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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29674723/steap2-knockdown-reduces-the-invasive-potential-of-prostate-cancer-cells
#1
Stephanie E A Burnell, Samantha Spencer-Harty, Suzie Howarth, Owen Bodger, Howard Kynaston, Claire Morgan, Shareen H Doak
Six-transmembrane epithelial antigen of the prostate-2 (STEAP2) expression is increased in prostate cancer when compared to normal prostate, suggesting STEAP2 may drive prostate cancer progression. This study aimed to establish the functional role of STEAP2 in prostate tumourigenesis and evaluate if its knockdown resulted in reduced invasive potential of prostate cancer cells. PC3 and LNCaP cells were transfected with STEAP2 siRNA and proliferation, migration, invasion and gene expression analyses were performed...
April 19, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29674118/germline-variant-in-hsd3b1-1245-a-c-and-response-to-abiraterone-acetate-plus-prednisone-in-men-with-new-onset-metastatic-castration-resistant-prostate-cancer
#2
Andrew W Hahn, David M Gill, Roberto H Nussenzveig, Austin Poole, Jim Farnham, Lisa Cannon-Albright, Neeraj Agarwal
BACKGROUND: The HSD3B1 gene encodes the enzyme 3β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase-1 (3βHSD1), which catalyzes adrenal androgen precursors into dihydrotestosterone, the most potent androgen. Recently, the HSD3B1 (1245C) variant was shown to predict shorter duration of response to androgen deprivation therapy with medical or surgical castration in the setting of castration-sensitive prostate cancer (CSPC). The HSD3B1 (1245C) variant also predicts longer duration of response to ketoconazole in men with castration-resistant prostate cancer (CRPC)...
March 27, 2018: Clinical Genitourinary Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29673760/tumor-suppressive-functions-of-4-mu-on-breast-cancer-cells-of-different-er-status-regulation-of-hyaluronan-has2-cd44-and-specific-matrix-effectors
#3
Theodoros T Karalis, Paraskevi Heldin, Demitrios H Vynios, Thomas Neill, Simone Buraschi, Renato V Iozzo, Nikos K Karamanos, Spyros S Skandalis
The malignant phenotype of various cancers is linked to enhanced expression of hyaluronan, a pro-angiogenic glycosaminoglycan whose expression is suppressed by 4-methylumbelliferone (4-MU), a non-toxic oral agent used as a dietary supplement to improve health and combat prostate cancer. However, little is known about the effects of hyaluronan inhibition by 4-MU on breast cancer cells. In this study, we investigated the role of 4-MU in mammary carcinoma cells with distinct malignant phenotypes and estrogen receptor (ER) status, a major prognostic factor in the clinical management of breast cancers...
April 16, 2018: Matrix Biology: Journal of the International Society for Matrix Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29673712/update-on-systemic-prostate-cancer-therapies-management-of-metastatic-castration-resistant-prostate-cancer-in-the-era-of-precision-oncology
#4
REVIEW
Philipp Nuhn, Johann S De Bono, Karim Fizazi, Stephen J Freedland, Maurizio Grilli, Philip W Kantoff, Guru Sonpavde, Cora N Sternberg, Srinivasan Yegnasubramanian, Emmanuel S Antonarakis
CONTEXT: Introduction of novel agents for the management of advanced prostate cancer provides a range of treatment options with notable benefits for men with metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer (mCRPC). At the same time, understanding of optimal patient selection, effective sequential use, and development of resistance patterns remains incomplete. OBJECTIVE: To review current systemic therapies and recent advances in drug development for mCRPC and strategies to aid in patient selection and optimal sequencing...
April 16, 2018: European Urology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29673323/indel-detection-from-dna-and-rna-sequencing-data-with-transindel
#5
Rendong Yang, Jamie L Van Etten, Scott M Dehm
BACKGROUND: Insertions and deletions (indels) are a major class of genomic variation associated with human disease. Indels are primarily detected from DNA sequencing (DNA-seq) data but their transcriptional consequences remain unexplored due to challenges in discriminating medium-sized and large indels from splicing events in RNA-seq data. RESULTS: Here, we developed transIndel, a splice-aware algorithm that parses the chimeric alignments predicted by a short read aligner and reconstructs the mid-sized insertions and large deletions based on the linear alignments of split reads from DNA-seq or RNA-seq data...
April 19, 2018: BMC Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29671080/-lutetium-177-psma-radioligand-therapy-consensus-within-the-framework-of-gkv-funded-care-between-the-university-hospitals-in-aachen-bonn-d%C3%A3-sseldorf-essen-and-cologne-and-the-mdk-nordrhein
#6
REVIEW
H Ahmadzadehfar, P Albers, A Bockisch, M Boegemann, C Böhme, W Burchert, M Dietlein, A Drzezga, U Fabry, G Feldmann, A Heidenreich, A Heinzel, K Herrmann, A Heyll, C Höhling, C Kreuzer, D Laufer, R Mengel, F M Mottaghy, H-W Müller, S C Müller, E Ost, K Rahbar, W Reifenhäuser, M Schäfers, C Schlenkhoff, M Schmidt, I Schmidt-Wolf, C Wildenhain, B Zimmer, M Essler
In the last 3 years, Lutetium-177 prostate-specific membrane antigen radioligand therapy (Lu-177-PSMA-RLT) has received increasing attention in nuclear medicine as a new form of treatment for castration-resistant metastatic prostate cancer. This therapy combines the radionuclide Lutetium-177, which has been therapeutically used in nuclear medicine for many years, with a molecular target of the transmembrane prostate-specific membrane antigen expressed by prostate cancer cells. Since there are no prospective randomized studies on Lu-177-PSMA-RLT and the question of reimbursement has repeatedly been the subject of review by the MDK Nordrhein (Medischenische Dienst der Krankenversicherung), there was a desire because of the increasing number of patients being treated to clarify under which circumstances Lu-177-PSMA-RLT can be reimbursed by German statutory health insurance...
April 18, 2018: Der Urologe. Ausg. A
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29670722/stafne-s-bone-defect-in-a-metastatic-prostate-cancer-patient-a-diagnostic-conundrum
#7
Wagner-Gomes da Silva, Aristilia-Tahara Kemp, Alan-Roger Dos Santos-Silva, Maria Del Pilar-Estevez Diz, Thais-Bianca Brandão
Stafne's bone defect (SBD) is an uncommon bone alteration that affects the mandible and usually presents as an asymptomatic radiolucency located in the posterior region of body or angle of the mandible, below the alveolar canal. Although clinical and radiographic features are more often sufficient for the diagnosis, other lesions and bone alterations have been described in the differential diagnosis and may lead to a misinterpretation and an incorrect diagnosis. Herein, we report a case of an 89-yearold man with metastatic prostate cancer to multiple bones, presenting an asymptomatic solitary well-defined radiolucent image on the right side of the posterior body of the mandible, in close contact with its inferior border...
January 2018: Journal of Clinical and Experimental Dentistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29670000/bone-cell-activity-in-clinical-prostate-cancer-bone-metastasis-and-its-inverse-relation-to-tumor-cell-androgen-receptor-activity
#8
Annika Nordstrand, Erik Bovinder Ylitalo, Elin Thysell, Emma Jernberg, Sead Crnalic, Anders Widmark, Anders Bergh, Ulf H Lerner, Pernilla Wikström
Advanced prostate cancer frequently metastasizes to bone and induces a mixed osteoblastic/osteolytic bone response. Standard treatment for metastatic prostate cancer is androgen-deprivation therapy (ADT) that also affects bone biology. Treatment options for patients relapsing after ADT are limited, particularly in cases where castration-resistance does not depend on androgen receptor (AR) activity. Patients with non-AR driven metastases may, however, benefit from therapies targeting the tumor microenvironment...
April 18, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29669796/prdm4-mediates-yap-induced-cell-invasion-by-activating-leukocyte-specific-integrin-%C3%AE-2-expression
#9
Huan Liu, Xiaoming Dai, Xiaolei Cao, Huan Yan, Xinyan Ji, Haitao Zhang, Shuying Shen, Yuan Si, Hailong Zhang, Jianfeng Chen, Li Li, Jonathan C Zhao, Jindan Yu, Xin-Hua Feng, Bin Zhao
Yes-associated protein (YAP) is a transcriptional co-activator and a major effector of the Hippo pathway that promotes cell proliferation and stemness, while inhibiting apoptosis. YAP plays a central role in organ size control, and its deregulation strongly promotes cancer initiation and progression. However, the mechanisms by which YAP promotes cell invasion and metastasis are not fully understood. Here, we report that YAP induces leukocyte-specific integrin β2 ( ITGB2 ) expression in cancer cells, thereby promoting cell invasion through the endothelium in a manner mimicking leukocytes...
April 17, 2018: EMBO Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29669348/prazosin-but-not-tamsulosin-sensitises-pc-3-and-lncap-prostate-cancer-cells-to-docetaxel
#10
Briohny H Spencer, Catherine M McDermott, Russ Chess-Williams, David Christie, Shailendra Anoopkumar-Dukie
BACKGROUND/AIMS: Docetaxel is currently the first-line chemotherapeutic agent available for the treatment of patients with advanced prostate cancer (PCa). While docetaxel has been shown to modestly improve survival times for patients; they also experience significant docetaxel-induced toxicities. If treatment failure occurs, there are currently limited alternatives that show survival benefits for patients and therefore there is an urgent need for adjunct therapies. Some quinazoline-based alpha1-adrenoceptor (ADR) antagonists have previously been shown to have cytotoxic actions in PCa cells, but there is no research into their effects on docetaxel-induced toxicity...
April 17, 2018: Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29669169/genetic-testing-for-hereditary-prostate-cancer-current-status-and-limitations
#11
REVIEW
Jun Tu Zhen, Jamil Syed, Kevin Anh Nguyen, Michael S Leapman, Neeraj Agarwal, Karina Brierley, Xavier Llor, Erin Hofstatter, Brian Shuch
A significant proportion of prostate cancer diagnoses may be associated with a strong hereditary component. Men who have multiple single-gene polymorphisms and a family history of prostate cancer have a significantly greater risk of developing prostate cancer. Numerous single-gene alterations have been confirmed to increase the risk of prostate cancer. These include breast cancer genes 1 and 2 (BRCA1 and BRCA2, respectively), mutL homolog 1 (MLH1), mutS homologs 2 and 6 (MSH2 and MSH6, respectively), postmeiotic segregation increased 2 (PMS2), homeobox B13 (HOXB13), checkpoint kinase 2 (CHEK2), nibrin (NBN), BRCA1-interacting protein C-terminal helicase 1 (BRIP1), and ataxia telangiectasia mutated (ATM)...
April 18, 2018: Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29666893/pitfalls-in-bone-density-monitoring-in-prostate-cancer-during-anti-resorptive-treatment
#12
Y-M Cheung, S K Ramchand, M Grossmann
A 74-year-old man presented to the Andrology Clinic for management of potential complications of androgen deprivation therapy for prostate cancer. He had a rising prostate-specific antigen with a concurrent rise in alkaline phosphatase and bone remodeling markers. This was despite treatment with a radical prostatectomy, androgen deprivation, and anti-resorptive therapy. A follow-up dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry scan revealed a marked increase in his bone mineral density at both the lumbar spine and femoral neck...
April 17, 2018: Osteoporosis International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29666834/androgen-action-in-prostate-function-and-disease
#13
REVIEW
Partha P Banerjee, Subhadra Banerjee, Terry R Brown, Barry R Zirkin
Benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) is an enlargement of the prostate gland that is frequently found in aging men. Androgens are essential for the development and differentiated function of the prostate, as well as for proliferation and survival of prostatic cells. In man, dog and rodent, there are age-related decreases in serum testosterone. Despite the lower serum testosterone levels, benign prostatic hyperplasia increases with age in men and dogs, while age-dependent prostatic hyperplasia develops in the dorsal and lateral lobes of the rat prostate...
2018: American Journal of Clinical and Experimental Urology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29666832/structure-and-function-analysis-in-circulating-tumor-cells-using-nanotechnology-to-study-nuclear-size-in-prostate-cancer
#14
REVIEW
Nu Yao, Yu-Jen Jan, Shirley Cheng, Jie-Fu Chen, Leland Wk Chung, Hsian-Rong Tseng, Edwin M Posadas
Professor Donald Coffey and his laboratory pioneered studies showing the relationships between nuclear shape and cellular function. In doing so, he and his students established the field of nuclear morphometry in prostate cancer. By using perioperative tissues via biopsies and surgical sampling, Dr. Coffey's team discovered that nuclear shape and other pathologic features correlated with clinical outcome measures. Cancer cells also exist outside of solid tumor masses as they can be shed from both primary and metastatic lesions into the circulatory system...
2018: American Journal of Clinical and Experimental Urology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29666783/development-of-neuroendocrine-prostate-cancers-by-the-ser-arg-repetitive-matrix-4-mediated-rna-splicing-network
#15
Ahn R Lee, Nicole Che, Jessica M Lovnicki, Xuesen Dong
While the use of next-generation androgen receptor pathway inhibition (ARPI) therapy has significantly increased the survival of patients with metastatic prostate adenocarcinoma (AdPC), several groups have reported a treatment-resistant mechanism, whereby cancer cells can become androgen receptor (AR) indifferent and gain a neuroendocrine (NE)-like phenotype. This subtype of castration-resistant prostate cancer has been termed "treatment-induced castration-resistant neuroendocrine prostate cancer" (CRPC-NE)...
2018: Frontiers in Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29666302/targeting-galectin-1-impairs-castration-resistant-prostate-cancer-progression-and-invasion
#16
Tsung-Chieh Shih, Ruiwu Liu, Chun-Te Wu, Xiaocen Li, Wenwu Xiao, Xiaojun Deng, Zsofia Kiss, Ting Wang, Xiaojia Chen, Randy P Carney, Hsing-Jien Kung, Yong Duan, Paramita M Ghosh, Kit S Lam
PURPOSE: The majority of prostate cancer (PCa) patients who are treated with androgen deprivation therapy (ADT) will eventually develop fatal metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer (mCRPC). Currently, there are no effective durable therapies for patients with mCRPC. High expression of Galectin-1 (Gal-1) is associated with PCa progression and poor clinical outcome. The role of Gal-1 in tumor progression are largely unknown. Here we characterized Gal-1 functions and evaluated the therapeutic effects of a newly developed Gal-1inhibitor, LLS30, in mCRPC...
April 17, 2018: Clinical Cancer Research: An Official Journal of the American Association for Cancer Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29666232/tunable-cytotoxic-aptamer-drug-conjugates-for-the-treatment-of-prostate-cancer
#17
Bethany Powell Gray, Linsley Kelly, Douglas P Ahrens, Ashley P Barry, Christina Kratschmer, Matthew Levy, Bruce A Sullenger
Therapies that can eliminate both local and metastatic prostate tumor lesions while sparing normal organ tissue are desperately needed. With the goal of developing an improved drug-targeting strategy, we turned to a new class of targeted anticancer therapeutics: aptamers conjugated to highly toxic chemotherapeutics. Cell selection for aptamers with prostate cancer specificity yielded the E3 aptamer, which internalizes into prostate cancer cells without targeting normal prostate cells. Chemical conjugation of E3 to the drugs monomethyl auristatin E (MMAE) and monomethyl auristatin F (MMAF) yields a potent cytotoxic agent that efficiently kills prostate cancer cells in vitro but does not affect normal prostate epithelial cells...
April 16, 2018: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29666160/most-human-introns-are-recognized-via-multiple-and-tissue-specific-branchpoints
#18
Jose Mario Bello Pineda, Robert K Bradley
Although branchpoint recognition is an essential component of intron excision during the RNA splicing process, the branchpoint itself is frequently assumed to be a basal, rather than regulatory, sequence feature. However, this assumption has not been systematically tested due to the technical difficulty of identifying branchpoints and quantifying their usage. Here, we analyzed ∼1.31 trillion reads from 17,164 RNA sequencing data sets to demonstrate that almost all human introns contain multiple branchpoints...
April 17, 2018: Genes & Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29663669/preliminary-efficacy-and-tolerability-of-chemohormonal-therapy-in-metastatic-hormone-na%C3%A3-ve-prostate-cancer-the-first-real-life-experience-in-asia
#19
Darren M C Poon, Tim Chan, Kuen Chan, Michelle Chan, Eric K C Lee, Kitty Law, Daisy Lam
INTRODUCTION: A substantial survival benefit with chemohormonal therapy has been proven by the CHAARTED and STAMPEDE studies, and this clinical approach has emerged as the standard of care for patients with metastatic hormone-naïve prostate cancer (mHSPC). However, because its clinical efficacy and tolerability in Asian patients remains uncertain, this study aims to evaluate preliminary results of its use in Hong Kong. METHODS: The clinical records of mHSPC patients treated with chemohormonal therapy from all six public oncology centers in Hong Kong between January 2015 and July 2016 were reviewed...
April 16, 2018: Asia-Pacific Journal of Clinical Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29663462/survival-benefit-of-local-versus-no-local-treatment-for-metastatic-prostate-cancer-impact-of-baseline-psa-and-metastatic-substages
#20
Raisa S Pompe, Derya Tilki, Felix Preisser, Sami-Ramzi Leyh-Bannurah, Marco Bandini, Michele Marchioni, Philipp Gild, Zhe Tian, Nicola Fossati, Luca Cindolo, Shahrokh F Shariat, Hartwig Huland, Markus Graefen, Alberto Briganti, Pierre I Karakiewicz
BACKGROUND: To test whether local treatment (LT), namely radical prostatectomy (RP) or brachytherapy (BT) still confers a survival benefit versus no local treatment (NLT), when adjusted for baseline PSA (bPSA). To further examine whether the effect of LT might be modulated according to bPSA and M1 substages. METHODS: Of 13 906 mPCa patients within the SEER (2004-2014), 375 underwent RP, 175 BT, and 13 356 NLT. Multivariable competing risks regression (MVA CRR) analyses after 1:2 propensity score matching assessed the impact of LT versus NLT on cancer specific mortality (CSM)...
April 16, 2018: Prostate
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