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Esophagus motor disorder

Cecilio Santander, Elena Perea, María Caldas, Pere Clave
High-resolution manometry (HRM) is currently the most important diagnostic test for esophageal motility disorders, providing information on the contraction pattern of the circular muscle layer, which helps classify these esophageal motor diseases. However, with the increasing development of ultrasound, other techniques, such as high-frequency intraluminal ultrasound (HFIUS), have gained importance. This technique uses a flexible shaft with a central wire integrated into a standard endoscope, which facilitates real-time sonography...
January 31, 2017: Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences
An Moonen, Guy Boeckxstaens
Achalasia is a primary esophageal motor disorder of the esophagus that is characterized by the absence of esophageal peristalsis and a failure of the lower esophageal sphincter (LES) to relax upon swallowing. The defective relaxation leads to symptoms of dysphagia for solids and liquids, regurgitation, aspiration, chest pain, and weight loss. Achalasia is believed to result from a selective loss of enteric inhibitory neurons, most likely due to an autoimmune phenomenon in genetic susceptible individuals. As there is no curative treatment for achalasia, treatment is confined to disruption of the LES to improve bolus passage...
December 2016: Current Treatment Options in Gastroenterology
Michael D Crowell, Sarah B Umar, W Leroy Griffing, John K DiBaise, Brian E Lacy, Marcelo F Vela
BACKGROUND & AIMS: Systemic scleroderma (SSc) is associated with esophageal aperistalsis and hypotensive esophagogastric junction pressure, although there could be a gradation in esophageal motor dysfunction. We characterized esophageal motor function by high-resolution esophageal manometry (HRM) and assessed associations between SSc severity, health-related quality of life (HRQOL), and HRM findings in patients. METHODS: We performed a prospective study of 200 patients with SSc and 102 patients without SSc (controls) who underwent HRM at Mayo Clinic Arizona from May 2006 through January 2015...
February 2017: Clinical Gastroenterology and Hepatology
A A Sheptulin, I B Belousova
The importance of prokinetics (drugs stimulating motor function of the gastrointestinal tract) arises from the high prevalence of gastroenterological pathology associated with primary or secondary disturbances of this function in esophagus, stomach, and intestines. The main groups of prokinetics are beta-blockers of dopamine receptors, inhibitors of acetylcholine esterase (or their combination with dopamine receptor blockers), 5-HT4-receptor agonists. They find wide application for the treatment of gastroesophgeal reflux disease, functional dyspepsia and constipation, obstipational form of irritable bowel syndrome, and other conditions accompanied by motor function disorders of the gastrointestinal tract...
2016: Klinicheskaia Meditsina
A Zifan, Y Jiang, R K Mittal
BACKGROUND: The mechanism of esophageal pain in patients with nutcracker esophagus (NE) and other esophageal motor disorders is not known. Our recent study shows that baseline esophageal mucosal perfusion, measured by laser Doppler perfusion monitoring, is lower in NE patients compared to controls. The goal of our current study was to perform a more detailed analysis of esophageal mucosal blood perfusion (EMBP) waveform of NE patients and controls to determine the optimal EMBP biomarkers that combined with suitable statistical learning models produce robust discrimination between the two groups...
February 2017: Neurogastroenterology and Motility: the Official Journal of the European Gastrointestinal Motility Society
Ravinder K Mittal
Muscularis propria throughout the entire gastrointestinal tract including the esophagus is comprised of circular and longitudinal muscle layers. Based on the studies conducted in the colon and the small intestine, for more than a century, it has been debated whether the two muscle layers contract synchronously or reciprocally during the ascending contraction and descending relaxation of the peristaltic reflex. Recent studies in the esophagus and colon prove that the two muscle layers indeed contract and relax together in almost perfect synchrony during ascending contraction and descending relaxation of the peristaltic reflex, respectively...
September 1, 2016: American Journal of Physiology. Gastrointestinal and Liver Physiology
Shoukat H Khan, Madhu Vijay P, Tanveer A Rather, Bashir A Laway
Background/Aims: Esophageal dysmotility is associated with gastrointestinal dysmotility in various systemic and neuroregulatory disorders. Hypothyroidism has been reported to be associated with impaired motor function in esophagus due to accumulation of glycosaminoglycan hyaluronic acid in its soft tissues, leading to changes in various contraction and relaxation parameters of esophagus, particularly in the lower esophageal sphincter. In this study we evaluated esophageal transit times in patients of primary hypothyroidism using the technique of radionuclide esophageal transit scintigraphy...
January 30, 2017: Journal of Neurogastroenterology and Motility
Emanuele Luigi Carniel, Alessandro Frigo, Mario Costantini, Tommaso Giuliani, Loredana Nicoletti, Stefano Merigliano, Arturo N Natali
Recent technological advances in esophageal manometry allowed the definition of new classification methods for the diagnosis of disorders of esophageal motility and the implementation of innovative computational tools for the autonomic, reliable and unbiased detection of different disorders. Computational models can be developed aiming to interpret the mechanical behavior and functionality of the gastrointestinal tract and to summarize the results from clinical measurements, as high-resolution manometry pressure plots, into model parameters...
July 15, 2016: Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers. Part H, Journal of Engineering in Medicine
Phil G Dinning
To understand the abnormalities that underpin functional gut disorders we must first gain insight into the normal patterns of gut motility. While detailed information continually builds on the motor patterns (and mechanisms that control them) of the human esophagus and anorectum, our knowledge of normal and abnormal motility in the more inaccessible regions of the gut remains poor. This particularly true of the human colon. Investigation of in vivo colonic motor patterns is achieved through measures of transit (radiology, scintigraphy and, more recently, "smart pills") or by direct real-time recording of colonic contractility (intraluminal manometry)...
2016: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
Jasmine K Zia, Margaret M Heitkemper
This article reviews the sex differences in upper gastrointestinal (GI) motility for both healthy and common dysmotility conditions. It focuses on gastroesophageal reflux disease and other esophageal motor disorders for the esophagus and on gastroparesis and accelerated gastric emptying for the stomach. It also describes differences in upper GI motility signs and symptoms during each female hormonal stage (ie, menstrual cycle, pregnancy, perimenopause, menopause) for both healthy participants and those suffering from one of the aforementioned upper GI dysmotility conditions...
2016: Gastroenterology Clinics of North America
Qasim Aziz, Ronnie Fass, C Prakash Gyawali, Hiroto Miwa, John E Pandolfino, Frank Zerbib
Functional esophageal disorders consist of a disease category that present with esophageal symptoms (heartburn, chest pain, dysphagia, globus) not explained by mechanical obstruction (stricture, tumor, eosinophilic esophagitis), major motor disorders (achalasia, EGJ outflow obstruction, absent contractility, distal esophageal spasm, jackhammer esophagus), or gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD). While mechanisms responsible are unclear, it is theorized that visceral hypersensitivity and hypervigilance play an important role in symptom generation, in the context of normal or borderline function...
February 15, 2016: Gastroenterology
G S Dzhulay, E V Sekareva
AIM: To estimate esophageal and gastric pH values on an empty stomach and after stimulation of gastric secretion and gastric and duodenal motor-evacuatory activity in patients with gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) associated with pathological refluxes, such as gastroesophageal reflux (GER) and duodenogastroesophageal reflux (DGER). SUBJECTS AND METHODS: The observational cross-sectional study was conducted to investigate and compare the parameters of intraesophageal and intragastric pH metry and peripheral electrogastroenterography in 103 GERD patients with endoscopically positive distal reflux esophagitis in GER and DGER...
2016: Terapevticheskiĭ Arkhiv
Xiaoyun Yu, Mingran Yu, Yingzhe Liu, Shaoyong Yu
Transient receptor potential (TRP) channels are predominantly distributed in both somatic and visceral sensory nervous systems and play a crucial role in sensory transduction. As the largest visceral organ system, the gastrointestinal (GI) tract frequently accommodates external inputs, which stimulate sensory nerves to initiate and coordinate sensory and motor functions in order to digest and absorb nutrients. Meanwhile, the sensory nerves in the GI tract are also able to detect potential tissue damage by responding to noxious irritants...
May 2016: Seminars in Immunopathology
Cecilio Santander, Carlos M Chavarría-Herbozo, Irene Becerro-González, Diego Burgos-Santamaría
Eosinophilic esophagitis is a chronic immunoallergic inflammatory disease of the esophagus that represents a major cause of digestive morbidity among the pediatric and young adult populations. Despite the fact that key symptoms in adults include dysphagia and food impaction, many patients lack structural changes in the esophagus to account for their complaints, which suggests the presence of underlying motor disorders and esophageal distensibility impairment. In the last few years the esophageal motility of these patients has been studied using various approaches, most particularly high-resolution manometry, ambulatory manometry, and impedance planimetry...
October 2015: Revista Española de Enfermedades Digestivas
Salvatore Tolone, Edoardo Savarino, Ludovico Docimo
Radiofrequency catheter ablation (RFCA) is a potentially curative method for treatment of highly symptomatic and drug-refractory atrial fibrillation (AF). However, this technique can provoke esophageal and nerve lesion, due to thermal injury. To our knowledge, there have been no reported cases of a newly described motor disorder, the Jackhammer esophagus (JE) after RFCA, independently of GERD. We report a case of JE diagnosed by high-resolution manometry (HRM), in whom esophageal symptoms developed 2 weeks after RFCA, in absence of objective evidence of GERD...
October 1, 2015: Journal of Neurogastroenterology and Motility
A H Weiss, N Iorio, R Schey
BACKGROUND: Eosinophilic esophagitis (EoE) is characterized by eosinophilic infiltration of the esophagus and is a potential cause of dysphagia and food impaction, most commonly affecting young men. Esophageal manometry findings vary from normal motility to aperistalsis, simultaneous contractions, diffuse esophageal spasm, nutcracker esophagus or hypotonic lower esophageal sphincter (LES). It remains unclear whether esophageal dysmotility plays a significant role in the clinical symptoms of EoE...
July 2015: Revista de Gastroenterología de México
Cecilio Santander, Carlos Miguel Chavarría Herbozo, Irene Becerro González, Diego Burgos Santamaría
Eosinophilic esophagitis is a chronic immunoallergic, inflammatory disease of the esophagus that represents a major cause of digestive morbidity among the pediatric and young adult populations. Despite the fact that key symptoms in adults include dysphagia and food impaction, many patients lack structural changes in the esophagus to account for their complaints, which suggests the presence of underlying motor disorders and esophageal distensibility impairment. In the last few years the esophageal motility of these patients has been studied using various approaches, most particularly high-resolution manometry, ambulatory manometry, and impedance planimetry...
July 6, 2015: Revista Española de Enfermedades Digestivas
Hideo Matsumoto, Hisako Kubota, Masaharu Higashida, Noriaki Manabe, Ken Haruma, Toshihiro Hirai
INTRODUCTION: Esophageal diverticulum, a relatively rare condition, has been considered to be associated with motor abnormalities such as conditions that cause a lack of coordination between the distal esophagus and lower esophageal sphincter. PRESENTATION OF CASE: We herein report a case of esophageal epiphrenic diverticulum associated with diffuse esophageal spasm. A 73-year-old woman presented with dysphagia and regurgitation. Imaging examinations revealed a right-sided esophageal diverticulum located about 10cm above the esophagogastric junction...
2015: International Journal of Surgery Case Reports
L D Firsova, I M Pichugina, O B Ianova, O I Berezina, D S Bordin
AIM: To comparatively analyze clinical manifestations in patients with primary esophageal spasm (ES) and its concurrence with gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) and the results of their instrumental examinations and psychodiagnostic tests. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: A total of 104 patients with the clinical and manometric signs of ES were examined and divided into two groups: 1) 42 patients with primary ES; 2) 62 patients with ES concurrent with GERD. The examination encompassed esophageal manometry, esophagogastroduodenoscopy, 24-hour pH metry, and an interview using a questionnaire to identify autonomic disorders, and the Mini-Mult test...
2015: Terapevticheskiĭ Arkhiv
Verónica Martín-Domínguez, María Teresa Pérez-Fernández, Almudena Marinero, Vanesa Jusué-Irurita, María Caldas, Cecilio Santander
BACKGROUND: Hypercontractile esophagus (HE) is a primary hypercontractile disorder of the esophageal musculature not frequently seen in the general population. It is characterized by the presence of at least one contraction with a very high amplitude and duration (DCI > 8,000 mmHg/s/cm) in patients with esophageal symptoms. The aim of our study was to assess the clinical context and manometric characteristics in patients with HE using highresolution manometry (HRM). METHODS: We thoroughly reviewed the clinical features and manometric findings of a total of 720 patients with esophageal symptoms that were attended in the Department of Gastroenterology of our hospital between June 2011 and June 2013...
May 2015: Revista Española de Enfermedades Digestivas
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