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Plant defense

Héctor Cervera, Silvia Ambrós, Guillermo P Bernet, Guillermo Rodrigo, Santiago F Elena
Determining the fitness of viral genotypes has become a standard practice in virology as it is essential to evaluate their evolutionary potential. Darwinian fitness, defined as the advantage of a given genotype with respect to a reference, is a complex property that captures, in a single figure, differences in performance at every stage of viral infection. To what extent does viral fitness result from specific molecular interactions with host factors and regulatory networks during infection? Can we identify host genes in functional classes whose expression depends on viral fitness? Here, we compared the transcriptomes of tobacco plants infected with seven genotypes of tobacco etch potyvirus (TEV) that differ in fitness...
March 19, 2018: Molecular Biology and Evolution
Tomoo Shimada, Junpei Takagi, Takuji Ichino, Makoto Shirakawa, Ikuko Hara-Nishimura
Plant vacuoles are multifunctional organelles.Onthe one hand, most vegetative tissues develop lytic vacuoles that have a role in degradation.Onthe other hand, seed cells have two types of storage vacuoles: protein storage vacuoles (PSVs) in endosperm and embryonic cells and metabolite storage vacuoles in seed coats. Vacuolar proteins and metabolites are synthesized on the endoplasmic reticulum and then transported to the vacuoles via Golgi-dependent and Golgi-independent pathways. Proprotein precursors delivered to the vacuoles are converted into their respective mature forms by vacuolar processing enzyme, which also regulates various kinds of programmed cell death in plants...
March 21, 2018: Annual Review of Plant Biology
Sukhmeen Kaur Kohli, Neha Handa, Anket Sharma, Vandana Gautam, Saroj Arora, Renu Bhardwaj, Leonard Wijaya, Mohammed Nasser Alyemeni, Parvaiz Ahmad
Lead (Pb) is considered one the most hazardous pollutant, and its accumulation in soil and plants is of prime concern. To understand the role of plant hormones in combating heavy metal stress, the present study was planned to assess the interactive effects of 24-epibrassinolide (EBL) (10-7  M) and salicylic acid (SA) (1 mM) in regulating growth, pigment contents, antioxidative defense response, and gene expression in Brassica juncea L. seedlings exposed to different concentrations of Pb metal (0.25, 0.50, and 0...
March 20, 2018: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
Thaís B Alves, Tatiana M Souza-Moreira, Sandro R Valentini, Cleslei F Zanelli, Maysa Furlan
Triterpenes are interesting compounds because they play an important role in cell homeostasis and a wide variety exhibiting defense functions is produced by plant secondary metabolism. Those same plant secondary metabolites also exhibit biological properties with promising therapeutic potential as anti-inflammatory and antitumor agents. Friedelin is a triterpene ketone with anti-inflammatory and gastroprotective activities and it is a precursor of relevant antitumor quinonemethides. Although many triterpene synthases have been described, only two friedelin synthases were characterized and there is no information about their genomic features and alleles...
March 20, 2018: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
Daniel Lüdke, Charlotte Roth, Denise Hartken, Marcel Wiermer
The Arabidopsis nuclear transport receptor IMPORTIN-α3/MOS6 (MODIFIER OF SNC1, 6) is required for constitutive defense responses of the auto-immune mutant snc1 (suppressor of npr1-1, constitutive 1) and contributes to basal disease resistance, suggesting a role in nuclear import of defense-regulatory cargo proteins. We recently showed that MOS6 selectively interacts with TN13, a TIR-NBS protein involved in basal resistance to Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato (Pst) DC3000 lacking the effectors AvrPto and AvrPtoB...
March 20, 2018: Plant Signaling & Behavior
Anthony Bellee, Stephanie Cluzet, Marie-Cécile Dufour, Jean-Michel Merillon, Marie-France Corio-Costet
Grapevine is subject to diseases that affect yield and wine quality caused by various pathogens including Botrytis cinerea. To limit the use of fungicides, an alternative is to use plant elicitors such as benzothiadiazole (BTH). We investigated the effect of a fungicide (pyrimethanil) and an elicitor (benzothiadiazole) on plant defenses. Applications for two consecutive years in the vineyard significantly reduced gray mold. Two and seven days after treatments, the expressions of 48 genes involved in defenses showed differential modulation (up- or down-regulation) depending on treatment...
March 20, 2018: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
Y Dessaux, D Faure
Agrobacterium populations live in different habitats (bare soil, rhizosphere, host plants), and hence face different environmental constraints. They have evolved the capacity to exploit diverse resources and to escape plant defense and competition from other microbiota. By modifying the genome of their host, Agrobacterium populations exhibit the remarkable ability to construct and exploit the ecological niche of the plant tumors that they incite. This niche is characterized by the accumulation of specific, low molecular weight compounds termed opines that play a critical role in Agrobacterium 's lifestyle...
March 20, 2018: Current Topics in Microbiology and Immunology
Jebi Sudan, Meenakshi Raina, Ravinder Singh
Plants have evolved various defense mechanisms including morphological adaptations, cellular pathways, specific signalling molecules and inherent immunity to endure various abiotic stresses during different growth stages. Most of the defense mechanisms are controlled by stress-responsive genes by transcribing and translating specific genes. However, certain modifications of DNA and chromatin along with small RNA-based mechanisms have also been reported to regulate the expression of stress-responsive genes and constitute another line of defense for plants in their struggle against stresses...
March 2018: 3 Biotech
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No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 19, 2018: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Qiang Guo, Ian T Major, Gregg A Howe
Induced plant resistance depends on the production of specialized metabolites that repel attack by biotic aggressors and is often associated with reduced growth of vegetative tissues. Despite progress in understanding the signal transduction networks that control growth-defense tradeoffs, much remains to be learned about how growth rate is coordinated with changes in metabolism during growth-to-defense transitions. Here, we highlight recent advances in jasmonate research to suggest how a major branch of plant immunity is dynamically regulated to calibrate growth-defense balance with shifts in carbon availability...
March 16, 2018: Current Opinion in Plant Biology
Anastasis Christou, Costas Michael, Despo Fatta-Kassinos, Vasileios Fotopoulos
Pharmaceutically active compounds (PhACs) entering agroecosystems as a result of various human activities may be taken up by and accumulated within crop plants, with potential human health implications. Despite their extensive metabolism by a sophisticated enzyme-based detoxification system in plant cells, PhACs and their transformation products (TPs) may result in adverse effects on plants' physiology. PhACs-mediated phytotoxic effects, as well as plants' defense responses have been depicted on plants exposed to individual or low number of PhACs under controlled conditions...
March 16, 2018: Environment International
Jeffrey A Harvey, Rieta Gols
Among parasitoids that develop inside the bodies of feeding, growing hosts (so-called 'koinobiont' endoparasitoids), two strategies have evolved to dispose of host resources. The larvae of one group consumes most host tissues before pupation, whereas in the other the parasitoid larvae consume only host hemolymph and fat body and at maturity emerge through the host cuticle to pupate externally. Here we compared development and survival (to adult emergence) of two related larval endoparasitoids (Braconidae: Microgastrinae) of the diamondback moth, Plutella xylostella...
March 16, 2018: Journal of Insect Physiology
Ellen Young, Manus Carey, Andrew A Meharg, Caroline Meharg
BACKGROUND: Plants can adapt to edaphic stress, such as nutrient deficiency, toxicity and biotic challenges, by controlled transcriptomic responses, including microbiome interactions. Traditionally studied in model plant species with controlled microbiota inoculation treatments, molecular plant-microbiome interactions can be functionally investigated via RNA-Seq. Complex, natural plant-microbiome studies are limited, typically focusing on microbial rRNA and omitting functional microbiome investigations, presenting a fundamental knowledge gap...
March 20, 2018: Microbiome
Ulrich Hildebrandt, Alexander Marsell, Markus Riederer
Several anthraquinone derivatives are active components of fungicidal formulations particularly effective against powdery mildew fungi. The anti-mildew effect of compounds such as physcion and chrysophanol is largely attributed to host plant defense induction. However, so far a direct fungistatic/fungicidal effect of anthraquinone derivatives on powdery mildew fungi has not been unequivocally demonstrated. By applying a Formvar-based in vitro system we demonstrate a direct, dose-dependent effect of physcion, chrysophanol, emodin and pachybasin on conidial germination and appressorium formation of Blumeria graminis f...
March 20, 2018: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
Aleksandra Losvik, Lisa Beste, Jennifer Stephens, Lisbeth Jonsson
Aphids are serious pests in crop plants. In an effort to identify plant genes controlling resistance against aphids, we have here studied a protease inhibitor, CI2c in barley (Hordeum vulgare L.). The CI2c gene was earlier shown to be upregulated by herbivory of the bird cherry-oat aphid (Rhopalosiphum padi L.) in barley genotypes with moderate resistance against this aphid, but not in susceptible lines. We hypothesized that CI2c contributes to the resistance. To test this idea, cDNA encoding CI2c was overexpressed in barley and bioassays were carried out with R...
2018: PloS One
Anne E Winters, Andrew M White, Ariyanti S Dewi, I Wayan Mudianta, Nerida G Wilson, Louise C Forster, Mary J Garson, Karen L Cheney
Many plants and animals store toxic or unpalatable compounds in tissues that are easily encountered by predators during attack. Defensive compounds can be produced de novo, or obtained from dietary sources and stored directly without selection or modification, or can be selectively sequestered or biotransformed. Storage strategies should be optimized to produce effective defence mechanisms but also prevent autotoxicity of the host. Nudibranch molluscs utilize a diverse range of chemical defences, and we investigated the accumulation and distribution of defensive secondary metabolites in body tissues of 19 species of Chromodorididae nudibranchs...
March 19, 2018: Journal of Chemical Ecology
Katri Nissinen, Virpi Virjamo, Lauri Mehtätalo, Anu Lavola, Anu Valtonen, Line Nybakken, Riitta Julkunen-Tiitto
In boreal woody plants, concentrations of defensive phenolic compounds are expected to be at a high level during the juvenile phase and decrease in maturity, although there is variation between plant species. Females of dioecious species, like most of the Salicaceae, are expected to invest their resources in defense and reproduction, while males are expected to be more growth-oriented. We studied age- and sex-dependent changes in leaf and stem phenolics, and in height and diameter growth in a dioecious Salix myrsinifolia plants over a seven-year time period...
March 19, 2018: Journal of Chemical Ecology
Andrew S Fister, Lena Landherr, Siela N Maximova, Mark J Guiltinan
Theobroma cacao , the source of cocoa, suffers significant losses to a variety of pathogens resulting in reduced incomes for millions of farmers in developing countries. Development of disease resistant cacao varieties is an essential strategy to combat this threat, but is limited by sources of genetic resistance and the slow generation time of this tropical tree crop. In this study, we present the first application of genome editing technology in cacao, using Agrobacterium-mediated transient transformation to introduce CRISPR/Cas9 components into cacao leaves and cotyledon cells...
2018: Frontiers in Plant Science
M Rath, T R Mitchell, S E Gold
Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) produced by Plant Growth Promoting Rhizobacteria have recently been investigated due to their role in plant growth promotion and defense. Whereas some bacterial VOCs like 3-hydroxy-2-butanone (acetoin) and 2,3-butanediol produced by strains of Bacillus subtilis and Bacillus amyloliquefaciens promote plant growth, others like hydrogen cyanide and 3-phenylpropionic acid are phytotoxic, inhibiting plant growth. Bacillus mojavensis, a close relative of B. subtilis, is an endophytic bacterium of maize that has been shown to have antagonistic activity against the mycotoxigenic phytopathogen Fusarium verticillioides and growth promotion activity on maize seedlings...
March 2018: Microbiological Research
Baomei Wu, Li Li, Tianhang Qiu, Xi Zhang, Suxia Cui
Rice cytoplasmic APX2 is a pleiotropic protein, densely distributed around chloroplasts. It plays key roles in H2 O2 homeostasis and chloroplast protection, and is related to plant architecture and fertility regulation. Ascorbate peroxidases (APXs) catalyze the conversion of H2 O2 into H2 O. In this report, we systematically investigated the function of cytosolic APX2 using a T-DNA knockout mutant. Loss of OsAPX2 altered rice architecture including shoot height and leaf inclination, resulting in shoot dwarfing, leaf dispersion and fertility decline...
March 16, 2018: Plant Cell Reports
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