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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28343126/pi3k-signaling-in-cancer-beyond-akt
#1
REVIEW
Evan C Lien, Christian C Dibble, Alex Toker
The phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K) signaling pathway is one of the most frequently altered pathways in human cancer and has a critical role in driving tumor initiation and progression. Although PI3K and its lipid product phosphatidylinositol-3,4,5-trisphosphate (PIP3) have been shown to activate multiple downstream signaling proteins, the vast majority of studies have focused on the protein kinase AKT as the dominant effector of PI3K signaling. However, recent studies have demonstrated many contexts under which other PIP3-dependent signaling proteins critically contribute to cancer progression, illustrating the importance of understanding AKT-independent signaling downstream of PI3K...
March 23, 2017: Current Opinion in Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28336912/fgf21-regulates-t-cell-development-in-the-neonatal-and-juvenile-thymus
#2
Yoshiaki Nakayama, Yuki Masuda, Hiroya Ohta, Tomohiro Tanaka, Miwa Washida, Yo-Ichi Nabeshima, Ayumi Miyake, Nobuyuki Itoh, Morichika Konishi
We have previously shown that Fibroblast growth factor 21 (Fgf21) is expressed in the thymus as well as in the liver. In line with this expression profile, Fgf21 was recently reported to protect against ageing-related thymic senescence by improving the function of thymic epithelial cells (TECs). However, the function of Fgf21 in the juvenile thymus remained to be elucidated. We investigated the physiological roles of Fgf21 in the juvenile thymus and found that young Fgf21 knockout mice, but not β-Klotho knockout mice nor adult Fgf21 knockout mice, showed a significant reduction in the percentage of single-positive CD4(+) and CD8(+) thymocytes without obvious alteration in TECs...
March 23, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28323168/production-and-characterization-of-a-highly-pure-rna-polymerase-holoenzyme-from-mycobacterium-tuberculosis
#3
Omar Herrera-Asmat, Lucyna Lubkowska, Mikhail Kashlev, Carlos J Bustamante, Daniel G Guerra, Maria L Kireeva
Recent publications have shown that active RNA polymerase (RNAP) from Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MtbRNAP) can be produced by expressing all four subunits in a single recombinant Escherichia coli strain [1-3]. By reducing the number of plasmids and changing the codon usage of the Mtb genes in the co-expression system published by Banerjee et al. [1], we present a simplified, detailed and reproducible protocol for the purification of recombinant MtbRNAP containing the ω subunit. Moreover, we describe the formation of ternary elongation complexes (TECs) with a short fluorescence-labeled RNA primer and DNA oligonucleotides, suitable for transcription elongation studies...
March 18, 2017: Protein Expression and Purification
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28318486/structural-basis-of-transcription-arrest-by-coliphage-hk022-nun-in-an-escherichia-coli-rna-polymerase-elongation-complex
#4
Jin Young Kang, Paul Dominic B Olinares, James Chen, Elizabeth A Campbell, Arkady Mustaev, Brian T Chait, Max E Gottesman, Seth A Darst
Coliphage HK022 Nun blocks superinfection by coliphage λ by stalling RNA polymerase (RNAP) translocation specifically on λΔNA.To provide a structural framework to understand how Nun blocks RNAP translocation, we determined structures of Escherichia coli RNAP ternary elongation complexes (TECs) with and without Nun by single-particle cryo-electron microscopy. Nun fits tightly into the TEC by taking advantage of gaps between the RNAP and the nucleic acids. The C-terminal segment of Nun interacts with the RNAP β and β' subunits inside the RNAP active site cleft as well as with nearly every element of the nucleic-acid scaffold, essentially crosslinking the RNAP and the nucleic acids to prevent translocation, a mechanism supported by the effects of Nun amino acid substitutions...
March 20, 2017: ELife
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28318017/thymic-crosstalk-restrains-the-pool-of-cortical-thymic-epithelial-cells-with-progenitor-properties
#5
Catarina Meireles, Ana R Ribeiro, Rute D Pinto, Catarina Leitão, Pedro M Rodrigues, Nuno L Alves
Cortical (cTEC) and medullary (mTEC) thymic epithelial cells establish key microenvironments for T-cell differentiation and arise from thymic epithelial cell progenitors (TEP). However, the nature of TEPs and the mechanism controlling their stemness in the postnatal thymus remain poorly defined. Using TEC clonogenic assays as a surrogate to survey TEP activity, we found that a fraction of cTECs generates specialized clonal-derived colonies, which contain cells with sustained colony-forming capacity (ClonoTECs)...
March 20, 2017: European Journal of Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28317923/generation-of-diversity-in-thymic-epithelial-cells
#6
REVIEW
Yousuke Takahama, Izumi Ohigashi, Song Baik, Graham Anderson
In the thymus, diverse populations of thymic epithelial cells (TECs), including cortical and medullary TECs and their subpopulations, have distinct roles in coordinating the development and repertoire selection of functionally competent and self-tolerant T cells. Here, we review the expanding diversity in TEC subpopulations in relation to their functions in T cell development and selection as well as their origins and development.
March 20, 2017: Nature Reviews. Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28301016/deflection-and-flexural-strength-effects-on-the-roughness-of-aesthetic-coated-orthodontic-wires
#7
Cibele Gonçalves de Albuquerque, Américo Bortolazzo Correr, Giovana Cherubini Venezian, Milton Santamaria, Carlos Alberto Tubel, Silvia Amélia Scudeler Vedovello
The aim was to evaluate the flexural strength and the effects of deflection on the surface roughness of esthetic orthodontic wires. The sample consisted of 70 archwire 0.014-inch: polytetrafluorethylene (PTFE)-coated Nickel-Titanium (Niti) archwires (Titanol Cosmetic-TC, Flexy Super Elastic Esthetic-FSE, esthetic Nickel Titanium Wire-ANT); epoxy resin-coated Niti archwires (Spectra-S, Niticosmetic-TEC); gold and rhodium coated Niti (Sentalloy-STC) and a control group (superelastic Niti (Nitinol-NS). The initial roughness was evaluated with a rugosimeter...
January 2017: Brazilian Dental Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28293927/prevalence-and-risk-factors-of-urticaria-with-a-focus-on-chronic-urticaria-in-children
#8
Seung Jin Lee, Eun Kyo Ha, Hye Mi Jee, Kyung Suk Lee, Seung Won Lee, Mi Ae Kim, Dong Hyun Kim, Young Ho Jung, Youn Ho Sheen, Myong Soon Sung, Man Yong Han
PURPOSE: Limited data is available on the prevalence and risk factors of acute and chronic urticaria in children. Our purpose was to determine the prevalence and identify the risk factors of acute and chronic urticaria in Korean children. METHODS: This population-based study examined 4,076 children (age 4 to 13 years) who were enrolled in the 2015 prospective Seongnam Atopy Project (SAP 2015) in Korea. The parents completed an urticaria questionnaire that included questions regarding the duration, severity, and triggering factors of urticaria...
May 2017: Allergy, Asthma & Immunology Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28287760/abstract-feature-codes-the-building-blocks-of-the-implicit-learning-system
#9
Katharina Eberhardt, Sarah Esser, Hilde Haider
According to the Theory of Event Coding (TEC; Hommel, Müsseler, Aschersleben, & Prinz, 2001), action and perception are represented in a shared format in the cognitive system by means of feature codes. In implicit sequence learning research, it is still common to make a conceptual difference between independent motor and perceptual sequences. This supposedly independent learning takes place in encapsulated modules (Keele, Ivry, Mayr, Hazeltine, & Heuer 2003) that process information along single dimensions...
March 13, 2017: Journal of Experimental Psychology. Human Perception and Performance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28275136/distinct-and-overlapping-functions-of-tec-kinase-and-btk-in-b-cell-receptor-signaling
#10
Marjolein J W de Bruijn, Jasper Rip, Esmee K van der Ploeg, Lars W van Greuningen, Van T B Ta, Laurens P Kil, Anton W Langerak, Guus F Rimmelzwaan, Wilfried Ellmeier, Rudi W Hendriks, Odilia B J Corneth
The Tec tyrosine kinase is expressed in many cell types, including hematopoietic cells, and is a member of the Tec kinase family that also includes Btk. Although the role of Btk in B cells has been extensively studied, the role of Tec kinase in B cells remains largely unclear. It was previously shown that Tec kinase has the ability to partly compensate for loss of Btk activity in B cell differentiation, although the underlying mechanism is unknown. In this study, we confirm that Tec kinase is not essential for normal B cell development when Btk is present, but we also found that Tec-deficient mature B cells showed increased activation, proliferation, and survival upon BCR stimulation, even in the presence of Btk...
March 8, 2017: Journal of Immunology: Official Journal of the American Association of Immunologists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28274492/design-and-evaluation-of-multi-indicator-profiles-for-targeted-selective-treatment-against-gastrointestinal-nematodes-at-housing-in-adult-dairy-cows
#11
Nadine Ravinet, Anne Lehebel, Nathalie Bareille, Carlos Lopez, Christophe Chartier, Alain Chauvin, Aurélien Madouasse
Targeted-selective treatments against gastrointestinal nematode (GIN) in adult dairy cows require the identification of "cows to treat", i.e. cows whose milk production (MP) would increase after treatment. This study aimed at quantifying the ability of multi-indicator profiles to identify such cows. A randomized controlled clinical trial was conducted at housing in 25 French pasturing dairy herds. In each herd, treated cows received fenbendazole orally, control cows remained untreated. Daily MP was recorded and the MP variation between the pre- and post-visit periods was calculated (ΔMP) for each cow...
March 2, 2017: Veterinary Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28272938/comparison-of-2-different-formulations-of-artificial-bone-for-a-hybrid-implant-with-a-tissue-engineered-construct-derived-from-synovial-mesenchymal-stem-cells
#12
Kazunori Shimomura, Yu Moriguchi, Ryosuke Nansai, Hiromichi Fujie, Wataru Ando, Shuji Horibe, David A Hart, Alberto Gobbi, Hideki Yoshikawa, Norimasa Nakamura
BACKGROUND: Previously, we developed a hybrid implant composed of hydroxyapatite (HA)-based artificial bone coupled with a mesenchymal stem cell (MSC)-based scaffold-free tissue-engineered construct (TEC) and demonstrated its feasibility for osteochondral repair. Beta-tricalcium phosphate (βTCP) may be a promising alternative to HA, as it is a highly biocompatible material and is resorbed more rapidly than HA in vivo. HYPOTHESIS: A βTCP-based hybrid TEC implant will exhibit superior osteochondral repair when directly compared with an HA-based hybrid implant, as tested using a rabbit osteochondral defect model...
March 2017: American Journal of Sports Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28265807/association-of-heat-stress-protein-90-and-70-gene-polymorphism-with-adaptability-traits-in-indian-sheep-ovis-aries
#13
K M Singh, S Singh, I Ganguly, Raja K Nachiappan, A Ganguly, R Venkataramanan, A Chopra, H K Narula
Heat stress proteins assist cellular proteins in the acquisition of native structure. The present research was conducted to study how thermo-tolerance is modulated by HSP90 and HSP70 gene polymorphism and its association with hemato-physio-biochemical parameters, supported by their expression profiles in Chokla, Magra, Marwari, and Madras Red sheep breeds. Least square analysis revealed significant effect (P < 0.05) of season and breed on all the physiological parameters, i.e., temperature, respiratory rate, and pulse rate (a...
March 6, 2017: Cell Stress & Chaperones
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28264424/kriging-with-unknown-variance-components-for-regional-ionospheric-reconstruction
#14
Ling Huang, Hongping Zhang, Peiliang Xu, Jianghui Geng, Cheng Wang, Jingnan Liu
Ionospheric delay effect is a critical issue that limits the accuracy of precise Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) positioning and navigation for single-frequency users, especially in mid- and low-latitude regions where variations in the ionosphere are larger. Kriging spatial interpolation techniques have been recently introduced to model the spatial correlation and variability of ionosphere, which intrinsically assume that the ionosphere field is stochastically stationary but does not take the random observational errors into account...
February 27, 2017: Sensors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28247194/association-of-neutrophil-lymphocyte-ratio-and-platelet-lymphocyte-ratio-with-er-and-pr-in-breast-cancer-patients-and-their-changes-after-neoadjuvant-chemotherapy
#15
J Xu, C Ni, C Ma, L Zhang, X Jing, C Li, Y Liu, X Qu
PURPOSE: Proinflammatory markers, including neutrophil/lymphocyte ratio (NLR) and platelet/lymphocyte ratio (PLR), are associated with many aspects of different malignancies. The aim of this study was to assess the associations of NLR and PLR with estrogen receptor (ER) and progesterone receptor (PR) expression in locally advanced breast cancer patients and their changes after neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NAC). Whether these parameters were predictive for the response to NAC in breast cancer patients was also evaluated...
February 28, 2017: Clinical & Translational Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28246029/curing-mechanism-of-flexible-aqueous-polymeric-coatings
#16
Muhammad Irfan, Abid Riaz Ahmed, Andriy Dashevskiy, Karl Kolter, Roland Bodmeier
The objective of this study was to explain curing phenomena for pellets coated with a flexible polymeric coating based on poly(vinyl acetate) (Kollicoat(®) SR 30D) with regard to the effect of starter cores, thickness of drug layer, adhesion of coating to drug-layered-cores as well as coating properties. In addition, appropriate approaches to eliminate the curing effect were identified. Sugar or MCC cores were layered with the model drugs carbamazepine, theophylline, propranolol HCl, tramadol HCl and metoprolol HCl using HPMC (5 or 25% w/w, based on drug) as a binder...
February 25, 2017: European Journal of Pharmaceutics and Biopharmaceutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28245080/the-fate-of-verocytotoxigenic-escherichia-coli-c600%C3%AF-3538-%C3%AE-vtx2-cat-and-its-vtx2-prophage-during-grass-silage-preparation
#17
Sepo Nyambe, Catherine Burgess, Paul Whyte, Padraig O'Kiely, Declan Bolton
AIMS: Silage is grass, preserved by fermentation and used as winter feed for cattle. The impact of a range of current grass silage preparation practices on the survival of Escherichia coli C600φ3538(Δvtx2 ::cat) and on the induction, release and infectivity of free phage were investigated. METHODS AND RESULTS: Wilted and fresh grass samples, from plots with and without slurry application were ensiled with or without formic acid. Each treatment combination was inoculated with approximately 6 log10 CFU g(-1) E...
February 28, 2017: Journal of Applied Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28240208/-autoimmune-disease-predisposition-aire-%C3%A2-%C3%A2-protects%C3%A2-%C3%A2-men
#18
Nadine Dragin, Rozen Le Panse, Sonia Berrih-Aknin
Autoimmune diseases are a group of about 80 different diseases affecting 5-8% of the population. They are due to a deregulation of the immune system that attacks specific molecules and/or cells in the body. The thymus is the school of T cells that must be able to react to foreign molecules penetrating into the body. This education process is mediated by interactions between T cells and thymic epithelial cells (TEC) that express specific proteins of the peripheral tissues (TSA, "tissue-specific antigen"). This complex mechanism is called central tolerance...
February 2017: Médecine Sciences: M/S
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28226225/thymic-epithelial-cells
#19
Jakub Abramson, Graham Anderson
IntrathymicTcell development is a complex process that depends upon continuous guidance from thymus stromal cell microenvironments. The thymic epithelium within the thymic stroma comprises highly specialized cells with a high degree of anatomic, phenotypic, and functional heterogeneity. These properties are collectively required to bias thymocyte development toward production of self-tolerant and functionally competent T cells. The importance of thymic epithelial cells (TECs) is evidenced by clear links between their dysfunction and multiple diseases where autoimmunity and immunodeficiency are major components...
February 10, 2017: Annual Review of Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28223275/vascular-cxcr4-expression-promotes-vessel-sprouting-and-sensitivity-to-sorafenib-treatment-in-hepatocellular-carcinoma
#20
Jing Xu, Jing Liang, Ya-Ming Meng, Jing Yan, Xin-Juan Yu, Chao-Qun Liu, Li Xu, Shi-Mei Zhuang, Limin Zheng
PURPOSE: Chemokine receptor CXCR4 is known to be involved in both developmental and adult angiogenesis; however, its role in tumor angiogenesis remains largely unknown. Here the role of vascular CXCR4 in regulating vascular structure in HCC was assessed and the clinical value of CXCR4 was explored. EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN: The expression of CXCR4 in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) was determined by immunohistochemistry and immunofluorescence. Characteristics of CXCR4+ cells were determined by in vitro and mice experiments...
February 21, 2017: Clinical Cancer Research: An Official Journal of the American Association for Cancer Research
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