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Clostridium Difficile Toxin

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29146177/clostridium-difficile-and-clostridium-sordellii-toxins-proinflammatory-versus-anti-inflammatory-response
#1
Michel R Popoff
Clostridium difficile and Clostridium sordellii produce related potent toxins (C. difficile toxin A (TcdA) and toxin B (TcdB), C. sordellii lethal toxin (TcsL) and hemorrhagic toxin (TcsH)) which belong to the large clostridial glucosylating toxin (LCGT) family. TcsL is the main C. sordellii toxin as most of toxigenic C. sordellii strains only synthesize this toxin. Intestinal colonization by C. difficile subsequently to unbalanced microbiota is accompanied by release of toxins which induce local tissue destruction and severe inflammatory response...
November 13, 2017: Toxicon: Official Journal of the International Society on Toxinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29123385/clostridium-difficile-infection-in-the-elderly-an-update-on-management
#2
REVIEW
Tomefa E Asempa, David P Nicolau
The burden of Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) is profound and growing. CDI now represents a common cause of health care-associated diarrhea, and is associated with significant morbidity, mortality, and health care costs. CDI disproportionally affects the elderly, possibly explained by the following risk factors: age-related impairment of the immune system, increasing antibiotic utilization, and frequent health care exposure. In the USA, recent epidemiological studies estimate that two out of every three health care-associated CDIs occur in patients 65 years or older...
2017: Clinical Interventions in Aging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29118940/frequency-of-antibiotic-associated-diarrhea-caused-by-clostridium-difficile-among-hospitalized-patients-in-intensive-care-unit-kerman-iran
#3
Ebrahim Rezazadeh Zarandi, Shahla Mansouri, Nouzar Nakhaee, Farhad Sarafzadeh, Zahra Iranmanesh, Mohammad Moradi
Aim: This study evaluated the frequency of C. difficile and CDAD in the ICU of Shahid Bahonhar Hospital, Kerman, Iran. Background: Clostridium difficile (C. difficile) is the most important antibiotic associated diarrhea agent in intensive care unit (ICU) patients. Based on its toxin producing ability, C .difficile is divided to toxigenic and non-toxigenic strains. Methods: A total of 233 diarrheal samples were collected from ICU patients...
2017: Gastroenterology and Hepatology From Bed to Bench
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29117204/prevalence-of-binary-toxin-positive-clostridium-difficile-in-diarrhoeal-humans-in-the-absence-of-epidemic-ribotype-027
#4
Alan M McGovern, Grace O Androga, Daniel R Knight, Mark W Watson, Briony Elliott, Niki F Foster, Barbara J Chang, Thomas V Riley
Virulence of Clostridium difficile is primarily attributed to the large clostridial toxins A and B while the role of binary toxin (CDT) remains unclear. The prevalence of human strains of C. difficile possessing only CDT genes (A-B-CDT+) is generally low (< 5%), however, this genotype is commonly found in neonatal livestock both in Australia and elsewhere. Zoonotic transmission of C. difficile has been suggested previously. Most human diagnostic tests will not detect A-B-CDT+ strains of C. difficile because they focus on detection of toxin A and/or B...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29116880/safety-and-immunogenicity-of-clostridium-difficile-toxoid-vaccine-in-japanese-adults
#5
Osamu Matsuoka, Dhaval M Patel, Shin Sasaki, Hayato Oka, Toru Sasaki, Patricia J Pietrobon, Thelma Laot, Alain Bouckenooghe, Josemund Menezes, Guy de Bruyn
This was a randomized, placebo-controlled, Phase I/II study conducted in a Japanese cohort to assess the safety and immunogenicity of Clostridium difficile vaccine (the same formulation as that used in the ongoing global Phase III study). Healthy Japanese adults aged 40-75 years were randomized to receive either C. difficile vaccine (N = 67) or placebo (N = 34) by intramuscular injection on Days 0, 7, and 30. Serum IgG specific for toxins A and B was measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and in vitro functional activity by toxin neutralizing assay (TNA)...
November 8, 2017: Human Vaccines & Immunotherapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29104651/preliminary-screening-of-type-iv-secretion-system-in-divergent-geographic-sources-of-clostridium-difficile
#6
Na Li, Hongbing Jia, Hui Yang, Bing Ji, Yongyun Liu, Xinguo Peng, Ying Cheng, Wen Zhang
In the present study, different geographical sources and sequence types (STs) of Clostridium difficile were preliminarily screened to investigate the distribution profiles of three core genes, VirB4, VirB6 and VirD4, of the type IV secretion system (T4SS). A total of 37 C. difficile strains from different sources were screened, inoculated and prepared for genome extraction. C. difficile toxins A and B were subjected to identification and multilocus sequence typing (MLST) analysis. The T4SS gene then underwent polymerase chain reaction amplification and sequencing analysis...
November 2017: Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29104169/asymptomatic-clostridium-difficile-carriage-rate-post-fecal-microbiota-transplant-is-low-a-prospective-clinical-and-stool-assessment
#7
Jessica R Allegretti, Andrew Allegretti, Emmalee Phelps, Huiping Xu, Zain Kassam, Monika Fischer
OBJECTIVES: We aimed to assess the asymptomatic C. difficile carriage rates following FMT. METHODS: All patients who underwent FMT for recurrent CDI via colonoscopy or sigmoidoscopy between June 2013 and April 2015 and had a minimum of 8-week follow-up post-FMT at two tertiary care referral centers were included in the study. Patients were prospectively followed both clinically and with stool assessments for 8 weeks post FMT. Assessments occurred at 1 week and 4 weeks post-FMT to assess for failure...
November 2, 2017: Clinical Microbiology and Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29103378/estimating-local-costs-associated-with-clostridium-difficile-infection-using-machine-learning-and-electronic-medical-records
#8
Theodore R Pak, Kieran I Chacko, Timothy O'Donnell, Shirish S Huprikar, Harm van Bakel, Andrew Kasarskis, Erick R Scott
BACKGROUND Reported per-patient costs of Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) vary by 2 orders of magnitude among different hospitals, implying that infection control officers need precise, local analyses to guide rational decision making between interventions. OBJECTIVE We sought to comprehensively estimate changes in length of stay (LOS) attributable to CDI at a single urban tertiary-care facility using only data automatically extractable from the electronic medical record (EMR). METHODS We performed a retrospective cohort study of 171,938 visits spanning a 7-year period...
November 6, 2017: Infection Control and Hospital Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29103266/high-frequency-of-enteric-protozoan-viral-and-bacterial-potential-pathogens-in-community-acquired-acute-diarrheal-episodes-evidence-based-on-results-of-luminex-gastrointestinal-pathogen-panel-assay
#9
Yousry A Hawash, Khadiga A Ismail, Mazen Almehmadi
Infectious diarrhea is endemic in most developing countries. We aimed to investigate the protozoan, viral, and bacterial causes of acute diarrhea in Taif, Saudi Arabia. A cross-sectional prospective 1-year study was conducted on 163 diarrheal patients of various ages. Stool samples were collected, 1 per patient, and tested for 3 protozoa, 3 viruses, and 9 bacteria with the Luminex Gastrointestinal Pathogen Panel. Overall, 53.4% (87/163) of samples were positives (20.8% protozoa, 19.6% viruses, 2.8% bacteria, and 9...
October 2017: Korean Journal of Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29099941/formula-feeding-predisposes-neonatal-piglets-to-clostridium-difficile-gut-infection
#10
Lukasz Grzeskowiak, Beatriz Martínez-Vallespín, Temesgen H Dadi, Judith Radloff, Salah Amasheh, Femke-Anouska Heinsen, Andre Franke, Knut Reinert, Wilfried Vahjen, Jürgen Zentek, Robert Pieper
Spontaneous Clostridium difficile (CD) outbreaks occur in neonatal piglets but the predisposing factors are largely not known. To study the conditions for CD colonisation and infection development, neonatal piglets (n=48) were moved into isolators, fed bovine milk-based formula and infected with CD 078. Analyses included: clinical scoring; faecal CD, toxin B, calprotectin; post-mortem colon histopathology. Controls were non-infected suckling piglets. Faeces from suckling, formula-fed and formula-fed-CD-infected piglets were used for metagenomics...
November 1, 2017: Journal of Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29084080/metronidazole-or-rifaximin-for-treatment-of-clostridium-difficile-in-pediatric-patients-with-inflammatory-bowel-disease-a-randomized-clinical-trial
#11
Agnieszka Gawronska, Marcin Banasiuk, Dominika Lachowicz, Hanna Pituch, Piotr Albrecht, Aleksandra Banaszkiewicz
BACKGROUND: Interestingly, Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) worsens the course of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD); however, there is a paucity of data regarding the treatment of CDI in this group of patients. METHODS: This was a prospective, single-blind trial. Children with flare of IBD and CDI were randomly assigned to receive metronidazole or rifaximin orally for 14 days. CDI was diagnosed based on a positive well-type enzyme immunoassay (EIA) toxins A/B stool test for C...
December 2017: Inflammatory Bowel Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29067987/toxigenic-clostridium-difficile-isolates-from-clinically-significant-diarrhoea-in-patients-from-a-tertiary-care-centre
#12
Meenakshi Singh, Chetana Vaishnavi, Rakesh Kochhar, Safrun Mahmood
BACKGROUND & OBJECTIVES: Clostridium difficile is the primary cause of hospital-acquired colitis in patients receiving antibiotics. The pathogenicity of the organism is mainly due to the production of toxins. This study was conducted to investigate the presence of toxigenic C. difficile in the faecal samples of hospitalized patients suspected to have C. difficile infection (CDI) and corroborating the findings with their clinical and demographic data. METHODS: Diarrhoeic samples obtained from 1110 hospitalized patients were cultured for C...
June 2017: Indian Journal of Medical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29066403/the-closer-study-results-from-a-three-year-pan-european-longitudinal-surveillance-of-antibiotic-resistance-among-prevalent-clostridium-difficile-ribotypes-2011-2014
#13
Jane Freeman, Jonathan Vernon, Sally Pilling, Kirsti Morris, Scott Nicholson, Sharie Shearman, Chris Longshaw, Mark H Wilcox
OBJECTIVES: Until the introduction of fidaxomicin, antimicrobial treatment for Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) was limited to metronidazole and vancomycin. The changing epidemiology of CDI and emergence of epidemic C. difficile PCR ribotype 027 necessitates continued surveillance to identify shifts in antibiotic susceptibility. ClosER, currently the largest pan-European epidemiological study of C. difficile ribotype distribution and antibiotic susceptibility, aimed to undertake antimicrobial resistance surveillance pre- and post-introduction of fidaxomicin...
October 21, 2017: Clinical Microbiology and Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29066337/clostridium-difficile-causing-pediatric-infections-new-findings-from-a-hospital-based-study-in-italy
#14
Patrizia Spigaglia, Fabrizio Barbanti, Elio Castagnola, Maria Cristina Diana, Luisa Pescetto, Roberto Bandettini
Recent studies support a change of Clostridium difficile infections (CDIs) epidemiology in pediatric patients. Since limited information is available about C. difficile in this population, we investigated the epidemiology of CDI in a large pediatric hospital that acts as reference centre in Italy and analyzed C. difficile isolates to identify the prevalent PCR-ribotypes (RTs), the binary toxin (CDT)-positive strains and the antibiotic susceptibility patterns. The CDI incidence was 6.6 cases/1000 admissions and the majority (92%) of CDI were healthcare-associated (47% occurred in the Hematology-Oncology and in the Gastroenterology units)...
October 21, 2017: Anaerobe
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29050666/the-contribution-of-bacteriophages-to-the-biology-and-virulence-of-pathogenic-clostridia
#15
Louis-Charles Fortier
Bacteriophages are key players in the evolution of most bacteria. Temperate phages have been associated with virulence of some of the deadliest pathogenic bacteria. Among the most notorious cases, the genes encoding the botulinum neurotoxin produced by Clostridium botulinum types C and D and the α-toxin (TcnA) produced by Clostridium novyi are both encoded within prophage genomes. Clostridium difficile is another important human pathogen and the recent identification of a complete binary toxin locus (CdtLoc) carried on a C...
2017: Advances in Applied Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29048477/the-role-of-toxins-in-clostridium-difficile-infection
#16
Ramyavardhanee Chandrasekaran, D Borden Lacy
Clostridium difficile is a bacterial pathogen that is the leading cause of nosocomial antibiotic-associated diarrhea and pseudomembranous colitis worldwide. The incidence, severity, mortality and healthcare costs associated with C. difficile infection (CDI) are rising, making C. difficile a major threat to public health. Traditional treatments for CDI involve use of antibiotics such as metronidazole and vancomycin, but disease recurrence occurs in about 30% of patients, highlighting the need for new therapies...
November 1, 2017: FEMS Microbiology Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29044436/preterm-infant-associated-clostridium-tertium-clostridium-cadaveris-and-clostridium-paraputrificum-strains-genomic-and-evolutionary-insights
#17
Raymond Kiu, Shabhonam Caim, Cristina Alcon-Giner, Gusztav Belteki, Paul Clarke, Derek Pickard, Gordon Dougan, Lindsay J Hall
Clostridium species (particularly Clostridium difficile, Clostridium botulinum, Clostridium tetani and Clostridium perfringens) are associated with a range of human and animal diseases. Several other species including Clostridium tertium, Clostridium cadaveris, and Clostridium paraputrificum have also been linked with sporadic human infections, however there is very limited, or in some cases, no genomic information publicly available. Thus, we isolated one C. tertium strain, one C. cadaveris strain and three C...
October 1, 2017: Genome Biology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29040788/familial-mediterranean-fever-mutations-are-hypermorphic-mutations-that-specifically-decrease-the-activation-threshold-of-the-pyrin-inflammasome
#18
Yvan Jamilloux, Lucie Lefeuvre, Flora Magnotti, Amandine Martin, Sarah Benezech, Omran Allatif, Mathilde Penel-Page, Véronique Hentgen, Pascal Sève, Mathieu Gerfaud-Valentin, Agnès Duquesne, Marine Desjonquères, Audrey Laurent, Vanessa Rémy-Piccolo, Rolando Cimaz, Luca Cantarini, Emilie Bourdonnay, Thierry Walzer, Bénédicte F Py, Alexandre Belot, Thomas Henry
Objectives: FMF is the most frequent autoinflammatory disease and is associated in most patients with bi-allelic MEFV mutations. MEFV encodes Pyrin, an inflammasome sensor activated following RhoGTPase inhibition. The functional consequences of MEFV mutations on the ability of Pyrin variants to act as inflammasome sensors are largely unknown. The aim of this study was to assess whether MEFV mutations affect the ability of Pyrin to detect RhoGTPase inhibition and other inflammasome stimuli...
October 12, 2017: Rheumatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29038278/fidaxomicin-and-op-1118-inhibit-c-difficile-toxin-a-and-b-mediated-inflammatory-responses-via-inhibition-of-nf-%C3%AE%C2%BAb-activity
#19
Hon Wai Koon, Jiani Wang, Caroline C Mussatto, Christina Ortiz, Elaine C Lee, Diana Hoang-Ngoc Tran, Xinhua Chen, Ciaran P Kelly, Charalabos Pothoulakis
Objective:Clostridium difficile causes diarrhea and colitis by releasing toxin A and toxin B. In the human colon, both toxins cause intestinal inflammation and stimulate TNFα expression via activation of NF-κB. It is well established that the macrolide antibiotic fidaxomicin is associated with reduced relapses of C. difficile infection. We showed that fidaxomicin and its primary metabolite, OP-1118, significantly inhibited toxin A-mediated intestinal inflammation in mice in vivo and toxin A-induced cell rounding in vitro We aim to determine whether fidaxomicin and OP-1118 possess anti-inflammatory effects against toxin A and toxin B in the human colon and examine the mechanism of this response...
October 16, 2017: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29037938/non-clostridium-difficile-bacterial-infections-are-rare-in-patients-with-flares-of-inflammatory-bowel-disease
#20
Yuri Hanada, Sahil Khanna, Edward V Loftus, Laura E Raffals, Darrell S Pardi
BACKGROUND & AIMS: Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) causes flares in patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). We investigated the frequency and outcomes of non-CDI bacterial enteric infections in symptomatic patients with IBD. METHODS: We performed a retrospective study of patients with ulcerative colitis (UC) or Crohn's disease (CD) from whom stool samples were collected and analyzed by PCR or culture for bacterial pathogens (Campylobacter jejuni or C coli, Salmonella species, Shigella species, entero-invasive Escherichia coli, shiga toxin-producing E coli, or Yersinia species) from November 19, 2011, through June 30, 2014...
October 13, 2017: Clinical Gastroenterology and Hepatology
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