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Clostridium Difficile Toxin

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28542111/clostridium-difficile-infection-in-solid-organ-transplant-recipients
#1
Deepa Nanayakkara, Neha Nanda
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) is a major healthcare-associated infection that causes significant morbidity and an economic impact in the United States. In this review, we provide an overview of Clostridium difficile infection in solid organ transplant recipients with an emphasis on recent literature. RECENT FINDINGS: C. difficile in solid organ transplant population has unique risk factors. Fecal microbiota transplantation has shown favorable results in treatment of recurrent C...
May 24, 2017: Current Opinion in Organ Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28536258/erratum-for-hong-et-al-mucosal-antibodies-to-the-c-terminus-of-toxin-a-prevent-colonization-of-clostridium-difficile
#2
Huynh A Hong, Krisztina Hitri, Siamand Hosseini, Natalia Kotowicz, Donna Bryan, Fatma Mawas, Anthony J Wilkinson, Annie van Broekhoven, Jonathan Kearsey, Simon M Cutting
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
June 2017: Infection and Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28536162/correction-for-cairns-et-al-comparative-genome-analysis-and-global-phylogeny-of-the-toxin-variant-clostridium-difficile-pcr-ribotype-017-reveals-the-evolution-of-two-independent-sublineages
#3
M D Cairns, M D Preston, C L Hall, D N Gerding, P M Hawkey, H Kato, H Kim, E J Kuijper, T D Lawley, H Pituch, S Reid, B Kullin, T V Riley, K Solomon, P J Tsai, J S Weese, R A Stabler, B W Wren
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
June 2017: Journal of Clinical Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28533127/primary-human-polarized-small-intestinal-epithelial-barriers-respond-differently-to-a-hazardous-and-an-innocuous-protein
#4
A D Eaton, C Zimmermann, B Delaney, B P Hurley
An experimental platform employing human derived intestinal epithelial cell (IEC) line monolayers grown on permeable Transwell(®) filters was previously investigated to differentiate between hazardous and innocuous proteins. This approach was effective at distinguishing these types of proteins and perturbation of monolayer integrity, particularly transepithelial electrical resistance (TEER), was the most sensitive indicator. In the current report, in vitro indicators of monolayer integrity, cytotoxicity, and inflammation were evaluated using primary (non-transformed) human polarized small intestinal epithelial barriers cultured on Transwell(®) filters to compare effects of a hazardous protein (Clostridium difficile Toxin A [ToxA]) and an innocuous protein (bovine serum albumin [BSA])...
May 19, 2017: Food and Chemical Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28533000/clinical-immunological-and-microbiological-predictors-of-poor-outcome-in-clostridium-difficile-infection
#5
E Reigadas, L Alcalá, M Marín, A Martín, E Bouza
BACKGROUND: Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) causes increased morbidity and mortality. Clinical data cannot clearly predict poor CDI outcome. Data on the value of microbiological predictors is scarce. OBJECTIVE: To identify early predictors of poor outcome of CDI. METHODS: We prospectively included patients with CDI aged >2years. Clinical, immunological (Toxin B IgG/Ig A and Toxin A IgG/Ig A), microbiological factors (bacterial load, toxin quantification, sporulation, germination, and metronidazole susceptibility) were evaluated to identify early independent predictors of poor outcome...
May 11, 2017: Diagnostic Microbiology and Infectious Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28527649/antimicrobial-activity-of-fidaxomicin-against-clostridium-difficile-clinical-isolates-in-aichi-area-in-japan
#6
Yuka Yamagishi, Naoya Nishiyama, Yusuke Koizumi, Yoko Matsukawa, Hiroyuki Suematsu, Mao Hagihara, Kiyomitsu Katsumata, Hiroshige Mikamo
We evaluated the susceptibility of 100 Japanese Clostridium difficile isolates to fidaxomicin, a new macrocyclic antibiotic. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) range of fidaxomicin was 0.03-0.5 μg/mL, with a MIC for inhibition of 50% (MIC50) of 0.12 μg/mL, and for inhibition of 90% (MIC90) of 0.25 μg/mL. We also evaluated the susceptibilities of the same 100 C. difficile isolates to vancomycin, metronidazole, moxifloxacin, clindamycin, meropenem, and ampicillin. Of all the antibiotics tested, fidaxomicin showed the most potent antimicrobial activity against this group of C...
May 17, 2017: Journal of Infection and Chemotherapy: Official Journal of the Japan Society of Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28527248/-clinical-and-demographic-profile-and-risk-factors-for-clostridium-difficile-infection
#7
Carlos Carvajal, Carlos Pacheco, Fabián Jaimes
INTRODUCTION: Clostridium difficile infection is the leading cause of nosocomial infectious diarrhea. The increasing incidence added to a lower rate of response to the initial treatment and higher rates of relapse has generated a higher burden of the disease. OBJECTIVE: To determine the clinical characteristics of hospitalized patients with C. difficile infection. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We made a nested case-cohort study. We reviewed medical records of the patients with nosocomial diarrhea for whom an assay for toxin A-B of C...
January 24, 2017: Biomédica: Revista del Instituto Nacional de Salud
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28513121/can-procalcitonin-contribute-to-the-diagnosis-of-clostridium-difficile-colitis
#8
Dvora S Shapiro, Reuven Friedmann, Ashraf Husseini, Hefziba Ivgi, Amos M Yinnon, Marc V Assous
BACKGROUND: It is a challenge to diagnosis Clostridium difficile colitis. OBJECTIVES: To determine, among patients who developed nosocomial diarrhea, whether serum procalcitonin (PCT) can distinguish between C. difficile toxin (CDT)-positive and CDT-negative patients. METHODS: This prospective study included 50 adults (>18 years) who developed diarrhea during hospitalization, 25 with a positive fecal test for CDT (study group) and 25 CDT negative (control group)...
May 2017: Israel Medical Association Journal: IMAJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28512094/intrinsic-toxin-derived-peptides-destabilize-and-inactivate-clostridium-difficile-tcdb
#9
Jason L Larabee, Sarah J Bland, Jonathan J Hunt, Jimmy D Ballard
Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) is a major cause of hospital-associated, antibiotic-induced diarrhea, which is largely mediated by the production of two large multidomain clostridial toxins, TcdA and TcdB. Both toxins coordinate the action of specific domains to bind receptors, enter cells, and deliver a catalytic fragment into the cytosol. This results in GTPase inactivation, actin disassembly, and cytotoxicity. TcdB in particular has been shown to encode a region covering amino acids 1753 to 1851 that affects epitope exposure and cytotoxicity...
May 16, 2017: MBio
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28501554/molecular-typing-of-clostridium-difficile-isolates-cultured-from-patient-stool-samples-and-gastroenterological-medical-devices-in-a-single-iranian-hospital
#10
Masoumeh Azimirad, Marcela Krutova, Otakar Nyc, Zahra Hasani, Leili Afrisham, Masoud Alebouyeh, Mohammad Reza Zali
This study aimed to characterize Clostridium difficile isolates cultured from stool samples of patients with C. difficile infection (CDI) and swabs from a medical environment in a gastroenterology centre in Tehran, Iran. A total of 158 samples (105 stool samples from hospitalized patients and 53 swabs from medical devices and the environment) were collected from January 2011 to August 2011 and investigated for the presence of C. difficile by direct anaerobic culture on a selective media for C. difficile. C...
May 10, 2017: Anaerobe
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28494766/filmarray%C3%A2-gi-panel-performance-for-the-diagnosis-of-acute-gastroenteritis-or-hemorragic-diarrhea
#11
Antonio Piralla, Giovanna Lunghi, Gianluigi Ardissino, Alessia Girello, Marta Premoli, Erika Bava, Milena Arghittu, Maria Rosaria Colombo, Alessandra Cognetto, Patrizia Bono, Giulia Campanini, Piero Marone, Fausto Baldanti
BACKGROUND: Acute gastroenteritis is a common cause of morbidity and mortality in humans worldwide. The rapid and specific identification of infectious agents is crucial for correct patient management. However, diagnosis of acute gastroenteritis is usually performed with diagnostic panels that include only a few pathogens. In the present bicentric study, the diagnostic value of FilmArray™ GI panels was assessed in unformed stool samples of patients with acute gastroenteritis and in a series of samples collected from pediatric patients with heamorragic diarrhea...
May 12, 2017: BMC Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28484490/intraluminal-administration-of-resiniferatoxin-protects-against-clostridium-difficile-toxin-a-induced-colitis
#12
Steven R Vigna
Clostridium difficile toxin A is a colonic inflammatory agent that acts partially by activation of TRPV1 (transient receptor potential vanilloid type 1). Resiniferatoxin (RTX) is an excitotoxin that activates TRPV1 at low concentrations and defunctionalizes TRPV1 at high concentrations. RTX at various doses was injected intraluminally into isolated ileal segments in anesthetized rats. After 3 hours, the treated segments were removed and inflammation was assessed. This acute treatment with RTX resulted in biphasic responses: (1) an increase in inflammation similar to that caused by toxin A and capsaicin at low doses of up to 100 ng RTX and (2) no inflammatory effect of RTX at higher doses (1-100 μg), consistent with a defunctionalizing or neurotoxic effect of RTX at high doses...
2017: Gastroenterology Research and Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28480750/bezlotoxumab-could-this-b-the-answer-for-clostridium-difficile-recurrence
#13
Ryan W Chapin, Tiffany Lee, Christopher McCoy, Carolyn D Alonso, Monica V Mahoney
OBJECTIVE: To review the pharmacology, pharmacokinetics, efficacy, safety, and place in therapy of bezlotoxumab (BEZ), a novel monoclonal antibody against Clostridium difficile toxin B. DATA SOURCES: A PubMed search was conducted for data between 1946 and April 2017 using MeSH terms bezlotoxumab, MK-6072, or MDX-1388 alone and the terms Clostridium difficile combined with monoclonal antibody or antitoxin. STUDY SELECTION AND DATA EXTRACTION: The literature search was limited to English-language studies that described clinical efficacy, safety, and pharmacokinetics in humans and animals...
May 1, 2017: Annals of Pharmacotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28480289/community-environmental-contamination-of-toxigenic-clostridium-difficile
#14
M Jahangir Alam, Seth T Walk, Bradley T Endres, Eugenie Basseres, Mohammed Khaleduzzaman, Jonathan Amadio, William L Musick, Jennifer L Christensen, Julie Kuo, Robert L Atmar, Kevin W Garey
BACKGROUND: Clostridium difficile infection is often considered to result from recent acquisition of a C difficile isolate in a healthcare setting. However, C difficile spores can persist for long periods of time, suggesting a potentially large community environmental reservoir. The objectives of this study were to assess community environmental contamination of toxigenic C difficile and to assess strain distribution in environmental versus clinical isolates. METHODS: From 2013 to 2015, we collected community environmental swabs from homes and public areas in Houston, Texas to assess C difficile contamination...
2017: Open Forum Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28480267/primary-outcomes-from-a-phase-3-randomized-double-blind-active-controlled-trial-of-surotomycin-in-subjects-with-clostridium-difficile-infection
#15
Vicente Boix, Richard N Fedorak, Kathleen M Mullane, Yves Pesant, Uschi Stoutenburgh, Mandy Jin, Adedayo Adedoyin, Laurent Chesnel, Dalya Guris, Kajal B Larson, Yoshihiko Murata
BACKGROUND: Although the incidence of Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) is increasing, available CDI treatment options are limited in terms of sustained response after treatment. This phase 3 trial assessed the efficacy and safety of surotomycin, a novel bactericidal cyclic lipopeptide, versus oral vancomycin in subjects with CDI. METHODS: In this randomized, double-blind, active-controlled, multicenter, international trial, subjects with CDI confirmed by a positive toxin result were randomized to receive surotomycin (250 mg twice daily) or vancomycin (125 mg 4 times daily) orally for 10 days...
2017: Open Forum Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28465256/a-combination-of-the-probiotic-and-prebiotic-product-can-prevent-the-germination-of-clostridium-difficile-spores-and-infection
#16
M Rätsep, S Kõljalg, E Sepp, I Smidt, K Truusalu, E Songisepp, J Stsepetova, P Naaber, R H Mikelsaar, M Mikelsaar
Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) is one of the most prevalent healthcare associated infections in hospitals and nursing homes. Different approaches are used for prevention of CDI. Absence of intestinal lactobacilli and bifidobacteria has been associated with C. difficile colonization in hospitalized patients. Our aim was to test a) the susceptibility of C. difficile strains of different origin and the intestinal probiotic Lactobacillus plantarum Inducia (DSM 21379) to various antimicrobial preparations incl...
April 29, 2017: Anaerobe
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28461207/efficacy-and-safety-of-ridinilazole-compared-with-vancomycin-for-the-treatment-of-clostridium-difficile-infection-a-phase-2-randomised-double-blind-active-controlled-non-inferiority-study
#17
Richard J Vickers, Glenn S Tillotson, Richard Nathan, Sabine Hazan, John Pullman, Christopher Lucasti, Kenneth Deck, Bruce Yacyshyn, Benedict Maliakkal, Yves Pesant, Bina Tejura, David Roblin, Dale N Gerding, Mark H Wilcox
BACKGROUND: Clostridium difficile infection is the most common health-care-associated infection in the USA. We assessed the safety and efficacy of ridinilazole versus vancomycin for treatment of C difficile infection. METHODS: We did a phase 2, randomised, double-blind, active-controlled, non-inferiority study. Participants with signs and symptoms of C difficile infection and a positive diagnostic test result were recruited from 33 centres in the USA and Canada and randomly assigned (1:1) to receive oral ridinilazole (200 mg every 12 h) or oral vancomycin (125 mg every 6 h) for 10 days...
April 28, 2017: Lancet Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28453386/collateral-damage-during-antibiotic-treatment-of-c-difficile-infection-in-the-aged-host-insights-into-why-recurrent-disease-happens
#18
Jae Hyun Shin, Cirle A Warren
Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) is one of the most common causes of healthcare-associated infections but an even bigger problem for the aging population. Advanced age leads to higher incidence, higher mortality, and higher recurrences. In our study, recently published in the Journal of Infectious Diseases, we investigated the effect of aging on CDI using a mouse model. We were able to demonstrate that aging leads to worse clinical outcomes, as well as lead to changes in microbiota composition and lower antibody production against C...
April 28, 2017: Gut Microbes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28441827/-colonization-rate-of-clostridium-difficile-in-healthy-children
#19
Y Wang, S Guo, C N Zhao, X W Xu
Objective: To learn the colonization of Clostridium difficile in local healthy children and to investigate the colonization rate and toxin types of Clostridium difficile at different ages. Method: From September 2014 to January 2015 in a case observational study, healthy children's fecal specimens from the health care department of Beijing Children's Hospital were collected. The children were divided into four groups according to age: <1 year old(n=53), 1-<3 years old(n=50), 3-<6 years old(n=50) and 6-<14 years old(n=50) respectively...
April 2, 2017: Zhonghua Er Ke za Zhi. Chinese Journal of Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28435086/toxigenic-clostridium-difficile-colonization-among-hospitalised-adults-risk-factors-and-impact-on-survival
#20
Laura Behar, David Chadwick, Angela Dunne, Christopher I Jones, Claire Proctor, Chakravarthi Rajkumar, Paula Sharratt, Philip Stanley, Angela Whiley, Mark Wilks, Martin J Llewelyn
OBJECTIVES: To establish risk factors for Clostridium difficile colonization among hospitalized patients in England. METHODS: Patients admitted to elderly medicine wards at three acute hospitals in England were recruited to a prospective observational study. Participants were asked to provide a stool sample as soon as possible after enrolment and then weekly during their hospital stay. Samples were cultured for C. difficile before ribotyping and toxin detection by PCR...
April 21, 2017: Journal of Infection
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