, Guy M Genin
Characterizing how a tissue's constituents give rise to its viscoelasticity is important for uncovering how hidden timescales underlie multiscale biomechanics. These constituents are viscoelastic in nature, and their mechanics must typically be assessed from the uniaxial behavior of a tissue. Confounding the challenge is that tissue viscoelasticity is typically associated with nonlinear elastic responses. Here, we experimentally assessed how fibroblasts and extracellular matrix (ECM) within engineered tissue constructs give rise to the nonlinear viscoelastic responses of a tissue...
May 21, 2018: Journal of the Mechanical Behavior of Biomedical Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29793156/mechanical-properties-of-the-human-scalp-in-tension
#8
Lisa Falland-Cheung, Mario Scholze, Pamela F Lozano, Benjamin Ondruschka, Darryl C Tong, Paul A Brunton, J Neil Waddell, Niels Hammer
Mechanical properties of the human scalp have not been investigated to a great extent with limited information available. The purpose of this study was to provide new baseline material data for human scalp tissue of various ages, which can be applied to experimental and constitutive models, such as in the area of impact biomechanics. This study used specimens from the left and right temporal, fronto-parietal and occipital regions of the human scalp. It investigated the tensile behavior of scalp tissue using tissues harvested from unfixed, fresh cadavers...
May 17, 2018: Journal of the Mechanical Behavior of Biomedical Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29793155/lessons-from-mosquitoes-painless-piercing
#9
Dev Gurera, Bharat Bhushan, Navin Kumar
Arthropods are the largest group of the living organisms. They attack other organisms by biting, stinging, or piercing and sucking. Among various medically important arthropods, which feed on living hosts, mosquitoes' piercing spread viruses which have been reported to cause the highest number of deaths annually. The primary cause of the deaths is malaria, which is spread by infected mosquitoes' piercing. This study aims at elucidating lessons from mosquitoes' painless piercing. Mosquitoes pierce using their fascicle, which is a bundle of coherently functioning six stylets...
May 18, 2018: Journal of the Mechanical Behavior of Biomedical Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29793154/juvenile-treatment-with-mglur2-3-agonist-prevents-schizophrenia-like-phenotypes-in-adult-by-acting-through-gsk3%C3%AE
#10
Bo Xing, Genie Han, Min-Juan Wang, Melissa A Snyder, Wen-Jun Gao
Prodromal memory deficits represent an important marker for the development of schizophrenia (SZ), in which glutamatergic hypofunction occurs in the prefrontal cortex (PFC). The mGluR2/3 agonist LY379268 (LY37) attenuates excitatory N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor (NMDAR)-induced neurotoxicity, a central pathological characteristic of glutamatergic hypofunction. We therefore hypothesized that early treatment with LY37 would rescue cognitive deficits and confer benefits for SZ-like behaviors in adults. To test this, we assessed whether early intervention with LY37 would improve learning outcomes in the Morris Water Maze for rats prenatally exposed to methylazoxymethanol acetate (MAM), a neurodevelopmental SZ model...
May 14, 2018: Neuropharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29793153/effects-of-mg-2-on-recovery-of-nmda-receptors-from-inhibition-by-memantine-and-ketamine-reveal-properties-of-a-second-site
#11
Nathan G Glasgow, Madeleine R Wilcox, Jon W Johnson
Memantine and ketamine are NMDA receptor (NMDAR) open channel blockers that are thought to act via similar mechanisms at NMDARs, but exhibit divergent clinical effects. Both drugs act by entering open NMDARs and binding at a site deep within the ion channel (the deep site) at which the endogenous NMDAR channel blocker Mg2+ also binds. Under physiological conditions, Mg2+ increases the IC50 s of memantine and ketamine through competition for binding at the deep site. Memantine also can inhibit NMDARs after associating with a second site accessible in the absence of agonist, a process termed second site inhibition (SSI) that is not observed with ketamine...
May 12, 2018: Neuropharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29793136/effects-of-gestational-hypertension-and-pre-eclampsia-in-mrna-expression-of-fibrinolysis-genes-in-primary-cultured-human-umbilical-vein-endothelial-cells
#12
Irais Poblete-Naredo, Yury Rodríguez-Yáñez, Rogelio O Corona-Núñez, Stuart González-Monroy, Juan E Salinas, Arnulfo Albores
Hypertension disorders (HD) and pre-eclampsia (PRE) are leading causes of maternal deaths worldwide. PRE is associated with vascular endothelial dysfunction and with deregulation of the fibrinolysis pathway genes. Fibrinolysis is the fibrin clot hydrolysis process catalyzed by plasmin, a proteolytic enzyme formed from plasminogen. Plasminogen is cleaved by tissue-type (tPA) and urokinase-type (uPA) activators and inhibited by the plasminogen activator inhibitors type-1 (PAI-1) and type-2 (PAI-2). The whole process maintains blood hemostasis...
May 17, 2018: Thrombosis Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29793131/tlr2-4-ligand-amplified-liver-inflammation-promotes-initiation-of-autoimmune-hepatitis-due-to-sustained-il-6-il-12-il-4-il-25-expression
#13
Gang Chi, Xin-Xia Feng, Ying-Xia Ru, Ting Xiong, Yuan Gao, Han Wang, Zhen-Long Luo, Ran Mo, Fang Guo, Yong-Pei He, Gui-Mei Zhang, De-An Tian, Zuo-Hua Feng
Autoimmune hepatitis (AIH), a serious autoimmune liver disease, can be a lifelong illness, leading to fibrosis, cirrhosis, and hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). So far the mechanisms for disease initiation are largely unknown. Here we report that the amplified non-AIH liver inflammation could promote the initiation of AIH due to the sustained increase of IL-6, IL-12, IL-4, and IL-25 in the liver. The liver injury resulting from virus (adenovirus) or chemicals (CCl4 ) could induce an amplified (stronger/long-lasting) hepatic inflammation by releasing the ligands for TLR2/TLR4...
May 21, 2018: Molecular Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29793117/metagenomic-insights-into-the-microbiota-profiles-and-bioaugmentation-mechanism-of-organics-removal-in-coal-gasification-wastewater-in-an-anaerobic-anoxic-oxic-system-by-methanol
#14
Weichao Xu, Yuxiu Zhang, Hongbin Cao, Yuxing Sheng, Haibo Li, Yuping Li, He Zhao, Xuefei Gui
Coal gasification wastewater is a typical high phenol-containing, toxic and refractory industrial wastewater. Here, lab-scale anaerobic-anoxic-oxic system was employed to treat real coal gasification wastewater, and methanol was added to oxic tank as the co-substrate to enhance the removal of refractory organic pollutants. The results showed that the average COD removal in oxic effluent increased from 24.9% to 36.0% by adding methanol, the total phenols concentration decreased from 54.4 to 44.9 mg/L. GC-MS analysis revealed that contents of phenolic components and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) were decreased compared to the control and their degradation intermediates were observed...
May 18, 2018: Bioresource Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29793112/3d-printed-membrane-as-an-alternative-to-amniotic-membrane-for-ocular-surface-conjunctival-defect-reconstruction-an-in-vitro-in-vivo-study
#15
Shima Dehghani, Morteza Rasoulianboroujeni, Hamed Ghasemi, Saeed Heidari Keshel, Zohreh Nozarian, Mohammad Naser Hashemian, Mehran Zarei-Ghanavati, Golshan Latifi, Reza Ghaffari, Zhanfeng Cui, Hua Ye, Lobat Tayebi
BACKGROUND: The aim of this study was to evaluate the surgical handling and clinical applicability of a specific 3D-printed membrane design fabricated using a gelatin, elastin and sodium hyaluronate blend for conjunctival reconstruction and compare it with amniotic membrane (AM), which is normally used in such surgeries. METHODS: 3D printing technique was employed to fabricate the membrane based on gradient design. Prior to printing, rheometry was employed to optimize the ink composition...
May 11, 2018: Biomaterials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29793105/copd-rat-model-is-more-susceptible-to-cold-stress-and-pm-2-5-exposure-and-the-underlying-mechanism
#16
Kai Zhang, Lei Guo, Qiaozhen Wei, Quanquan Song, Jiangtao Liu, Jingping Niu, Li Zhang, Ye Ruan, Bin Luo
The purpose of this study is to verify the hypothesis that chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) model rat is more susceptible to cold stress and fine particulate matter (PM2.5 ) exposure than the healthy rat, and explore the related mechanism. COPD rat model, established with cigarette smoke and lipopolysaccharide intratracheal instillation, were exposed to cold stress (0 °C) and PM2.5 (0, 3.2, 12.8 mg/ml). After that, the levels of superoxide dismutase, inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α), monocyte chemotactic protein 1 (MCP-1) and angiotensin Ⅱ (Ang-Ⅱ) in lung were measured, as well as the expression levels of lung 8-hydroxy-2-deoxyguanosine (8-OHdG), nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB), heme-oxygenase-1 (HO-1) and nuclear factor erythroid-2-related factor 2 (Nrf2)...
May 21, 2018: Environmental Pollution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29793092/a-combined-ftir-and-dsc-study-on-the-bilayer-stabilising-effect-of-electrostatic-interactions-in-ion-paired-lipids
#17
Maximilian Schmid, Christian Wölk, Julia Giselbrecht, K L Andrew Chan, Richard D Harvey
Investigating lipid ion pair formation is important for understanding the mechanisms of lipid-mediated drug resistance in bacteria. In this study we have used the charged amphiphiles dipalmitoylphosphatidylglycerol (DPPG) and dihexadecyldimethylammonium bromide (DHDAB), as a model to evaluate the formation of ion pairs by a combined Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) analysis. FTIR was employed to study the environment of the DPPC headgroup phosphate and lipid/surfactant alkane chains, in vesicles formed by the two amphiphiles mixed in various molar ratios...
May 17, 2018: Colloids and Surfaces. B, Biointerfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29793089/gold-and-gold-silver-alloy-nanoparticles-enhance-the-myogenic-differentiation-of-myoblasts-through-p38-mapk-signaling-pathway-and-promote-in-vivo-skeletal-muscle-regeneration
#18
Juan Ge, Kai Liu, Wen Niu, Mi Chen, Min Wang, Yumeng Xue, Chuanbo Gao, Peter X Ma, Bo Lei
Under the severe trauma condition, the skeletal muscles regeneration process is inhibited by forming fibrous scar tissues. Understanding the interaction between bioactive nanomaterials and myoblasts perhaps has important effect on the enhanced skeletal muscle tissue regeneration. Herein, we investigate the effect of monodispersed gold and gold-silver nanoparticles (AuNPs and Au-AgNPs) on the proliferation, myogenic differentiation and associated molecular mechanism of myoblasts (C2C12), as well as the in vivo skeletal muscle tissue regeneration...
May 18, 2018: Biomaterials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29793088/decellularized-and-matured-esophageal-scaffold-for-circumferential-esophagus-replacement-proof-of-concept-in-a-pig-model
#19
Guillaume Luc, Guillaume Charles, Caroline Gronnier, Magali Cabau, Charlotte Kalisky, Mallory Meulle, Reine Bareille, Samantha Roques, Lionel Couraud, Johanna Rannou, Laurence Bordenave, Denis Collet, Marlène Durand
Surgical resection of the esophagus requires sacrificing a long portion of it. Its replacement by the demanding gastric pull-up or colonic interposition techniques may be avoided by using short biologic scaffolds composed of decellularized matrix (DM). The aim of this study was to prepare, characterize, and assess the in vivo remodeling of DM and its clinical impact in a preclinical model. A dynamic chemical and enzymatic decellularization protocol of porcine esophagus was set up and optimized. The resulting DM was mechanically and biologically characterized by DNA quantification, histology, and histomorphometry techniques...
May 17, 2018: Biomaterials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29793087/skin-allografting-activates-anti-tumor-immunity-and-suppresses-growth-of-colon-cancer-in-mice
#20
Xiang Li, Xu Lan, Grace Wang, Yi Liu, Ke Zhao, Shan-Zheng Lu, Xiao-Xi Xu, Gang-Gang Shi, Kui Ye, Bao-Ren Zhang, Yi-Ming Zhao, Hong-Qiu Han, Cai-Gan Du, Thomas E Ichim, Hao Wang
INTRODUCTION: The tumor cells could escape from the immune elimination through the immunoediting mechanisms including the generation of immunosuppressive or immunoregulative cells. By contrast, allograft transplantation could activate the immune system and induce a strong allogenic response. The aim of this study was to investigate the efficacy of allogenic skin transplantation in the inhibition of tumor growth through the activation of allogenic immune response. METHODS: Full-thickness skin transplantation was performed from C57BL/6 (H-2b ) donors to BALB/c (H-2d ) recipients that were receiving subcutaneous injection of isogenic CT26 colon cancer cells (2 × 106 cells) at the same time...
May 21, 2018: Translational Oncology
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