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Fumika Mi-Ichi, Hiroki Yoshida, Shinjiro Hamano
Amebiasis is caused by Entamoeba histolytica infection and can produce a broad range of clinical signs, from asymptomatic cases to patients with obvious symptoms. The current epidemiological and clinical statuses of amebiasis make it a serious public health problem worldwide. The Entamoeba life cycle consists of the trophozoite, the causative agent for amebiasis, and the cyst, the form responsible for transmission. These two stages are connected by "encystation" and "excystation." Hence, developing novel strategies to control encystation and excystation will potentially lead to new measures to block the transmission of amebiasis by interrupting the life cycle of the causative agent...
October 2016: PLoS Pathogens
Bette K Kleinschmidt-DeMasters
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Most pituitary region masses are pituitary adenomas; however, when other sellar region masses are encountered by clinicians or pathologists, the differential diagnosis can be broad. This review will focus on updates for pituitary adenomas, as well as briefly discuss some of these other entities: Rathke cleft cyst, hypophysitis, craniopharyngioma, pituicytoma, and spindle cell oncocytoma. RECENT FINDINGS: The use of new immunohistochemical (IHC) tools for assessing transcription factors, pituitary transcription factor-1, steroidogenic factor-1, and the not-yet-widely available Tpit IHC have provided insights into origin particularly of clinically silent and even hormone-negative pituitary adenomas...
October 18, 2016: Current Opinion in Endocrinology, Diabetes, and Obesity
Lorraine D Rodriguez-Rivera, Kevin J Cummings, Isaac McNeely, Jan S Suchodolski, Andrea V Scorza, Michael R Lappin, Brian T Mesenbrink, Bruce R Leland, Michael J Bodenchuk
The population size and geographic range of feral pigs in the United States are rapidly expanding. Nevertheless, the role of this invasive species in the ecology and transmission of zoonotic enteric pathogens is poorly understood. Our objectives were to describe the prevalence and diversity of Cryptosporidium and Giardia shedding among feral pigs throughout Texas and to identify risk factors for infection. Fecal samples were collected from feral pigs in Texas from February 2014 through May 2015. Cryptosporidium oocysts and Giardia cysts were detected using a direct immunofluorescence assay, and genotyping of positive samples was performed...
October 20, 2016: Vector Borne and Zoonotic Diseases
Matthew R Plunk, Dolphine Oda, Shawn E Parnell, Jason N Wright, Bonnie L Cole, Ramesh S Iyer
OBJECTIVE: Lucent lesions of the pediatric mandible may present variably. Cysts, neoplasms, and developmental and inflammatory conditions have a host of possible causes. There is also substantial overlap in the imaging appearance of cysts and that of benign but locally aggressive tumors that need to undergo resection. CONCLUSION: The purpose of this article is to present common and uncommon lucent lesions of the mandible in children, with an emphasis on benign abnormalities...
October 20, 2016: AJR. American Journal of Roentgenology
Akemi Koshiba, Taisuke Mori, Fumitake Ito, Yukiko Tanaka, Osamu Takaoka, Akiko Takahata, Jo Kitawaki
AIM: To assess and compare the uterine volume and endometrium length between women with and without endometriosis, using pelvic magnetic resonance imaging scans. METHODS: In this case-control study, a total of 75 nulligravid women (aged 20-45 years) with regular menstrual cycles whose uterus were free of any surgically confirmed lesions were enrolled. The endometriosis group underwent surgery for endometrioma (n = 39), and the control group underwent surgery for non-endometrioma ovarian cysts (n = 36)...
October 20, 2016: Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology Research
Danieli Urach Monteiro, Maria Isabel Azevedo, Carla Weiblen, Sônia DE Avila Botton, Nadine Lysyk Funk, Cristiane DE Bona DA Silva, Régis Adriel Zanette, Thiago Guilherme Schwanz, Mário Luiz DE LA Rue
Cystic echinococcosis is a zoonotic disease of difficult diagnosis and treatment. The use of protoscolicidal agents in procedures is of utmost importance for treatment success. This study was aimed at analysing the in vitro and ex vivo activity of Melaleuca alternifolia oil (tea tree oil - TTO), its nanoemulsion formulation (NE-TTO) and its major component (terpinen-4-ol) against Echinococcus ortleppi protoscoleces obtained from cattle. Concentrations of 2·5, 5 and 10 mg mL-1 of TTO, 10 mg mL-1 of NE-TTO and 1, 1·5 and 2 mg mL-1 of terpinen-4-ol were evaluated in vitro against protoscoleces at 5, 10, 15 and 30 min...
October 20, 2016: Parasitology
Charanjit Kaur, Eng-Ang Ling
Transitory cavities associated with the ventricular system represent probably one of the most unique features in the developing mammalian brain. In rodents, the cavities exist transiently in the developing brain and do not appear to be associated with any pathological events. Among the various cavities, the pyramidal-shaped cavum septum pellucidum (CSP) located beneath the corpus callosum and between the lateral ventricles is most well defined. In addition to the CSP are the bilateral subependymal cysts that are consistently associated with the third and fourth ventricles as well as the aqueduct...
October 20, 2016: Journal of Anatomy
Sabina Sevcenco, Claudio Spick, Thomas H Helbich, Gertraud Heinz, Shahrokh F Shariat, Hans C Klingler, Michael Rauchenwald, Pascal A Baltzer
OBJECTIVE: To systematically review the literature on the Bosniak classification system in CT to determine its diagnostic performance to diagnose malignant cystic lesions and the prevalence of malignancy in Bosniak categories. METHODS: A predefined database search was performed from 1 January 1986 to 18 January 2016. Two independent reviewers extracted data on malignancy rates in Bosniak categories and several covariates using predefined criteria. Study quality was assessed using QUADAS-2...
October 19, 2016: European Radiology
Arzu İrvem, Kamil Özdil, Zuhal Çalışkan, Muhterem Yücel
BACKGROUND: E. histolytica is among the common causes of acute gastroenteritis. The pathogenic species E. histolytica and the nonpathogenic species E. dispar cannot be morphologically differentiated, although correct identification of these protozoans is important for treatment and public health. In many laboratories, the screening of leukocytes, erythrocytes, amoebic cysts, trophozoites and parasite eggs is performed using Native-Lugol's iodine for pre-diagnosis. AIMS: In this study, we aimed to investigate the frequency of E...
September 2016: Balkan Medical Journal
Funda Sarı, Arzu Didem Yalçın, Gizem Esra Genç, Metin Sarıkaya, Atıl Bisgin, Ramazan Çetinkaya, Saadet Gümüşlü
BACKGROUND: Autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD) is characterized by multiple, large renal cysts and impaired kidney function. Although the reason for the development of kidney cysts is unknown, ADPKD is associated with cell cycle arrest and abundant apoptosis of renal tubular epithelial cells. AIMS: We asked whether serum-soluble TNF-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (sTRAIL) might underlie ADPKD. STUDY DESIGN: Case-control study...
September 2016: Balkan Medical Journal
Amparo Valverde Martinez, Susana Roldan Ortiz, Mercedes Fornell Ariza, Maria Jesús Castro Santiago
The splenic epidermoid cysts are rare benign tumors, and a definitive treatment remains unclear. Although some spleen-preserving approaches have been reportedly used, splenic cyst recurrence usually occurs in true cyst cases, wherein the cyst is incompletely removed. In our case, partial splenectomy was performed and the giant cyst was completely removed.
October 2016: Clinical Case Reports
Tatsuya Umemoto, Takeshi Nomoto, Satoshi Kuroda, Takahiro Ogawa, Kentaro Nagao, Yuki Shimizu, Nobuyuki Nakajima, Hakushi Kim, Masahiro Nitta, Kazuya Hanai, Akio Hoshi, Toshiro Terachi
A 40-year-old woman was referred to our hospital with right lower back pain as the chief complaint. Contrast-enhanced computed tomography (CT) showed a partially-solid tumor within a cyst measuring approximately 6 cm in diameter in the right renal hilum. The solid part was enhanced in the early phase and contrast medium was washed out earlier in the solid part than in the parenchyma in the equilibrium phase. Plain CT revealed partial cyst wall calcification. A soft tissue shadow approximately 10 mm in diameter in the dorsal inferior vena cava at the upper pole of the kidney and a solid tumor adjacent to the iliopsoas muscle and the kidney were detected...
September 2016: Hinyokika Kiyo. Acta Urologica Japonica
Ljubica Fustar Preradovic, Davorin Danic, Radan Dzodic
Parathyroid cysts (PCs) account for less than 1% of all parathyroid lesions and are most commonly located along thyroid lobes, rarely at ectopic sites. PCs are important because they can pose a differential diagnostic challenge against other cystic formations of the neck. PCs can be functional (elevated serum parathyroid hormone level) and nonfunctional. Four cases of nonfunctional PCs are presented. All four female patients underwent physical examination and ultrasonography of the neck with ultrasound-guided fine-needle aspiration biopsy (UG-FNA)...
October 19, 2016: Endocrine Journal
Xin-Xin Lu, Zhao-Hui Wang, Jie Feng
Dinoflagellate cysts (dinocysts), biogenic elements and metals were analyzed from sediment cores collected from Zhelin Bay of the South China Sea in December 2008 to understand the environmental changes over the past 50years. Dinocyst concentrations ranged from 0cysts/g to 770cysts/g, and they were dominated by heterotrophic taxa. There was a clear increase trend upcore for biogenic elements, except for biogenic silica. Metals originated from both the lithogenic source and human activities, and significantly increased after 1985-1995...
October 16, 2016: Marine Pollution Bulletin
Y Zhao, H Zhao, J Y Lin, Y Pan, W J Zhai, Y C Wang
Objective: To analyze the clinical features and pathological classification of chlidren's ocular tumors. Methods: Retrospective case series study. Five hundred and four cases (506 eyes) of ocular tumor with biopsy-proven in children below 14 years old between January 2002 and December 2014 from Tianjin Eye Hospital were performed to retrospectively investigated the lesion location, clinical features and histopathologic classification of these lesions. Results: Of 504 cases there were 246 boys (248 eyes) and 258 girls (258 eyes) patients...
October 11, 2016: [Zhonghua Yan Ke za Zhi] Chinese Journal of Ophthalmology
J J Huang, B Li, Q F Liang, X L Xu, F Gao, Z B Zhang
Objective: We aimed to identify and describe the clinical and histopathologic characteristics of conjunctival neoplasms. Methods: Retrospective case series study. We collected and analyzed the clinical and histopathologic data of the conjunctival neoplastic specimens including the age, gender, and histopathologic diagnosis of all patients obtained from Beijing Tongren Eye Center between October 2003 and October 2015. All the pathology diagnosis results were divided into two categories which were benign and malignant tumors, according to Shields histopathological classification methods and the pathology diagnosis results in our department...
October 11, 2016: [Zhonghua Yan Ke za Zhi] Chinese Journal of Ophthalmology
S X Tang, H L Zhou, Y L Ding
Objective: To analyze the effectiveness of transurethral seminal vesiculoscopy in the treatment of persistent hematospermia, and oligoasthenozoospermia and azoospermia from ejaculatory duct obstruction. Methods: The clinical date of 56 cases of persistent hematospermia, or azoospermia/oligoasthenozoospermia from ejaculatory duct obstruction treated with transurethral seminal vesiculoscopy between November 2013 and January 2016 in the First Affiliated Hospital of Fujian Medical University were reviewed. A total of 30 cases were persistent hematospermia for 6 months to 3 years, with no response to routine antibiotic therapy for >4 weeks; 24 cases were obstructive azoospermia; and the other 2 cases were extreme oligoasthenozoospermia...
September 27, 2016: Zhonghua Yi Xue za Zhi [Chinese medical journal]
Donald Simon, Coenraad F N Koegelenberg, Soumitra Sinha Roy, Brian W Allwood, Elvis M Irusen
A 66-year-old female from a rural area in South Africa presented with non-life-threatening haemoptysis. Radiologic and serological investigations attributed her symptoms to bilateral, large echinococcal cysts. She declined surgery despite her lung physiologic parameters, which deemed her eligible. Medical therapy with oral albendazole was initiated with excellent clinical and radiologic response during a follow-up period of 18 months. To our knowledge, this is one of the first reported cases in the literature that shows complete resolution of bilateral large echinococcal cysts with medical treatment alone in an adult patient...
October 20, 2016: Respiration; International Review of Thoracic Diseases
Mark J Schuuring, Peter I Bonta, Michele van Vugt, Frank Smithuis, Otto M van Delden, Jouke T Annema, Kees Stijnis
A 44-year-old woman with a history of pulmonary embolism and abdominal echinococcosis complained of sudden thoracic pain and shortness of breath. A D-dimer of 77.5 mg/l (reference ≤0.5 mg/l) was found. Chest CT scan revealed obstruction of the right lower and middle lobe pulmonary artery (PA). Anticoagulation therapy was initiated for the presumed diagnosis of recurrent pulmonary embolism. However, due to persistent symptoms of dyspnea, follow-up CT angiography of the chest was performed 3 months later. A persistent PA obstruction was found and the presumed diagnosis of embolism was questioned...
October 20, 2016: Respiration; International Review of Thoracic Diseases
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