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Clostridium Difficile Toxin

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27908697/clostridium-difficile-carriage-in-adult-cystic-fibrosis-cf-implications-for-patients-with-cf-and-the-potential-for-transmission-of-nosocomial-infection
#1
D G Burke, M J Harrison, C Fleming, M McCarthy, C Shortt, I Sulaiman, D M Murphy, J A Eustace, F Shanahan, C Hill, C Stanton, M C Rea, R P Ross, B J Plant
Clostridium difficile is an anaerobic Gram-positive, spore-forming, toxin-producing bacillus transmitted among humans through the faecal-oral route. Despite increasing carriage rates and the presence of C. difficile toxin in stool, patients with CF rarely appear to develop typical manifestations of C. difficile infection (CDI). In this study, we examined the carriage, toxin production, ribotype distribution and antibiotic susceptibility of C. difficile in a cohort of 60 adult patients with CF who were pre-lung transplant...
November 29, 2016: Journal of Cystic Fibrosis: Official Journal of the European Cystic Fibrosis Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27906466/duodenitis-proximal-jejunitis-in-horses-after-experimental-administration-of-clostridium-difficile-toxins
#2
L G Arroyo, M C Costa, B B Guest, B L Plattner, B N Lillie, J S Weese
BACKGROUND: Duodenitis-proximal jejunitis (DPJ) is an acute sporadic gastrointestinal disorder of horses of unknown cause. HYPOTHESIS/OBJECTIVES: We hypothesize that Clostridium difficile toxins are involved in the pathogenesis of DPJ in horses. The objective of this study was to determine whether experimentally delivered C. difficile toxins cause clinical signs and histologic lesions similar to those of naturally occurring DPJ. ANIMALS: Six healthy mature mixed breed horses...
December 1, 2016: Journal of Veterinary Internal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27905086/bezlotoxumab-first-global-approval
#3
Anthony Markham
Bezlotoxumab (Zinplava™) is a human monoclonal antibody against Clostridium difficile toxin B developed by Merck & Co. In October 2016 it was approved in the USA for reducing the recurrence of C. difficile infection. This article summarizes the milestones in the development of bezlotoxumab leading to this first approval for use in patients receiving antibacterial drug treatment for C. difficile infection who are at high risk for recurrence of C. difficile infection.
November 30, 2016: Drugs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27891552/enteric-glial-cells-are-susceptible-to-clostridium-difficile-toxin-b
#4
Katia Fettucciari, Pamela Ponsini, Davide Gioè, Lara Macchioni, Camilla Palumbo, Elisabetta Antonelli, Stefano Coaccioli, Vincenzo Villanacci, Lanfranco Corazzi, Pierfrancesco Marconi, Gabrio Bassotti
Clostridium difficile causes nosocomial/antibiotic-associated diarrhoea and pseudomembranous colitis. The major virulence factors are toxin A and toxin B (TcdB), which inactivate GTPases by monoglucosylation, leading to cytopathic (cytoskeleton alteration, cell rounding) and cytotoxic effects (cell-cycle arrest, apoptosis). C. difficile toxins breaching the intestinal epithelial barrier can act on underlying cells, enterocytes, colonocytes, and enteric neurons, as described in vitro and in vivo, but until now no data have been available on enteric glial cell (EGC) susceptibility...
November 28, 2016: Cellular and Molecular Life Sciences: CMLS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27876339/diagnosis-and-treatment-of-clostridium-difficile-c-diff-colitis-review-of-the-literature-and-a-perspective-in-gynecologic-oncology
#5
REVIEW
Kristin N Taylor, Michael T McHale, Cheryl C Saenz, Steven C Plaxe
Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) is a major cause of nosocomial diarrhea with the potential for significant morbidity and mortality. Colonization in a susceptible individual, with risk factors such as prior antibiotic use, advanced age, or medical comorbidities, may result in symptomatic infection. Although patients with a gynecologic malignancy may be at a higher risk of developing CDI due to an increased likelihood of having one or more risk factors, data do not consistently support the idea that chemotherapy or cancer itself are independently associated with CDI...
November 19, 2016: Gynecologic Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27861606/predominance-of-clostridium-difficile-ribotypes-017-and-078-among-toxigenic-clinical-isolates-in-southern-taiwan
#6
Yuan-Pin Hung, I-Hsiu Huang, Hsiao-Ju Lin, Bo-Yang Tsai, Hsiao-Chieh Liu, Hsiu-Chuan Liu, Jen-Chieh Lee, Yi-Hui Wu, Pei-Jane Tsai, Wen-Chien Ko
Ribotypes and toxin genotypes of clinical C. difficile isolates in Taiwan are rarely reported. A prospective surveillance study from January 2011 to January 2013 was conducted at the medical wards of a district hospital in southern Taiwan. Of the first toxigenic isolates from 120 patients, 68 (56.7%) of 120 isolates possessed both tcdA and tcdB. Of 52 (43.3%) with tcdB and truncated tcdA (tcdA-/tcdB+), all were ribotype 017 and none had binary toxin or tcdC deletion. Eighteen (15%) toxigenic isolates harbored binary toxins (cdtA and cdtB) and all had tcdC deletion, including Δ39 (C184T) deletion (14 isolates), Δ18 in-frame deletion (3 isolates), and Δ18 (Δ117A) deletion (1 isolate)...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27860399/toxin-a-of-the-nosocomial-pathogen-clostridium-difficile-induces-primary-effects-in-the-proteome-of-hep-2-cells
#7
Johannes Junemann, Gurbet Birgin, Jelena Erdmann, Anke Schröder, Ingo Just, Ralf Gerhard, Andreas Pich
PURPOSE: This study was carried out to investigate the impact of high concentrations of Clostridium difficile toxin A (TcdA) on the proteome of human cells. It should also be examined whether a catalytically deficient mutant (TcdANXN ) has an effect on target cells. EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN: Proteome changes were investigated after treatment of HEp-2 cells with 20 nM TcdA for 8 h using a triplex SILAC labeling method and shotgun proteomics. Proteins from differently labeled and treated cells were combined for analysis using an HPLC coupled to an Orbitrap mass spectrometer...
November 10, 2016: Proteomics. Clinical Applications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27852676/detection-of-clostridium-difficile-in-feces-of-asymptomatic-patients-admitted-to-the-hospital
#8
Elisabeth M Terveer, Monique J T Crobach, Ingrid M J G Sanders, Margreet C Vos, Cees M Verduin, Ed J Kuijper
Recent evidence shows that patients asymptomatically colonized with Clostridium difficile may contribute to the transmission of C. difficile in healthcare facilities. Additionally, these patients may have a higher risk of developing C. difficile infection. The aim of this study was to compare a commercially available PCR directed to both toxin A as B (artus C. difficile QS-RGQ Kit CE, QIAGEN), an Enzyme Linked Fluorescent Assay to Glutamate Dehydrogenase (GDH ELFA, VIDAS, bioMérieux), and an in-house developed PCR to TcdB, with (toxigenic) culture of C...
November 16, 2016: Journal of Clinical Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27846818/asymptomatic-and-yet-c-difficile-toxin-positive-prevalence-and-risk-factors-of-carriers-of-toxigenic-clostridium-difficile-among-geriatric-in-patients
#9
Klaus Nissle, Daniel Kopf, Alexander Rösler
BACKGROUND: Clostridium difficile infections (CDI) are the most frequent cause of diarrhoea in hospitals. Geriatric patients are more often affected by the condition, by a relapse and complications. Therefore, a crucial question is how often colonization with toxigenic Clostridium difficile strains occurs in elderly patients without diarrhoea and whether there is a "risk pattern" of colonized patients that can be defined by geriatric assessment. Furthermore, the probability for those asymptomatic carriers to develop a symptomatic infection over time has not been sufficiently explored...
November 15, 2016: BMC Geriatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27833595/chemical-and-stress-resistances-of-clostridium-difficile-spores-and-vegetative-cells
#10
Adrianne N Edwards, Samiha T Karim, Ricardo A Pascual, Lina M Jowhar, Sarah E Anderson, Shonna M McBride
Clostridium difficile is a Gram-positive, sporogenic and anaerobic bacterium that causes a potentially fatal colitis. C. difficile enters the body as dormant spores that germinate in the colon to form vegetative cells that secrete toxins and cause the symptoms of infection. During transit through the intestine, some vegetative cells transform into spores, which are more resistant to killing by environmental insults than the vegetative cells. Understanding the inherent resistance properties of the vegetative and spore forms of C...
2016: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27829823/a-new-lab-developed-real-time-pcr-assay-for-direct-detection-of-c-difficle-from-stool-sample-without-dna-extraction
#11
Brandon Li
Clostridium difficile is a major cause of nosocomial antibiotic-associated infectious diarrhea and pseudomembranous colitis. Detection of C. difficile by anaerobic bacterial culture and/or cytotoxicity assays has been largely replaced by rapid enzyme immunoassays (EIA). However, due to the lack of sensitivity of stool EIA, we developed a multiplex real-time PCR assay targeting the C. difficile toxin genes tcdB. stool samples from hospitalized pediatric patients suspected of having C. difficile-associated disease were prospectively collected...
September 2016: International Journal of Biomedical Science: IJBS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27826799/colon-targeted-delivery-of-igy-against-clostridium-difficile-toxin-a-and-b-by-encapsulation-in-chitosan-ca-pectinate-microbeads
#12
Pingping Xing, Yanan Shi, Chuangchuang Dong, Hong Liu, Yan Cheng, Junbo Sun, Dalei Li, Min Li, Kaoxiang Sun, Dongxiao Feng
This study investigated the use of a newly developed chitosan-Ca pectinate microbead formulation for the colon-targeted delivery of anti-A/B toxin immunoglobulin of egg yolk (IgY) to inhibit toxin binding to colon mucosa cells. The effect of the three components (pectinate, calcium chloride, and chitosan) used for the microbead production was examined with the aim of identifying the optimal levels to improve drug encapsulation efficiency, swelling ratio, and cumulative IgY release rate. The optimized IgY-loaded bead component was pectin 5% (w/v), CaCl2 3% (w/v), and chitosan 0...
November 8, 2016: AAPS PharmSciTech
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27825674/influence-of-antibiotics-and-case-exposure-on-hospital-acquired-clostridium-difficile-infection-independent-of-illness-severity
#13
A J Forster, N Daneman, C van Walraven
BACKGROUND: Previous studies of the association between antibiotic exposure and risk of hospital-acquired Clostridium difficile-associated infection (CDI) have not fully accounted for patient severity of illness, and competing risks. AIM: To determine the potential effects of interventions on hospital-acquired CDI risk. METHODS: All adults admitted to a teaching hospital between 2004 and 2014 for more than two days were included. Exposures to all antibiotics and cases of CDI were determined...
October 14, 2016: Journal of Hospital Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27825317/epidemiology-and-outcome-of%C3%A2-clostridium-difficile%C3%A2-infections-in-patients-hospitalized-in-internal-medicine-%C3%A2-findings-from-the-nationwide-fadoi-practice-study
#14
Giorgio Cioni, Pierluigi Viale, Stefania Frasson, Francesco Cipollini, Francesco Menichetti, Nicola Petrosillo, Sergio Brunati, Patrizia Spigaglia, Chiara Vismara, Alessandra Bielli, Fabrizio Barbanti, Giancarlo Landini, Grazia Panigada, Gualberto Gussoni, Erminio Bonizzoni, Giovanni Pietro Gesu
BACKGROUND: Clostridium difficile (CD) is a leading cause of diarrhoea among hospitalized patients. The objective of this study was to evaluate the rate, the optimal diagnostic work-up, and outcome of CD infections (CDI) in Internal Medicine (IM) wards in Italy. METHODS: PRACTICE is an observational prospective study, involving 40 IM Units and evaluating all consecutive patients hospitalized during a 4-month period. CDI were defined in case of diarrhoea when both enzyme immunoassay for GDH, and test for A/B toxin were positive...
November 8, 2016: BMC Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27817758/a-comprehensive-study-of-costs-associated-with-recurrent-clostridium-difficile-infection
#15
Rodrigo Rodrigues, Grant E Barber, Ashwin N Ananthakrishnan
BACKGROUND Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) is the most common healthcare-associated infection and is associated with considerable morbidity. Recurrent CDI is a key contributing factor to this morbidity. Despite an estimated 83,000 recurrences annually in the United States, there are few accurate estimates of costs associated with recurrent CDI. OBJECTIVE We performed this study (1) to identify the health consequences of recurrent CDI including need for repeat hospitalization, intensive care unit (ICU) stay, and surgery; (2) to determine costs associated with recurrent CDI and identify determinants of such costs; and (3) to compare the outcomes and costs of recurrent CDI to those who develop reinfection...
November 7, 2016: Infection Control and Hospital Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27807147/a-comparison-of-clostridium-difficile-ribotypes-circulating-in-australian-hospitals-and-communities
#16
Luis Furuya-Kanamori, Thomas V Riley, David L Paterson, Niki F Foster, Charlotte A Huber, Stacey Hong, Tiffany Harris-Brown, Jenny Robson, Archie C A Clements
Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) is becoming less exclusively a healthcare-associated (HA) infection. Community-associated (CA)-CDI has increased over the past decades. It has been postulated that asymptomatic toxigenic C. difficile (TCD)-colonised patients may play a role in the transfer of C. difficile between the hospital setting and the community. Thus, to investigate the relatedness of C. difficile across the hospital and community settings, we compared host and pathogen characteristics among symptomatic and asymptomatic patients in these two settings over a 3-year period...
November 2, 2016: Journal of Clinical Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27796474/-clostridium-difficile-infection-what-is-currently-available-for-treatment
#17
A Stallmach
Clostridium difficile (C. difficile) is an anaerobic, Gram-positive, spore-forming, toxin-secreting bacillus. It is transmitted via a fecal-oral route and can be found in 1-3 % of the healthy population. Symptoms caused by C. difficile range from uncomplicated diarrhea to a toxic megacolon. The incidence, frequency of recurrence, and mortality rate of C. difficile infections (CDIs) have increased significantly over the past few decades. The most important risk factor is antibiotic treatment in elderly patients and patients with severe comorbidities...
December 2016: Der Internist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27793509/toxin-profiles-pcr-ribotypes-and-resistance-patterns-of-clostridium-difficile-a-multicentre-study-in-china-2012-2013
#18
Qiong Gao, Shi Wu, Haihui Huang, Yuxing Ni, Ye Chen, Yunjian Hu, Yunsong Yu
A total of 178 clinical isolates of Clostridium difficile were collected from five major teaching hospitals representing northern, eastern and southern China from August 2012 to July 2013. Among the 178 isolates, 162 (91.0%) were toxigenic, including 66 (40.7%) toxin A-negative, toxin B-positive, 95 (58.6%) toxin A-positive, toxin B-positive and only 1 (0.6%) toxin A-, toxin B- and binary toxin-positive. Twenty-nine different PCR ribotypes were identified, of which 017 (21.0%), 012 (17.3%) and novel type H (16...
October 17, 2016: International Journal of Antimicrobial Agents
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27788814/identification-of-risk-factors-associated-with-clostridium-difficile-infection-in-liver-transplantation-recipients-a-single-center-analysis
#19
B G Rogala, G E Malat, D H Lee, M N Harhay, A M Doyle, T E Bias
Clostridium difficile remains the leading cause of health care-associated infectious diarrhea, and its incidence and severity are increasing in liver transplant recipients. Several known risk factors for C difficile infection (CDI) are inherently associated with liver transplantation, such as severe underlying illness, immunosuppression, abdominal surgery, and broad-spectrum antibiotic use. We conducted a single-center retrospective case control study to characterize risk factors for CDI among patients who received a liver transplant from January 2008 to December 2012...
October 2016: Transplantation Proceedings
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27785569/-clostridium-difficile-infections-in-geriatric-patients
#20
R Simmerlein, A Basta, M Gosch
Clostridium difficile is the main cause of nosocomial antibiotic-associated diarrhea in adults in Europe and North America. Infections with C. difficile typically occur in elderly patients with comorbidities and prior antibiotic therapy. Other risk factors are proton pump inhibitors, which are taken by many elderly patients. The main virulence factors are toxins A and B. The clinical spectrum ranges from asymptomatic colonization to severe disease with abdominal complications and sepsis. The current diagnostic gold standard is anaerobic culture but is impractical in routine use due to the long duration...
October 26, 2016: Zeitschrift Für Gerontologie und Geriatrie
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