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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28527417/fate-of-the-sunscreen-compound-oxybenzone-in-cyperus-alternifolius-based-hydroponic-culture-uptake-biotransformation-and-phytotoxicity
#1
Feiran Chen, Christian Huber, Peter Schröder
Oxybenzone (OBZ), a common ingredient in sunscreens and personal care products, has been frequently detected in effluents from municipal wastewater treatment plants and also in surface waters. OBZ is an emerging contaminant due to its adverse impacts on marine/aquatic ecosystems. To investigate the removal and degradation capacity of phytotreatment for OBZ, the common wetland plant species Cyperus alternifolius L. was exposed to this compound at 5, 25 and 50 μM for 120 h, respectively. Continuous uptake by roots and accumulation in plant tissues was observed over the exposure time, and depletion of spiked OBZ from the aqueous medium exceeded 73...
May 12, 2017: Chemosphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28526946/evolutionary-ecology-of-multitrophic-interactions-between-plants-insect-herbivores-and-entomopathogens
#2
Ikkei Shikano
Plants play an important role in the interactions between insect herbivores and their pathogens. Since the seminal review by Cory and Hoover (2006) on plant-mediated effects on insect-pathogen interactions, considerable progress has been made in understanding the complexity of these tritrophic interactions. Increasing interest in the areas of nutritional and ecological immunology over the last decade have revealed that plant primary and secondary metabolites can influence the outcomes of insect-pathogen interactions by altering insect immune functioning and physical barriers to pathogen entry...
May 19, 2017: Journal of Chemical Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28525309/from-chaos-to-harmony-responses-and-signaling-upon-microbial-pattern-recognition
#3
Xiao Yu, Baomin Feng, Ping He, Libo Shan
Pathogen- or microbe-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs/MAMPs) are detected as nonself by host pattern recognition receptors (PRRs) and activate pattern-triggered immunity (PTI). Microbial invasions often trigger the production of host-derived endogenous signals referred to as dangeror damage-associated molecular patterns (DAMPs), which are also perceived by PRRs to modulate PTI responses. Collectively, PTI contributes to host defense against infections by a broad range of pathogens. Remarkable progress has been made toward demonstrating the cellular and physiological responses upon pattern recognition, elucidating the molecular, biochemical, and genetic mechanisms of PRR activation as well as dissecting the complex signaling networks that orchestrate PTI responses...
May 19, 2017: Annual Review of Phytopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28525308/toxin-antitoxin-systems-implications-for-plant-disease
#4
T Shidore, L R Triplett
Toxin-antitoxin (TA) systems are gene modules that are ubiquitous in freeliving prokaryotes. Diverse in structure, cellular function, and fitness roles, TA systems are defined by the presence of a toxin gene that suppresses bacterial growth and a toxin-neutralizing antitoxin gene, usually encoded in a single operon. Originally viewed as DNA maintenance modules, TA systems are now thought to function in many roles, including bacterial stress tolerance, virulence, phage defense, and biofilm formation. However, very few studies have investigated the significance of TA systems in the context of plant-microbe interactions...
May 19, 2017: Annual Review of Phytopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28524115/label-free-quantitative-proteomic-analysis-of-chitosan-oligosaccharide-treated-rice-infected-with-southern-rice-black-streaked-dwarf-virus
#5
Anming Yang, Lu Yu, Zhuo Chen, Shanxue Zhang, Jing Shi, Xiaozhen Zhao, Yuanyou Yang, Deyu Hu, Baoan Song
Southern rice black-streaked dwarf virus (SRBSDV) has spread from thesouth of China to the north of Vietnam in the past few years and severelyinfluenced rice production. Its long incubation period and early symptoms are not evident; thus, controlling it is difficult. Chitosan oligosaccharide (COS) is a green plant immunomodulator. Early studies showed that preventing and controlling SRBSDV have a certain effect and reduce disease infection rate, but its underlying controlling and preventing mechanism is unclear...
May 18, 2017: Viruses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28523009/transgenerational-defense-priming-for-crop-protection-against-plant-pathogens-a-hypothesis
#6
Gabriela Ramírez-Carrasco, Keren Martínez-Aguilar, Raúl Alvarez-Venegas
Throughout evolution, plants have developed diverse mechanisms of defense that "prime" their innate immune system for more robust and active induction of defense responses against different types of stress. Nowadays there are numerous reports concerning the molecular bases of priming, as well as the generational priming mechanisms. Information concerning transgenerational priming, however, remains deficient. Some reports have indicated, nonetheless, that the priming status of a plant can be inherited to its offspring...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28522853/multitrophic-effects-of-belowground-parasitoid-learning
#7
Denis S Willett, Hans T Alborn, Lukasz L Stelinski
The ability to learn allows organisms to take advantage of dynamic and ephemeral opportunities in their environment. Here we show that learning in belowground entomopathogenic nematodes has cascading multitrophic effects on their hosts, other nematodes, and nematophagous fungal predators. In addition to quantifying these effects, we show that social behavioral plasticity in these belowground parasitoids can amplify signaling by plant defense pathways and results in an almost doubling of insect herbivore infection by entomopathogenic nematodes...
May 18, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28522549/carbonic-anhydrases-function-in-anther-cell-differentiation-downstream-of-the-receptor-like-kinase-ems1
#8
Jian Huang, Zhiyong Li, Gabriel Biener, Erhui Xiong, Shikha Malik, Nathan Eaton, Catherine Z Zhao, Valerica Raicu, Hongzhi Kong, Dazhong Dave Zhao
Plants extensively employ leucine-rich repeat receptor-like kinases (LRR-RLKs), the largest family of RLKs, to control a wide range of growth and developmental processes as well as defense responses. To date, only a few direct downstream effectors for LRR-RLKs have been identified. We previously showed that the LRR-RLK EMS1 (EXCESS MICROSPOROCYTES1) and its ligand TPD1 (TAPETUM DETERMINANT1) are required for the differentiation of somatic tapetal cells and reproductive microsporocytes during early anther development in Arabidopsis thaliana...
May 18, 2017: Plant Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28522357/the-analysis-of-an-effect-of-seed-propagation-on-defense-strategy-against-pathogen-transmission-within-clonal-plant-population-using-lattice-model
#9
Yuma Sakai, Takenori Takada
Many clonal plants have two breeding systems, vegetative and seed propagation. In vegetative propagation, plants reproduce genetically identical offspring that have lower mortality rates. By contrast, the seed propagated offspring has higher mortality rate, however, the seed propagation "acts an important role in maintaining the genetic diversity and reproduce widely. According to the experimental studies, the balance between the breeding systems, vegetative and seed propagation, is determined by several functions, such as resource allocation...
May 15, 2017: Journal of Theoretical Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28521946/genomics-of-the-asian-rice-gall-midge-and-its-interactions-with-rice
#10
REVIEW
Deepak Kumar Sinha, Isha Atray, Ruchi Agarrwal, Jagadish Sanmallappa Bentur, Suresh Nair
Understanding virulence and manipulative strategies of gall formers will reveal new facets of plant defense and insect counter defense. Among the gall midges, the Asian rice gall midge (AGM) has emerged as a model for studies on plant-insect interactions. Data from several genomics, transcriptomics and metabolomics studies have revealed diverse strategies adopted by AGM to successfully invade the host while overcoming its defense. Adaptive skills of AGM transcend from its genomic and transcriptomic make-up...
February 2017: Current Opinion in Insect Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28521945/whitefly-interactions-with-plants
#11
REVIEW
Xiao-Wei Wang, Ping Li, Shu-Sheng Liu
Whiteflies are important pests of many crops worldwide. They are polyphagous and effectively feed on phloem sap using mouthparts modified into long, flexible stylets. Plants respond to whitefly attack by activating defense genes leading to production of toxic compounds. To reach plant phloem and survive on host plants, whiteflies secret effectors in the saliva to regulate plant responses and activate detoxification system to cope with plant defenses. Additionally, whitefly-transmitted viruses may exert substantial effects on host plants and in turn the performance of whiteflies...
February 2017: Current Opinion in Insect Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28521944/genomics-of-lepidoptera-saliva-reveals-function-in-herbivory
#12
REVIEW
Loren J Rivera-Vega, Flor E Acevedo, Gary W Felton
Lepidoptera herbivores deposit copious amounts of saliva when feeding. Their saliva is produced by the paired mandibular and labial glands and evidence indicates that it may play an important role in allowing an herbivore to establish on its host plant. Genomic studies of Lepidoptera saliva are beginning to reveal the role of saliva in herbivory. Molecules involved in digestion, detoxification, immunity, defense against plant secondary chemicals, chemoreception and so on have been identified using high throughput genomic tools...
February 2017: Current Opinion in Insect Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28521637/the-receptor-like-cytoplasmic-kinase-bsr1-mediates-chitin-induced-defense-signaling-in-rice-cells
#13
Yasukazu Kanda, Naoki Yokotani, Satoru Maeda, Yoko Nishizawa, Takashi Kamakura, Masaki Mori
Broad-Spectrum Resistance 1 (BSR1) encodes a rice receptor-like cytoplasmic kinase, and enhances disease resistance when overexpressed. Rice plants overexpressing BSR1 are highly resistant to diverse pathogens, including rice blast fungus. However, the mechanism responsible for this resistance has not been fully characterized. To analyze the BSR1 function, BSR1-knockout (BSR1-KO) plants were generated using a clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeat (CRISPR)/CRISPR-associated protein 9 (Cas9) system...
May 18, 2017: Bioscience, Biotechnology, and Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28520950/a-novel-economical-way-to-assess-virulence-in-field-populations-of-hessian-fly-diptera-cecidomyiidae-utilizing-wheat-resistance-gene-h13-as-a-model
#14
Alisha J Johnson, Hossam E M Abdel Moniem, Kathy L Flanders, G David Buntin, Francis P F Reay-Jones, Dominic Reisig, Jeffery J Stuart, Subhashree Subramanyam, Richard H Shukle, Brandon J Schemerhorn
Mayetiola destructor (Say) is a serious pest of wheat, Triticum aestivum L., in North America, North Africa, and Central Asia. Singly deployed resistance genes in wheat cultivars have provided effective management of Hessian fly populations for >50 yr. Thirty-five H genes have been documented. Defense mediated by the H gene constitutes strong selection on the Hessian fly population, killing 100% of larvae. A mutation in a matching Hessian fly avirulence gene confers virulence to the H gene, leading to survival on the resistant plant...
May 17, 2017: Journal of Economic Entomology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28520800/transcriptome-profiling-revealed-novel-transcriptional-regulators-in-maize-responses-to-ostrinia-furnacalis-and-jasmonic-acid
#15
Hai Wang, Shengyan Li, Shouzhen Teng, Haisheng Liang, Hongjia Xin, Hongjiang Gao, Dafang Huang, Zhihong Lang
Chewing insects cause severe yield losses in crop production worldwide. Crop plants counteract chewing insects by transcriptionally promoting a repertoire of defense gene products that are either toxic to, or attractive to the natural enemies of, pest insects. However, the complexity of the transcriptional reprogramming in plant defense response against chewing insects is still not well understood. In this study, the genome-wide early responses in maize seedlings to Asian corn borer (ACB, Ostrinia furnacalis) and also to jasmonic acid(JA), the pivotal phytohormone controlling plant defense response against herbivory, were transcriptionally profiled by RNA-Seq...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28514632/a-waterborne-pursuit-deterrent-signal-deployed-by-a-sea-urchin
#16
Hannah Sheppard-Brennand, Alistair G B Poore, Symon A Dworjanyn
Selection by consumers has led to the evolution of a vast array of defenses in animals and plants. These defenses include physical structures, behaviors, and chemical signals that mediate interactions with predators. Some of the strangest defensive structures in nature are the globiferous pedicellariae of the echinoderms. These are small venomous appendages with jaws and teeth that cover the test of many sea urchins and sea stars. In this study, we report a unique use of these defensive structures by the collector sea urchin Tripneustes gratilla...
June 2017: American Naturalist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28512179/cooperative-regulatory-functions-of-mir858-and-myb83-during-cyst-nematode-parasitism
#17
Sarbottam Piya, Christina Kihm, J Hollis Rice, Thomas J Baum, Tarek Hewezi
microRNAs (miRNAs) recently have been established as key regulators of transcriptome reprogramming that defines cell function and identity. Nevertheless, the molecular functions of the greatest number of miRNA genes remain to be determined. Here, we report cooperative regulatory functions of miR858 and its MYB83 transcription factor target gene in transcriptome reprogramming during Heterodera cyst nematode parasitism of Arabidopsis. Gene expression analyses and promoter-GUS fusion assays documented a role of miR858 in post-transcriptional regulation of MYB83 in the Heterodera schachtii-induced feeding sites, the syncytia...
May 16, 2017: Plant Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28512014/expressional-divergence-of-insect-gox-genes-from-specialist-to-generalist-glucose-oxidase
#18
Lihong Yang, Xiongya Wang, Sufen Bai, Xin Li, Shaohua Gu, Chen-Zhu Wang, Xianchun Li
Insect herbivores often secrete glucose oxidase (GOX) onto plants to counteract plant defenses and potential pathogens. Whether generalist herbivores always have significantly higher GOX activities than their specialist counterparts at any comparable stage or conditions and how this is realized remain unknown. To address these two general questions, we subjected larvae of a pair of sister species differed mainly in host range, the generalist Helicoverpa armigera and its specialist counterpart Helicoverpa assulta, to the same sets of stage, protein to digestible carbohydrate (P:C) ratio, allelochemical or host plant treatments for simultaneous analyses of GOX transcripts and activities in their labial glands...
May 13, 2017: Journal of Insect Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28511789/salicylic-acid-mediated-growth-physiological-and-proteomic-responses-in-two-wheat-varieties-under-drought-stress
#19
Marisha Sharma, Sunil K Gupta, Baisakhi Majumder, Vivek K Maurya, Farah Deeba, Afroz Alam, Vivek Pandey
Salicylic acid (SA) induced drought tolerance can be a key trait for increasing and stabilizing wheat production. These SA induced traits were studied in two Triticum aestivum L. varieties; drought tolerant, Kundan and drought sensitive, Lok1 under two different water deficit regimes: and rehydration at vegetative and flowering stages. SA alleviated the negative effects of water stress on photosynthesis more in Kundan. SA induced defense responses against drought by increasing antioxidative enzymes and osmolytes (proline and total soluble sugars)...
May 13, 2017: Journal of Proteomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28510502/the-impact-of-steroidal-glycoalkaloids-on-the-physiology-of-phytophthora-infestans-the-causative-agent-of-potato-late-blight
#20
Paul Dahlin, Marion C Müller, Sophia Ekengren, Lauren S McKee, Vincent Bulone
Steroidal glycoalkaloids (SGAs) are plant secondary metabolites known to be toxic to animals and humans and that have putative roles in defense against pests. The proposed mechanisms of SGA toxicity are sterol-mediated disruption of membranes and inhibition of cholinesterase activity in neurons. It has been suggested that phytopathogenic microorganisms can overcome SGA toxicity by enzymatic deglycosylation of SGAs. Here, we have explored SGA-mediated toxicity toward the invasive oomycete Phytophthora infestans, the causative agent of the late blight disease in potato and tomato, as well as the potential for SGA deglycosylation by this species...
May 16, 2017: Molecular Plant-microbe Interactions: MPMI
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