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Clostridium Difficile Toxin

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29788418/efficacy-of-bezlotoxumab-based-on-timing-of-administration-relative-to-start-of-antibacterial-therapy-for-clostridium-difficile-infection
#1
Thomas Birch, Yoav Golan, Giuliano Rizzardini, Erin Jensen, Lori Gabryelski, Dalya Guris, Mary Beth Dorr
Background: The fully human monoclonal antibody bezlotoxumab binds Clostridioides (Clostridium) difficile toxin B and reduces recurrence rates in patients with C. difficile infection (CDI) receiving antibacterial treatment for a primary or recurrent episode. Objectives: To investigate whether the timing of bezlotoxumab administration relative to the onset of antibacterial treatment affected clinical outcome in the Phase 3 trials MODIFY I (NCT01241552) and MODIFY II (NCT01513239)...
May 16, 2018: Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29781761/prevention-and-treatment-of-clostridium-difficile-associated-diarrhea-by-reconstitution-of-the-microbiota
#2
Noa Eliakim-Raz, Jihad Bishara
This review summarizes the latest advances in treating and preventing Clostridium difficile infection (CDI), the most common infectious disease cause of nosocomial diarrhea in adults in developed countries. As customary antibiotic therapies against C. difficile, metronidazole and vancomycin, are broad spectrum, they affect greatly the gut microbiota, which result in very high recurrence rates. Therefore, new strategies are researched intensively. New therapies focus on limiting further destruction of the gut microbiota or restoring the microbiota to its pre-destructed state...
May 21, 2018: Human Vaccines & Immunotherapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29760687/molecular-characterization-of-clostridium-difficil-e-isolates-in-china-from-2010-to-2015
#3
Xiao-Shu Liu, Wen-Ge Li, Wen-Zhu Zhang, Yuan Wu, Jin-Xing Lu
Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) has become a worldwide public health problem causing high mortality and a large disease burden. Molecular typing and analysis is important for surveillance and infection control of CDI. However, molecular characterization of C . difficile across China is extremely rare. Here, we report on the toxin profiles, molecular subtyping with multilocus sequence typing (MLST) and PCR ribotyping, and epidemiological characteristics of 199 C. difficile isolates collected between 2010 through 2015 from 13 participating centers across China...
2018: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29760211/updates-to-clostridium-difficile-spore-germination
#4
Travis J Kochan, Matthew H Foley, Michelle S Shoshiev, Madeline J Somers, Paul E Carlson, Philip C Hanna
Germination of Clostridium difficile spores is a crucial early requirement for colonization of the gastrointestinal tract. Likewise, C. difficile cannot cause disease pathologies unless their spores germinate into metabolically active, toxin-producing cells. Recent advances in our understanding of C. difficile spore germination mechanisms indicate that this process is both complex and unique. This review defines unique aspects of the germination pathways of C. difficile and compares them to two other well-studied organisms, Bacillus anthracis and Clostridium perfringens C...
May 14, 2018: Journal of Bacteriology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29759083/hypertrophic-osteoarthropathy-mimicking-a-reactive-arthritis-a-case-report-and-review-of-the-literature
#5
Francesco Bozzao, Stella Bernardi, Franca Dore, Lorenzo Zandonà, Fabio Fischetti
BACKGROUND: Hypertrophic osteoarthropathy (HOA) is a syndrome characterized by abnormal proliferation of skin and periosteal tissues of the extremities. It can be a rare hereditary disease (pachydermoperiostosis) or can be secondary to various diseases, though mostly lung malignancies. Here, we report an unusual clinical presentation of HOA. CASE PRESENTATION: A 77-year-old man presented with fever, diarrhea, and an oligoarthritis involving the left knee and the ankles...
May 14, 2018: BMC Musculoskeletal Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29748286/structural-basis-for-recognition-of-frizzled-proteins-by-clostridium-difficile-toxin-b
#6
Peng Chen, Liang Tao, Tianyu Wang, Jie Zhang, Aina He, Kwok-Ho Lam, Zheng Liu, Xi He, Kay Perry, Min Dong, Rongsheng Jin
Clostridium difficile infection is the most common cause of antibiotic-associated diarrhea in developed countries. The major virulence factor, C. difficile toxin B (TcdB), targets colonic epithelia by binding to the frizzled (FZD) family of Wnt receptors, but how TcdB recognizes FZDs is unclear. Here, we present the crystal structure of a TcdB fragment in complex with the cysteine-rich domain of human FZD2 at 2.5-angstrom resolution, which reveals an endogenous FZD-bound fatty acid acting as a co-receptor for TcdB binding...
May 11, 2018: Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29743839/is-clostridium-difficile-infection-a-real-threat-in-patients-with-ulcerative-colitis-a-prospective-multicenter-study-in-korea
#7
Dae Bum Kim, Kang-Moon Lee, Sang Hyoung Park, You Sun Kim, Eun Soo Kim, Jun Lee, Sung-Ae Jung, Geom Seog Seo, Ji Min Lee
Background/Aims: Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) has been reported to be a cause of flare-ups in patients with ulcerative colitis (UC). We evaluated the prevalence and clinical outcomes of CDI in patients with UC hospitalized for flare-ups. Methods: This was a prospective, multicenter study including 7 academic teaching hospitals in Korea. All consecutive patients with UC admitted for disease flare-up were enrolled. We detected the presence of CDI by using enzyme immunoassay, real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) for toxin genes, and sigmoidoscopy...
April 2018: Intestinal Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29743303/searching-for-a-potential-algorithm-for-clostridium-difficile-testing-at-a-tertiary-care-hospital-does-toxin-enzyme-immunoassay-testing-help
#8
Angela M Theiss, Agnes Balla, Angie Ross, Denise Francis, Christina Wojewoda
Clostridium difficile is a major contributor to morbidity and mortality in the United States. Methods for identifying the organism in stool include molecular platforms, enzyme immunoassays for toxin, and culture. Controversy persists over whether molecular tests are too sensitive at identifying C. difficile and have raised questions about how additional laboratory information could inform clinical management and reduce over treatment. The aim of this study was to assess whether clinical factors were related to toxin status of patients and whether information about toxin status could potentially inform clinical management of patients...
May 9, 2018: Journal of Clinical Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29740244/prevalence-of-clostridium-difficile-in-raw-cow-sheep-and-goat-meat-in-jazan-saudi-arabia
#9
Marwah Bakri
Background:Clostridium difficile has been shown to be a nosocomial infection associated with diarrhoea and pseudomembranous colitis in hospitalized patients especially old patients. In my previous studies, it was shown the occurrence of C. difficile in animals feces and vegetables which may act as a source of infection to humans. The aim of the study was to determine the prevalence of C. difficile in retail raw cow, sheep, and goat, meat in Jazan, Saudi Arabia. Method: A total of 600 raw meat samples from cow, sheep, and goat were collected during June-December 2015, and tested for the presence of C...
May 2018: Saudi Journal of Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29720433/evaluation-of-the-use-of-rectal-swabs-for-the-laboratory-diagnosis-of-clostridium-difficile-infection
#10
N Jazmati, E Kirpal, E Piepenbrock, Y Stelzer, M J G T Vehreschild, H Seifert
Background: For the diagnosis of Clostridium difficile infection (CDI), microbiological testing is almost always accomplished through analysis of stool specimens. We evaluated the performance of rectal swabs with liquid transport medium (FS) and nylon flocked dry swabs for the detection of C. difficile Additionally, the impact on the diagnostic yield of storing swabs at -80°C for up to three months was evaluated. Methods: Sixty clinical stool samples positive for C. difficile by PCR were used for simulating rectal swabbing...
May 2, 2018: Journal of Clinical Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29718329/antimicrobial-susceptibility-and-ribotypes-of-clostridium-difficile-isolates-from-a-phase-2-clinical-trial-of-ridinilazole-smt19969-and-vancomycin
#11
David R Snydman, Laura A McDermott, Cheleste M Thorpe, Justin Chang, Jenna Wick, Seth T Walk, Richard J Vickers
Objectives: We evaluated the antimicrobial susceptibility and ribotypes of Clostridium difficile isolates from participants in a Phase 2 study of ridinilazole, a novel targeted-spectrum agent for treatment of C. difficile infection. Methods: Participants received ridinilazole (200 mg twice daily) or vancomycin (125 mg four times daily) for 10 days (ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT02092935). The MICs of ridinilazole and comparators for C. difficile isolates from stool samples were determined by agar dilution...
April 30, 2018: Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29718184/the-pyrin-inflammasome-from-sensing-rhoa-gtpases-inhibiting-toxins-to-triggering-autoinflammatory-syndromes
#12
Yvan Jamilloux, Flora Magnotti, Alexandre Belot, Thomas Henry
Numerous pathogens including Clostridium difficile and Yersinia pestis have evolved toxins or effectors targeting GTPases from the RhoA subfamily (RhoA/B/C) to inhibit or hijack the host cytoskeleton dynamics. The resulting impairment of RhoA GTPases activity is sensed by the host via an innate immune complex termed the pyrin inflammasome in which caspase-1 is activated. The cascade leading to activation of the pyrin inflammasome has been recently uncovered. In this review, following a brief presentation of RhoA GTPases-modulating toxins, we present the pyrin inflammasome and its regulatory mechanisms...
April 1, 2018: Pathogens and Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29713630/novel-antimicrobials-for-the-treatment-of-clostridium-difficile-infection
#13
REVIEW
Nicola Petrosillo, Guido Granata, Maria Adriana Cataldo
The current picture of Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) is alarming with a mortality rate ranging between 3% and 15% and a CDI recurrence rate ranging from 12% to 40%. Despite the great efforts made over the past 10 years to face the CDI burden, there are still gray areas in our knowledge on CDI management. The traditional anti-CDI antimicrobials are not always adequate in addressing the current needs in CDI management. The aim of our review is to give an update on novel antimicrobials for the treatment of CDI, considering the currently available evidences on their efficacy, safety, molecular mechanism of action, and their probability to be successfully introduced into the clinical practice in the near future...
2018: Frontiers in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29698754/hmw-profiling-using-maldi-tof-ms-a-screening-method-for-outbreaks-of-clostridioides-difficile
#14
Lucía Ortega, Anna Ryberg, Åsa Johansson
Clostridioides difficile (CD), previously known as Clostridium difficile, is an anaerobic Gram-positive rod-shaped bacterium that causes mild to severe diarrhea mainly in hospitalized patients. The bacteria are easily spread between patients and can persist in hospital wards due to its ability to form spores. An outbreak of CD causes great sufferings for patients and is in many aspects very expensive for the health care organization. Continuously monitoring circulating CD isolates in the hospital as well as being able to detect possible spread between patients at an early phase would be of great benefit...
April 23, 2018: Anaerobe
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29695310/effectiveness-of-probiotic-for-primary-prevention-of-clostridium-difficile-infection-a-single-center-before-and-after-quality-improvement-intervention-at-a-tertiary-care-medical-center
#15
William E Trick, Stephen J Sokalski, Stuart Johnson, Kristen L Bunnell, Joseph Levato, Michael J Ray, Robert A Weinstein
OBJECTIVETo evaluate probiotics for the primary prevention of Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) among hospital inpatients.DESIGNA before-and-after quality improvement intervention comparing 12-month baseline and intervention periods.SETTINGA 694-bed teaching hospital.INTERVENTIONWe administered a multispecies probiotic comprising L. acidophilus (CL1285), L. casei (LBC80R), and L. rhamnosus (CLR2) to eligible antibiotic recipients within 12 hours of initial antibiotic receipt through 5 days after final dose...
April 26, 2018: Infection Control and Hospital Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29692762/-clostridium-difficile-from-colonization-to-infection
#16
REVIEW
Holger Schäffler, Anne Breitrück
Clostridium difficile is the most frequent cause of nosocomial antibiotic-associated diarrhea. The incidence of C. difficile infection (CDI) has been rising worldwide with subsequent increases in morbidity, mortality, and health care costs. Asymptomatic colonization with C. difficile is common and a high prevalence has been found in specific cohorts, e.g., hospitalized patients, adults in nursing homes and in infants. However, the risk of infection with C. difficile differs significantly between these cohorts...
2018: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29690940/clinical-characteristics-and-outcomes-of-hematologic-malignancy-patients-with-positive-clostridium-difficile-toxin-immunoassay-versus-polymerase-chain-reaction-test-results
#17
Matthew Ziegler, Daniel Landsburg, David Pegues, Kevin Alby, Cheryl Gilmar, Kristen Bink, Theresa Gorman, Amy Moore, Brittaney Bonhomme, Jacqueline Omorogbe, Dana Tango, Pam Tolomeo, Jennifer H Han
In a cohort of inpatients with hematologic malignancy and positive enzyme immunoassay (EIA) or polymerase chain reaction (PCR) Clostridium difficile tests, we found that clinical characteristics and outcomes were similar between these groups. The method of testing is unlikely to predict infection in this population, and PCR-positive results should be treated with concern.Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol 2018;1-4.
April 25, 2018: Infection Control and Hospital Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29686297/microbiota-accessible-carbohydrates-suppress-clostridium-difficile-infection-in-a-murine-model
#18
Andrew J Hryckowian, William Van Treuren, Samuel A Smits, Nicole M Davis, Jackson O Gardner, Donna M Bouley, Justin L Sonnenburg
Clostridium difficile is an opportunistic diarrhoeal pathogen, and C. difficile infection (CDI) represents a major health care concern, causing an estimated 15,000 deaths per year in the United States alone 1 . Several enteric pathogens, including C. difficile, leverage inflammation and the accompanying microbial dysbiosis to thrive in the distal gut 2 . Although diet is among the most powerful available tools for affecting the health of humans and their relationship with their microbiota, investigation into the effects of diet on CDI has been limited...
April 23, 2018: Nature Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29685855/molecular-epidemiologic-study-of-clostridium-difficile-infections-in-university-hospitals-results-of-a-nationwide-study-in-japan
#19
Issei Tokimatsu, Katsumi Shigemura, Kayo Osawa, Shinya Kinugawa, Koichi Kitagawa, Noriko Nakanishi, Hiroyuki Yoshida, Soichi Arakawa, Masato Fujisawa
We conducted a nationwide molecular epidemiological study of Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) in Japan investigated the correlation between the presence of binary toxin genes and CDI severity. This is the first report on molecular epidemiological analyses for CDI in multiple university hospitals in Japan, to our knowledge. We examined 124,484 hospitalized patients in 25 national and public university hospitals in Japan between December 2013 and March 2014, investigating antimicrobial susceptibilities and toxin-related genes for C...
April 20, 2018: Journal of Infection and Chemotherapy: Official Journal of the Japan Society of Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29684543/molecular-characterization-of-clostridium-difficile-isolated-from-carriage-and-association-of-its-pathogenicity-to-prevalent-toxic-genes
#20
Abdulwahab Ali Abuderman, Ayesha Mateen, Rabbani Syed, Mustafa Sawsan Aloahd
BACKGROUND: There are reports of non-toxigenic C. difficile strains from asymptomatic carriers are increasing source of transmission. Asymptomatic carriage transmission in the hospital or community settings might have changed over the years. Therefore, we initiated a prospective epidemiological study to define the risk factors and pathogenicity of asymptomatic C. difficile carriage. METHODS: Stools sample from 188 subjects with diarrhoea due to C. difficile toxin and colonization without diarrhoea was subjected to routine microbial culture, molecular characterization for identification of toxin genes and mechanisms of resistance in C...
April 20, 2018: Microbial Pathogenesis
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