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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27916655/allopurinol-as-a-therapeutic-option-in-cardiovascular-disease
#1
REVIEW
Osita N Okafor, K Farrington, Diana A Gorog
Epidemiological studies indicate that hyperuricaemia is an independent risk factor for cardiovascular disease. Alongside uric acid formation, increased xanthine oxidase activity also results in the formation of oxidative free radicals and superoxide particles. Oxidative stress significantly contributes to the development of cardiovascular disease, including endothelial cell dysfunction, atherosclerosis, vascular calcification and impaired myocardial energetics. Allopurinol, a competitive xanthine oxidase inhibitor, in addition to reducing serum uric acid levels, can act as a free radical scavenger...
December 1, 2016: Pharmacology & Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27913253/vibrissal-paralysis-produces-increased-corticosterone-levels-and-impairment-of-spatial-memory-retrieval
#2
William E Patarroyo, Milady García-Perez, Marisol Lamprea, Alejandro Múnera, Julieta Troncoso
This research was aimed at establishing how the absence of active whisking in rats affects acquisition and recovery of spatial memory. The mystacial vibrissae were irreversibly paralyzed by cutting the facial nerve's mandibular and buccal branches bilaterally in the facial nerve lesion group (N=14); control animals were submitted to sham-surgery (N=15). Sham-operated (N=11) and facial nerve-lesioned (N=10) animals were trained (one session, eight acquisition trials) and tested 24hours later in a circular Barnes maze...
November 29, 2016: Behavioural Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27894610/-reconstruction-of-proximal-nasal-defect-after-deep-carcinological-resection-interest-to-combine-titane-mesh-with-fat-grafting
#3
R Aimard, C Lalloué, C Ho Quoc, D Girodet, P Zrounba, E Delay
INTRODUCTION: The mucosal cylindroma or adenoid cystic carcinoma is the second sinonasal non-epithelial malignant tumor frequency argument. Due to the achievement of the nasal mucosa and a late diagnosis reconstructions are often complex. We report the case of a mucous cylindroma recurrence of nasal septum requiring a wide and deep excision of the root of the nose with nasal reconstruction. CASE REPORT: A patient aged 66 years whose history resection two years ago with a mucous adenoid cystic carcinoma of the right side of the nasal septum, had a local recurrence T2NOM0 imposing a wide excision with amputation nasal septum own bones of nose, the anterior portion of the triangular cartilages...
November 25, 2016: Annales de Chirurgie Plastique et Esthétique
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27889777/sodium-pentosan-polysulfate-reduced-renal-ischemia-reperfusion-induced-oxidative-stress-and-inflammatory-responses-in-an-experimental-animal-model
#4
Péter Hardi, Tibor Nagy, Gábor Fazekas, Endre Arató, Gábor Menyhei, György Sétáló, Mónika Vecsernyés, Örs Pintér, Ildikó Takács, Noémi Bohonyi, Gábor Jancsó
Acute kidney injury (AKI) remains an independent risk factor for mortality and morbidity after vascular surgery (affecting the renal arteries) or aortic surgery (requiring suprarenal aortic clamping). These types of vascular surgery produce renal ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury, a common cause of AKI. The present studies aimed at monitoring the course of renal I/R injury at the cellular level and investigating the efficacy of long-term preoperative and single-shot intraoperative administration of sodium pentosan polysulfate (PPS) to protect renal tissue from acute I/R injury both in native and diabetic kidneys in rats...
November 26, 2016: Journal of Vascular Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27889526/strain-shielding-in-trabecular-bone-at-the-tibial-cement-bone-interface
#5
Priyanka Srinivasan, Mark A Miller, Nico Verdonschot, Kenneth A Mann, Dennis Janssen
Aseptic loosening of the tibial component remains the leading cause for revision surgery in total knee arthroplasty (TKA). Understanding the mechanisms leading to loss of fixation can offer insight into preventative measures to ensure a longer survival rate. In cemented TKA, loosening occurs at the cement-trabecular interface probably due to a stress-shielding effect of the stiffer implant material in comparison with bone. Using finite element models of lab-prepared tibial cement-trabeculae interface specimens (n=4) based on micro-CT images, this study aims to investigate the micromechanics of the interlock between cement and trabecular bone...
November 10, 2016: Journal of the Mechanical Behavior of Biomedical Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27884211/plasma-glutamine-levels-before-cardiac-surgery-are-related-to-post-surgery-infections-an-observational-study
#6
Hanneke Buter, Matty Koopmans, Ramses Kemperman, Lilian Jekel, Christiaan Boerma
BACKGROUND: A low plasma glutamine level was found in 34% of patients after elective cardiothoracic surgery. This could be a result of the inflammation caused by surgical stress or the use of extracorporeal circulation (ECC). But it is also possible that plasma glutamine levels were already lowered before surgery and reflect an impaired metabolic state and a higher likelihood to develop complications. In the present study plasma glutamine levels were measured before and after cardiac surgery and we questioned whether there is a relation between plasma glutamine levels and duration of ECC and the occurrence of postoperative infections...
November 25, 2016: Journal of Cardiothoracic Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27878684/bakuchiol-protects-against-acute-lung-injury-in-septic-mice
#7
Xinxin Zhang, Ning Chang, Yong Zhang, Mingxiang Ye, Zhiping Han, Jie Li, Jian Zhang
Sepsis is a systemic inflammatory reaction that may lead to multiple organ damage and acute lung injury (ALI). Bakuchiol (Bak) has been reported to confer protection against inflammation and oxidative stress. However, its effect on sepsis-induced acute lung injury remains unclear. In the present study, male C57BL/6 mice were subjected to cecal ligation and puncture (CLP), and Bak (15, 30, 60 mg/kg) was administered intragastrically after 0 and 3 h of surgery. Lung water content was detected. Pathologic changes in lung tissues were evaluated via hematoxylin and eosin (H&E) staining...
November 23, 2016: Inflammation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27869245/predictors-of-early-return-to-work-after-a-coronary-artery-bypass-graft-surgery-cabg
#8
Ramin Mehrdad, Noroja Ghadiri Asli, Gholamreza Pouryaghoub, Maryam Saraei, Firoozeh Salimi, Mostafa Nejatian
OBJECTIVES: Identifying factors predictive of early return to work in patients who underwent a coronary artery bypass graft surgery (CABG). MATERIAL AND METHODS: Two hundred twenty-six working patients who volunteered and underwent a primary coronary artery bypass surgery between September 2013 and May 2014 were selected for the study and followed up for 6 months. Predictors of early return to work (RTW) (within 2 months) were analyzed from variables in a prospectively collected database and the 36-Item Short Form Health Survey (SF-36) questionnaire carried out in the hospital and rehabilitation center as well as from the follow-up performed via the phone...
November 18, 2016: International Journal of Occupational Medicine and Environmental Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27865148/plasma-adrenomedullin-in-critically-ill-patients-with-sepsis-after-major-surgery-a-pilot-study
#9
Tim-Philipp Simon, Lukas Martin, Sabine Doemming, Andreas Humbs, Christian Bruells, Ruedger Kopp, Oliver Hartmann, Joachim Struck, Andreas Bergmann, Gernot Marx, Tobias Schuerholz
PURPOSE: Adrenomedullin is released by different tissues in hypoxia, oxidative stress, and inflammation and is found in general and medical patients and, recently, in sepsis patients in emergency departments. The aim of this study was to evaluate biologically active adrenomedullin that mirrors directly the active peptide levels in plasma of surgical intensive care unit (ICU) patients with sepsis. MATERIALS AND METHODS: In this single-center observational pilot trial, 42 ICU patients with sepsis and 14 patients after major surgery were included after sepsis diagnosis or ICU admission...
October 28, 2016: Journal of Critical Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27862678/comparison-of-synchronous-versus-staged-surgeries-for-patients-with-synchronous-double-cancers-of-the-esophagus-and-head-and-neck
#10
Akira Matsumoto, Masayuki Watanabe, Shinji Mine, Koujiro Nishida, Hironobu Shigaki, Kazuyoshi Kawabata, Katsuhiko Yanaga, Takeshi Sano
Esophageal and head and neck (H&N) cancers often occur synchronously, this study aimed to clarify the benefits and disadvantages of synchronous and staged operations for double H&N/esophagus cancers. We retrospectively reviewed 43 patients with synchronous double cancer of H&N and esophagus treated between July 2005 and July 2014, of whom 33 patients underwent synchronous operation (SYN) and 10 underwent staged operations (STG). We compared the short-term outcomes between the groups. Operation time was longer, amount of blood loss was larger, and hospital stay was longer in the SYN group than in each single surgery of the STG group...
November 9, 2016: Diseases of the Esophagus: Official Journal of the International Society for Diseases of the Esophagus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27849323/evaluation-of-the-open-and-laparoscopic-appendectomy-operations-with-respect-to-their-effect-on-serum-il-6-levels
#11
Mehmet Kadir Bartın, Özgür Kemik, Mehmet Ali Çaparlar, Mustafa Taner Bostancı, Muzaffer Önder Öner
BACKGROUND: Postoperative serum inflammatory cytokine levels are thought to reflect the magnitude of surgical stress. Cytokine interleukin-6 (IL-6) is an early marker of systemic inflammatory response and tissue damage. This study evaluated levels of IL-6 after open and laparoscopic appendectomy to compare the degree of surgical stress associated with these procedures. METHODS: IL-6 levels were measured pre- and postoperatively in the plasma of 200 consecutive patients with a diagnosis of acute appendicitis...
September 2016: Ulusal Travma Ve Acil Cerrahi Dergisi, Turkish Journal of Trauma & Emergency Surgery: TJTES
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27842707/-tourniquet-induced-ischaemia-reperfusion-injury-the-comparison-of-antioxidative-effects-of-small-dose-propofol-and-ketamine
#12
Karaca Omer, Gogus Nermin, Ahiskalioglu Ali, Aksoy Mehmet, Dogus Unal, Kumas Solak Sezen, Kalafat Hakan
OBJECTIVES: The aim of the present study was to investigate the preventive effects of propofol and ketamine as small dose sedation during spinal anesthesia on tourniquet-induced ischemia-reperfusion injury. METHODS: Thirty patients were randomly assigned into two groups of fifteen patients. In the propofol group, sedation was performed with propofol 0.2mgkg(-1) followed by infusion at a rate of 2mgkg(-1)h(-1). In the ketamine group, a continuous infusion of ketamine 0...
November 11, 2016: Revista Brasileira de Anestesiologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27842540/the-impact-of-low-frequency-low-force-cyclic-stretching-of-human-bronchi-on-airway-responsiveness
#13
Morgan Le Guen, Stanislas Grassin-Delyle, Emmanuel Naline, Amparo Buenestado, Marion Brollo, Elisabeth Longchampt, Philippe Kleinmann, Philippe Devillier, Christophe Faisy
BACKGROUND: In vivo, the airways are constantly subjected to oscillatory strain (due to tidal breathing during spontaneous respiration) and (in the event of mechanical ventilation) positive pressure. This exposure is especially problematic for the cartilage-free bronchial tree. The effects of cyclic stretching (other than high-force stretching) have not been extensively characterized. Hence, the objective of the present study was to investigate the functional and transcriptional response of human bronchi to repetitive mechanical stress caused by low-frequency, low-force cyclic stretching...
November 14, 2016: Respiratory Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27833383/antioxidant-and-anti-inflammatory-action-of-melatonin-in-an-experimental-model-of-secondary-biliary-cirrhosis-induced-by-bile-duct-ligation
#14
Josieli Raskopf Colares, Elizângela Gonçalves Schemitt, Renata Minuzzo Hartmann, Francielli Licks, Mariana do Couto Soares, Adriane Dal Bosco, Norma Possa Marroni
AIM: To evaluate the effects of melatonin (Mel) on oxidative stress in an experimental model of bile duct ligation (BDL). METHODS: Male Wistar rats (n = 32, weight ± 300 g) were allocated across four groups: CO (sham BDL), BDL (BDL surgery), CO + Mel (sham BDL and Mel administration) and BDL + Mel (BDL surgery and Mel administration). Mel was administered intraperitoneally for 2 wk, starting on postoperative day 15, at a dose of 20 mg/kg. RESULTS: Mel was effective at the different standards, reestablishing normal liver enzyme levels, reducing the hepatosomatic and splenosomatic indices, restoring lipoperoxidation and antioxidant enzyme concentrations, reducing fibrosis and inflammation, and thereby reducing liver tissue injury in the treated animals...
October 28, 2016: World Journal of Gastroenterology: WJG
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27830679/-effects-of-ischemia-on-the-expression-of-neurotrophins-and-their-receptors-in-rat-brain-structures-outside-the-lesion-site-including-on-the-opposite-hemisphere
#15
V G Dmitrieva, V V Stavchansky, O V Povarova, V I Skvortsova, S A Limborska, L V Dergunova
Neurotrophins stimulate the regeneration of neural tissue after lesions. It is also known that the sources of neurogenesis and cerebral function recovery are predominantly located in subcortical brain structures. The effects of ischemia on the expression of genes that encode neurotrophins (Bdnf, Ngf, Nt-3) and their receptors (TrkB, TrkA, TrkC, p75) in brain structures outside the lesion site were studied 3, 24, and 72 h after irreversible unilateral occlusion of the middle cerebral artery in rats. Changes in the mRNA expression of these genes were assessed by relative quantification using real-time RT-PCR...
September 2016: Molekuliarnaia Biologiia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27829432/comparison-of-acute-phase-reaction-and-postoperative-stress-in-pigs-undergoing-video-assisted-thoracoscopic-versus-thoracotomy-pneumonectomy
#16
Hai-Feng Liu, Li Gao, Tao Liu, Yan-Jiang, Hong-Bin Wang
BACKGROUND: Video-assisted thoracoscopic surgery (VATS) has been used for many thoracic diseases as an alternate approach to thoracotomy. The aim of this study was to compare the surgical outcome of pneumonectomy using VATS with that using thoracotomy pneumonectomy in pigs. Fourteen pigs were equally divided into two groups; one group underwent VATS and the other group underwent transthoracic pneumonectomy. We monitored pre-, intra-, and post-operative physiologic parameters, along with blood cell count, serum C-reactive protein (CRP), serum amyloid A (SAA), interleukin-6 (IL-6) and cortisol...
November 9, 2016: Acta Veterinaria Scandinavica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27829181/effect-of-thoracic-epidural-block-on-infection-induced-inflammatory-response-a-randomized-controlled-trial
#17
Asha Tyagi, Anuradha Bansal, Shukla Das, Ashok Kumar Sethi, Aanchal Kakkar
PURPOSE: Epidural block decreases inflammation and oxidative stress in experimental models of sepsis as well as after surgery. There is, however, no clinical evidence evaluating its effect on infection-induced inflammatory process. The present trial evaluated the effect of thoracic epidural block (TEB) on systemic inflammatory response in patients with small intestinal perforation peritonitis. Outcome measures included systemic levels of interleukin (IL)-6, IL-10, procalcitonin, and C-reactive protein and postoperative Sepsis-Related Organ Failure Assessment scores...
October 18, 2016: Journal of Critical Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27826638/urethral-pressure-reflectometry-in-women-with-pelvic-organ-prolapse-a-study-of-reproducibility
#18
Yasmine Khayyami, Gunnar Lose, Niels Klarskov
INTRODUCTION AND HYPOTHESIS: The mechanism of continence in women with pelvic organ prolapse (POP) before and after surgery remains unknown. Urethral pressure reflectometry (UPR) separates women with stress urinary incontinence (SUI) from continent women by measuring urethral opening pressure at an abdominal pressure of 50 cmH2O (P O-Abd 50). UPR can help identify women with POP at risk of postoperative de novo SUI. The aim of this study was to investigate the reproducibility of UPR in women with POP...
November 8, 2016: International Urogynecology Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27826481/closing-the-generational-gap-in-surgery-why-so-angry
#19
Ross I S Zbar
Significant and rapid changes in healthcare delivery are forcing surgeons into collaborative teams. Additionally, surgeons are faced with new bureaucratic requirements that do not directly impact patient care, but nevertheless require allocation of time and attention. Surgeons are required to communicate with an expanding group of individuals at various professional levels, adding further stress to daily tasks. Even the method of communication is undergoing rapid transformation. Some surgeons, especially those who are members of the Boomer or X Generation, find this revolution difficult to manage; whereas those who are members of the Y Generation may in fact be better equipped...
October 2016: Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery. Global Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27821836/effects-of-combined-general-epidural-anesthesia-on-hemodynamics-respiratory-function-and-stress-hormone-levels-in-patients-with-ovarian-neoplasm-undergoing-laparoscopy
#20
Qiang Xu, Hao Zhang, Yan-Mei Zhu, Nian-Jun Shi
BACKGROUND The aim of this study was to evaluate the influence of combined general/epidural anesthesia (GEA) on hemodynamics, respiratory function and stress hormone levels in patients with ovarian neoplasm undergoing laparoscopy. MATERIAL AND METHODS A total of 177 patients with ovarian neoplasm (screened by inclusion/exclusion criteria) receiving laparoscopy were divided into groups G (general anesthesia alone), L1.0 (GEA with 1.0% lidocaine), and L1.5 (GEA with 1.5% lidocaine). Hemodynamics, respiratory parameters and stress hormone levels in the 3 groups were recorded and analyzed...
November 8, 2016: Medical Science Monitor: International Medical Journal of Experimental and Clinical Research
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