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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28811083/phenotypic-chlorhexidine-and-triclosan-susceptibility-in-clinical-staphylococcus-aureus-isolates-in-australia
#1
C Hughes, J Ferguson
Antiseptics such as chlorhexidine gluconate and triclosan are widely used in healthcare settings for both skin antisepsis and decolonisation of Staphylococcus aureus. We determined the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of 198 methicillin susceptible and resistant Staphylococcus aureus clinical isolates to both chlorhexidine and triclosan using an agar dilution method. Of these, 10% (19/198) showed a raised MIC to chlorhexidine and 3% (6/198) showed an elevated MIC to triclosan. The multilocus sequence type (MLST) of each isolate was predicted using a binary method, and although ST93-MRSA-IV was the most common, ST22-MRSA-IV was shown to have statistically higher chlorhexidine MIC values compared with non ST22-MRSA-IV isolates (z = -8...
August 12, 2017: Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28796148/pain-and-antisepsis-after-ocular-administration-of-povidone-iodine-versus-chlorhexidine
#2
Carmen Oakley, Penny Allen, Joobin Hooshmand, Brendan J T Vote
PURPOSE: To investigate ocular bacterial count before and after antisepsis with aqueous chlorhexidine (AC) or povidone-iodine (PI) and to assess discomfort with each agent. METHODS: Bacterial swabs were taken from participants' eyes before and after antisepsis. These underwent microscopy, culture, and sensitivity testing. Aqueous chlorhexidine drops were administered to left eyes and PI to right eyes. Participants rated their pain (scale 0-10) for each eye but were blinded to the type of drop...
August 8, 2017: Retina
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28790056/alcoholic-versus-aqueous-chlorhexidine-for-skin-antisepsis-the-avalanche-trial
#3
RANDOMIZED CONTROLLED TRIAL
Daniel Charles, Clare F Heal, Meth Delpachitra, Michael Wohlfahrt, Debbie Kimber, Julie Sullivan, Sheldon Browning, Sabine Saednia, Alexandra Hardy, Jennifer Banks, Petra Buttner
BACKGROUND: Preoperative skin antisepsis is routine practice. We compared alcoholic chlorhexidine with aqueous chlorhexidine for skin antisepsis to prevent surgical site infection after minor skin excisions in general practice. METHODS: We conducted this prospective, multicentre, randomized controlled trial in 4 private general practices in North Queensland, Australia, from October 2015 to August 2016. Consecutive adult patients presenting for minor skin excisions were randomly assigned to undergo preoperative skin antisepsis with 0...
August 8, 2017: CMAJ: Canadian Medical Association Journal, Journal de L'Association Medicale Canadienne
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28780782/endophthalmitis-prophylaxis-for-cataract-surgery
#4
Aravind Haripriya, Zervin R Baam, David F Chang
Endophthalmitis after cataract surgery is a rare but potentially devastating complication. There is great variability in endophthalmitis prophylaxis practice patterns worldwide. Treatment varies globally and is based on the microbiological profile and availability of formulations. Periocular povidone-iodine antisepsis is universally adopted and considered the standard of care in most practices. Perioperative topical antibiotics are also very popular despite the lack of level 1 evidence confirming efficacy. Based on growing observational evidence, routine intracameral antibiotic prophylaxis is increasing, especially where approved commercial intraocular preparations are available...
July 2017: Asia-Pacific Journal of Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28768592/effect-of-hand-lotion-on-the-effectiveness-of-hygienic-hand-antisepsis-implications-for-practicing-hand-hygiene
#5
Helga Paula, Nils-Olaf Hübner, Ojan Assadian, Katja Bransmöller, Romy Baguhl, Harald Löffler, Axel Kramer
BACKGROUND: Skin protection products should be used after washing hands with soap, during breaks, after work, and during leisure time. Aside from their beneficial effects, skin care products may also interact with alcohol-based hand disinfectants by reducing their efficacy. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of a hand lotion on the effectiveness of hygienic hand antisepsis using an alcohol-based handrub. METHODS: The effect of a protective hand lotion against an isopropyl alcohol-based handrub was investigated in 20 healthy volunteers according to the European standard test procedure EN 1500 in the following combinations: handwashing and application of hand lotion, only application of hand lotion, and no washing and no hand lotion (control), each for 5 minutes or 1 hour before hand antisepsis...
August 1, 2017: American Journal of Infection Control
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28748749/spyridon-magginas-1839-1920-and-one-of-the-first-successful-radical-nephrectomies
#6
Antonis A Kousoulis, Gregory Tsoucalas
Spyridon Magginas was among the Greek doctors of the turn of the century who trained abroad with the hope of returning to their native country to offer their services. He became a professor in the "Othonion University" of Athens to promote surgery among young physicians. He was raised in an upper social class family and, reportedly, had an arrogant behaviour, which occasionally led him to have ineffective patient interactions. His patient, and an important Greek writer, Emmanuel Rhoides, nicknamed him the "surgeon beast" for neglecting his case...
July 1, 2017: Surgical Innovation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28697103/chlorhexidine-alcohol-compared-with-povidone-iodine-for-preoperative-topical-antisepsis-for-abdominal-hysterectomy
#7
Shitanshu Uppal, Ali Bazzi, R Kevin Reynolds, John Harris, Mark D Pearlman, Darrell A Campbell, Daniel M Morgan
OBJECTIVE: To compare preoperative chlorhexidine-alcohol topical antiseptic agent with povidone-iodine in patients undergoing abdominal hysterectomy for benign indications. METHODS: A retrospective cohort study of patients undergoing abdominal hysterectomy from July 2012 to February 2015 in the Michigan Surgical Quality Collaborative was performed. The primary exposure was the use of chlorhexidine-alcohol or povidone-iodine. The primary outcome was surgical site infection within 30 days...
August 2017: Obstetrics and Gynecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28691814/intervention-of-dietary-dipeptide-gamma-l-glutamyl-l-valine-%C3%AE-ev-ameliorates-inflammatory-response-in-a-mouse-model-of-lps-induced-sepsis
#8
MacKenzie E Chee, Kaustav Majumder, Yoshinori Mine
Sepsis, the systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS) with infection is one of the leading causes of death in critically ill patients in the developed world due to the lack of effective antisepsis treatments. This study examined the efficacy of dietary dipeptide gamma-l-glutamyl-l-valine (γ-EV), which was characterized previously as an anti-inflammatory peptide, in an LPS-induced mouse model of sepsis. BALB/c mice were administered γ-EV via oral gavage followed by an intraperitoneal injection of LPS to induce sepsis...
July 26, 2017: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28648795/povidone-iodine-in-wound-healing-a-review-of-current-concepts-and-practices
#9
REVIEW
Paul Lorenz Bigliardi, Syed Abdul Latiff Alsagoff, Hossam Yehia El-Kafrawi, Jai-Kyong Pyon, Chad Tse Cheuk Wa, Martin Anthony Villa
BACKGROUND: Of the many antimicrobial agents available, iodophore-based formulations such as povidone iodine have remained popular after decades of use for antisepsis and wound healing applications due to their favorable efficacy and tolerability. Povidone iodine's broad spectrum of activity, ability to penetrate biofilms, lack of associated resistance, anti-inflammatory properties, low cytotoxicity and good tolerability have been cited as important factors, and no negative effect on wound healing has been observed in clinical practice...
June 23, 2017: International Journal of Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28631632/risk-of-cardiac-pacemaker-pocket-infection-in-a-tertiary-care-hospital
#10
Jaswinder Singh Gill, Navreet Singh, S P Khanna
BACKGROUND: The risk of pacemaker pocket infections (PPIs) is rare with good antisepsis techniques and use of advanced antibiotics. However, injudicious antibiotic usage leads to the rise of multidrug-resistant bacteria, which may cause PPI. Few reports exist about the microbial spectrum of the PPI from our country, prompting us to study the same. METHODS: We conducted this retrospective observational study for 3 years (January 2013-February 2016) from all the patients with PPI...
April 2017: Indian Journal of Pathology & Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28614973/comparison-of-an-alcohol-based-hand-sanitation-product-with-a-traditional-chlorhexidine-hand-scrub-technique-for-hand-hygiene-preparation-in-an-equine-hospital
#11
R A Edwards, C B Riley, L Howe, E A Burrows, K T Riley, L Frellstedt
AIMS: To investigate the efficacy of an alcohol gel-based hand antisepsis protocol compared with a traditional chlorhexidine-based protocol under conditions of routine clinical contamination, and following heavy faecal contamination. METHODS: Twelve adult participants were recruited and on four separate days completed a hand sanitation protocol using a chlorhexidine scrub or an alcohol-based gel, with hands that were grossly clean but contaminated or with faecal contamination...
September 2017: New Zealand Veterinary Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28601567/impact-of-evidence-based-interventions-on-wound-complications-after-cesarean-delivery
#12
Lorene A Temming, Nandini Raghuraman, Ebony B Carter, Molly J Stout, Roxane M Rampersad, George A Macones, Alison G Cahill, Methodius G Tuuli
BACKGROUND: A number of evidence-based interventions have been proposed to reduce post-cesarean delivery wound complications. Examples of such interventions include appropriate timing of preoperative antibiotics, appropriate choice of skin antisepsis, closure of the subcutaneous layer if subcutaneous depth is ≥2 cm, and subcuticular skin closure with suture rather than staples. However, the collective impact of these measures is unclear. OBJECTIVE: We sought to estimate the impact of a group of evidence-based surgical measures (prophylactic antibiotics administered before skin incision, chlorhexidine-alcohol for skin antisepsis, closure of subcutaneous layer, and subcuticular skin closure with suture) on wound complications after cesarean delivery and to estimate residual risk factors for wound complications...
June 8, 2017: American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28599898/a-randomized-open-label-controlled-trial-of-chlorhexidine-alcohol-vs-povidone-iodine-for-cesarean%C3%A2-antisepsis-the-capica-trial
#13
Edward H Springel, Xiao-Yu Wang, Vanessa M Sarfoh, Bradley P Stetzer, Steven A Weight, Brian M Mercer
BACKGROUND: Identification of optimal surgical site antisepsis preparations may reduce cesarean-related surgical site infections. Two recently published investigations examined efficacy of chlorhexidine-alcohol and iodine-alcohol preparations. No previous randomized controlled trial has compared chlorhexidine-alcohol to povidone-iodine aqueous scrub and paint in reduction of cesarean-related surgical site infection. OBJECTIVE: The purpose of the study was to determine if chlorhexidine-alcohol would result in fewer surgical site infections than povidone-iodine when used as skin antisepsis preparation prior to cesarean delivery...
June 7, 2017: American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28588686/effect-of-continuous-renal-replacement-therapy-on-kidney-injury-molecule-1-and-neutrophil-gelatinase-associated-lipocalin-in-patients-with-septic-acute-kidney-injury
#14
Yiming Shao, Yinqiang Fan, Yuliu Xie, Lu Yin, Yuanli Zhang, Liehua Deng, Xiaocong Sun, Xin Shao, Xinzhang Tan, Junbing He, Shiman Zhao
Kidney injury molecule-1 (Kim-1) and neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin (NGAL) have been investigated as biomarkers for acute kidney injury (AKI). However, they are seldom investigated in patients with septic AKI treated with continuous renal replacement therapy (CRRT). The aim of the present study was to investigate the therapeutic effectiveness and possible mechanisms of CRRT in septic AKI by observing the changes in Kim-1 and NGAL levels. A group of 38 patients with septic AKI was randomly divided into the conventional drug treatment group (group A) and the CRRT group (group B)...
June 2017: Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28583892/preoperative-chlorhexidine-versus-povidone-iodine-antisepsis-for-preventing-surgical-site-infection-a-meta-analysis-and-trial-sequential-analysis-of-randomized-controlled-trials
#15
REVIEW
Dan Zhang, Xi-Chen Wang, Zeng-Xi Yang, Jian-Xin Gan, Jie-Bin Pan, Lan-Ning Yin
BACKGROUNDS: Updated guidelines for surgical site infections (SSIs) suggested that chlorhexidine (CH) or povidone-iodine (PVI) product was equally appropriate to be applied in preoperative disinfection, but which one was optimal remained ambiguous. Moreover, recent studies reported inconsistent results. Thus, an updated meta-analysis was conducted to clarify the superiority of CH or PVI for prevention of SSIs in clean and clean-contaminated surgery. METHODS: From the inception to November 2016, Pubmed, Embase, and the Cochrane library were systematically searched for randomized controlled trials (RCTs) which explored preoperative antisepsis schemes (CH or PVI) for prevention of SSIs in clean and clean-contaminated surgery...
June 3, 2017: International Journal of Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28529860/use-of-chlorhexidine-preparations-in-total-joint-arthroplasty
#16
REVIEW
Jaiben George, Alison K Klika, Carlos A Higuera
Prosthetic joint infection (PJI) is a serious complication after total joint arthroplasty (TJA). Chlorhexidine is a widely used antiseptic because of its rapid and persistent action. It is well tolerated and available in different formulations at various concentrations. Chlorhexidine can be used for pre-operative skin cleansing, surgical site preparation, hand antisepsis of the surgical team and intra-articular irrigation of infected joints. The optimal intra-articular concentration of chlorhexidine gluconate in irrigation solution is 2%, to provide a persistent decrease in biofilm formation, though cytotoxicity might be an issue...
2017: Journal of bone and joint infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28526172/skin-antisepsis-it-s-not-only-what-you-use-it-s-the-way-that-you-use-it
#17
A L Casey, J M Badia, A Higgins, J Korndorffer, C Mantyh, O Mimoz, M Moro
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
July 2017: Journal of Hospital Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28461965/total-knee-arthroplasty-and-infection-how-surgeons-can-reduce-the-risks
#18
REVIEW
Nicola Ratto, Chiara Arrigoni, Federica Rosso, Matteo Bruzzone, Federico Dettoni, Davide Edoardo Bonasia, Roberto Rossi
Total joint arthroplasty (TJA) is one of the most common orthopaedic procedures. Nevertheless, several complications can lead to implant failure.Peri-prosthetic joint infections (PJI) certainly represent a significant challenge in TJA, constituting a major cause of prosthetic revision. The surgeon may have an important role in reducing the PJI rate by limiting the impact of significant risk factors associated to either the patient, the operative environment or the post-operative care.In the pre-operative period, several preventive measures may be adopted to manage reversible medical comorbidities...
September 2016: EFORT open reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28440583/topical-antibiotics-and-intravitreal-injections
#19
REVIEW
Alex P Hunyor, Rohan Merani, Archie Darbar, Jean-François Korobelnik, Paolo Lanzetta, Annabelle A Okada
There is increasing evidence that topical antibiotics, given before and/or after intravitreal injections, are ineffective in preventing endophthalmitis and are possibly harmful. In addition to the lack of efficacy and increased development of resistant organisms, the use of topical antibiotics adds significantly to the cost of delivering intravitreal therapy. Despite this, in many countries, it is still common practice to use pre- and/or postinjection topical antibiotics. This review outlines the general principles of effective antibiotic prophylaxis, and the evidence regarding topical antibiotic use as a prophylactic measure for endophthalmitis following intravitreal injections...
April 25, 2017: Acta Ophthalmologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28411947/central-line-associated-bloodstream-infections-in-the-nicu-successes-and-controversies-in-the-quest-for-zero
#20
Renée E Mobley, Matthew J Bizzarro
Central line-associated bloodstream infections (CLABSI) are among the most common healthcare-acquired infections in the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) population and are associated with an increased risk of morbidity and mortality, as well as increased healthcare costs, and duration of hospitalization. Over the past decade, numerous local, statewide, and national quality improvement initiatives have resulted in a significant reduction in CLABSI rates. The majority of successful initiatives have utilized similar strategies to implement and sustain their efforts, including education of NICU staff in the principles of quality improvement, creation and implementation of central line insertion and maintenance bundles and methods for assessing compliance, formation of dedicated central line insertion and maintenance teams, and utilization of reliable and effective methods for collecting, analyzing, and displaying data...
April 2017: Seminars in Perinatology
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