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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28351053/macular-edema-rationale-for-therapy
#1
Thomas J Wolfensberger
Macular edema represents the end-stage of multiple pathophysiological pathways in a multitude of ocular vascular, inflammatory, and other diseases. The rationale for clinical treatment of macular edema is based on the understanding and the inhibition of these pathophysiological mechanisms. When macular edema is caused by a generalized health problem such as diabetes, high blood pressure, or generalized inflammatory conditions, treatment of these generalized diseases can in many cases cure macular edema directly...
2017: Developments in Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28351050/miscellaneous
#2
Catherine Creuzot-Garcher
This chapter provides the reader with practical information to be applied to the various remaining causes of macular edema. Some clinical cases of macular edema linked to ocular diseases like postradiotherapy for ocular melanomas remained of poor functional prognosis due to the primary disease. On the contrary, macular edema occurring after retinal detachment or after diverse systemic or local treatment use is often temporary. Macular edema associated with epiretinal membranes or vitreomacular traction is the main cause of poor functional recovery...
2017: Developments in Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28351048/retinitis-pigmentosa-and-other-dystrophies
#3
Sarah Mrejen, Isabelle Audo, Sébastien Bonnel, José-Alain Sahel
Retinitis pigmentosa (RP) is a heterogeneous group of inherited retinal degenerations characterized by progressive degeneration of rod and cone cells that affects predominantly peripheral visual fields. Macular edema may cause additional central visual acuity decrease. Cystoid macular edema (CME) is one of the few treatable causes of visual loss in RP. The prevalence of CME in RP has been found to be between 10 and 20% on fluorescein angiography-based studies, and as high as 49% on reports based on optical coherence tomography...
2017: Developments in Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28351040/macular-edema-definition-and-basic-concepts
#4
Gabriel Coscas, José Cunha-Vaz, Gisèle Soubrane
Macular edema is the result of an accumulation of fluid in the retinal layers around the fovea. It contributes to vision loss by altering the functional cell relationship in the retina and promoting an inflammatory reparative response. Macular edema may be intracellular or extracellular. Intracellular accumulation of fluid, also called cytotoxic edema, is an alteration of the cellular ionic distribution. Extracellular accumulation of fluid, which is more frequent and clinically more relevant, is directly associated with an alteration of the blood-retinal barrier (BRB)...
2017: Developments in Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28346208/basics-of-compounding-3d-printing-pharmacy-applications-part-1
#5
Loyd V Allen
Three-dimensional printing quickly became a standard tool in the automotive, aerospace, and consumer goods industries and, recently, has begun gaining traction in pharmaceutical manufacturing. 3D printing has steadily grown, introducing a new element into dosage form development, and has received a boost with U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approval of the 3D-printed orodispersible tablet, Spritam (levetiracetam). This part 1 of a 3-part article introduces 3D printing and its application to pharmacy...
March 2017: International Journal of Pharmaceutical Compounding
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28345561/insight-into-high-myopia-and-the-macula
#6
REVIEW
Atul Kumar, Rohan Chawla, Devesh Kumawat, Ganesh Pillay
The incidence of myopia is constantly on the rise. Patients of high myopia and pathological myopia are young and can lose vision due to a number of degenerative changes occurring at the macula. With the emergence of new technologies such as swept-source optical coherence tomography (OCT) and OCT angiography, our understanding of macular pathology in myopia has improved significantly. New conditions such as myopic traction maculopathy have been defined. Early, noninvasive detection of myopic choroidal neovascularization and its differentiation from lacquer cracks is possible with a greater degree of certainty...
February 2017: Indian Journal of Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28343784/a-modified-intraoral-and-extraoral-approach-osteotomy-for-the-prominent-mandibular-angle
#7
Rui Lei, Yang Wang, Shengquan Xu, Fuliang Hong, Mingyuan Xu, Liyuan Wei, Jinghong Xu
BACKGROUND: A prominent mandibular angle (PMA) is a relatively common condition in Asians, and surgeons typically use the intraoral approach to treat it. However, the approach can have many drawbacks due to the limited operative field and view. The procedures of osteotomy are not easily manipulated, and an exact resection is difficult. In addition, some major complications can easily occur. This article presents a modified osteotomy method for the PMA that avoids these disadvantages and makes the procedure easier to execute...
March 1, 2017: Journal of Plastic, Reconstructive & Aesthetic Surgery: JPRAS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28341266/influence-of-fixation-point-of-latissimus-dorsi-tendon-transfer-for-irreparable-rotator-cuff-tear-on-glenohumeral-external-rotation-a-cadaver-study
#8
K Bargoin, M Boissard, J Kany, J Grimberg
Latissimus dorsi tendon transfer is a surgical option for treating irreparable posterosuperior rotator cuff tears, notably when attempting to reconstruct active external rotation. We hypothesized that the positioning of the transfer's point of fixation would differ depending on the desired elbow-to-body external rotation or external rotation with the elbow abducted. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Seven shoulders from four whole frozen cadavers were used. We created two systems to install the subject in a semi-seated position to allow external rotation elbow to body and the arm abducted 90°...
December 2016: Orthopaedics & Traumatology, Surgery & Research: OTSR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28338592/open-abdomen-with-vacuum-assisted-wound-closure-and-mesh-mediated-fascial-traction-in-patients-with-complicated-diffuse-secondary-peritonitis-a-single-center-8-year-experience
#9
Matti Tolonen, Panu Mentula, Ville Sallinen, Suvi Rasilainen, Minna Bäcklund, Ari Leppäniemi
BACKGROUND: Open abdomen (OA) treatment in patients with peritonitis is increasing worldwide. Various temporary abdominal closure devices are being used. This study included patients with complicated diffuse secondary peritonitis, OA, and vacuum-assisted wound closure and mesh-mediated fascial traction (VAWCM). The aim of this study was to describe mortality and major morbidity in terms of delayed primary fascial closure (DPFC) and enteroatmospheric fistula rates. METHODS: This was a single academic center retrospective study of consecutive patients with diffuse peritonitis, OA, and VAWCM between years 2008-2016...
March 23, 2017: Journal of Trauma and Acute Care Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28338558/correlation-between-central-foveal-thickness-and-visual-acuity-in-patients-with-idiopathic-vitreomacular-traction
#10
Mehmet M Uzel, Mehmet Citirik, Cagri Ilhan, Kemal Tekin
PURPOSE: To evaluate the impact of preoperative central foveal thickness (CFT) on visual acuity after surgery in patients with idiopathic vitreomacular traction and to calculate a cut-off value in preoperative CFT. METHODS: Thirty-five patients with idiopathic vitreomacular traction were evaluated retrospectively. A complete ophthalmological examination including spectral domain optical coherence tomography was performed preoperatively and at 12 months after the surgery...
March 23, 2017: Retina
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28336800/the-ethics-of-big-data-as-a-public-good-which-public-whose-good
#11
Linnet Taylor
International development and humanitarian organizations are increasingly calling for digital data to be treated as a public good because of its value in supplementing scarce national statistics and informing interventions, including in emergencies. In response to this claim, a 'responsible data' movement has evolved to discuss guidelines and frameworks that will establish ethical principles for data sharing. However, this movement is not gaining traction with those who hold the highest-value data, particularly mobile network operators who are proving reluctant to make data collected in low- and middle-income countries accessible through intermediaries...
December 28, 2016: Philosophical Transactions. Series A, Mathematical, Physical, and Engineering Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28336128/retinal-pigment-epithelium-tears-classification-pathogenesis-predictors-and-management
#12
REVIEW
Mehmet Giray Ersoz, Murat Karacorlu, Serra Arf, Isil Sayman Muslubas, Mumin Hocaoglu
Various eye conditions cause tears in the retinal pigment epithelium (RPE). The most common cause of an RPE tear is vascularized retinal pigment epithelial detachment (PED) in patients with exudative age-related macular degeneration. Although RPE tears can develop spontaneously in vascularized PEDs, most recent cases have been associated with anti-vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) injections. The subretinal fluid within the PED applies hydrostatic pressure to the RPE and stretches it. The PED enlarges as the hydrostatic pressure increases...
March 20, 2017: Survey of Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28335897/mitral-loop-cerclage-annuloplasty-for-secondary-mitral-regurgitation-first-human-results
#13
Yong-Hyun Park, Min-Ku Chon, Robert J Lederman, Si-Chan Sung, Hyung-Gon Je, Ki-Seok Choo, Sang-Hyun Lee, Eun-Seok Shin, Jeong-Su Kim, Ki-Won Hwang, Soo-Yong Lee, Kook-Jin Chun, Cheol-Min Kim, June-Hong Kim
OBJECTIVES: This is an early feasibility clinical test of mitral loop cerclage annuloplasty to treat secondary mitral valve regurgitation. BACKGROUND: Secondary mitral regurgitation is characterized by cardiomyopathy, mitral annular enlargement, and leaflet traction contributing to malcoaptation. Transcatheter mitral loop cerclage applies circumferential compression to the mitral annulus by creating a loop through the coronary sinus across the interventricular septum, protecting entrapped coronary arteries from compression, and interactive annular reduction under echocardiographic guidance...
March 27, 2017: JACC. Cardiovascular Interventions
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28335562/virus-bacteria-interactions-an-emerging-topic-in-human-infection
#14
REVIEW
Erin A Almand, Matthew D Moore, Lee-Ann Jaykus
Bacteria and viruses often occupy the same niches, however, interest in their potential collaboration in promoting wellness or disease states has only recently gained traction. While the interaction of some bacteria and viruses is well characterized (e.g., influenza virus), researchers are typically more interested in the location of the infection than the manner of cooperation. There are two overarching types of bacterial-virus disease causing interactions: direct interactions that in some way aid the viruses, and indirect interactions aiding bacteria...
March 21, 2017: Viruses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28334367/modeling-of-stiffness-and-strength-of-bone-at-nanoscale
#15
Diab W Abueidda, Fereshteh A Sabet, Iwona M Jasiuk
Two distinct geometrical models of bone at nanoscale (collagen fibril and mineral platelets) are analyzed computationally. In the first model (Model I) minerals are periodically distributed in a staggered manner in a collagen matrix while in the second model (Model II) minerals form continuous layers outside the collagen fibril. Elastic modulus and strength of bone at the nanoscale, represented by these two models, are studied using a finite element software Abaqus. The analysis employs a traction-separation law (cohesive surface modeling) at various interfaces in the models to account for interfacial delaminations...
March 23, 2017: Journal of Biomechanical Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28331145/modified-marionette-technique-for-laparoscopic-colorectal-surgery
#16
Seiichi Shinji, Hayato Kan, Takeshi Yamada, Michihiro Koizumi, Aya Yamagishi, Yasuyuki Yokoyama, Goro Takahashi, Takuma Iwai, Keisuke Hara, Kohki Takeda, Keiichiro Ohta, Eiji Uchida
INTRODUCTION: Single-port laparoscopic surgery has some technical limitations with respect to control of the forceps inserted through the single-access site, which results in increased internal collisions due to coaxial alignment of the instruments, as well as and decreased range of motion and visualization. To overcome these limitations, we employ a "modified marionette technique" as a way to carry out laparoscopic colorectal surgery. Materials and Surgical Technique: The procedures for the modified marionette technique are performed as follows: An Internal Organ Retractor (IOR)™ and an atraumatic clip designed to firmly grasp tissue, with 1-0 nylon thread, are inserted through a 12-mm trocar and secured in place where adequate visualization and traction for cutting with a radio knife is required...
2017: Journal of Nippon Medical School, Nippon Ika Daigaku Zasshi
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28329619/bitemporal-hair-loss-related-to-traction-alopecia
#17
Oscar Muñoz Moreno-Arrones, Sergio Vañó-Galván
We present a 24-year-old woman that had received a diagnosis of alopecia areata in the past and was treated with topical 19 corticosteroids with little improvement. Instead, the patient exhibited bitemporal alopecia of one year of evolution related to 20 traction alopecia. Traction alopecia is characterized by localized hair loss related to persistent excessive traction. Although it is 21 initially a reversible condition, if this excessive traction is not removed permanent alopecia may develop.
September 15, 2016: Dermatology Online Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28327268/combined-surgical-removal-of-a-supernumerary-tooth-and-orthodontic-traction-of-an-impacted-maxillary-central-incisor
#18
Leopoldo Cosme-Silva, Lidiane Lucas Costa E Silva, Marina Azevedo Junqueira, Nayara Nery de Oliveira Dias, Ana Beatriz da Silveira Moretti, Vivien Thiemy Sakai
Impaction of permanent maxillary central incisors is a rare condition that can affect esthetics and oral function. The etiology of impaction is multifactorial and may be related to embryologic reasons, hereditary factors, mechanical obstacles, and pathologic elements, such as the presence of supernumerary teeth. The purpose of this report is to discuss the case of a 10-year-old patient who presented an impacted permanent maxillary right central incisor due to a supernumerary tooth. Surgical removal of the supernumerary tooth and orthodontic traction of the impacted central incisor by the closed eruption technique were performed...
September 15, 2016: Journal of Dentistry for Children
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28324970/development-of-data-acquisition-components-for-simultaneous-recording-of-3d-epicardial-and-surface-ecg-signals-in-the-langendorff-perfusion-apparatus
#19
Ryan Wade Selby, Anup Jonchhe, Chen Kaplan, Coeli M Lopes, Behnaz Ghoraani
Sudden Cardiac Death (SCD) claims 7 million lives per year. The importance of myocardial electrogram (EGM) repolarization alternans and surface electrocardiogram (ECG) T-wave alternans is gaining traction for understanding the underlying SCD mechanisms. However, the relationship between the 3D spatial distribution of myocardial EGMs and surface ECG with respect to SCD has yet to be investigated. To make this happen, a modified data acquisition system has been developed and fabricated in conjunction with the Langendorff perfusion system to enable simultaneous recording and analysis of the 3D spatial distribution of myocardial EGMs and the surface ECG...
August 2016: Conference Proceedings: Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28323767/how-to-get-to-the-distal-posterior-tibial-malleolus-a-cadaveric-anatomic-study-defining-the-access-corridors-through-3-different-approaches
#20
Mathieu Assal, Miki Dalmau-Pastor, Adrien Ray, Richard Stern
OBJECTIVE: Our objective is to review the anatomy and exposure of the posterior column and posterior tibial malleolus (the posterior tibial plafond) by defining the access corridors through 3 different approaches-posteromedial, posterolateral, and modified posteromedial. METHODS: Cadaveric dissection with percentage of posterior tibial malleolus exposed, and strain gauge measurements to evaluate traction on the neurovascular bundle. RESULTS: The 3 different approaches are applicable for exposure of different portions of the distal posterior tibial malleolus...
April 2017: Journal of Orthopaedic Trauma
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